[ID:4-5344052] 2019高考英语成语解读学案
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第 7 页 共 7 页 2019高考英语成语解读学案 成语翻译 学员编号: 年 级: 高二 课 时 数: 学员姓名:YYY 辅导科目:英语 学科教师: XX 授课类型 成语翻译 星 级 教学目标 总结翻译中出现的成语固定翻译并给出相应的解题技巧,帮助学生熟悉高考中成语翻译类型;运用最新模拟卷及高考卷中成语翻译进行训练,帮助学生突破高考成语翻译。 (建议2-5分钟)常常用成语“雨后春笋”来形容一般事物的迅速发展和大量涌现。英语则用just like mushroom(犹如蘑菇一样众多)来形容同样的意思。竹子不是英国土生土长的植物,甚至连bamboo(竹)这个词也是引进的外来语。因此,英国人不可能以竹笋作成语的形象来比喻。另有,Kill the goose that lays the golden eggs.杀鸡取蛋。Look for a needle in a haystack.大海捞针。Like a rat in a hole.瓮中之鳖。No smoke without fire.无风不起浪狗对于英国人来说,既可以用来看门或打猎,也可视作人的伴侣和爱物。所以英国人对狗一般有好感,常用来比喻人的生活。如:dog one’s steps跟某人,lucky dog幸运儿批注:运用学生比较熟悉的中式成语帮助学生引入,让学生知道中英成语翻译之间的不同,以进一步导入今天的讲解。(建议20-25分钟) 什么是成语(idiom)成语是词组,其含义不同于其中单词的含义,是不能明显地从构成其成分的单词的含义中找到其含义的词组和句子,必须从整体上进行理解。根据以上对成语的定义,不难看出成语具备以下三大特征:?????????????????????? 1)意义上的整体性。如:To lay heads together. “大家一起思考,集思广益”。不是“把头放在一起”。2)不符合语法规律。如:Money makes the more to go.“有钱能使鬼推磨。”其中make 后面的不定式go前加上了to。3)用词相对固定。A stitch in time saves nine .“及时的一针省几针。”其中的 A不能用one 代替。 成语翻译方法成语的功能和作用在于以其简洁和意象性来达到其修辞性效果。很多成语都丧失了其本义而成为一种泛指的代称意义,而且不同民族的文化有其独特的历史文化和地域性特征。在翻译实践中,很难保证成语的翻译一方面完全忠实于原文的比喻形式,另一方面又要符合民族语言文字的规范要求。因此,在翻译时较为困难,需要分别对待采取多种方法处理。 一、直译法所谓直译法就是指对原成语的表现形式和意义原则上不做任何调整的一种翻译方法。也就是按照文字的字面意思将成语直接翻译过来。强调成语的民族、地域差异性,保持成语的风格和异域文化特色。如:an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth?? 以眼还眼,以牙还牙 strike while the iron is hot 趁热打铁A wolf in sheep’s clothing?? 披着羊皮的狼Blood is thicker than water?? 血浓于水这种直译法的译文能让中国读者理解,符合汉语习惯,比较容易翻译,也是上海高考或模拟考中出题比较多的一部分。 真题再现:1. 坐失良机 miss the good / golden chance / opportunity尽早做出决定,不然你会坐失良机。(or) 批注:Please make up your mind / make your decision as early as possible / you can, or you’ll miss the good / golden chance / opportunity. 2. 挨家挨户 door-to-door医生挨家挨户上门巡坊,省去了许多老年人去医院的麻烦。(save) 批注:Doctors’ door-to-door visits save many old people’s trouble of going to hospital. 3. 山高林密 the high mountains and thick forests尽管山高林密,医护人员还是迅速地赶到出事地点,实施援救。(despite) 批注:Despite the high mountains and thick forests, the doctors and nurses rushed to the scene of the accident for the rescue/to carry out the rescue.二、意译法意译法是指原文成语的形象不能翻译,而在目的语中找不到同义的对等成语时,只好将其照原文内容意思用自由词组或普通句子进行翻译。如:Do you see any green in my eye? 你以为我是好欺骗的吗?the right carpet 隆重的接待;cry over split milk 为不可挽回的损失而悲伤;cast the first stone 首先发起攻击;Go dutch 各自付费 真题再现:1. 三言两语 in a few words.这个游戏的规则太复杂,三言两语解释不清。(too….to) 批注:The rules of the game are too complicated to explain/be explained in a few words.2. 刮目相看looked at him with new eyes / regarded him in a totally different light / treated him with increased respect他进公司后不久就独立完成了一项艰巨的任务,同事们对他刮目相看。(so) 批注:He finished a difficult task on his own / independently soon / shortly after he entered the company, so his colleagues looked at him with new eyes / regarded him in a totally different light / treated him with increased respect.3. 心烦意乱 upset这小孩太调皮,使得他那忙于工作的父母常常心烦意乱。(So …) 批注:So naughty is the child that he often upsets his parents who are busy with their work. 4. 翘首以盼 be looking forward to在展览会上,公司销售经理展示了孩子们翘首以盼的新型电子玩具。(demonstrate) 批注:At the exhibition, the company’s sales manager demonstrated the new ( type of ) electronic toys (which /that) children are looking forward to.三、同义成语借用法四字词组中有很大一部分是固定词组,即成语。成语往往带有浓厚的民族色彩和地方色彩。翻译时除了要忠实地表达原文意义之外,还要尽可能保持原文成语的形象比喻,丰富联想,修辞效果以及其民族、地方特点等。有的成语和英语中的习语在内容和形式上都相符合,双方不但有相同的意义和修辞色彩,并且有相同或大体相同的形象比喻。汉译英时,如果遇到这种情况,不妨直截了当地套用英语同义习语。这样的译文可能会增色不少,基本能实现四字词组的美学价值转移。A. 双方有完全相同的形象比喻 隔墙有耳 wall has ears 捧上天去 praise to the skies 火上加油 pour oil on the flame B. 双方有大体相同的形象比喻 沧海一粟 a drop in the ocean 挥金如土 spend money like water 笑掉牙齿 laugh off one’s head 害群之马 a black sheep 真题再现:1. 玩火者必自焚 (he who plays with fire will surely get burnt)他们应从这件事中吸取教训:玩火者必自焚烧。(burn ) 批注: They should learn a lesson from this incident: he who plays with fire will surely get burnt.2. 患难朋友才是真朋友 (a friend in need is a friend indeed)学生们逐渐认识到友谊胜过金钱,患难朋友才是真朋友。(realize) 批注:The students have come to realize that friendship is more important than money and that a friend in need is a friend indeed 3. 不到长城非好汉 (He who doesn’t reach the Great Wall is not a true man)许多外国游客都想去长城一游,他们知道 “不到长城非好汉”。 (visit) 批注:Many foreign tourists want to visit the Great Wall. They know that “He who doesn’t reach the Great Wall is not a true man”. 4. 一无所知 be ignorant of我对学生所谈的电子产品一无所知,我发现自己落伍了。(ignorant) 批注:Being ignorant of the electronic products the students are talking about, I find myself left behind. 附:常见成语翻译1-501.?一箭之遥??within a stone’s throw2.?一臂之力lend sb a helping hand3.?一事无成?achieve nothing4.?大相径庭?be totally different5.一点一滴every little bit ?6.一刻千金every minute is precious  7.一目了然be clear at a glance8.一视同仁treat sb equally9一鸣惊人?surprise the world with one’s first success  10.?一无所知know nothing about  11.?一心一意heart and soul  12.?三番五次again and again,repeatedly13.?三三两两in twos and threes14.?三言两语?in a few words  15.?三心二意absent-minded, be of two minds  16.?四面八方(from)all directions  17.?四通八达extend in all directions  18.?五颜六色colorful ,of various colours19.?十全十美be perfect in every way20.?百听不厌?be worth listening to a hundred times21.?半途而废?give up halfway22.?不厌其烦take great pains/be patient23.?不知所措?be at a loss24.?不分胜负come out even25.?不得而知?remain unkonwn  26.?不甘落后be unwilling to lag behind/to be left behind  27.?不可思议unimaginable  28.?不速之客uninvited(unexpected)guest  29.?不言而喻it goes without saying that30.?不由自主can't help doing31.?不折不扣?extremely, completely32.?不辞而别?take leave without saying goodbye33.?不足为奇not at all surprising34.?不遗余力?spare no efforts  35.?迫不及待can't help  36.?不知不觉unconsciously37.?毫不在意don't/doesn't care at all38.?焕然一新?take on a new look39.?置之不理?take no notice of/ignore/pay no attention to40.?固执己见?stubbornly stick to one’s own opinion41.?忍无可忍?can no longer put up with42.?蹑手蹑脚?on tiptoe43.?因人而异?depend on the individual/vary from person to person44.?鼎力相助?do whatever one can to help  45.?举世闻名be world-famous  46.?举足轻重occupy a decisive position  47.?名不符实unworthy of one's name48.?名不虚传deserve the reputation49.?坚守岗位?stick to one’s post  50 .井然有序be in good order 成语翻译
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