[ID:4-4795586] [精]中考英语专题复习 现在完成时态 精讲
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现在完成时态
概念用法。
1 .表示发生在过去或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。
eg.
①--- Would you like to have breakfast with me?
---Sorry, I have had breakfast. (已吃早饭,强调无需再吃早饭)
② I have cleaned my room. (已打扫房间,强调房间干净无需再打扫)
2. 表示开始于过去并持续到现在的某动作或状态。
eg.
① We have learned English for two years.
② Miss Yang has taught us Chinese for three years.
二.基本结构。
基本结构:have/has +动词的过去分词(done)

肯定句:主语+ have/has done + 其他。

否定句:主语 + haven’t/hasn’t + 其他。

基本句型 一般疑问句:Have/ Has + 主语 + done + 其他?
肯定回答: Yes, 主语 + have/has.
否定回答: No, 主语 + haven’t/hasn’t.

特殊疑问句:特殊疑问句 + 主语 + have/has done + 其他.


eg.
①肯定句:_______________________________.(我已经完成了家庭作业)
②否定句:________________________________________________.
③一般疑问句:____________________________________________.
肯定回答:_______________. 否定回答:_______________.
④ I have already done my homework. (对划线部分提问)
_________________________________________________?
三.时间状语。
1. 现在完成时不能与具体的过去时间状语和when引导的时间状语连用。
常与现在完成时连用的时间副词有:already(已经),ever(曾经),never(从不),yet(还),just(刚刚),before(以前)。
练习:用already, yet, never, ever, just或 before填空。
I have______ seen this film before, so I’m going to see it this evening.
Maria has ______ finished the English paper.
---Have you ______ read the story book? --- No, I have ______ read it.
---Would you like to see the film with me?
---Yes, but I have been there ________.
---Has the bus left ______? ---Yes, it has ______ left.
注意:
①already 常用语肯定句中,yet常用语否定句或疑问句中。
②before常用语句末,表示“以前”。


当表示某动作或从过去开始,并持续到现在,还可能继续持续下去时,常与表示一段时间的状语连用。例如:in the past/last few years(在过去几年);so far(到目前为止);since then(从那时以来);ever since(从那时到现在);for +时间段;since +具体的过去时间;since + 从句(一般过去时)。
eg.
①我学习英语已经有四年了。
I ______ ______ English ______ four years.
I ______ ______ English ______ four years ago.
②我们从小就认识。
We’ve known each other ______ we ______ children.
注意:
在现在完成时态的肯定句中,短暂性行为动词(非延续性动词)不能与表一段时间的状语连用,即不能与how long, since或for引导的时间状语连用。但可用相应的延续性动词替代该短暂性动词。
eg.
①我买这本书已经有三年时间了。
I ______ ______ the book for three years.(不能直接用buy,buy为短暂性动词)
② 他离开我们学校已经有一年时间了。
He ______ ______ ______ from our school for one year. (不能直接用leave)
常见短暂性动词和延续性动词对应关系:
buy(have) borrow(keep) leave(be away from)

join(be in/ be a member of) die(be dead)
begin/ start(be on) come back(be back) close(be closed)
come/ arrive here(be here) get up(be up)
put on(wear/be in) stop(be over) open(be open)
go there(be there) become(be) go out(be out)
catch a cold(have a cold) finish/end(be over)
hear from/get a letter from/receive a letter from(have a letter from)
marry(be married) turn on(be on) lose(be lost)
动词的过去分词。
过去分词的规则变化。
①一般情况下,直接加ed。
play ______ work ______ finish ______ turn______
②以不发音的e结尾的动词,直接加d。
move ______ dance ______ use ______ close______
③以“辅音字母+y”结尾的动词,把y变为i再加ed.
study ______ carry ______ try ______ copy ______
④以“辅+元+辅”结尾且重读的动词,双写末尾辅音字母,再加ed。
stop ______ shop ______ chat ______ fit ______
初中常见不规则动词表。
无规律
原形 过去式 过去分词 词义
am/is
are
do
go
take
mistake

(2)AAA型(原形—原形—原形)
原形 过去式 过去分词 词义
read
cut
let
put
cost
hit
set
shut
hurt
spread

(3)ABA型(原形—过去式—原形)
原形 过去式 过去分词 词义
become
come
overcome
run

(4)ABC型(原形—过去式—原形)
原形 过去式 过去分词 词义
blow
draw
grow
know
fly
begin
drink
sing
swim
ring
wear
forget
speak
freeze
choose
steal
eat
forbid
give
ride
see
write
fall
bear
lie 躺,位于
bear
wake
hide
throw

ABB型
原形 过去式 过去分词 词义
bring
buy
fight
think
catch
teach
feed
meet
get
hold
sit
win
find
stick
feel
keep
leave
sleep
sweep
build
hear
make
mean
send
spend
deal
have
lay
lie 说谎
lose
pay
sell
tell
stand
lie 说谎
hang
learn
light
speed
spell
smell
burn
shine
show
dream
dig
understand

(6)AAB型
原形 过去式 过去分词 词义
beat

其他中考考点。
have/has been to; have/has gone to与have/has been in 的区别。
have/has been to + 地点表示“曾去过某地”。
have/has gone to + 地点表示“已去某地,还没回来”。
have/has been in + 地点表示“一直待在某地”。
eg.
①我去过长城。
I have ______ ______ the Great Wall.
②我们的班长去了学校图书馆。
Our monitor has ______ ______ the school library.
③我在重庆已经14年了。
I have ______ ______ Chongqing for 14 years.
since 的常见用法。
(1)since + 具体的过去时间(如年、月、日、时刻等)。
eg. since 2017/last month/half past nine
since + 一段时间 + ago。
eg. 我在这儿已经有六个月。
I have been here ______ ______ ______ ______.
I have been here ______ ______ ______.
since + 从句(从句中谓语动词用一般过去时)。
eg. 你走后,重庆发生了很大的变化。
Great changes have taken place in Chongqing since you ______.
It is/has been + 一段时间 + since从句。
eg. 我成为一名学生已经12年了。
It _____ ten years since I became a student.
= It ______ ______ ten years since I became a student.
= I have been a student ______ ______ ______ ______.
= I have been a student ______ ______ ______.
现在完成时态和过去时的转换。
现在完成时与一般过去时都表示过去发生的动作或状态,但现在完成时强调过去的动作或状态对现在的影响和结果;一般过去时只表示过去的事实(不表示与现在的关系)。在一些句型中现在完成时可以一般过去时发生转化。
eg. 他哥哥参军已经20年了。
His brother joined the army twenty years aog.
=His brother ______ ______ in the army for twenty years.
=It ______ ______ twenty years since his brother joined the army.
=More than five years ______ ______ since his brother joined the army.













现在完成时态参考答案
基本结构。
① I have finished my homework. ②I haven’t finished my homework.
③ Have you finished your homework? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.
④ What have you already done?
三.时间状语。
1.①never ②just ③ever, never ④before ⑤yet, already
2. ① have studied for, have studied since ② since, were
注意: (1)①have had ②has been away
四.动词的过去分词。
1. 过去分词的规则变化。
① played, worked, finished, turned ② moved, danced, used, closed
③ studied, carried, tried, copied ④ stopped, shopped, chatted, fitted
2. 初中常见不规则动词表。
(1)无规律
原形 过去式 过去分词 词义
am/is was been 是
are were been 是
do did done 做
go went gone 走
take took taken 拿
mistake mistook mistaken 误解

(2)AAA型(原形—原形—原形)
原形 过去式 过去分词 词义
read read read 读
cut cut cut 切,割
let let let 让
put put put 放
cost cost cost 花费,值
hit hit hit 撞,击
set set set 安置,安排
shut shut shut 关闭,关上
hurt hurt hurt 使......受伤
spread spread spread 传播,展开

(3)ABA型(原形—过去式—原形)
原形 过去式 过去分词 词义
become became become 成为
come came come 来
overcome overcame overcome 克服
run ran run 跑

(4)ABC型(原形—过去式—原形)
原形 过去式 过去分词 词义
blow blew blown 吹
draw drew drawn 画
grow grew grown 生长,种植
know knew known 知道,了解
fly flew flown 飞
begin began begun 开始
drink drank drunk 喝
sing sang sung 唱
swim swam swum 游泳
ring rang rung 打电话
wear wore worn 穿
forget forgot forgotten 忘记
speak spoke spoken 讲,说
freeze froze frozen 冻
choose chose chosen 选择
steal stole stolen 偷,窃
eat ate eaten 吃
forbid forbade forbidden 禁止
give gave given 给
ride rode ridden 骑
see saw seen 看见
write wrote written 写
fall fell fallen 落下
lie lay lain 躺,位于
bear bore born 生
wake woke woken 醒
hide hid hidden 躲藏
throw threw thrown 扔

(5)ABB型
原形 过去式 过去分词 词义
bring brought brought 带来
buy bought bought 买
fight fought fought 打架
think thought thought 思考
catch caught caught 捉,抓
teach taught taught 教
feed fed fed 喂
meet met met 遇见
get got got 得到
hold held held 拿着,抓住,举行
sit sat sat 坐
win won won 赢
find found found 发现
stick stuck stuck 坚持,粘贴
feel felt felt 感到
keep kept kept 保持
leave left left 离开
sleep slept slept 睡
sweep swept swept 扫
build built built 建造
hear heard heard 听见
make made made 制造
mean meant meant 意思
send sent sent 送,寄
spend spent spent 花费
deal dealt dealt 处理
have had had 有,吃
lay lain lain 放置
lie lied lied 说谎
lose lost lost 丢失
pay paid paid 付钱
say said said 说
sell sold sold 卖
tell told told 告诉
stand stood stood 站
lie lied lied 说谎
hang hung hung 吊死
learn learned/learnt learned/learnt 学习
light lit/lighted lit/lighted 点燃,点亮
speed sped sped 加速
spell spelt/spelled spelt/spelled 拼写
smell smelt/smelled smelt/smelled 闻
burn burnt/burned burnt/burned 燃烧
shine shone shone 照耀
show showed shown 给....看,展示
dream d
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