[ID:4-6851456] 山东省2020届新高考英语大二轮总复习第二板块阅读理解与阅读七选五专题一阅 ...
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第4讲 词义猜测题 [小题夯基练] 1.(2020·潍坊调研)“I know that,Kim.And please,call me Bill.But what I expect is for you to think independently and introduce new ideas.I need more input from you—more feedback on how things are going.I don't need a ‘yes man’.You never tell me what you think.You just smile as though everything is fine.” “But,”said Kim,“I feel that since you are my superior,it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do.” Q:The word“presumptuous”in the passage is close in meaning to “________”. A.full of respect B.too confident and rude C.lacking in experience D.too shy and quiet 解析:B [本题考查对生词presumptuous意思的猜测。根据生活常识可知,对于长辈和上司,随意称呼他们的名字和直接提意见是傲慢无礼的。故选B项。] 2.(2019·衡水高考预测)Helen's attitude toward dealing with criminals has changed over the years.She used to believe that everyone could change and deserved a second chance.She now believes that some crimes are so heinous that those responsible should be shown no mercy. Q:What does the underlined word“heinous”mean? A.Guilty. B.Terrible. C.Accidental. D.Unimportant. 解析:B [这个句子使用了so...that...句式,表示“如此……以至于……”。根据语境和结果“有罪的人不应该被给予同情”可以推知,不同情他们的原因是他们的罪行太深,故heinous的意思应该是“极恶毒的,道德败坏的”。故选B项。] 3.(2018·北京卷D篇)A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacing petrol?powered private cars worldwide with electric,self?driving and shared systems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80% and cut the cost of transportation infrastructure (基础设施) and operations 40% by 2050.Fewer emissions and cheaper travel sound pretty appealing.The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ride?hailing services, considering the cost of self?driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(责任与维护问题)... Q:What does the underlined word “fielded” in Paragraph 4 probably mean? A.Employed. B.Replaced. C.Shared. D.Reduced. 解析:A [fielded常用作名词,表示“地;场地;领域”,此处用作动词,引申为“使用,应用”之意。根据上下文可知,此处表示“考虑到无人驾驶技术的成本和责任与维护问题,叫车服务(公司)将运用第一批可使用的商业无人驾驶汽车”。故选A项。] 4.(2019·山东省联考)We shared the belief that if you're fortunate enough to have success,you should put something back—he with his Newman's Own food and his Hole in the Wall camps for kids who are seriously ill,and me with Sundance and the institute and the festival.Paul and I didn't see each other all that regularly,but sharing that brought us together.We supported each other financially and by showing up at events. … Q:What does the underlined word“that”in this passage refer to? A.Their belief. B.Their care for children. C.Their success. D.Their support for each other. 解析:A [本题考查代词的指代含义,属于广义的词义猜测题。代词指代的大都是前面已经出现的名词,为了避免重复而使用了代词。根据上文的内容可知,让作者和朋友走到一起的是两个人共同的信念。故选A项。] [大题提能练] A (2020·黑龙江齐齐哈尔一模)83?year?old Antonio Vicente has spent the last four decades of his life fighting against the trend.As Brazilian landowners cut down rainforests to make room for profitable plantations(种植园)and cattle grounds,he struggled to bring the jungles of his childhood back to life. “When I was a child,the peasants cut down the trees to make grasslands and charcoal and the water dried up and did not come back,”he told the reporters.“I thought:‘Water is valuable,no one makes water and the population will not stop growing.What is going to happen?We are going to run out of water.’” With only some donkeys and a small team of hired workers,Antonio Vicente set about bringing back the forest to his land.What started out as a weekend hobby soon became a permanent way of life,and Antonio recalls often spending whole days and nights in his young jungle,surrounded by rats and foxes,and eating banana sandwiches for breakfast,lunch and dinner.Over the last 40 years,he has planted an estimated 50,000 trees on his 31?hectare land,which now make up a small but unique area of rainforest,and a haven for wildlife. As the forest grew,the water returned,and Antonio says that there are now over 20 water sources on his land that were no longer there when he bought it.Then the animals started making a home there.Today,the forest is alive with the sounds of birds and insects living there,and more species are settling in every year. “There are toucans(巨嘴鸟),all kinds of birds,squirrels,lizards,and even the boars are returning,”83?year?old Vicente says.“If you ask me who my family are, I would say all is right here,each one of these that I planted from a seed.” [语篇解读] 本文主要讲述一位83岁的老人用40年时间让热带雨林恢复生机的故事。 1.What do we learn about the Brazilian peasants? A.They wasted much water on farming. B.They focused on short?term profits. C.They cared much about the environment. D.They relied heavily on rainforests for a living. 解析:B [推理判断题。根据第一段中的“As Brazilian landowners cut down rainforests to make room for profitable plantations...”及第二段中的“the water dried up and did not come back”可知,巴西的农民关注的是短期的利益。故选B。] 2.What used to be young Antonio's biggest concern? A.Overpopulation. B.Polluted water. C.Loss of grasslands. D.Water shortage. 解析:D [推理判断题。根据第二段中的“Water is valuable,no one makes water and the population will not stop growing.What is going to happen?We are going to run out of water.”可知,年轻的Antonio最关心的是水的短缺。故选D。] 3.What does the underlined word“haven”in Paragraph 3 probably mean? A.Trap. B.Disaster. C.Shelter. D.Balance. 解析:C [词义猜测题。根据第四段中的“insects living there,and more species are settling in every year”可知,昆虫生活在这里,每年更多的物种在这里定居,由此可推断出这里成了野生生物的“安居地,避难所”。故选C。] 4.In the last paragraph,Antonio mainly expresses his ________. A.affection for his forest B.thanks for his family C.deep love for rare birds D.pride as a successful farmer 解析:A [推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“If you ask me who my family are,I would say all is right here,each one of these that I planted from a seed.”可推知,Antonio 主要在表达他对森林的爱。故选A。] B (2018·全国卷Ⅲ,D)Adults understand what it feels like to be flooded with objects.Why do we often assume that more_is_more when it comes to kids and their belongings? The good news is that I can help my own kids learn earlier than I did how to live more with less. I found the pre?holidays a good time to encourage young children to donate less?used things,and it worked.Because of our efforts,our daughter Georgia did decide to donate a large bag of toys to a little girl whose mother was unable to pay for her holiday due to illness.She chose to sell a few larger objects that were less often used when we promised to put the money into her school fund(基金)(our kindergarten daughter is serious about becoming a doctor). For weeks,I've been thinking of bigger,deeper questions:How do we make it a habit for them?And how do we train ourselves to help them live with,need,and use less?Yesterday,I sat with my son,Shepherd,determined to test my own theory on this.I decided to play with him with only one toy for as long as it would keep his interest.I expected that one toy would keep his attention for about five minutes,ten minutes,max.I chose a red rubber ball—simple,universally available.We passed it,he tried to put it in his mouth,he tried bouncing it,rolling it,sitting on it,throwing it.It was totally,completely enough for him.Before I knew it an hour had passed and it was time to move on to lunch. We both became absorbed in the simplicity of playing together.He had my full attention and I had his.My little experiment to find joy in a single object worked for both of us. [语篇解读]  本文是一篇夹叙夹议文,题材是生活哲理。文章介绍了作者如何教育自己的孩子用更少的物质过更丰富的生活。 5.What do the words“more is more”in paragraph 1 probably mean? A.The more,the better. B.Enough is enough. C.More money,more worries. D.Earn more and spend more. 解析:A [词义猜测题。根据第一段第三句“The good news is that I can help my own kids learn earlier than I did how to live more with less.”可知,作者不认同前面的more is more这种观点;再根据第一句可知,成人能够理解物质过剩的感受,可是当涉及孩子时,我们却会认为(孩子)拥有的东西越多越好。more is more是相对于enough is enough而言的。故选A。] 6.What made Georgia agree to sell some of her objects? A.Saving up for her holiday. B.Raising money for a poor girl. C.Adding the money to her fund. D.Giving the money to a sick mother. 解析:C [细节理解题。根据文章第二段第三句可知,当我们许诺把卖掉这些物品的钱放到她的教育基金里的时候,她才同意卖。故选C。] 7.Why did the author play the ball with Shepherd? A.To try out an idea. B.To show a parent's love. C.To train his attention. D.To help him start a hobby. 解析:A [推理判断题。根据第三段第三句中的“determined to test my own theory on this”和第四句中的“I decided to play with him”可知,作者和儿子玩耍是为了测试自己的理论:live more with less。故选A。] 8.What can be a suitable title for the text? A.Take It or Leave It B.A Lesson from Kids C.Live More with Less D.The Pleasure of Giving 解析:C [标题归纳题。第一段的最后一句是文章中心句,即作者想要教会孩子“how to live more with less”;接下来是作者为此所做的努力和尝试。文章最后一句也是对中心句的回应。故选C。] C (2017·浙江,A)Benjamin West,the father of American painting,showed his talent for art when he was only six years of age.But he did not know about brushes before a visitor told him he needed one.In those days,a brush was made from camel's hair.There were no camels nearby.Benjamin decided that cat hair would work instead.He cut some fur from the family cat to make a brush. The brush did not last long.Soon Benjamin needed more fur.Before long,the cat began to look ragged (蓬乱).His father said that the cat must be sick.Benjamin was forced to admit what he had been doing. The_cat's_lot_was_about_to_improve. That year,one of Benjamin's cousins,Mr.Pennington,came to visit.He was impressed with Benjamin's drawings.When he went home,he sent Benjamin a box of paint and some brushes.He also sent six engravings (版画)by an artist.These were the first pictures and first real paint and brushes Benjamin had ever seen. In 1747,when Benjamin was nine years old,Mr.Pennington returned for another visit.He was amazed at what Benjamin had done with his gift.He asked Benjamin's parents if he might take the boy back to Philadelphia for a visit. In the city,Mr.Pennington gave Benjamin materials for creating oil paintings.The boy began a landscape (风景) painting.William Williams,a well?known painter,came to see him work.Williams was impressed with Benjamin and gave him two classic books on painting to take home.The books were long and dull.Benjamin could read only a little,having been a poor student.But he later said,“Those two books were my companions by day,and under my pillow at night.”While it is likely that he understood very little of the books,they were his introduction to classical paintings.The nine?year?old boy decided then that he would be an artist. [语篇解读] 本文是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了美国著名艺术家本杰明·韦斯特是如何开始他的艺术生涯的。 9.What is the text mainly about? A.Benjamin's visit to Philadelphia. B.Williams' influence on Benjamin. C.The beginning of Benjamin's life as an artist. D.The friendship between Benjamin and Pennington. 解析:C [主旨大意题。文章从本杰明在六岁时自制画笔作画写起,到后来利用专业工具作画,再到知名画家送给本杰明书籍,都是在讲述本杰明是如何一步步走上艺术之路的,故选C。] 10.What does the underlined sentence in paragraph 3 suggest? A.The cat would be closely watched. B.The cat would get some medical care. C.Benjamin would leave his home shortly. D.Benjamin would have real brushes soon. 解析:D [句意理解题。由前文可知,本杰明在没有专业画笔之前是用猫的毛制作画笔的。画线句的字面意思是“猫的命运将会得到改善”。由该段后文可知,本杰明的表兄送给了他专业的颜料和画笔。由此可推知D项与画线句的意思相符。] 11.What did Pennington do to help Benjamin develop his talent? A.He took him to see painting exhibitions. B.He provided him with painting materials. C.He sent him to a school in Philadelphia. D.He taught him how to make engravings. 解析:B [细节理解题。短文第四段提到“He was amazed at what Benjamin had done with his gift.”,接着下一段又谈到“... Mr Pennington gave Benjamin materials for creating oil paintings.”由此可知,潘宁顿送给本杰明绘画材料来帮助他发展艺术才能,故选B项。] 12.Williams' two books helped Benjamin to________. A.master the use of paints B.appreciate landscape paintings C.get to know other painters D.make up his mind to be a painter 解析:D [细节理解题。由文章最后两句可知,这两本书是他们通往古典绘画的入门教程,也帮助他下定决心成为一名画家,故选D项。] D (2017·全国Ⅱ,B)I first met Paul Newman in 1968,when George Roy Hill,the director of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid,introduced us in New York City.When the studio didn't want me for the film—it wanted somebody as well known as Paul—he stood up for me.I don't know how many people would have done that; they would have listened to their agents or the studio powers. The friendship that grew out of the experience of making that film and The Sting four years later had its root in the fact that although there was an age difference,we both came from a tradition of theater and live TV.We were respectful of craft(技艺)and focused on digging into the characters we were going to play.Both of us had the qualities and virtues that are typical of American actors: humorous,aggressive,and making fun of each other—but always with an underlying affection.Those were also at the core (核心)of our relationship off the screen. We shared the belief that if you're fortunate enough to have success,you should put something back—he with his Newman's Own food and his Hole in the Wall camps for kids who are seriously ill,and me with Sundance and the institute and the festival.Paul and I didn't see each other all that regularly,but sharing that brought us together.We supported each other financially and by showing up at events. I last saw him a few months ago.He'd been in and out of the hospital.He and I both knew what the deal was,and we didn't talk about it.Ours was a relationship that didn't need a lot of words. [语篇解读] 本文是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲述了作者和一位著名演员保罗·纽曼之间的友谊。13.Why was the studio unwilling to give the role to the author at first? A.Paul Newman wanted it. B.The studio powers didn't like his agent. C.He wasn't famous enough. D.The director recommended someone else. 解析:C [细节理解题。根据第一段中的“When the studio didn't want me for the film—it wanted somebody as well known as Paul—he stood up for me.”可知,电影公司想要像保罗那样出名的人,由此可以判断,作者不够出名,故选C项。] 14.Why did Paul and the author have a lasting friendship? A.They were of the same age. B.They worked in the same theater. C.They were both good actors. D.They had similar characteristics. 解析:D [推理判断题。根据第二段最后两句可知,作者与保罗在荧幕前和荧幕后都很幽默、有进取心,并互开对方的玩笑,即他们两人有相似的性格,故选D项。] 15.What does the underlined word “that” in Paragraph 3 refer to? A.Their belief. B.Their care for children. C.Their success. D.Their support for each other. 解析:A [代词指代题。根据第三段第一句“We shared the belief that...”以及下面对belief的具体解释可知,画线处是指共同拥有这种“信念”使他们两人连在一起,故选A项。] 16.What is the author's purpose in writing the text? A.To show his love of films. B.To remember a friend. C.To introduce a new movie. D.To share his acting experience. 解析:B [写作意图题。本文是按照时间顺序写的,从作者与保罗的最初相见,到友谊慢慢加深,以及几个月前去看望生病的保罗,由此可知作者写此文的目的是回忆一位朋友,故选B项。] E (2019·河南新乡二模)Throughout the past few years,I have tried to give myself to others.I have bounced around to find where I truly fit in.I found my place while I stayed in Guatemala,an orphanage(孤儿院),with the children living there.Through hearing many stories of their lives,I was moved to tears and started to question my living ways and gave up everything that wasn't essential:make?up and any other sort of luxury(奢侈品).I lived like they did.It was the most relaxing feeling in the world. When at Nuestros Pequenos Hermanos,we were given the task of creating a pig pen.At first,I thought it should be easy.After arriving at the area where the pig pen should be,we saw a hill.We were told to uproot the weeds as well as level the entire area.Looking at it,we felt it would be impossible.On my own faith journey,I have felt this type of doubt before.The“hole”,as we referred to,is a symbol of my faith journey.It appeared to be an obstacle I could not overcome,but in the end I competed it with efforts.I feel this pig pen wasn't easy to create but was so rewarding to give. I've always struggled to be on a journey of faith,but I've never completely stepped foot onto the path until Guatemala.I've always tried to open my heart to everyone around me and give them my love.I feel as though I cut open my heart and share every bit of love I had with these orphans.There is one orphan named Ceto who will always remain very close to my heart.In Guatemala,I sponsor with thirty dollars a month,but it doesn't seem enough.I'll return there next summer and give more of my love for a whole month. When it was time to leave,I looked out of the window and saw not just ordinary children.Overall,the most significant accomplishment I made in Guatemala was stepping towards my own faith journey and not looking back. [语篇解读]  本文是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲述了作者在危地马拉期间,改变了自己的生活,从而改变了自己的人生。 17.What resulted in the author's decision to live a new life? A.Desire to help others. B.Decrease in his income. C.A knowledge of the orphans' life. D.Awareness of the difficulty in his life. 解析:C [细节理解题。根据第一段第三、四句可知,作者了解到孤儿的生活之后,决定改变自己的生活。故选C。] 18.What does the underlined word“it”in Paragraph 2 refer to? A.Removing the doubt. B.Uprooting the weed. C.Starting the faith journey. D.Creating the pig pen. 解析:D [代词指代题。根据画线词后面的“I feel this pig pen wasn't easy to create but was so rewarding to give.”可以猜测出,it代指建造猪圈这件事。故选D。] 19.What did the author think of his experience in Guate mala? A.It was regretful. B.It was meaningful. C.It was interesting. D.It was frightening. 解析:B [推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“Overall,the most significant accomplishment I made in Guatemala was stepping towards my own faith journey and not looking back.”可以推断出,作者认为在危地马拉的经历是有意义的。故选B。] 20.What may be the best title for the text? A.A Step into a New World B.An Awful Faith Journey C.A Great Success in Life D.A Return of Confidence 解析:A [标题归纳题。根据最后一段中的“Overall,the most significant accomplishment I made in Guatemala was stepping towards my own faith journey and not looking back.”可以推断出,在危地马拉期间,作者改变了自己的生活,从而改变了人生。故用A Step into a New World 作为本文的标题最佳。故选A。] PAGE - 1 - 第四讲 词义猜测题 [整体感知·明方向] 词义猜测题是历年高考必考的一类题型,它可以是对一个单词的意义的推断,也可以是对一个短语或句子的意义的推断;既可以考查生词的意义,也可以考查熟词的新意,还可以是对替代词所替代内容的判断。在阅读理解题中,所考查的词或短语的意义往往不停留在字面上,而要根据短文提供的语境,通过阅读上下文,根据已知的信息或常识来推测尚不熟悉的词或短语的含义。 [常见设问方式] 1.词意类:①The underlined word/phrase... probably means/can be replaced by ________.②Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word/phrase...? 2.指代类:①What does the underlined word“this/that/it/they...”refer to?②The underlined word“this/that/it/they...”refers to ________. 3.句意类:①The underlined sentence in the...paragraph probably means ________.②What can we infer from the underlined sentence in Paragraph...? [正确选项特征] 1.含义和其字面意思一般没有关系。 2.上下文逻辑通顺。 3.与原句意思最接近。 [干扰选项特征] 1.与所考词汇形似。 2.如果考的是熟词,含有常规词义的往往是错误选项。 3.句子解释中含有过多原句中已有的词和短语的选项一般是错误选项。 [分类例析·通技法]     根据定义或上下文解释进行猜测 ◆[解题攻略] 有时短文中出现一个需要猜测其意义的词或短语,下面接着出现其定义或解释。标点符号,如逗号后的解释(名词同位语)、破折号后的解释、括号内的解释等,这都是判断该词或短语意义的主要依据。例如: ①Annealing is a way of making metal softer by heating it and then letting it cool very slowly. 句子给予了annealing一个明确的定义,即“退火”。 ②It will be very hard but also very brittle—that is,it will break easily. 从that is(也就是说)后的解释中我们可以了解到,brittle是“脆的”意思。 ③The herdsman,who looks after sheep,earns about 650 yuan a year. 定语从句中looks after sheep就表明了herdsman的词义为“牧人”。 ④The weather in this area is treacherous;its sudden changes often endanger the lives of sailors. 分号后的句子在解释什么样的天气是treacherous,sudden changes 与treacherous在语义上相对应,因此含义是“突变的”。 ⑤Some good readers find it helpful to use their sense to visualize—or picture—what they read. visualize的意思由破折号后的picture(想象)给出了说明,因此含义为“想象”。 ⑥When President Torrijos of Panama met Carter,he tried to give him a friendly abrazo (hug). abrazo对大多数人来说都很陌生,但由括号内的hug(拥抱),我们不难推测abrazo也是“拥抱”的意思。 ◆[典例](2019·全国卷Ⅰ,阅读B节选)But he's nervous.“I'm here to tell you today why you should...should...”Chris trips on the“?ld,”a pronunciation difficulty for many non?native English speakers. His teacher,Thomas Whaley,is next to him, whispering support.“...Vote for ...me ...”Except for some stumbles,_Chris is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion,Whaley invites the rest of the class to praise him. 25.What does the underlined word “stumbles” in paragraph 2 refer to? A.Improper pauses. B.Bad manners. C.Spelling mistakes. D.Silly jokes. 解析:A [根据该段中的“you should...should...”Chris trips on the “?ld,”...可知,他有些发音上的问题。又根据Except for some stumbles,Chris is doing amazingly well.可知,Chris 总体上很好,但是有些不合适的停顿。故A选项(不合适的停顿)正确。] 根据同位关系进行猜测 ◆[解题攻略] 阅读中出现的难词有时后面紧跟一个同位语,对前面的词进行解释,因此可利用同位关系对前面的词义或句意进行猜测。例如: ①They traveled a long way,at last got to a castle,a large building in old times. 同位语部分“a large building in old times”给出了castle的确切词义,即古时候的“城堡”。 ②We are on the night_shift— from midnight to 8 a.m.—this week. 两个破折号之间的短语很清楚地表明night shift是“夜班”的意思。 ③The“Chunnel”,a tunnel(隧道)connecting England and France is now complete. 此句中“a tunnel(隧道)connecting England and France”是Chunnel的同位语。因此,Chunnel指的就是英法之间的海底隧道。 ◆[典例](2016·全国卷Ⅰ,阅读C节选)I am Peter Hodes,a volunteer stem cell courier.Since March 2012,I've done 89 trips—of those,51 have been abroad,I have 42 hours to carry stem cells(干细胞)in my little box because I've got two ice packs and that's how long they last.In all,from the time the stem cells are harvested from a donor(捐献者) to the time they can be implanted in the patient,we've got 72 hours at most.So I am always conscious of time. 29.Which of the following can replace the underlined word “courier” in Paragraph 1? A.Provider. B.Delivery man. C.Collector. D.Medical doctor. 解析:B [“a volunteer stem cell courier”是“Peter Hodes”的同位语;根据文中“I have 42 hours to carry stem cells(干细胞)in my little box”可知,Peter Hodes的任务就是将捐献者的干细胞运送给需要的病人,即作者是干细胞递送员。故选择B项。]       根据构词法(前缀、后缀、派生等)进行猜测 ◆[解题攻略] 在英语中,有很多词可以通过增加前缀和后缀的方式,构成新词。乍看起来,这个词可能是新词,但在掌握了一定的构词知识之后,就不难猜出它的词义。例如: ①“Our parties are aimed for children 2 to 10,”Anaclerio said,“and they're very interactive and creative in that they built a sense of drama based on a subject.” 文中interactive是由前缀inter(相互的)和active(活动的,活跃的)构成的,同时根据上下文的意思可以判断,该词的含义应该是“互动的”。 ②Perhaps,we can see some possibilities for next fifty years.But the next hundred? possibility是possible的同根名词,据此可以判断possibility的意思是“可能性”。 ◆[典例](2016·全国卷Ⅰ,阅读D节选)A silence in a conversation may also show stubbornness,uneasiness,or worry. 解析:不安;担忧 [根据构词法知识我们可知,un?为否定前缀,?ness为名词后缀,easy(舒适的)为词根。因此,我们可猜测uneasiness为“不安;担忧”之意。]    根据因果关系进行猜测 ◆[解题攻略] 在一篇阅读文章中,根据原因可以预测结果,根据结果也可以找出原因。例如: ①The lack of movement caused the muscles to weaken.Sometimes the weakness was permanent.So the player could never play the sport again. 从后面的结果“永远不能再运动”可以推测permanent的意思为“永远的,永久的”。 ②Mary didn't notice me when I came into the classroom,because she was completely engrossed in her reading. 从前面的结果“当我走进教室时,玛丽没有注意到我”可以推测engrossed的意思为“全神贯注的”。 ③Our vision was obscured by the trees,so we couldn't see the lake from our window. 由后面的结果couldn't see(看不见)可知,我们的视线被树遮挡住(obscured)了。 ◆[典例](2018·全国卷Ⅱ阅读B节选) … If you have a_juicer,you can simply feed in frozen bananas and some berries or sliced fruit.Out comes a “soft?serve” creamy dessert,to be eaten right away.This makes a fun activity for a children's party;they love feeding the fruit and frozen bananas into the top of the machine and watching the ice cream come out below. 26.What is “a juicer” in the last paragraph? A.A dessert. B.A drink. C.A container. D.A machine. 解析:D [该段第一句含有一个if引导的条件状语从句,若满足该条件,则产生的结果是第一句的后半句和第二句,“you can simply feed in frozen bananas and some berries or sliced fruit.Out comes a ‘soft?serve’creamy dessert,to be eaten right away.”即“将冰冻香蕉和其他莓类、水果片放进去,出来的是奶油状甜品”。由此因果关系可推知juicer指的是榨汁机。故选择D项。]        根据上下文指代关系进行猜测 ◆[解题攻略] 文章中的代词it,that,he,him或them可以指代上文提到的人或物,其中it和that还可以指代一件事。有时代词指代的对象相隔较远,要认真查找;有时也需要对前面提到的内容进行总结,才能得出代词所指代的事物。例如: ①Like Schmid,the editors of several self?published art magazines also champion(捍卫)found photographs.One of them,called simply Found,was born one snowy night in Chicago,when Davy Rothbard returned to his car to find under his wiper(雨刷)an angry note intended for someone else:“Why's your car HERE at HER place?” them指的是前面出现的self?published art magazines。 ②However,the question that“moon people”asked is still an interesting one.A growing number of scientists are seriously thinking about it. it指的是月球人(moon people)所问的问题(the question)。 ◆[典例](2019·全国卷Ⅱ阅读A节选) My Favourite Books Jo Usmar is a writer for Cosmopolitan and co?author of the This Book Will series(系列)of lifestyle books.Here she picks her top reads. Matilda Roald Dahl I once wrote a paper on the influence of fairy tales on Roald Dahl's writing and it gave me a new appreciation for his strange and delightful worlds.Matilda's battles with her cruel parents and the bossy headmistress,Miss Trunchbull,are equally funny and frightening,but they're also aspirational. … 21.Who does “I”refer to in the text? A.Stephen King. B.Gillian Flynn. C.Jo Usmar. D.Roald Dahl. 解析:C [根据第一段可知本文是作者Jo Usmar的书评。根据Matilda中的“I once wrote a paper on the influence of fairy tales on Roald Dahl's writing and it gave me...”可知,此处I指的是Jo Usmar,故选C项。]    根据同义或近义关系进行猜测 ◆[解题攻略] 在同一句、同一段或同一篇文章中,作者为了避免语言的单调、重复,有时会使用意思相同或相近的词。因此,考生只要读懂上下文,知道其中一个词的意思,就能猜出另外一个词的意思。 ◆[典例](2019·浙江卷6月阅读B节选)Money_with_no_strings_attached.It's not something you see every day.But at Union Station in Los Angeles last month,a board went up with dollar bills attached to it with pins and a sign that read,“Give What You Can,Take What You Need.” 24.What does the expression“money with no strings attached” in paragraph 1 mean? A.Money spent without hesitation. B.Money not legally made. C.Money offered without conditions. D.Money not tied together. 解析:C [根据下文的内容并结合木板上写的“Give What You Can,Take What You Need”可知,附在木板上的钱是可以随意取的,并不附带任何条件,故选C项。]     根据转折或对比关系进行猜测 ◆[解题攻略] 根据上下句的连接词,如but,however,otherwise等可以推断上下文之间的逻辑关系,从而可以依据某一句的含义,来确定另一句的含义。另外,分号也可以表示转折、对比或不相干的意义。例如: ①A child's birthday party doesn't have to be a hassle;it can be a basket of fun. 从分号前后两句的意思可以看出,hassle和a basket of fun 是相反的意义,所以不难判断hassle的意思是“困难,麻烦”。 ②She is usually prompt for all her class,but today she arrived in the middle of her first class. but 一词表示转折,因此but前后的意思正好相反。根据后半句的意思“她今天第一节课上了一半才来”,可得出她平时一向“准时”的结论。 ③The players in the World Cup are professionals,while those who play in the Olympics must be amateurs. 由于转折词“while”引导的两个分句前后意义相反,我们可推测出amateurs是professionals(专业人士)的反义词,意思为“业余人士,业余选手”。 ◆[典例](2017·全国卷Ⅲ阅读C节选) … Gray wolves once were seen here and there in the Yellowstone area and much of the continental United States,but they were gradually displaced by human development.By the 1920s,wolves had practically disappeared from the Yellowstone area.They went farther north into the deep forests of Canada,where there were fewer humans around. … 29.What does the underlined word “displaced” in paragraph 2 mean? A.Tested. B.Separated. C.Forced out. D.Tracked down. 解析:C [画线词的前句说明在黄石公园和美洲大部分地区曾有许多的灰狼,连词but转折了句子意义,后来由于人类的发展,灰狼数量逐渐减少,几乎消失,由此可推断出画线词的意思为“被迫离开”,故选C项。] [小题夯基练] 1.(2020·潍坊调研)“I know that,Kim.And please,call me Bill.But what I expect is for you to think independently and introduce new ideas.I need more input from you—more feedback on how things are going.I don't need a ‘yes man’.You never tell me what you think.You just smile as though everything is fine.” “But,”said Kim,“I feel that since you are my superior,it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do.” Q:The word“presumptuous”in the passage is close in meaning to “________”. A.full of respect B.too confident and rude C.lacking in experience D.too shy and quiet 解析:B [本题考查对生词presumptuous意思的猜测。根据生活常识可知,对于长辈和上司,随意称呼他们的名字和直接提意见是傲慢无礼的。故选B项。] 2.(2019·衡水高考预测)Helen's attitude toward dealing with criminals has changed over the years.She used to believe that everyone could change and deserved a second chance.She now believes that some crimes are so heinous that those responsible should be shown no mercy. Q:What does the underlined word“heinous”mean? A.Guilty. B.Terrible. C.Accidental. D.Unimportant. 解析:B [这个句子使用了so...that...句式,表示“如此……以至于……”。根据语境和结果“有罪的人不应该被给予同情”可以推知,不同情他们的原因是他们的罪行太深,故heinous的意思应该是“极恶毒的,道德败坏的”。故选B项。] 3.(2018·北京卷D篇)A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacing petrol?powered private cars worldwide with electric,self?driving and shared systems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80% and cut the cost of transportation infrastructure (基础设施) and operations 40% by 2050.Fewer emissions and cheaper travel sound pretty appealing.The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ride?hailing services, considering the cost of self?driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(责任与维护问题)... Q:What does the underlined word “fielded” in Paragraph 4 probably mean? A.Employed. B.Replaced. C.Shared. D.Reduced. 解析:A [fielded常用作名词,表示“地;场地;领域”,此处用作动词,引申为“使用,应用”之意。根据上下文可知,此处表示“考虑到无人驾驶技术的成本和责任与维护问题,叫车服务(公司)将运用第一批可使用的商业无人驾驶汽车”。故选A项。] 4.(2019·山东省联考)We shared the belief that if you're fortunate enough to have success,you should put something back—he with his Newman's Own food and his Hole in the Wall camps for kids who are seriously ill,and me with Sundance and the institute and the festival.Paul and I didn't see each other all that regularly,but sharing that brought us together.We supported each other financially and by showing up at events. … Q:What does the underlined word“that”in this passage refer to? A.Their belief. B.Their care for children. C.Their success. D.Their support for each other. 解析:A [本题考查代词的指代含义,属于广义的词义猜测题。代词指代的大都是前面已经出现的名词,为了避免重复而使用了代词。根据上文的内容可知,让作者和朋友走到一起的是两个人共同的信念。故选A项。] [大题提能练] A (2020·黑龙江齐齐哈尔一模)83?year?old Antonio Vicente has spent the last four decades of his life fighting against the trend.As Brazilian landowners cut down rainforests to make room for profitable plantations(种植园)and cattle grounds,he struggled to bring the jungles of his childhood back to life. “When I was a child,the peasants cut down the trees to make grasslands and charcoal and the water dried up and did not come back,”he told the reporters.“I thought:‘Water is valuable,no one makes water and the population will not stop growing.What is going to happen?We are going to run out of water.’” With only some donkeys and a small team of hired workers,Antonio Vicente set about bringing back the forest to his land.What started out as a weekend hobby soon became a permanent way of life,and Antonio recalls often spending whole days and nights in his young jungle,surrounded by rats and foxes,and eating banana sandwiches for breakfast,lunch and dinner.Over the last 40 years,he has planted an estimated 50,000 trees on his 31?hectare land,which now make up a small but unique area of rainforest,and a haven for wildlife. As the forest grew,the water returned,and Antonio says that there are now over 20 water sources on his land that were no longer there when he bought it.Then the animals started making a home there.Today,the forest is alive with the sounds of birds and insects living there,and more species are settling in every year. “There are toucans(巨嘴鸟),all kinds of birds,squirrels,lizards,and even the boars are returning,”83?year?old Vicente says.“If you ask me who my family are, I would say all is right here,each one of these that I planted from a seed.” [语篇解读] 本文主要讲述一位83岁的老人用40年时间让热带雨林恢复生机的故事。 1.What do we learn about the Brazilian peasants? A.They wasted much water on farming. B.They focused on short?term profits. C.They cared much about the environment. D.They relied heavily on rainforests for a living. 解析:B [推理判断题。根据第一段中的“As Brazilian landowners cut down rainforests to make room for profitable plantations...”及第二段中的“the water dried up and did not come back”可知,巴西的农民关注的是短期的利益。故选B。] 2.What used to be young Antonio's biggest concern? A.Overpopulation. B.Polluted water. C.Loss of grasslands. D.Water shortage. 解析:D [推理判断题。根据第二段中的“Water is valuable,no one makes water and the population will not stop growing.What is going to happen?We are going to run out of water.”可知,年轻的Antonio最关心的是水的短缺。故选D。] 3.What does the underlined word“haven”in Paragraph 3 probably mean? A.Trap. B.Disaster. C.Shelter. D.Balance. 解析:C [词义猜测题。根据第四段中的“insects living there,and more species are settling in every year”可知,昆虫生活在这里,每年更多的物种在这里定居,由此可推断出这里成了野生生物的“安居地,避难所”。故选C。] 4.In the last paragraph,Antonio mainly expresses his ________. A.affection for his forest B.thanks for his family C.deep love for rare birds D.pride as a successful farmer 解析:A [推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“If you ask me who my family are,I would say all is right here,each one of these that I planted from a seed.”可推知,Antonio 主要在表达他对森林的爱。故选A。] B (2018·全国卷Ⅲ,D)Adults understand what it feels like to be flooded with objects.Why do we often assume that more_is_more when it comes to kids and their belongings? The good news is that I can help my own kids learn earlier than I did how to live more with less. I found the pre?holidays a good time to encourage young children to donate less?used things,and it worked.Because of our efforts,our daughter Georgia did decide to donate a large bag of toys to a little girl whose mother was unable to pay for her holiday due to illness.She chose to sell a few larger objects that were less often used when we promised to put the money into her school fund(基金)(our kindergarten daughter is serious about becoming a doctor). For weeks,I've been thinking of bigger,deeper questions:How do we make it a habit for them?And how do we train ourselves to help them live with,need,and use less?Yesterday,I sat with my son,Shepherd,determined to test my own theory on this.I decided to play with him with only one toy for as long as it would keep his interest.I expected that one toy would keep his attention for about five minutes,ten minutes,max.I chose a red rubber ball—simple,universally available.We passed it,he tried to put it in his mouth,he tried bouncing it,rolling it,sitting on it,throwing it.It was totally,completely enough for him.Before I knew it an hour had passed and it was time to move on to lunch. We both became absorbed in the simplicity of playing together.He had my full attention and I had his.My little experiment to find joy in a single object worked for both of us. [语篇解读]  本文是一篇夹叙夹议文,题材是生活哲理。文章介绍了作者如何教育自己的孩子用更少的物质过更丰富的生活。 5.What do the words“more is more”in paragraph 1 probably mean? A.The more,the better. B.Enough is enough. C.More money,more worries. D.Earn more and spend more. 解析:A [词义猜测题。根据第一段第三句“The good news is that I can help my own kids learn earlier than I did how to live more with less.”可知,作者不认同前面的more is more这种观点;再根据第一句可知,成人能够理解物质过剩的感受,可是当涉及孩子时,我们却会认为(孩子)拥有的东西越多越好。more is more是相对于enough is enough而言的。故选A。] 6.What made Georgia agree to sell some of her objects? A.Saving up for her holiday. B.Raising money for a poor girl. C.Adding the money to her fund. D.Giving the money to a sick mother. 解析:C [细节理解题。根据文章第二段第三句可知,当我们许诺把卖掉这些物品的钱放到她的教育基金里的时候,她才同意卖。故选C。] 7.Why did the author play the ball with Shepherd? A.To try out an idea. B.To show a parent's love. C.To train his attention. D.To help him start a hobby. 解析:A [推理判断题。根据第三段第三句中的“determined to test my own theory on this”和第四句中的“I decided to play with him”可知,作者和儿子玩耍是为了测试自己的理论:live more with less。故选A。] 8.What can be a suitable title for the text? A.Take It or Leave It B.A Lesson from Kids C.Live More with Less D.The Pleasure of Giving 解析:C [标题归纳题。第一段的最后一句是文章中心句,即作者想要教会孩子“how to live more with less”;接下来是作者为此所做的努力和尝试。文章最后一句也是对中心句的回应。故选C。] C (2017·浙江,A)Benjamin West,the father of American painting,showed his talent for art when he was only six years of age.But he did not know about brushes before a visitor told him he needed one.In those days,a brush was made from camel's hair.There were no camels nearby.Benjamin decided that cat hair would work instead.He cut some fur from the family cat to make a brush. The brush did not last long.Soon Benjamin needed more fur.Before long,the cat began to look ragged (蓬乱).His father said that the cat must be sick.Benjamin was forced to admit what he had been doing. The_cat's_lot_was_about_to_improve. That year,one of Benjamin's cousins,Mr.Pennington,came to visit.He was impressed with Benjamin's drawings.When he went home,he sent Benjamin a box of paint and some brushes.He also sent six engravings (版画)by an artist.These were the first pictures and first real paint and brushes Benjamin had ever seen. In 1747,when Benjamin was nine years old,Mr.Pennington returned for another visit.He was amazed at what Benjamin had done with his gift.He asked Benjamin's parents if he might take the boy back to Philadelphia for a visit. In the city,Mr.Pennington gave Benjamin materials for creating oil paintings.The boy began a landscape (风景) painting.William Williams,a well?known painter,came to see him work.Williams was impressed with Benjamin and gave him two classic books on painting to take home.The books were long and dull.Benjamin could read only a little,having been a poor student.But he later said,“Those two books were my companions by day,and under my pillow at night.”While it is likely that he understood very little of the books,they were his introduction to classical paintings.The nine?year?old boy decided then that he would be an artist. [语篇解读] 本文是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了美国著名艺术家本杰明·韦斯特是如何开始他的艺术生涯的。 9.What is the text mainly about? A.Benjamin's visit to Philadelphia. B.Williams' influence on Benjamin. C.The beginning of Benjamin's life as an artist. D.The friendship between Benjamin and Pennington. 解析:C [主旨大意题。文章从本杰明在六岁时自制画笔作画写起,到后来利用专业工具作画,再到知名画家送给本杰明书籍,都是在讲述本杰明是如何一步步走上艺术之路的,故选C。] 10.What does the underlined sentence in paragraph 3 suggest? A.The cat would be closely watched. B.The cat would get some medical care. C.Benjamin would leave his home shortly. D.Benjamin would have real brushes soon. 解析:D [句意理解题。由前文可知,本杰明在没有专业画笔之前是用猫的毛制作画笔的。画线句的字面意思是“猫的命运将会得到改善”。由该段后文可知,本杰明的表兄送给了他专业的颜料和画笔。由此可推知D项与画线句的意思相符。] 11.What did Pennington do to help Benjamin develop his talent? A.He took him to see painting exhibitions. B.He provided him with painting materials. C.He sent him to a school in Philadelphia. D.He taught him how to make engravings. 解析:B [细节理解题。短文第四段提到“He was amazed at what Benjamin had done with his gift.”,接着下一段又谈到“... Mr Pennington gave Benjamin materials for creating oil paintings.”由此可知,潘宁顿送给本杰明绘画材料来帮助他发展艺术才能,故选B项。] 12.Williams' two books helped Benjamin to________. A.master the use of paints B.appreciate landscape paintings C.get to know other painters D.make up his mind to be a painter 解析:D [细节理解题。由文章最后两句可知,这两本书是他们通往古典绘画的入门教程,也帮助他下定决心成为一名画家,故选D项。] D (2017·全国Ⅱ,B)I first met Paul Newman in 1968,when George Roy Hill,the director of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid,introduced us in New York City.When the studio didn't want me for the film—it wanted somebody as well known as Paul—he stood up for me.I don't know how many people would have done that; they would have listened to their agents or the studio powers. The friendship that grew out of the experience of making that film and The Sting four years later had its root in the fact that although there was an age difference,we both came from a tradition of theater and live TV.We were respectful of craft(技艺)and focused on digging into the characters we were going to play.Both of us had the qualities and virtues that are typical of American actors: humorous,aggressive,and making fun of each other—but always with an underlying affection.Those were also at the core (核心)of our relationship off the screen. We shared the belief that if you're fortunate enough to have success,you should put something back—he with his Newman's Own food and his Hole in the Wall camps for kids who are seriously ill,and me with Sundance and the institute and the festival.Paul and I didn't see each other all that regularly,but sharing that brought us together.We supported each other financially and by showing up at events. I last saw him a few months ago.He'd been in and out of the hospital.He and I both knew what the deal was,and we didn't talk about it.Ours was a relationship that didn't need a lot of words. [语篇解读] 本文是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲述了作者和一位著名演员保罗·纽曼之间的友谊。13.Why was the studio unwilling to give the role to the author at first? A.Paul Newman wanted it. B.The studio powers didn't like his agent. C.He wasn't famous enough. D.The director recommended someone else. 解析:C [细节理解题。根据第一段中的“When the studio didn't want me for the film—it wanted somebody as well known as Paul—he stood up for me.”可知,电影公司想要像保罗那样出名的人,由此可以判断,作者不够出名,故选C项。] 14.Why did Paul and the author have a lasting friendship? A.They were of the same age. B.They worked in the same theater. C.They were both good actors. D.They had similar characteristics. 解析:D [推理判断题。根据第二段最后两句可知,作者与保罗在荧幕前和荧幕后都很幽默、有进取心,并互开对方的玩笑,即他们两人有相似的性格,故选D项。] 15.What does the underlined word “that” in Paragraph 3 refer to? A.Their belief. B.Their care for children. C.Their success. D.Their support for each other. 解析:A [代词指代题。根据第三段第一句“We shared the belief that...”以及下面对belief的具体解释可知,画线处是指共同拥有这种“信念”使他们两人连在一起,故选A项。] 16.What is the author's purpose in writing the text? A.To show his love of films. B.To remember a friend. C.To introduce a new movie. D.To share his acting experience. 解析:B [写作意图题。本文是按照时间顺序写的,从作者与保罗的最初相见,到友谊慢慢加深,以及几个月前去看望生病的保罗,由此可知作者写此文的目的是回忆一位朋友,故选B项。] E (2019·河南新乡二模)Throughout the past few years,I have tried to give myself to others.I have bounced around to find where I truly fit in.I found my place while I stayed in Guatemala,an orphanage(孤儿院),with the children living there.Through hearing many stories of their lives,I was moved to tears and started to question my living ways and gave up everything that wasn't essential:make?up and any other sort of luxury(奢侈品).I lived like they did.It was the most relaxing feeling in the world. When at Nuestros Pequenos Hermanos,we were given the task of creating a pig pen.At first,I thought it should be easy.After arriving at the area where the pig pen should be,we saw a hill.We were told to uproot the weeds as well as level the entire area.Looking at it,we felt it would be impossible.On my own faith journey,I have felt this type of doubt before.The“hole”,as we referred to,is a symbol of my faith journey.It appeared to be an obstacle I could not overcome,but in the end I competed it with efforts.I feel this pig pen wasn't easy to create but was so rewarding to give. I've always struggled to be on a journey of faith,but I've never completely stepped foot onto the path until Guatemala.I've always tried to open my heart to everyone around me and give them my love.I feel as though I cut open my heart and share every bit of love I had with these orphans.There is one orphan named Ceto who will always remain very close to my heart.In Guatemala,I sponsor with thirty dollars a month,but it doesn't seem enough.I'll return there next summer and give more of my love for a whole month. When it was time to leave,I looked out of the window and saw not just ordinary children.Overall,the most significant accomplishment I made in Guatemala was stepping towards my own faith journey and not looking back. [语篇解读]  本文是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲述了作者在危地马拉期间,改变了自己的生活,从而改变了自己的人生。 17.What resulted in the author's decision to live a new life? A.Desire to help others. B.Decrease in his income. C.A knowledge of the orphans' life. D.Awareness of the difficulty in his life. 解析:C [细节理解题。根据第一段第三、四句可知,作者了解到孤儿的生活之后,决定改变自己的生活。故选C。] 18.What does the underlined word“it”in Paragraph 2 refer to? A.Removing the doubt. B.Uprooting the weed. C.Starting the faith journey. D.Creating the pig pen. 解析:D [代词指代题。根据画线词后面的“I feel this pig pen wasn't easy to create but was so rewarding to give.”可以猜测出,it代指建造猪圈这件事。故选D。] 19.What did the author think of his experience in Guate mala? A.It was regretful. B.It was meaningful. C.It was interesting. D.It was frightening. 解析:B [推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“Overall,the most significant accomplishment I made in Guatemala was stepping towards my own faith journey and not looking back.”可以推断出,作者认为在危地马拉的经历是有意义的。故选B。] 20.What may be the best title for the text? A.A Step into a New World B.An Awful Faith Journey C.A Great Success in Life D.A Return of Confidence 解析:A [标题归纳题。根据最后一段中的“Overall,the most significant accomplishment I made in Guatemala was stepping towards my own faith journey and not looking back.”可以推断出,在危地马拉期间,作者改变了自己的生活,从而改变了人生。故用A Step into a New World 作为本文的标题最佳。故选A。] PAGE - 1 - (共36张PPT) 第二板块 阅读理解与阅读七选五 高考总复习大二轮 山东版 英语         》 2 言频考点 言频考点 言频考点三 高频考点四 言频考点了
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