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  • ID:4-5990404 [精]2019年高考英语真题全国III卷(原卷+解析+听力原文)

    高中英语/高考专区/高考真题

    中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 绝密★启用前 2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(全国 III 卷) 英 语 注意事项: 1.答卷前,考生务必将自己的姓名、准考证号填写在答题卡上。 2.回答选择题时,选出每小题答案后,用铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑。如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其他答案标号。回答非选择题时,将答案写在答题卡上,写在本试卷上无效。 3.考试结束后,将本试卷和答题卡一并交回。 第一部分 听力(共两节,满分30分) 做题时,先将答案标在试卷上。录音内容结束后,你将有两分钟的时间将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。 第一节 (共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面5段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 例:How much is the shirt? A. ?19.15. B. ?9.18. C. ?9.15. 答案是C。 1. Where does the conversation probably take place? A. In a library. B. In a bookstore. C. In a classroom. 2. How does the woman feel now? A. Relaxed. B. Excited. C. Tired. 3. How much will the man pay? A. $520. B. $80. C. $100. 4. What does the man tell Jane to do? A. Postpone his appointment. B. Meet Mr. Douglas. C. Return at 3 o’clock. 5. Why would David quit his job? A. To go back to school. B. To start his own firm. C. To work for his friend. 第二节(共15小题;每小题1.5分,满分22.5分) 听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。 听第6段材料,回答第6、7题。 6. What does the man want the woman to do? A. Check the cupboard. B. Clean the balcony. C. Buy an umbrella. 7. What is the probable relationship between the speakers? A. Husband and wife. B. Employer and employee. C. Shop assistant and customer. 听第7段材料,回答第8至10题。 8. Where did the woman go at the weekend? A. The city centre. B. The forest park. C. The man’s home. 9. How did the man spend his weekend? A. Packing for a move. B. Going out with Jenny. C. Looking for a new house. 10.?What?will?the?woman?do?for?the?man? A.?Take?Henry?to?hospital.?B.?Stay?with?his?kid.??C.?Look?after?his?pet. 听第8段材料,回答第11至13题。 11.?What?is?Mr.?Stone?doing?now? ??? A.?Eating?lunch.??? B.?Having?a?meeting.???? C.?Writing?a?diary. 12.?Why?does?the?man?want?to?see?Mr.?Stone? ??? A.?To?discuss?a?program.? B.?To?make?a?travel?plan.???? C.?To?ask?for?sick?leave. 13.?When?will?the?man?meet?Mr.?Stone?this?afternoon? ??? A.?At?3:00.????? B.?At?3:30.???? C.?At?3:45. 听第9段材料,回答第14至16题。 14. What are the speakers talking about? A. A company. B. An interview. C. A job offer. 15. Who is Monica Stansfield? A. A junior specialist. B. A department manager. C. A sales assistant. 16. When will the man hear from the woman? A. On Tuesday. B. On Wednesday. C. On Thursday. 听第10段材料,回答第17至20题。 17. What did John enjoy doing in his childhood? A. Touring France. B. Playing outdoors. C. Painting pictures. 18. What did John do after he moved to the US? A. He did business. B. He studied biology. C. He worked on a farm. 19. Why did John go hunting? A. For food. B. For pleasure. C. For money. 20. What is the subject of John’s works? A. American birds. B. Natural scenery. C. Family life. 第二部分 阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) 第一节 (共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。 A OPENINGS AND PREVIEWS Animals Out of Paper Yolo!Productions and the Great Griffon present the play by Rajiv Joseph,in which an origami(折纸术)artist invites a teenage talent and his teacher into her studio. Merri Milwe directs. In previews. Opens Feb.12.(West Park Presbyterian Church,165 W.86th St.212-868-4444.) The Audience Helen Mirren stars in the play by Peter Morgan,about Queen Elizabeth II of the UK and her private meetings with twelve Prime Ministers in the course of sixty years. Stephen Daldry directs. Also starring Dylan Baker and Judith Ivey. Previews begin Feb.14.(Schoenfeld,236 W.45th St.212-239-6200.) Hamilton Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musical about Alexander Hamilton,in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story. Thomas Kail directs. In previews. Opens Feb.17.(Public,425 Lafayette St.212-967-7555.) On the Twentieth Century Kristin Chenoweth and Peter Gallagher star in the musical comedy by Betty Comden and Adolph Green,about a Broadway producer who tries to win a movie star's love during a cross-country train journey. Scott Ellis directs,for Roundabout Theatre Company. Previews begin Feb.12.(American Airlines Theatre,227 W.42nd St.212-719-1300.) 21. What is the play by Rajiv Joseph probably about?. A.A type of art. B.A teenager's studio. C.A great teacher. D.A group of animals. 22. Who is the director of The Audience? A. Helen Mirren. B. Peter Morgan. C. Dylan Baker. D. Stephen Daldry. 23. Which play will you go to if you are interested in American history? A. Animals Out of Paper. B. The Audience. C. Hamilton. D. On the Twentieth Century. B For Western designers, China and its rich culture have long been an inspiration for Western creative. "It's no secret that China has always been a source(来源)of inspiration for designers," says Amanda Hill, chief creative officer at A+E Networks, a global media company and home to some of the biggest fashion(时尚)shows. Earlier this year, the China Through A Looking Glass exhibition in New York exhibited 140 pieces of China-inspired fashionable clothing alongside Chinese works of art, with the aim of exploring the influence of Chinese aesthetics(美学)on Western fashion and how China has fueled the fashionable imagination for centuries. The exhibition had record attendance, showing that there is huge interest in Chinese influences. "China is impossible to overlook," says Hill. "Chinese models are the faces of beauty and fashion campaigns that sell dreams to women all over the world, which means Chinese women are not just consumers of fashion — they are central to its movement. "Of course, only are today's top Western designers being influenced by China-some of the best designers of contemporary fashion are themselves Chinese." Vera Wang, Alexander Wang, Jason Wu are taking on Galiano, Albaz, Marc Jacobs-and beating them hands down in design and sales," adds Hil. For Hill, it is impossible not to talk about China as the leading player when discussing fashion. "The most famous designers are Chinese, so are the models, and so are the consumers," she says. "China is no longer just another market; in many senses it has become the market. If you talk about fashion today, you are talking about China-its influences, its direction, its breathtaking clothes, and how young designers and models are finally acknowledging that in many ways." 24.What can we learn about the exhibition in New York? A. It promoted the sales of artworks. B. It attracted a large number of visitors. C. It showed ancient Chinese clothes. D. It aimed to introduce Chinese models. 25.What does Hill say about Chinese women? A. They are setting the fashion. B. They start many fashion campaigns. C. They admire super models. D. They do business all over the world. 26.What do the underlined words "taking on" in paragraph 4 mean? A. learning from B. looking down on C. working with D. competing against 27.What can be a suitable title for the text? A. Young Models Selling Dreams to the World B.A Chinese Art Exhibition Held in New York C. Differences Between Eastern and Western Aesthetics D. Chinese Culture Fueling International Fashion Trends C Before the 1830s,most newspapers were sold through annual subscriptions in America, usually $8 to $10 a year. Today $8 or $10 seems a small amount of money, but at that time these amounts were forbidding to most citizens. Accordingly, newspapers were read almost only by rich people in politics or the trades. In addition, most newspapers had little in them that would appeal to a mass audience. They were dull and visually forbidding. But the revolution that was taking place in the 1830s would change all that. The trend, then, was toward the "penny paper"-a term referring to papers made widely available to the public. It meant any inexpensive newspaper; perhaps more importantly it meant newspapers that could be bought in single copies on the street. This development did not take place overnight. It had been possible(but not easy)to buy single copies of newspapers before 1830,but this usually meant the reader had to go down to the printer's office to purchase a copy. Street sales were almost unknown. However, within a few years, street sales of newspapers would be commonplace in eastern cities. At first the price of single copies was seldom a penny-usually two or three cents was charged-and some of the older well-known papers charged five or six cents. But the phrase "penny paper " caught the public's fancy, and soon there would be papers that did indeed sell for only a penny. This new trend of newspapers for "the man on the street" did not begin well. Some of the early ventures(企业)were immediate failures. Publishers already in business, people who were owners of successful papers, had little desire to change the tradition. It took a few youthful and daring businessmen to get the ball rolling. 28.Which of the following best describes newspapers in America before the 1830s? A. Academic. B. Unattractive. C. Inexpensive. D. Confidential. 29.What did street sales mean to newspapers? A. They would be priced higher. B. They would disappear from cities. C. They could have more readers. D. They could regain public trust. 30.Who were the newspapers of the new trend targeted at? A. Local politicians. B. Common people. C. Young publishers. D. Rich businessmen. 31.What can we say about the birth of the penny paper? A. It was a difficult process. B. It was a temporary success. C. It was a robbery of the poor. D. It was a disaster for printers. D Monkeys seem to have a way with numbers. A team of researchers trained three Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 clearly different symbols consisting of numbers and selective letters with 0-25 drops of water or juice as a reward. The researchers then tested how the monkeys combined—or added—the symbols to get the reward. Here's how Harvard Medical School scientist Margaret Livingstone, who led the team, described the experiment: In their cages the monkeys were provided with touch screens. On one part of the screen, a symbol would appear, and on the other side two symbols inside a circle were shown. For example, the number 7 would flash on one side of the screen and the other end would have 9 and 8. If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of water or juice; if they went for the circle, they would be rewarded with the sum of the numbers—17 in this example. After running hundreds of tests, the researchers noted that the monkeys would go for the higher values more than half the time, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. When the team examined the results of the experiment more closely, they noticed that the monkeys tended to underestimate(低估)a sum compared with a single symbol when the two were close in value—sometimes choosing, for example, a 13 over the sum of 8 and 6. The underestimation was systematic: When adding two numbers, the monkeys always paid attention to the larger of the two, and then added only a fraction(小部分)of the smaller number to it. "This indicates that there is a certain way quantity is represented in their brains, "Dr. Livingstone says. “But in this experiment what they're doing is paying more attention to the big number than the little one.” 32. What did the researchers do to the monkeys before testing them? A. They fed them. B. They named them. C. They trained them. D. They measured them. 33. How did the monkeys get their reward in the experiment? A. By drawing a circle. B. By touching a screen. C. By watching videos. D. By mixing two drinks. 34. What did Livingstone's team find about the monkeys? A. They could perform basic addition. B. They could understand simple words. C. They could memorize numbers easily. D. They could hold their attention for long. 35. In which section of a newspaper may this text appear? A. Entertainment. B. Health. C. Education. D. Science. 第二节 (共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。 In an online class, developing healthy patterns of communication with professors is very important. 36 While I have only listed two of each, there are obviously many other situations that can arise. Students should be able to extend the logic(逻辑)of each to their particular circumstance. Do's ? 37 Questions about subject content are generally welcomed. Before asking questions about the course design, read the syllabus(教学大纲)and learning management system information to be sure the answer isn't hiding in plain sight. ? Participate in discussion forums(论坛), blogs and other open-ended forums for dialogue. 38 Be sure to stay on topic and not offer irrelevant information. Make a point, and make it safe for others to do the same. Don'ts ? Don't share personal information or stories. Professors are not trained nurses, financial aid experts or your best friends. If you are in need of a deadline extension, simply explain the situation to the professor. 39 ? Don't openly express annoyance at a professor or class. 40 When a student attacks a professor on the social media, the language used actually says more about the student. If there is truly a concern about a professor's professionalism or ability, be sure to use online course evaluations to calmly offer your comments. A. That's what they are for. B. Turn to an online instructor for help. C. If more information is needed, they will ask. D. Remember that online professors get a lot of emails. E. Below are some common do's and don' ts for online learners. F. Everyone has taken a not-so-great class at one time or another. G. Ask questions, but make sure they are good, thoughtful questions. 第三部分 语言知识运用(共两节,满分45分) 第一节 (共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 The small town of Rjukan in Norway is situated between several mountains and does not get direct sunlight from late September to mid-March- 41 six months out of the year. Of course, we 42 it when the sun is shining," says Karin Ro, who works for the town’s tourism office. “We see the sky is 43 , but down in the valley it’s darker — it’s like on a 44 day.” But that 45 when a system of high-tech 46 was introduced to reflect sunlight from neighboring peaks(山峰)into the valley below. Wednesday, residents(居民)of Rjukan 47 their very first ray of winter sunshine: A row of reflective boards on a nearby mountainside were put to 48 . The mirrors are controlled by a computer that 49 them to turn along with the sun throughout the 50 and to close during windy weather. They reflect a concentrated beam(束)of light onto the town’s central 51 , creating an area of sunlight roughly 600 square meters. When the light 52 , Rjukan residents gathered together. “People have been 53 there and standing there and taking 54 of each other," Ro says. "The town square was totally 55 . I think almost all the people in the town were there. "The 3,500 residents cannot all 56 the sunshine at the same time. 57 , the new light feels like more than enough for the town’s 58 residents. "It's not very 59 ,” she says, "but it is enough when we are 60 .” 41. A. only B. obviously C. nearly D. precisely 42. A. fear B. believe C. hear D. notice 43. A. empty B. blue C. high D. wide 44. A. cloudy B. normal C. different D. warm 45. A. helped B. changed C. happened D. mattered 46. A. computers B. telescopes C. mirrors D. cameras 47. A. remembered B. forecasted C. received D. imagined 48. A. repair B. risk C. rest D. use 49. A. forbids B. directs C. predicts D. follows 50. A. day B. night C. month D. year 51. A. library B. hall C. square D. street 52. A. appeared B. returned C. faded D. stopped 53. A. driving B. hiding C. camping D. siting 54. A. pictures B. notes C. care D. hold 55. A. new B. full C. flat D. silent 56. A. block B. avoid C. enjoy D. store 57. A. Instead B. However C. Gradually D. Similarly 58. A. nature-loving B. energy-saving C. weather-beaten D. sun-starved 59. A. big B. clear C. cold D. easy 60. A. trying B. waiting C. watching D. sharing 第二节 (共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 On our way to the house,it was raining 61 hard that we couldn't help wondering how long it would take 62 (get)there. It was in the middle of Pearl City. We were first greeted with the barking by a pack 63 dogs,seven to be exact. They were well trained by their masters 64 had great experience with caring for these animals. Our hosts shared many of their experiences and 65 (recommend)wonderful places to eat,shop,and visit. For breakfast,we were able to eat papaya(木瓜)and other fruits from their trees in the backyard. When they were free from work,they invited us to local events and let us know of an interesting 66 (compete)to watch,together with the story behind it. They also shared with us many 67 (tradition)stories about Hawaii that were 68 (huge)popular with tourists. On the last day of our week-long stay,we 69 (invite)to attend a private concert on a beautiful farm on the North Shore under the stars, 70 (listen)to musicians and meeting interesting locals. 第四部分 写作(共两节,满分35分) 第一节 短文改错(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意: 1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 I've had many dreams since I was a child. Now my dream is to opens a cafe. Though it may appear simple, it required a lot of ideas and efforts. What I want is not just an ordinarily cafe but a very special one. I want my cafe have a special theme such as like "Tang Dynasty". In the cafe, customers will enjoy yourselves in the historical environment what is created for them. If I succeed in manage one, I will open more. I wish to have a chain of cafes in many different city. Each of my cafes will have a different theme and an unique style. 第二节 书面表达(满分25分) 假定你是李华,你校将举办音乐节。请写封邮件邀请你的英国朋友Allen参加,内容包括: 1.时间; 2.活动安排; 3.欢迎他表演节目。 注意:1.词数100左右;2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英语(全国卷III)答案与解析 听力部分 1-5BCBAC 6-10 CABAC 11-15 BACCB 16-20 ACABA 阅读理解 A 【解题导语】本文是一篇应用文,介绍了四场演出的主要内容,导演,时间和地点。 21. A 事实细节题 根据Animals out of paper及其中的第二句Productions and the Great Griffon present the play by Rajiv Joseph, in which an origami artist invites a teenage talent and his teacher into her studio. 和小标题 Animals out of paper可知,这个戏剧的内容是一种折纸艺术。 22. D 事实细节题 根据The Audience中第二句Stephen Daldry directs.可知答案。 23. C 事实细节题 根据Hamilton中第一句Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musical about Alexander Hamilton, in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story. 可知,音乐剧Hamilton通过一个美国移民故事展示了美国的诞生。 B 【解题导语】本文是一篇议论文,论述了中国文化及中国美学对国际时尚的影响,展现了中国对国际时尚和设计发展的引领作用。 24. B 推理判断题 根据The exhibition had record attendance, showing that there is huge interest in Chinese influences.可知,这次展览参观人数创造了纪录。故选B项:展览吸引了大量参观者。 25. A 推理判断题 根据第四段第二句 … Chinese women are not just consumers of fashion — they are central to its movement可知,Hill认为中国女性不仅仅是时尚的消费者,她们也是时尚运动中的核心。故选A项:她们正在开创时尚。 26. D 词义猜测题 根据第四段最后一句 … beating them hands down in design and sales可知,Vera Wang, Alexander Wang, Jason Wu这些人在设计和销售方面毫不费劲地打败了传统时尚大牌。故选D项。 27. D 主旨大意题 本文通过Amanda Hill的评论,论述了中国文化、中国艺术、中国设计师等等在国际时尚中发挥着非常重要的作用。因此,“中国文化刺激着国际时尚的发展和潮流”最能概括文章大意。 C 【解题导语】 本文是一篇说明文,主要说明随着人类社会的发展,报纸从最初的小众消费品发展成为人人都能“读得起”的大众读物过程。 28. B 事实细节题 根据第一段第四句和第五句In addition, most newspapers had little in them that would appeal to a mass audience. They were dull and visually forbidding.可知,当时的报纸并不吸引人。Unattractive看作是文中dull and visually forbidding的同义异构。 29. C 推理判断题 根据第二段和第三段可知:penny paper的出现,使得普通大众也买得起报纸,更重要的是可以在街上买到一份报纸。因为在1830年以前,买一份报纸虽然是可能的,但要专门跑到印刷厂,可见很不方便。因此street sales (街头销售) 的出现方便了更广大的读者,而从within a few years, street sales of newspapers would be commonplace in eastern cities.进一步印证了street sales的出现使得报纸有了更多的受众。 30. B 推理判断题 根据第一段的at that time these amounts were forbidding to most citizens. Accordingly, newspapers were read almost only by rich people in politics or the trades.和第三段street sales of newspapers would be commonplace in eastern cities以及But the phrase “penny paper” caught the public’s fancy可知,新趋势下,报纸的目标受众是普通大众。 31. A 推理判断题 通读全文,尤其是通过第三段的第二句以及第四段可知,“便士报”的诞生并不容易。 D 【解题导语】本文是一篇说明文。研究人员通过让三只恒河猴触摸屏幕两侧的不同数字(左侧为单个数字,右侧为圆圈内两个数字)对其进行研究,得出结论:猴子会算数。 32. C 事实细节题 根据第二段A team of researchers trained three Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 clearly different symbols … with 0-25 drops of water or juice as a reward. The researchers then tested … 可知,实验开始前,研究人员先对猴子进行训练。 33. B 事实细节题 根据第三段If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of water or juice; … 可知,猴子通过触摸屏幕得到奖励。 34. A 推理判断题 根据第四段the researchers noted ...... the value of each combination可知,研究人员注意到猴子超过一半的时间都会去触摸更高的数值,表明它们在进行计算,而不仅仅是记住每个组合的值,由此可推知,猴子会进行简单的加法计算。 35. D 推理判断题 本文主要介绍了科学家们对恒河猴进行的、有关数字计算的科学实验,应出现在报纸的科学专栏中。 七选五 【解题导语】本文为一篇说明文。文中指出:在网络课堂上,与教授建立健康的交流模式是非常重要的,作者也围绕这一话题列举了规矩与禁忌。 E 过渡句。 第一段第一句话,In an online class, developing healthy patterns of communication with professors is very important. 提到在网络课堂中,与教授形成良好的交流是至关重要的。第二至五段,则详细介绍了do’s 和 don’ts的内容。由此可见,选项E符合语境。 37. G 主题句。 根据空格后的Questions about subject content are generally welcomed. 本段应与questions这一关键词有关以及根据asking questions等信息可知,选项中,只有G项符合。 38. A 过渡句。根据本段第一句话,Participate in discussion forums, blogs and other open-ended forums for dialogue 可知,要参加研讨论坛,加入博客讨论以及其他开放式的对话论坛,因为这些讨论形式就是让学生参与的。选项A符合语境。 39. C 总结句。根据上一句if you are in need of … the professor 可知,如果你想延长截止日期,简明地向教授说明情况即可。通过以上推断,如果想了解更多信息,他们会问你,即选项C符合语境。 40. F 过渡句。该空前一句提到,不要公开表达对教授或者班级的不满。后文说如果教授的专业水平或能力确实令人担忧,一定要使用在线课程评估来冷静地发表你的意见。由此推断,选项F符合文意。 完形填空 【解题导语】本文是一篇记叙文,讲述北欧一个小镇长达半年见不到阳光,于是在附近的山顶安装了镜子设备把阳光反射到小镇广场,让人们拥有温暖的阳光。 41.C 考查副词词义辨析。A. only仅仅;B. obviously 显然地;C. nearly几乎;D. precisely准确的。根据上文late September to mid-March可知,Rjukan小镇一年中有将近六个月的时间没有阳光,nearly符合语境。 故选C。 42.D 考查动词词义辨析。A. fear害怕;B. believe相信;C. hear听见;D. notice注意。根据后文We see the sky is 43 , but down in the valley it's darker可知,我们看到天空是蓝色,但是低到山谷,就会变得更暗了,故推出,太阳照耀的时候,我们是观察到的,故选D。 43.B 考查形容词词义辨析。A. empty空的;B. blue蓝色的;C. high高的;D. wide宽的。根据常识可知,有太阳的时候,天空是蓝色的,故选B。 44.A 考查形容词词义辨析。A. cloudy多云的;B. normal正常的;C. different不同的;D. warm温暖的。根据down in the valley it's darker可知,到山谷的时候,天变暗了,像阴天一样,故选A。 45.B 考查动词词义辨析。A. helped帮助;B. changed改变;C. happened发生;D. mattered关系重大。根据后文内容,这个镇引入一套阳光反射镜来改变阳光不足的情况,故选B。 46.C 考查名词词义辨析。A. computers电脑;B. telescopes望远镜;C. mirrors镜子;D. cameras相机。根据后文to reflect sunlight from neighboring peaks可知,从附近的山顶上反射太阳光,故推出,设备为镜子,故选C。 47.C 考查动词词义辨析。A. remembered记得;B. forecasted预报;C. received获得,收到;D. imagined想象。根据句意推出,该镇的居民获得了冬天里的阳光,故选C。 48.D 考查名词词义辨析。A. repair修理;B. risk风险;C. rest 休息;D. use使用。根据their very first ray of winter sunshine可知,他们获得了冬天的第一缕阳光,是由于反射板被投入使用了, put sth to use把某物投入使用。故选D。 49.B 考查动词词义辨析。句意:这些镜子由电脑控制,跟着太阳的位置移动,在有大风的时候就自动关闭。A. forbids禁止;B. directs指导,导演;C. predicts预测;D. follows跟随,追随。故选B。 50.A 考查名词词义辨析。A. day白天;B. night夜晚;C. month月;D. year年。根据常识可知,太阳光出现在白天,故选A。 51.C 考查名词词义辨析。A. library图书馆;B. hall大厅;C. square广场;D. street街道。根据下文The town square was totally … 可知,反射镜将阳光反射到小镇的中心广场上。故选C。 52.A 考查动词词义辨析。A. appeared出现;B. returned归还;C. faded褪去;D. stopped停止。根据后文Rjukan residents gathered together可知,当光照出现的时候,居民出来(appeared),故选A。 53.D 考查动词词义辨析。 A. driving驾驶;B. hiding隐藏;C. camping露营;D. sitting坐。根据上文Rjukan residents gathered together和下文standing there可知,小镇居民都聚集在广场上,或坐着或站着,故选D。 54.A 考查名词词义辨析。A. pictures照片,图片;B. notes笔记;C. care照顾;D. hold抓住。根据上文Rjukan residents gathered together和下文I think almost all the people in the town were there可知,整个小镇居民都来广场享受他们第一束冬日阳光,这是第一次,一次大事件,大家都互相拍照留念,pictures符合语境。 55.B 考查形容词词义辨析。A. new新的;B. full满的;C. flat平坦的;D. silent沉默的。根据后文I think almost all the people in the town were there.可知,几乎全镇的人都在广场上,可知full符合,故选B。 56.C 考查动词词义辨析。A. block阻挡;B. avoid避免;C. enjoy喜欢,享受;D. store储存。根据下文the new light feels like more than enough可知,约600平方米的阳光照不全小镇,因此所有居民不能同时享受阳光。故选C。 57.B 考查副词词义辨析。A. Instead代替;B. However然而;C. Gradually逐渐地;D. Similarly相似地。前一句句意:并不是3500名居民都能同时享受到太阳光,后一句:新的光线为小镇人们的意义不仅仅提供光线,故两句之间为转折关系,故选B。 58.D 考查形容词词义辨析。A. nature-loving热爱自然的;B. energy-saving节能的;C. weather-beaten受风雨侵蚀的;D. sun-starved渴望阳光的。根据前文可知,小镇差不多半年见不到阳光,故小镇的人们渴望阳光,故选D。 59.A 考查形容词词义辨析。A. big大的;B. clear清晰的;C. cold冷的;D. easy容易的。由上文the new light feels like more than enough和下文but it is enough when … 可知,反射的阳光面积不够大,无法照射每一个人,big符合语境。故选A。 60.D 考查动词词义辨析。A. trying尝试;B. waiting 等待;C. watching 观看;D. sharing分享。阳光面积不是很大,但是足够大家共享,sharing符合语境。故选D。 语法填空 【解题导语】作者在这篇记叙文中讲述了他们去夏威夷度假途中的经历:主人热情招待他们,还在工作之余带他们参加了很多活动。 61. so 考查副词。句意:在我们去那座房子的路上,雨下得如此大以至于我们不能不想还要多久才能到达那里。so ... that是固定结构,意为“如此……以至于”,因此应填so。 62. to get 考查不定式。分析句子结构可知, it takes + 时间 + to do sth中,it作形式主语,动词不定式作真正的主语。 63. of 考查介词。“a pack of”意为“一群”是固定搭配。故填of。 64. who / that考查定语从句。此处从句缺主语,用who或that引导定语从句,修饰先行词masters。 65. recommended 考查一般过去时态。句意:我们的主人跟我们分享了很多经历并推荐了一些很好的吃饭、购物和参观的地方。前后两个动作“shared”与“recommended”是并列关系,时态一致。故填recommended。 66. competition 考查名词。根据空白处之前的冠词an和后面的to watch可知,此处应填名词competition。 67. traditional 考查形容词。空格修饰名词stories,应用形容词形式traditional作定语。 68. hugely 考查副词。空格处单词修饰形容词popular,应用副词形式hugely。 69. were invited 考查一般过去时的被动语态。由“on the last day of our week-long stay”可知,句子时态为一般过去时。invite和主语we之间是被动关系,故用其被动语态。句意:我们被邀请去参加一场私人音乐会。 70. listening 考查分词。本句谓语动词为“were invited”,所以70题空格处动词listen应用非谓语动词形式。主语we与listen为主动关系,故用动词-ing作状语。 短文改错 【解题导语】这是一篇记叙文。作者讲述了从小到大自己的职业梦想随着求学经历不断改变的过程。 第二句:opens → open 考查动词非谓语。此处to与动词原形连用构成动词不定式作表语。故opens改为open。 第三句:required → requires 考查谓语动词时态。根据may可知,本句为一般现在时,且主语为it,故谓语动词应用第三人称单数形式。 第四句:ordinarily → ordinary 考查形容词修饰名词。 本句中应用形容词作cafe的定语,故ordinarily改为ordinary。 第五句:have前加to ;去掉like 考查动词非谓语。want sb / sth to do sth是固定结构,意为“希望某人 / 某物做某事”;考查习惯搭配。such as和like均可用来进行列举,此处两组词重复,需删除一组。因为每处修改仅限一词,故去掉like。 第六句:yourselves → themselves;what → that / which 考查人称一致。customers是第三人称“他们”,故对应的反身代词应改为themselves;考查定语从句的关系词。本句是含有定语从句的复合句,先行词是environment,关系代词在定语从句中作主语,用that或者which。 第七句:manage → managing 考查动词非谓语。succeed in doing sth是固定结构,意为“成功做某事”,故manage改为managing。 第八句:city → cities 考察名词的单复数。many different后面应用city的复数形式。 第九句:an → a 考查冠词。当名词或修饰名词的形容词以辅音因素开头时,前面要用不定冠词a。此处unique以辅音因素//开头,故将an改为a。 书面表达 文体:书信体-----告知信。 人物关系:朋友 问候语及开头语:How are you doing? / How’s everything going? / How are things with you? / I’m writing to you about ... / I’m writing to tell you something about ... 写信目的:告知音乐节时间,活动安排,欢迎他表演节目。 结束语:Looking forward to your early reply. /I hope to hear from you soon. / Best wishes! 适当增加相关细节;在平时的学习中,要注意话题词汇的积累,丰富用词和适当用一些高级词汇,如:hold, enrich, deliver a speech, various, fantastic, show up, add ... to;另外,可加入一些高级句式:which引导的非限定性定语从句,过去分词作定语,不定式短语作目的状语,动名词作主语等,都可以为文章增加亮点。 参考范文 Dear Allen, How is everything going?To enrich students’ after-school life,our school will hold a music festival next Saturday morning in the school hall. As an organizer, I’m writing to invite you to join in it. The opening ceremony will take place at 9:00 am, where our schoolmaster will deliver a speech. Following the speech is a one-hour lecture called “A Brief History of Chinese Music” by Professor Guo, after which there will be wonderful performances by talented students. You are particularly welcome to perform on the stage, which will definitely add joy and fun to our festival. Looking forward to your early reply. Best wishes, Li Hua 听力原文 (Text1) W: Excuse me. How can I find the book called The Class of 19 98? M: Oh, I'm afraid it was sold out. W: It's all right. Thank you. (Text2) M:How did your dancing lesson go today? W:Exciting!But it was hard work. I really need a rest now. M:Yeah, I can see that.Go and get relaxed! (Text3) M: How much is that in total? W:$100. But if you have a membership card, I can give you a 20% discount. M: Great. This is my membership card (Text4) M: Jane, I'm going out for a while, W:But you have an appointment with Mr. Douglas at three o'clock. M: Well, please make it another day. (Text5) W: David said he would quit his job at our school. M:Really? Why would he do that? W:His friend started a firm in London. She wanted David to help her. (Text6) W: I'm going out for shopping. Do you need anything? M:Oh, yeah! I can't find my umbrella. Can you buy one? W:Shouldn't it be in the cupboard? M: I just checked. It wasn't there W:Impossible? That was where I usually put it. Did you check the balcony? M:Yes, of course ! Couldn't find it. Well, just get a new one then. (Text7) M:Hi, Lucy!How was your weekend? W: Great. You know we went mountain climbing in the forest park. The air was so different from the city. Cool and fresh. M:Sounds great! W: Yeah, there wasn't a cloud in the sky and we could see for miles from the top. What about you? What did you do? M:Busy packing. W:Oh, yes, of course! I forgot you and Jenny are moving into a new house. It's on Wednesday, isn't it? M:Yeah, two days after I didn't realize there are so many things to do. W:Can I help out with anything? M: It'd be nice if you could take care of Henry a couple of days. W: Henry? M: Yes, my dog. W:Oh!Sure. No problem!You just focus on the move! (Text8) M:Hello. Can I speak to Mr. Stone, please? W: Hello, but I'm afraid Mr. Stone is in a meeting until lunchtime. Can I take a message? M: Well, yes, I'd like to make an appointment to see him. It's Harrison White here . W: Just a second, Mr. White, I’ll look in the diary. So when's convenient for you? M: Sometime today,if possible. I hear he will be away tomorrow. W: Yes, that's right. He'll be on a business trip for a week. M:I need to talk about my new program with him before he leaves. It's urgent. So would this afternoon be okay? W:Let me see. Okay, Mr. Stone is free this afternoon after three o'clock. M: Well, three o'clock is a bit difficult, but I could make it after 3:30. W: So shall we say 3:45 this afternoon in Mr. Stone's office? M:That's great !Thanks。 (Text9) W: Hello! M: Hi!Cindy! This is Jake Lee at fixed corporation. How are you today? W:Oh, hi, Jake! I'm fine. How are you? M:Good. The reason I'm calling is that we'd like to offer you the position you were interviewed for last Thursday. W:Oh, that's great. I was really impressed with fix it. M: I'm glad to hear it for you. And we're prepared to offer you a starting salary of $35000. W:I see. And vacation time? M:Oh, you get one day per month in your first year. That is ,you have 12 days in your first year and then increase if you stay longer with the company. W:What would be my job title? M:You'd be a junior specialist and you'll be working under Monica Stan’s field, the department manager. W:OK.Is the salary negotiable at all? M:Well, this is typical for new staff. W:I see. M:Why don't you think about it? I'll need to hear back from you by Wednesday. Will that work? W:Sure. No problem. I'll let you know Tuesday afternoon. (Text10) Hello! Everybody! Today I'd like to share with you something about John Audubon. John was born on April 26, 17 85. He spent much of his childhood in France where he spent many hours each day outdoors painting pictures. At the age of eighteen, he moved to the United States. Well, actually , John began his life in the USA as a businessman. However, instead of taking care of his business, John was often off, exploring nature.At first ,John spent his time hunting for fun. Then he found that the animals around were very beautiful and he particularly enjoyed observing the birds he saw. He began studying them, trying to learn the differences between the birds and noticing the different behaviors. Therefore he painted the birds.In 1819 John realized that he didn't have enough money to pay his bills. He was very upset that he couldn't earn enough money to support his family. So he spent time improving his painting skills and began to sell his paintings. He discovered that he could earn some money while doing something you really enjoyed. We are lucky now to have so many paintings of American birds by John Audubon. 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)

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  • ID:4-5990403 [精]2019年高考英语真题全国II卷(原卷+解析+听力原文)

    高中英语/高考专区/高考真题

    中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(全国卷II) 英 语 注意事项: 1.答卷前,考生务必将自己的姓名、准考证号填写在答题卡上。 2.回答选择题时,选出每小题答案后,用铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑。如需改动,用橡皮擦干净后,再选涂其他答案标号。回答非选择题时,将答案写在答题卡上,写在本试卷上无效。 3.考试结束后,将本试卷和答题卡一并交回。 第一部分 听力(共两节,满分30分) 做题时,先将答案标在试卷上。录音内容结束后,你将有两分钟的时间将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。 第一节 (共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面5段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 例:How much is the shirt? A. ?19.15. B. ?9.18. C. ?9.15. 答案是C。 1. Where does the conversation probably take place? A. In a library. B. In a bookstore. C. In a classroom. 2. How does the woman feel now? A. Relaxed. B. Excited. C. Tired. 3. How much will the man pay? A. $520. B. $80. C. $100. 4. What does the man tell Jane to do? A. Postpone his appointment. B. Meet Mr. Douglas. C. Return at 3 o’clock. 5. Why would David quit his job? A. To go back to school. B. To start his own firm. C. To work for his friend. 第二节(共15小题;每小题1.5分,满分22.5分) 听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。 听第6段材料,回答第6、7题。 6. What does the man want the woman to do? A. Check the cupboard. B. Clean the balcony. C. Buy an umbrella. 7. What is the probable relationship between the speakers? A. Husband and wife. B. Employer and employee. C. Shop assistant and customer. 听第7段材料,回答第8至10题。 8. Where did the woman go at the weekend? A. The city centre. B. The forest park. C. The man’s home. 9. How did the man spend his weekend? A. Packing for a move. B. Going out with Jenny. C. Looking for a new house. 10.?What?will?the?woman?do?for?the?man? A.?Take?Henry?to?hospital.?B.?Stay?with?his?kid.??C.?Look?after?his?pet. 听第8段材料,回答第11至13题。 11.?What?is?Mr.?Stone?doing?now? ??? A.?Eating?lunch.??? B.?Having?a?meeting.???? C.?Writing?a?diary. 12.?Why?does?the?man?want?to?see?Mr.?Stone? ??? A.?To?discuss?a?program.? B.?To?make?a?travel?plan.???? C.?To?ask?for?sick?leave. 13.?When?will?the?man?meet?Mr.?Stone?this?afternoon? ??? A.?At?3:00.????? B.?At?3:30.???? C.?At?3:45. 听第9段材料,回答第14至16题。 14. What are the speakers talking about? A. A company. B. An interview. C. A job offer. 15. Who is Monica Stansfield? A. A junior specialist. B. A department manager. C. A sales assistant. 16. When will the man hear from the woman? A. On Tuesday. B. On Wednesday. C. On Thursday. 听第10段材料,回答第17至20题。 17. What did John enjoy doing in his childhood? A. Touring France. B. Playing outdoors. C. Painting pictures. 18. What did John do after he moved to the US? A. He did business. B. He studied biology. C. He worked on a farm. 19. Why did John go hunting? A. For food. B. For pleasure. C. For money. 20. What is the subject of John’s works? A. American birds. B. Natural scenery. C. Family life. 第二部分 阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) 第一节 (共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。 A My Favourite Books Jo Usmar is a writer for Cosmopolitan and co-author of the This Book Will series(系列)of lifestyle books. Here she picks her top reads. Matilda Roald Dahl I once wrote a paper on the influence of fairy tales on Roald Dahl's writing and it gave me a new appreciation for his strange and delightful words. Matilda's battles with her cruel me parents and the bossy headmisres,Miss Trunchbull,are equally fumy and frightening,but they're also aspirational. After Dark Haruki Murakami It’s about two sisters-Eri,a model who either won’t or can’t stop sleeping,and Mari, a young student . In trying to connect to her sister. Mari starts changing her life and discovers a world of diverse ”night people” who are hiding secrets. Gone Girl Gillian Fynn There was a bit of me that didn't want to love this when everyone else on the planet did but the horror story is brilliant. There's tension and anxiety from the beginning as Nick and Amy battle for your trust. It's a real whodunit and the frustration when you realise what's going on is horribly enjoyable The Stand Stephen King This is an excellent fantasy novel from one of the best storytellers around. After a serious flu outbreak wipes out 99.4% of the world's population, a battle unfolds between good and evil among those let. Randall Flagg is one of the scariest characters ever. 21. Who does "I" refer to in the text? A. Stephen King. B. Gillian Flynn. C. Jo Usmar. D. Roald Dahl 22. Which of the following tells about Mari and Eri? A. Cosmopolitan. B. Matilda. C. After Dark. D. The Stand. 23. What kind of book is Gone Girl?) A.A folk tale. B.A biography. C.A love story. D.A horror story. B “You can use me as a last resort(选择), and if nobody else volunteers,then I will do it.” This was an actual reply from a parent after I put out a request for volunteers for my kids lacrosse(长曲棍球)club. I guess that there's probably some demanding work schedule, or social anxiety around stepping up to help for an unknown sport. She may just need a little persuading. So I try again and tug at the heartstrings. I mention the single parent with four kids running the show and I talk about the dad coaching a team that his kids aren’t even on … At this point the unwilling parent speaks up,“Alright. Yes, I’ll do it.” I’m secretly relieved because I know there’s real power in sharing volunteer responsibilities among many. The unwilling parent organizes the meal schedule, sends out emails, and collects money for end-of-season gifts. Somewhere along the way, the same parent ends up becoming an invaluable member of the team. The coach is able to focus on the kids while the other parents are relieved to be off the hook for another season. Handing out sliced oranges to bloodthirsty kids can be as exciting as watching your own kid score a goal. Still, most of us volunteers breathe a sigh of relief when the season comes to a close. That relief is coupled with a deep understanding of why the same people keep coming back for more: Connecting to the community(社区)as you freely give your time, money, skills, or services provides a real joy. Volunteering just feels so good. In that sense, I’m pretty sure volunteering is more of a selfish act than I’d freely like to admit. However, if others benefit in the process, and I get some reward too, does it really matter where my motivation lies? 24.What can we infer about the parent from her reply in paragraph l? A. She knows little about the club. B. She isn't good at sports. C. She just doesn't want to volunteer. D. She's unable to meet her schedule. 25.What does the underlined phrase“tug at the heartstrings”in paragraph 2 mean ? A. Encourage team work . B. Appeal to feeling. C. Promote good deeds. D. Provide advice. 26. What can we learn about the parent from paragraph 3 ? A. She gets interested in lacrosse. B. She is proud of her kids. C. She’ll work for another season. D. She becomes a good helper. 27. Why does the author like doing volunteer work? A. It gives her a sense of duty. B. It makes her very happy. C. It enables her to work hard. D. It brings her material rewards. C Marian Bechtel sits at West Palm Beach’s Bar Louie counter by herself, quietly reading her e-book as she waits for her salad. What is she reading? None of your business! Lunch is Bechtel’s “me” time. And like more Americans, she’s not alone. A new report found 46 percent of meals are eaten alone in America. More than half(53 percent)have breakfast alone and nearly half(46 percent)have lunch by themselves. Only at dinnertime are we eating together anymore,74 percent,according to statistics from the report. “I prefer to go out and be out. Alone,but together,you know?”Bechtel said,looking up from her book. Bechtel,who works in downtown West Palm Beach,has lunch with coworkers sometimes,but like many of us,too often works through lunch at her desk. A lunchtime escape allows her to keep a boss from tapping her on the shoulder. She returns to work feeling energized. “Today,I just wanted some time to myself,”she said. just two seats over,Andrew Mazoleny,a local videographer,is finishing his lunch at the bar. He likes that he can sit and check his phone in peace or chat up the barkeeper with whom he's on a first-name basis if he wants to have a little interaction(交流). “I reflect on how my day's gone and think about the rest of the week,” he said. “It's a chance for self-reflection, You return to work recharged and with a plan.” That freedom to choose is one reason more people like to eat alone. There was a time when people may have felt awkward about asking for a table for one,but those days are over. Now,we have our smartphones to keep us company at the table. “It doesn't feel as alone as it may have before al the advances in technology,” said Laurie Demerit, whose company provided the statistics for the report. 28. What are the statistics in paragraph 2 about? A. Food variety. B. Eating habits. C. Table manners. D. Restaurant service. 29. Why does Bechtel prefer to go out for lunch? A. To meet with her coworkers. B. To catch up with her work. C. To have some time on her own. D. To collect data for her report. 30. What do we know about Mazoleny? A. He makes videos for the bar. B. He’s fond of the food at the bar. C. He interviews customers at the bar. D. He’s familiar with the barkeeper. 31. What is the text mainly about? A. The trend of having meals alone. B. The importance of self-reflection. C. The stress from working overtime. D. The advantage of wireless technology. D Bacteria are an annoying problem for astronauts. The microorganisms(微生物) from our bodies grow uncontrollably on surfaces of the International Space Station, so astronauts spend hours cleaning them up each week. How is NASA overcoming this very tiny big problem? It’s turning to a bunch of high school kids. But not just any kids. It depending on NASA HUNCH high school class, like the one science teachers Gene Gordon and Donna Himmelberg lead at Fairport High School in Fairport, New York. HUNCH is designed to connect high school classrooms with NASA engineers. For the past two years, Gordon’s students have been studying ways to kill bacteria in zero gravity, and they think they’re close to a solution(解决方案). “We don’t give the students any breaks. They have to do it just like NASA engineers,” says Florence Gold, a project manager. “There are no tests,” Gordon says. “There is no graded homework. There almost are no grades, other than‘Are you working towards your goal?’ Basically, it’s ‘I’ve got to produce this product and then, at the end of year, present it to NASA.’ Engineers come and really do an in-person review, and…it’s not a very nice thing at time. It’s a hard business review of your product.” Gordon says the HUNCH program has an impact(影响) on college admissions and practical life skills. “These kids are so absorbed in their studies that I just sit back. I don’t teach.” And that annoying bacteria? Gordon says his students are emailing daily with NASA engineers about the problem, readying a workable solution to test in space. 32.What do we know about the bacteria in the International Space Station? A. They are hard to get rid of. B. They lead to air pollution. C. They appear different forms. D. They damage the instruments. 33. What is the purpose of the HUNCH program? A. To strengthen teacher-student relationships. B. To sharpen students’ communication skills. C. To allow students to experience zero gravity. D. To link space technology with school education 34. What do the NASA engineers do for the students in the program? A. Check their product. B. Guide project designs C. Adjust work schedules. D. Grade their homework. 35. What is the best title for the text? A. NASA: The Home of Astronauts. B. Space: The Final Homework Frontier. C. Nature: An Outdoor Classroom. D. HUNCH:A College Admission Reform. 第二节 (共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。 Imagine a child standing on a diving board four feet high and asking himself the question:“Should I jump? This is what motivation or the lack of it can do. Motivation and goal setting are the two sides of same coin. 36 Like the child on the diving board, you will stay undecided. 37 More than that, how should you stay motivated to achieve the goal? First, you need to evaluate yourself , your values your strengths, your weaknesses, your achievements, your desires ,etc. Only then should your you’re your goals You also need to judge the quality and depth of your motivation. This is quite important, because it is directly related to your commitment. There are times when your heart is not in your work. 38 So, slow down and think what you really want to do at that moment. Clarity(清晰)of thoughts can help you move forward. Another way of setting realistic goals is to analyze your short and long term objectives, keeping in mind your beliefs, values and strengths. Remember that goals are flexible. 39 They also need to be measurable. You must keep these points in mind while setting your goals. Your personal circumstances are equally important. For example, you may want to be a Pilot but can’t become one because your eyesight is not good enough. 40 You should reassess your goals, and motivate yourself to set a fresh goal. You will surely need to overcome some difficulties, some planned, but most unplanned. You cannot overcome them without ample motivation. Make sure that you plan for these difficulties at the time of setting your goals. A. This can affect your work. B. So how should you motivate yourself? C. However, this should not discourage you. D. So why should we try to set specific goals? E. They can change according to circumstances. F. Motivation is what you need most to do a good job. G. Without motivation you can neither set a goal nor reach it 第三部分 语言知识运用(共两节,满分45分) 第一节 (共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 It’s about 250 miles from the hills of west-central lowa to Ehlers’ home in Minnesota. During the long trip home, following a weekend of hunting. Ehlers 41 about the small dog he had seen 42 alongside the road. He had 43 to coax(哄)the dog to him but, frightened, it had 44 . Back home, Ehlers was troubled by that 45 dog. So, four days later, he called his friend Greg, and the two drove 46 . After a long and careful 47 . Greg saw, across a field, the dog moving 48 away. Ehlers eventually succeeded in coaxing the animal to him. Nervousness and fear were replaced with 49 . It just started licking(舔)Ehlers’ face. A local farmer told them the dog sounded like one 50 as lost in the local paper. The ad had a 51 number for a town in southern Michigan. Ehlers 52 the number of Jeff and Lisa to tell them he had 53 their dog. Jeff had 54 in lowa before Thanksgiving with his dog, Rosie, but the gun shots had scared the dog off. Jeff searched 55 for Rosie in the next four days. Ehlers returned to Minnesotan, and then drove 100 miles to Minneapolis to put Rosie on a flight to Michigan. “It’s good to know there’s still someone out there who 56 enough to go to that kind of 57 ,”says Lisa of Ehlers’ rescue 58 . I figured whoever lost the dog was probably just as 59 to it as I am to my dogs,” says Ehlers. “If it had been my dog, I’d hope that somebody would be 60 to go that extra mile.” 41. A. read B. forgot C. thought D. heard 42. A. read B. trembling C. eating D. sleeping 43. A. tried B. agreed C. promised D. regretted 44. A. calmed down B. stood up C. rolled over D. run off 45. A. injured B. stolen C. lost D. rescued 46. A. home B. past C. back D. on 47. A. preparation B. explanation C. test D. search 48. A. cautiously B. casually C. skillfully D. angrily 49. A. surprise B. joy C. hesitation D. anxiety 50. A. predicted B. advertised C. believed D. recorded 51. A. house B. phone C. street D. car 52. A. called B. copied C. counted D. remembered 53. A. fed B. adopted C. found D. cured 54. A. hunted B. skied C. lived D. worked 55. A. on purpose B. on time C. in turn D. in vain 56. A. cares B. sees C. suffers D. learns 57. A. place B. trouble C. waste D. extreme 58. A. service B. plan C. effort D. team 59. A. equal B. allergic C. grateful D. close 60. A. suitable B. proud C. wise D. wiling 第二节 (共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 A 90-year-old has been awarded“Woman Of The Year”for 61 (be)Britain's oldest full-time employee-still working 40 hours a week. Now Irene Astbury works from 9am to 5pm daily at the pet shop in Macclesfield, 62 she opened with her late husband Les. Her years of hard work have 63 (final)been acknowledged after a customer nominated(提名)her to be Cheshire's Woman Of The Year. Picking up her“Lifetime Achievement”award,proud Irene 64 (declare) she had no plans 65 (retire) from her 36-year-old business. Irene said,“I don't see any reason to give up work. I love coming here and seeing my family and all the friends I 66 (make) over the years. I work not because I have to, 67 because I want to.” Granddaughter Gayle Parks,31-who works alongside her in the family business-said it remained unknown as to who nominated Irene for the award. She said,“We don't have any idea who put grandma forward. When we got a call 68 (say)she was short-listed,we thought it was 69 joke. But then we got an official letter and we were blown away. We are so proud of her. It's 70 (wonder).” 第四部分 写作(共两节,满分35分) 第一节 短文改错(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1. 每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2. 只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 Since I was a kid, I`ve considered different job I would like to do. First, I wanted to be a fireman, whose uniform looked so coolly. Then, when I was in the five grade, I wanted to be a teacher because I liked my English teacher too much. When I studied chemistry high school, I reconsidered mg goal or decided to be a doctor. They were two reasons for the decision. One was that I was amazing at the fact that a sick person could feel much more better after seeing a doctor. And the other is that I wanted to help people in need. 第二节 书面表达(满分25分) 假定你是校排球队队长李华。请写封邮件告知你的队友Chris球队近期将参加比赛,内容包括: 1.比赛信息; 2.赛前准备; 3.表达期待。 注意: 1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英语(全国卷II)答案与解析 听力部分 1-5BCBAC 6-10 CABAC 11-15 BACCB 16-20 ACABA 阅读理解 A 【解题导语】本文是一篇说明文。介绍了作家Jo Usmar最喜欢的书籍。 21.C 细节理解题。由Matilda中的“I once wrote a paper on the influence of fairy tales on Roald Dahl’s writing and it gave me a new appreciation for his strange and delightful words”可知,我曾经写过一篇关于童话故事对罗尔德·达尔写作有影响的论文,这篇论文让我对他奇怪而有趣的文字有了新的认识。所以Jo Usmar在介绍Matilda这本书,用第一人称“I”口吻来说明自己曾经写过一篇关于童话故事对罗尔德·达尔写作有影响的论文。所以“I”指的是Jo Usmar。故选C。 22.C 细节理解题。由After Dark中的“It’s about two sister-Eri,a model who either won’t or can’t stop sleeping, and Mari,a young student”可知,故事讲的是两个姐妹---Eri是一个突然昏睡不醒的模特。玛丽,是一个充满青春活力的学生。推出After Dark中讲述了Eri和Mari的故事。故选C。 23.D 细节理解题。由Gone Girl中的“......but the horror story is brilliant”可知,但是这个恐怖的故事很精彩。所以Gone Girl讲述的是一个恐怖故事。故选D。 B 【解题导语】本文是一篇夹叙夹议文。讲述了作者成功说服了一个家长参加志愿者团队,作者作为一名志愿者发挥了自己的作用,获得了快乐。 24.C 推理判断题。根据文章第一段中的 You can use me as a last resort(选择), and if nobody else volunteers,then I will do it.可知,你可以当我是最后的候选人,如果没有其他的志愿者,那么我就做。由此可推断出,她不想做自愿者。故选C。 25.B 词义猜测题。根据划线前句she may just need a little persuading.和下面的一句话I mention the single parent with four kids running the show and I talk about the dad coaching a team that his kids aren't even on ...可知,作者为了劝服这位家长,举了两个例子。故可知,划线句此处应是“煽情”之意。故选B。 26.D 细节理解题。根据第三段中:这位家长作出的贡献及the same parent ends up becoming an invaluable member of the team可知,她最终成为了志愿者队伍中的重要的一员,也就是说,她成了一个好帮手。故选D。 27.B 细节理解题。题干问作者为什么喜欢做志愿者工作。根据第四段最两句Connecting to the community(社区)as you freely give your time, money, skills, or services provides a real joy. Volunteering just feels so good.可知,为社区做贡献可以带来真正的快乐, 参加志愿者活动活动能让人感觉快乐。故选B。 C 【解题导语】 本文是一篇议论文。通过一份调查结果显示,很大比例的人选择独自用餐,虽然原因很多,但是独自用餐正慢慢成为一种趋势。 28. B 推理判断题。根据第二段可知,在美国,约有46%的人们独自用餐,53%的人们独自吃早餐,46%的人们独自吃午餐,只有74%的人们晚餐不是独自享用,故可知本段的数据是关于用餐习惯,故选B。 29. C 细节理解题。根据第三段A lunchtime escape allows her to keep a boss from tapping her on the shoulder. Today, I just wanted some time to myself.可知,Bechtel一个人吃午饭可以让她逃离老板的关注,给自己留一些自由时间,故选C。 30. D 推理判断题。根据第四段he likes that he can sit and check his phone in peace or chat up the barkeeper with whom he’s on a first-name basis if he wants to have a little interaction.可知Mazoleny喜欢这样的气氛,因为可以坐在那里,查看手机信息,或者想聊天了,可以直呼吧台服务员名字和他聊天,故可知,他与服务员很熟悉,可以直呼对方名字,故选D。 31. A 主旨大意题。本文通过一份调查结果显示,很大比例的人选择独自用餐,原因很多,比如逃离工作氛围,或者反思自己,但是独自用餐正慢慢成为一种趋势,故选A。 D 【解题导语】本文为说明文。介绍了HUNCH项目:通过Gordon的学生找到如何杀死空间站的细菌这一技术,把空间技术与课堂,与学校教育相结合,从而最终起作用到大学入学。 ?32. A 细节理解题。根据第一段中的“Bacteria are annoying problem for astronauts. The microorganisms form our bodies grow uncontrollably on surfaces of the International Space Station, so astronauts spend hours cleaning them up each week.”可知,细菌对宇航员来说是个令人讨厌的问题。这种来自我们身体的微生物在国际空间站的表面不受控制地生长,宇航员每周要花几个小时来清理它们。也就是说它们很难去掉。其中的“the microorganisms”包括“bacteria”。故选A。。 33. D 推理判断题。根据第二段的 “HUNCH is designed to connect high school classrooms with NASA engineers. Gordon’s students have been studying ways to kill bacteria in zero gravity,...”可知,Hunch旨在把高中教室和NASA的工程师联系起来。Gordon的学生一直在研究如何在零重力下杀死细菌, ...”。再根据最后一段中的“Gordon students are emailing daily with NASA engineers about the problem,...”可知,学生每天都给NASA的工程师发邮件一起探讨(如何杀死空间站的细菌这一空间技术)这个问题。由此可推断出HUNCH program的目的把空间技术与学校教育相结合。故选D。 34. A 细节理解题。根据第三段中的“I’ve got to produce this product and then, at the end of the year ,present it to NASA, ”“Engineers come and really do an in-person review,and ...It’s not a very nice thing at times. It’s a hard business review of your product.”可知,NASA的工程师要检查学生所做的产品。故选A。 35. B 主旨大意题。本文介绍了HUNCH项目把如何杀死空间站的细菌这一空间技术引入Gordon学校的课堂,从而最终影响了大学入学。尤其是最后一段“HUNCH program has an impact on college admissions and practical life skills.”故选D。 七选五 【解题导语】这是一篇议论文。文章作者对于怎样设定具体目标,给出了一些方法。 36. G 过渡句。前一句句意“动机和目标设定是同一枚硬币的两面”。后一句句意“就像孩子在跳水台,难以决定”。该空承上启下,G选项“没有目标,你就既不能设定目标,也无法实现它”切题,故选G。 37. B 主题句。后一句句意“不仅如此,你应该如何为实现你的目标保持积极性”。该空引出下文,B选项“那么你应该如何激励自己呢”切题,故选B。 38. A 过渡句。前一句句意“有时候你的心不在工作上”,后一句句意“所以,减慢速度,想一想那时候,你到底想干什么”。该空承上启下,A选项“这会影响你的工作”切题,故选A。 39. E 总结句。前一句句意“记得,目标是灵活的”。该空承接上文,E选项“它们会根据环境的改变而改变”切题,故选E。 40. C 过渡句。前一句句意“你可能想当一名飞行员,但是不能成为一名飞行员,因为你的视力不够好。”后一句句意“你应该重新评估你的目标,并且设定一个新的目标”。该空承上启下,C选项“然而,这也不要使你沮丧”切题,故选C。 完形填空 【解题导语】这是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了Ehlers和他的朋友救助了一只丢失的小狗,最终帮它找到了主人。 41.C 考查动词词义辨析。根据下文Ehlers和朋友一起去找那只狗可知,此处是指Ehlers一直在想关于那只狗的事,think about考虑。故选C。 42.B 考查动词词义辨析。根据下文作者去哄小狗可知,这只狗是在路边发抖,trembling发抖。故选B。 43.A 考查动词词义辨析。根据下文可知,他在尽力的哄那只狗,try to do sth尽力做某事。故选A。 44.D 考查动词短语辨析。他在尽力的哄那只狗,可是它很害怕,所以此处是指那只狗被吓跑了,run off“跑开”的意思。故选D。 45.C 考查形容词词义辨析。根据下文可知,这只狗是别人丢失的,因此此处用lost“丢失”。故选C。 46.C 考查副词词义辨析。句意:因此,四天后,Ehlers给他的朋友Greg打电话,他们俩又驱车返回。 根据上文可知,此处是指他们又返回到之前见到那只走失的狗的地方,back向后,回原处。故选C。 47.D 考查名词词义辨析。根据下文Greg在越过田野的地方看到了那只小狗可知,此处是指他们在仔细寻找小狗,search寻找。故选D。 48.A 考查副词词义辨析。根据文中提到的frightened, nervousness, fear等词并结合上文并根据下文Ehlers最终成功的安抚了它可知,小狗非常的谨慎小心,cautiously谨慎地,小心地。故选A。 49.B 考查名词词义辨析。根据下文小狗开始舔Ehlers的脸可知,它不再害怕,而是很开心,joy开心。故选B。 50.B 考查动词词义辨析。句意:当地的一个农民告诉他们,这听起来像是当地报纸上刊登的那只丢失的狗。根据本句的in the local paper及语境可知,此处是指在报纸上刊登的,advertise登广告。故选B。 51.B 考查名词词义辨析。根据下文Ehlers给狗的主人打电话可知,此处是指广告上有电话号码,phone number电话号码。故选B。 52.A 考查动词词义辨析。根据上下文语境可知,此处是指Ehlers给Jeff和Lisa(狗的主人)打了电话,call打电话。故选A。 53.C 考查动词词义辨析。根据上下文语境可知,Ehlers给他们打电话是要告知他找到了他们的狗,find找到。故选C。 54.A 考查动词词义辨析。根据下文狗听到枪声吓跑了可知,此处是指Jeff带着狗在打猎,hunt打猎。故选A。 55.D 考查介词短语辨析。根据上文Ehlers找到的Jeff的狗可知,Jeff在狗丢失后没有找到他的狗,in vain徒劳。故选D。 56.A考查动词词义辨析。句意:很高兴知道还有那么一个人,他足够关心你,会去做这样麻烦的事。根据上文可知,此处是指Ehlers对狗足够关心,care关心。故选A。 57.B考查名词词义辨析。根据上文Ehlers开车把那只小狗Rosie送到100英里远的机场,把它航空托运到密歇根可知,这是件很麻烦的事情,trouble麻烦。故选B。 58.C考查名词词义辨析。根据上文可知,此处是指Lisa在评论Ehlers帮助他们找回狗付出的努力,effort努力。故选C。 59.D考查形容词词义辨析。句意:我想无论是谁丢了狗,可能就像我接近我的狗一样去接近它。根据下文Ehlers说的话可知,此处是指他对待那只狗就像对自己的狗一样,close to靠近。故选D。 60.D考查形容词词义辨析。句意:我希望有人愿意付出更多的努力。根据上文语境可知,此处是表达他希望面对这样的事情,大家能愿意去付出更多努力去帮忙,be willing to do乐意做某事。故选D。 语法填空 【解题导语】本文为记叙文。讲述了九十高龄的Irene作为英国最年长的全职员工,依然在宠物店做着朝九晚五的工作,没有退休的打算,她被颁发 “年度女士”称号。 61. being 考查非谓语动词。根据其前介词for可知,此处用动名词形式作宾语,故填being。 62. which 考查非限制性定语从句。分析句子结构可知,先行词为the pet shop,在非限制性定语从句中作opened一词的宾语,故用which。 63. finally 考查副词用法。根据空格所处位置可知,此处应用副词形式作状语,修饰谓语动词have been acknowledged,意为“最终得以认可”,故填finally。 64. declared 考查谓语动词。根据上下文可知,该句主语为Irene,此处为谓语成分,根据后文had 以及said 可知用一般过去时态,故填declared。 65. to retire 考查不定式作定语。此处用to do sth做后置定语,用来修饰前面的名词plan,表示“…的计划”,故填to retire。 66. have made 考查动词时态。根据该定于从句中时间状语“over the years”可知,此处用现在完成时态,句意:我喜欢到这里来看看我的家人和我这些年来交到的朋友们。故填have made。 67. but 考查并列连词。根据句意逻辑可知,此处为转折关系,句意:我工作不是因为我不得不做,而是因为我想做。此处用but与前文not 呼应,构成“不是…而是 …”之意,故填but。 68. saying 考查非谓语动词。根据其后所接的宾语从句可知,此处用现在分词形式saying作后置定语,解释名词call的内容,call与say是主动关系,故填saying。 69. a 考查冠词。根据句意“我们还以为这是一个玩笑” 可知,此处joke为泛指,故填a。 70. wonderful 考查形容词作表语。根据句子结构可知,在系动词is之后用形容词形式作表语,故填wonderful。 短文改错 【解题导语】这是一篇记叙文。作者讲述了从小到大自己的职业梦想随着求学经历不断改变的过程。 第一句:job→jobs 考查名词的数。“job(工作;职业)”为可数名词,用different(不同的)修饰时意思为不同种类的工作,应该用名词的复数形式。故将job改为jobs。 第二句:coolly→cool 考查形容词的用法。句中的“looked(看起来…样)”为系动词,系动词后需用形容词作表语。故将coolly改为cool。 第三句:five→fifth;too→very/so 考查序数词。年级、班级是按数字顺序排列的,所以“在几年级”中的数词需要用序数词。故将five改为fifth。 考查副词。句意:在五年级的时候,因为我非常喜欢我的英语老师,所以我想变成一名老师。“so much”在句中一般表达肯定意思,可与that连用表示“如此…以至于”。而“too much”表太多,一般与to搭配,表达否定意思“太…以至于不能…”。本句话表达肯定意思,非常so much 或very much,故将too改为very/so。 第四句:chemistry后面加上in/at;or→and考查介词。“在高中”需要用介词in或者at,故在high school前加in/at。 考查连词。句意:在高中学化学的时候,我重新考虑了自己的目标并决定变成一名医生。 “重新考虑”与“决定变成一名医生”之间是顺承关系,不是选择关系。故将or改为and。 第五句:They→There 考查there be句型。句意:有两个原因可以解释这个决定。句中的they在前边句中找不到指代关系,且后边句子中的one与the other是对这两个原因的解释。故将they改为there。 第六句:amazing→amazed;去掉more 考查形容词用法。“amaze(使惊奇;使惊愕)”形容词形式有amazed(大为惊奇)与amazing(令人大为惊奇的)。本句话中主语为I,句意:病人看完医生就会感觉好很多,对此我感到惊奇,而不是我令别人惊奇。故将amazing改为amazed。 考查形容词比较级。句中better为well(健康;身体好)的比较级形式,多音节的形容词或副词构成比较级用more 加形容词或副词,即more不能与better连用。故将more去掉。 第七句:is→was 考查一般过去时。本篇文章使用的全是一般过去时,且与最后一句并列的“one was that…”用的也是一般过去时,所以最后一句话时态应为一般过去时。讲述当时做决定时的原因。故将is改为was。 书面表达 考查文体:书信体——告知信。申请职位为志愿者。 告知人: 排球队队长 告知对象: 排球队队友 告知主题: 校排球队比赛 告知内容: 比赛信息;赛前准备;表达期待。 相关词汇句式: 问候语及开头语 I’m writing to you about ... / I’m writing to tell you something about ... 事件信息的三要素:时间:on July 8th 地点:in the school gym 人物:our volleyball team and a team from Lingnan High School 事件的时间和地点的常用表达: There will be a match to be held in … The exhibition will be held in / take place in … The?contest?is?organized?by our school on … Our school will hold a music festival on … 可以适当增加相关细节,丰富文章内容。还可以运用高级词块和句式,如:take place, play against, get fully prepared, in addition, keep fit等;宾语从句,现在分词作状语等,可以加入增加亮点。 参考范文 Dear Chris, I’m writing to let you know that we will have a volleyball match next month. The match will take place in our school gym on the morning of July 8th. We will play against a team from Lingnan High School. For good performance in the match, we must get fully prepared and practice hard. So starting tomorrow, we all need to train for two hours after school every day. In addition, we should avoid getting hurt during the training and have a healthy diet to keep fit. You’re an excellent player. With you on the team, we have every hope of beating Lingnan. Let’s try hard together! Cheers, Li Hua 听力原文 (Text1) W: Excuse me. How can I find the book called The Class of 19 98? M: Oh, I'm afraid it was sold out. W: It's all right. Thank you. (Text2) M:How did your dancing lesson go today? W:Exciting!But it was hard work. I really need a rest now. M:Yeah, I can see that.Go and get relaxed! (Text3) M: How much is that in total? W:$100. But if you have a membership card, I can give you a 20% discount. M: Great. This is my membership card (Text4) M: Jane, I'm going out for a while, W:But you have an appointment with Mr. Douglas at three o'clock. M: Well, please make it another day. (Text5) W: David said he would quit his job at our school. M:Really? Why would he do that? W:His friend started a firm in London. She wanted David to help her. (Text6) W: I'm going out for shopping. Do you need anything? M:Oh, yeah! I can't find my umbrella. Can you buy one? W:Shouldn't it be in the cupboard? M: I just checked. It wasn't there W:Impossible? That was where I usually put it. Did you check the balcony? M:Yes, of course ! Couldn't find it. Well, just get a new one then. (Text7) M:Hi, Lucy!How was your weekend? W: Great. You know we went mountain climbing in the forest park. The air was so different from the city. Cool and fresh. M:Sounds great! W: Yeah, there wasn't a cloud in the sky and we could see for miles from the top. What about you? What did you do? M:Busy packing. W:Oh, yes, of course! I forgot you and Jenny are moving into a new house. It's on Wednesday, isn't it? M:Yeah, two days after I didn't realize there are so many things to do. W:Can I help out with anything? M: It'd be nice if you could take care of Henry a couple of days. W: Henry? M: Yes, my dog. W:Oh!Sure. No problem!You just focus on the move! (Text8) M:Hello. Can I speak to Mr. Stone, please? W: Hello, but I'm afraid Mr. Stone is in a meeting until lunchtime. Can I take a message? M: Well, yes, I'd like to make an appointment to see him. It's Harrison White here . W: Just a second, Mr. White, I’ll look in the diary. So when's convenient for you? M: Sometime today,if possible. I hear he will be away tomorrow. W: Yes, that's right. He'll be on a business trip for a week. M:I need to talk about my new program with him before he leaves. It's urgent. So would this afternoon be okay? W:Let me see. Okay, Mr. Stone is free this afternoon after three o'clock. M: Well, three o'clock is a bit difficult, but I could make it after 3:30. W: So shall we say 3:45 this afternoon in Mr. Stone's office? M:That's great !Thanks。 (Text9) W: Hello! M: Hi!Cindy! This is Jake Lee at fixed corporation. How are you today? W:Oh, hi, Jake! I'm fine. How are you? M:Good. The reason I'm calling is that we'd like to offer you the position you were interviewed for last Thursday. W:Oh, that's great. I was really impressed with fix it. M: I'm glad to hear it for you. And we're prepared to offer you a starting salary of $35000. W:I see. And vacation time? M:Oh, you get one day per month in your first year. That is ,you have 12 days in your first year and then increase if you stay longer with the company. W:What would be my job title? M:You'd be a junior specialist and you'll be working under Monica Stan’s field, the department manager. W:OK.Is the salary negotiable at all? M:Well, this is typical for new staff. W:I see. M:Why don't you think about it? I'll need to hear back from you by Wednesday. Will that work? W:Sure. No problem. I'll let you know Tuesday afternoon. (Text10) Hello! Everybody! Today I'd like to share with you something about John Audubon. John was born on April 26, 17 85. He spent much of his childhood in France where he spent many hours each day outdoors painting pictures. At the age of eighteen, he moved to the United States. Well, actually , John began his life in the USA as a businessman. However, instead of taking care of his business, John was often off, exploring nature.At first ,John spent his time hunting for fun. Then he found that the animals around were very beautiful and he particularly enjoyed observing the birds he saw. He began studying them, trying to learn the differences between the birds and noticing the different behaviors. Therefore he painted the birds.In 1819 John realized that he didn't have enough money to pay his bills. He was very upset that he couldn't earn enough money to support his family. So he spent time improving his painting skills and began to sell his paintings. He discovered that he could earn some money while doing something you really enjoyed. We are lucky now to have so many paintings of American birds by John Audubon. 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)

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  • ID:4-5987502 [精]第三部分 阅读理解 专题九 事实细节(原卷版+解析版)

    高中英语/高考专区/真题分类汇编

    2015-2019年高考英语真题和模拟题分项汇编(原卷版) 阅读理解 专题九 事实细节 1. 【2019·全国卷I,A】 Need a Job This Summer? The provincial government and its partners offer many programs to help students find summer jobs. The deadlines and what you need to apply depend on the program. Not a student? Go to the government website to learn about programs and online tools available to help people under 30 build skills, find a job or start businesses all year round. Jobs for Youth If you are a teenager living in certain parts of the province, you could be eligible(符合条件)for this program. Which provides eight weeks of paid employment along with training. Who is eligible: Youth 15-18 years old in select communities(社区). Summer Company Summer Company provides students with hands-on business training and awards of up to $3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses. Who is eligible: Students aged 15-29, returning to school in the fall. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program You could apply to be a Stewardship Youth Ranger and work on local natural resource management projects for eight weeks this summer. Who is eligible: Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year. Summer Employment Opportunities(机会) Through the Summer Employment Opportunities program, students are hired each year in a variety of summer positions across the Provincial Public Service, its related agencies and community groups. Who is eligible: Students aged 15 or older. Some positions require students to be 15 to 24 or up to 29 for persons with a disability. 21. What is special about Summer Company? A. It requires no training before employment. B. It provides awards for running new businesses. C. It allows one to work in the natural environment. D. It offers more summer job opportunities. 22. What is the age range required by Stewardship Youth Ranger Program? A. 15-18. B. 15-24. C. 15-29. D. 16-17. 23. Which program favors the disabled? A. Jobs for Youth. B. Summer Company. C. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program. D. Summer Employment Opportunities. 2. 【2019·全国卷II,A】 My Favourite Books Jo Usmar is a writer for Cosmopolitan and co-author of the This Book Will series(系列)of lifestyle books. Here she picks her top reads. Matilda Roald Dahl I once wrote a paper on the influence of fairy tales on Roald Dahl's writing and it gave me a new appreciation for his strange and delightful words. Matilda's battles with her cruel parents and the bossy headmasters,Miss Trunchbull,are equally funny and frightening,but they're also aspirational. After Dark Haruki Murakami It’s about two sisters-Eri,a model who either won’t or can’t stop sleeping,and Mari, a young student . In trying to connect to her sister. Mari starts changing her life and discovers a world of diverse ”night people” who are hiding secrets. Gone Girl Gillian Fynn There was a bit of me that didn't want to love this when everyone else on the planet did but the horror story is brilliant. There's tension and anxiety from the beginning as Nick and Amy battle for your trust. It's a real whodunit and the frustration when you realise what's going on is horribly enjoyable The Stand Stephen King This is an excellent fantasy novel from one of the best storytellers around. After a serious flu outbreak wipes out 99.4% of the world's population, a battle unfolds between good and evil among those let. Randall Flagg is one of the scariest characters ever. 21. Who does "I" refer to in the text? A. Stephen King. B. Gillian Flynn. C. Jo Usmar. D. Roald Dahl 22. Which of the following tells about Mari and Eri? A. Cosmopolitan. B. Matilda. C. After Dark. D. The Stand. 23. What kind of book is Gone Girl?) A. A folk tale. B. A biography. C. A love story. D. A horror story. 3. 【2019·全国卷III,A】 OPENINGS AND PREVIEWS Animals Out of Paper Yolo!Productions and the Great Griffon present the play by Rajiv Joseph,in which an origami(折纸术)artist invites a teenage talent and his teacher into her studio. Merri Milwe directs. In previews. Opens Feb.12.(West Park Presbyterian Church,165 W.86th St.212-868-4444.) The Audience Helen Mirren stars in the play by Peter Morgan,about Queen Elizabeth II of the UK and her private meetings with twelve Prime Ministers in the course of sixty years. Stephen Daldry directs. Also starring Dylan Baker and Judith Ivey. Previews begin Feb.14.(Schoenfeld,236 W.45th St.212-239-6200.) Hamilton Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musical about Alexander Hamilton,in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story. Thomas Kail directs. In previews. Opens Feb.17.(Public,425 Lafayette St.212-967-7555.) On the Twentieth Century Kristin Chenoweth and Peter Gallagher star in the musical comedy by Betty Comden and Adolph Green,about a Broadway producer who tries to win a movie star's love during a cross-country train journey. Scott Ellis directs,for Roundabout Theatre Company. Previews begin Feb.12.(American Airlines Theatre,227 W.42nd St.212-719-1300.) 21. What is the play by Rajiv Joseph probably about?. A. A type of art. B. A teenager's studio. C. A great teacher. D. A group of animals. 22. Who is the director of The Audience? A. Helen Mirren. B. Peter Morgan. C. Dylan Baker. D. Stephen Daldry. 23. Which play will you go to if you are interested in American history? A. Animals Out of Paper. B. The Audience. C. Hamilton. D. On the Twentieth Century. 4. 【2019·北京卷,A】 Want to explore new cultures,meet new people and do something worthwhile at the same time? You can do all the three with Global Development Association(GDA).Whatever stage of life you're at,wherever you go and whatever project you do in GDA,you'll create positive changes in a poor and remote community(社区). We work with volunteers of all ages and backgrounds. Most of our volunteers are aged 17-24.Now we need volunteer managers aged 25-75.They are extremely important in the safe and effective running of our programmes . We have such roles as project managers,mountain leaders,and communication officers. Depending on which role you choose,you could help to increase a community's access to safe drinking water,or help to protect valuable local cultures. You might also design an adventure challenge to train young volunteers. Not only will you help our young volunteers to develop personally,you'll also learn new skills and increase your cultural awareness. You may have chances to meet new people who'll become your lifelong friends. This summer we have both 4-week and 7-week programmes: Country Schedule 4-week programmes 7-week programmes Algeria 5 Jul.- 1Aug. 20Jun. -7Aug. Egypt 24 Jul-20 Aug. 19Jun.-6 Aug. Kenya 20 Jul.-16Aug. 18 Jun.-5 Aug. South Africa 2Aug.-29 Aug. 15 Jun.-2Aug. GDA ensures that volunteers work with community members and local project partners where our help is needed. All our projects aim to promote the development of poor and remote communities. There is no other chance like a GDA programme. Join us as a volunteer manager to develop your own skills while bringing benefits to the communities. Find out more about joining a GDA programme: Website:wwwglodeve.org Email:humanresources@glodeve.org 31. What is the main responsibility of volunteer managers? A. To seek local partners B. To take in young volunteers C. To carry out programmes D. To foster cultural awareness 32. The programme beginning in August will operate in__________. A. Egypt B. Algeria C. Kenya D. South Africa 33. The shared goal of GDA’s projects to __________. A. explore new cultures B. protect the environment C. gain corporate benefit D. help communities in need 5. 【2019·天津卷,A】 History Fair Competition Understanding history is vital to understanding ourselves as a people and as a nation. History is much more than the study of dusty old objects and events long past. It is an essential part of who we are today and who we will become. Thornton fiddle School History Fair Competition makes understanding history exciting,engaging,and fun! This Year's Theme All participants must address how communication or transportation technology has promoted the quality of life for Americans throughout history. To many people,technology means computers,hand-held devices,or vehicles that travel to distant planets. However,technology is also the application of scientific knowledge to solve a problem,touching lives in countless ways. Individuals or groups may enter one of the following categories: ·Performance ·Documentary(纪实作品) ·Essay Writing Category Requirements Performance: A dramatic presentation of the topic no more than 10 minutes long. If special clothes are used,they should truly represent a given period. Documentary: A visual presentation(such as a video,slide show,or computer project)no more than 10 minutes long. A desktop computer,screen,projector,and loudspeakers will be available. Students must provide their presentations on CDs before Friday,March 23. Essay Writing: An academic paper of 2,000 to 2,500 words. No illustrations(图解)are allowed. Please do not include covers. A list of references must be included. Important Dates January 5 Submit a topic proposal to your history teacher. The teacher may require a second proposal if the first is off-topic or unclear. February 5 Submit a first draft of your essay,performance script(剧本),or documentary highlights. February 19 A committee of teachers will evaluate materials and give opinions. Students then have an opportunity to improve their products. March 9 Submit a final draft of your essay. March 15 Performance and documentary committee preview March 24 Thornton Middle School History Fair Competition 7:00A. M-9:00A. M Participants signing in at the gym 10:00A. M. -6:00PM. Competition and judges' review 7:00P.M. Awards ceremony and picnic 36. According to Paragraph 1,what is the major goal of understanding history? A. To preserve national traditions. B. To prepare for a history competition. C. To better know the present and future. D. To further explore historical mysteries. 37. What is the theme of this year's competition? A. Technology advances science. B. Science interacts with technology. C. Science has made the study of history easy. D. Technology has improved the life of Americans. 38. Among the items provided by the school for a visual presentation are_________ . A. special clothes and a screen B. a desktop computer and a CD C. a projector and special clothes D. a desktop computer and loudspeakers 39. What would a participant have to do with an essay of 1,500 words to meet the category requirement? A. Include more information in the essay. B. Remove the references. C. Provide a cover for the essay. D. Explain the details with illustrations. 40. What will the committee of teachers do on February 19? A. Preview performances and documentaries. B. Make comments on the materials. C. Improve the participant's first draft. D. Collect a second proposal from the participant. 6. 【2019·全国卷I,C】 As data and identity theft becomes more and more common, the market is growing for biometric(生物测量)technologies—like fingerprint scans—to keep others out of private e-spaces. At present, these technologies are still expensive, though. Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device(装置)that gets around this problem: a smart keyboard. This smart keyboard precisely measures the cadence(节奏)with which one types and the pressure fingers apply to each key. The keyboard could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user's typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each person. Thus, the keyboard can determine people's identities, and by extension, whether they should be given access to the computer it's connected to—regardless of whether someone gets the password right. It also doesn't require a new type of technology that people aren't already familiar with. Everybody uses a keyboard and everybody types differently. In a study describing the technology, the researchers had 100 volunteers type the word “touch”four times using the smart keyboard. Data collected from the device could be used to recognize different participants based on how they typed, with very low error rates. The researchers say that the keyboard should be pretty straightforward to commercialize and is mostly made of inexpensive, plastic-like parts. The team hopes to make it to market in the near future. 28. Why do the researchers develop the smart keyboard? A. To reduce pressure on keys. B. To improve accuracy in typing C. To replace the password system. D. To cut the cost of e-space protection. 29. What makes the invention of the smart keyboard possible? A. Computers are much easier to operate. B. Fingerprint scanning techniques develop fast. C. Typing patterns vary from person to person. D. Data security measures are guaranteed. 30. What do the researchers expect of the smart keyboard?all 1o soisgitieoco oll. A. It'll be environment-friendly. B. It'll reach consumers soon. C. It'll be made of plastics. D. It'll help speed up typing. 7. 【2019·全国卷III,D】 Monkeys seem to have a way with numbers. A team of researchers trained three Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 clearly different symbols consisting of numbers and selective letters with 0-25 drops of water or juice as a reward. The researchers then tested how the monkeys combined—or added—the symbols to get the reward. Here's how Harvard Medical School scientist Margaret Livingstone, who led the team, described the experiment: In their cages the monkeys were provided with touch screens. On one part of the screen, a symbol would appear, and on the other side two symbols inside a circle were shown. For example, the number 7 would flash on one side of the screen and the other end would have 9 and 8. If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of water or juice; if they went for the circle, they would be rewarded with the sum of the numbers—17 in this example. After running hundreds of tests, the researchers noted that the monkeys would go for the higher values more than half the time, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. When the team examined the results of the experiment more closely, they noticed that the monkeys tended to underestimate(低估)a sum compared with a single symbol when the two were close in value—sometimes choosing, for example, a 13 over the sum of 8 and 6. The underestimation was systematic: When adding two numbers, the monkeys always paid attention to the larger of the two, and then added only a fraction(小部分)of the smaller number to it. "This indicates that there is a certain way quantity is represented in their brains, "Dr. Livingstone says. “But in this experiment what they're doing is paying more attention to the big number than the little one.” 32. What did the researchers do to the monkeys before testing them? A. They fed them. B. They named them. C. They trained them. D. They measured them. 33. How did the monkeys get their reward in the experiment? A. By drawing a circle. B. By touching a screen. C. By watching videos. D. By mixing two drinks. 34. What did Livingstone's team find about the monkeys? A. They could perform basic addition. B. They could understand simple words. C. They could memorize numbers easily. D. They could hold their attention for long. 8.A【2018·全国I】 Washington, D.C. Bicycle Tours Cherry Blossom Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. Duration Tour This small group bike tour is a fantastic way to see a world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C. Your guide will provide a history lesson about the trees and the famous monuments where they blossom. Reserve your spot before availability — the cherry blossoms—disappear! Washington Capital Monuments Bicycle Tour Duration:3 hours (4 miles) Join a guided bike tour and view some of the most popular monuments in Washington, D.C. Explore the monuments and memorials on the National Mall as your guide shares unique facts and history at each stop. Guided tour includes bike, helmet, cookies and bottled water. Capital City Bike Tour In Washington, D.C. Duration:3 hours Morning or Afternoon, this bike tour is the perfect tour for D. C. newcomers and locals looking to experience Washington, D.C. in a healthy way with minimum effort. Knowledgeable guides will entertain you with the most ,interesting stories about Presidents, Congress, memorials, and parks. Comfortable bikes and a smooth tour route(路线)make cycling between the sites fun and relaxing. Washington Capital Sites at Night Bicycle Tour Duration:3 hours(7miles) Join a small group bike tour for an evening of exploration in the heart of Washington, D.C. Get up close to the monuments and memorials as your bike the sites of Capitol Hill and the National Mall. Frequent stops are made for photo taking as your guide offers unique facts and history. Tour includes bike, helmet, and bottled water. All riders are equipped with reflective vests and safety lights. 21. Which tour do you need to book in advance? A. Cherry Blossom like Tour in Washington, D.C. B. Washington capital Monuments Bicycle Tour. C. Capital City Bike Tour in Washington, D. C. D. Washington Capital Sites at Night Bicycle Tour. 22. What will you do on the Capital City Bike Tour? A. Meet famous people. B. Go to a national park. C. Visit well-known museums. D. Enjoy interesting stories. 23. Which of the following does the bicycle tour at night provide? A. City maps. B. Cameras. C. Meals D. Safety lights 9.A【2018·全国II】 Summer Activities Students should read the list with their parents/careers, and select two activities they would like to do. Forms will be available in school and online for them to indicate their choices and return to school. Before choices are finalised, parents/careers will be asked to sign to confirm their child’s choices. Activity Description Member of staff Cost Outdoor Adventure (OUT) Take yourself out of your comfort zone for a week, discover new personal qualities, and learn new skills. You will be able to take part in a number of activities from canoeing to wild camping on Dartmoor. Learn rock climbing and work as a team, and enjoy the great outdoor environment. Mr. Clemens ?140 WWI Battlefields and Paris (WBP) On Monday we travel to London. After staying overnight in London, we travel on Day 2 to northern France to visit the World War I battlefields. On Day 3 we cross into Belgium. Thursday sees us make the short journey to Paris where we will visit Disneyland Paris park, staying until late to see the parade and the fireworks. Our final day, Friday, sees us visit central Paris and tour the main sights. Mrs. Milson ?425 Crafty Foxes (CRF) Four days of product design centred around textiles. Making lovely objects using recycled and made materials. Bags, cushions and decorations...Learn skills and leave with modern and unusual textiles. Mrs. Goode ?30 Potty about Potter (POT) Visit Warner Bros Studio, shop stop to buy picnic, stay overnight in an approved Youth Hostel in Streatley-on -Thames, guided tour of Oxford to see the film locations, picnic lunch outside Oxford’s Christchurch, boating on the River Cherwell through the University Parks, before heading back to Exeter. Miss Drake ?150 21. Which activity will you choose if you want to go camping? A. OUT. B. WBP. C. CRF. D. POT. 22. What?will?the?students?do?on?Tuesday?with?Mrs.?Wilson? A. Travel?to?London. B. See?a?parade?and?fireworks. C. Tour?central?Paris. D. Visit?the?WWI?battlefields. 23. How?long?does?Potty?about?Potter?last? A. Two?days. B. Four?days. C. Five?days. D. One?week. 10.A【2018·全国III】 Welcome to Holker Hall & Gardens Visitor Information How to Get to Holker By Car: Follow brown signs an A590 from JB6, M6.Approximale travel times: Windermere-20 minutes, Kendal-25 minutes, Lancaster-45 minutes, Manchester-I hour 30 minutes.z.x.xk By Rail: The nearest station is Cark-in-Cartmel with trains to Carnforth, Lancaster Preston for connections to major cities & airports. Opening Times Sunday-Friday (closed on Saturday)11:00 am-4:00pm,30 March-2nd November. Admission Charges Hall & Gardens Gardens Adults: ?12.00 ?8.00 Groups ?9 ?5.5 Producers: Market 13th April Join us to taste a variety of fresh local food and drinks. Meet the producers and get some excellent recipe ideas. Holker Garden Festival 30th May The event celebrate its 22nd anniversary with a great show of the very best of gardening, making it one of the most popular events in gardening. National Garden Day 28th August Holker once again opens is gardens in aid of the disadvantaged. For just a small donation you can take a tour with our garden guide. Winter Market 8th November This is an event for all the family. Wander among a variety of shops selling gifs while enjoying a live music show and nice street entertainment. 21. How long does it probably take a tourist to drive to Holker from Manchester? A. 20minutes. B. 25 minutes. C. 45 minutes. D. 90 minutes. 22. How much should a member of a tour group pay to visit to Hall & Cardens? A. ?l2.00. B. ?9.00. C. ?8.0 D. ?5.50 23. Which event will you go to if you want to see a live music show? A. Producers' Market. B. Holker Garden Festival. C. National Garden Day. D. Winter Market. 11.A【2018·天津卷】 Fire Prevention Information The University of Adelaide employs a full-time staff of fire prevention professionals. They inspect all campus buildings and test and maintain all sprinkler(喷水灭火装置)systems fire alarms and fire extinguishers (灭火器). They also provide educational programs or fire safety in the residence hall. Whenever you move to a new area, you should locate the fire alarm pull stations and the two exits nearest your room. Fire Alarms The floors of all campus buildings are equipped with manual(手动的)fire alarm systems which include fire alarm pull stations and pipes. Most are also equipped with automatic fire alarm systems consisting of heat detectors, smoke detectors and sprinklers. For your safety, never tamper with(胡乱摆弄)these systems. False fire alarms are illegal and may lead to imprisonment. Fire Drills A fire drill will be conducted in your residence hall every semester. During a fire drill, please do the following: ·Take your room key and ID, close and lock the door to your room. ·Exit immediately from the nearest emergency exit do not use a lift. ·Meet outside of your residence hall and wait for further instructions. Fire Extinguishers Fire extinguishers are located on each floor and in each apartment. Use a fire extinguisher only if you have been trained to do so. Irresponsible use of a fire extinguisher can create a dangerous situation for other residents and could result in damage to personal property. Misuse of a fire extinguisher will result in fines. Smoke Detector A smoke detector is on the ceiling in your room. Some buildings also have heat detectors on the ceilings. Do the following to ensure the safe operation of your smoke detector: ·If your smoke detector is working properly, the red light should be on. If the red light is not blinking(闪动),contact residence hall staff immediately. ·Do not cover or block your smoke detector in any way. ·If a smoke detector sets off an alarm and there is no fire or smoke, inform your hall staff. 36. What is the main duty of the fire prevention professionals? A. To provide part-time jobs for students. B. To lead the students to the nearest exits. C. To check and maintain fire prevention equipment. D. To train teachers to be fire prevention professionals. 37. What do the automatic fire alarm systems include? A. Pipes and smoke detectors. B. Smoke detectors and sprinklers. C. Fire alarm pull stations and pipes. D. Sprinklers and fire alarm pull stations 38. In a fire drill, the students should ________. A. rush quickly to a lift B. gather at the nearest exit. C. shut the door and leave at once D. wait for instructions in the hall 39. What do we know about the use of fire extinguishers? A. Using them wrongly results in punishment. B. Irresponsible use of them can damage them. C. Improper use of them can destroy the apartment. D. Using them without a trainer present is forbidden. 40. To ensure the safe operation of the smoke detector, one should_________. A. contact the hall staff regularly B. cover the things that burn easily C. start the smoke detector in a fire D. make certain the red light is working 12.B【2018·北京卷】 Find Your Adventure at the Space and Aviation(航空) Center If you’re looking for a unique adventure, the Space and Aviation Center (SAC) is the place to be. The Center offers programs designed to challenge and inspire with hands-on tasks and lots of fun. More than 750,000 have graduated from SAC, with many seeking employment in engineering, aviation, education, medicine and a wide variety of other professions. They come to camp, wanting to know what it is like to be an astronaut or a pilot, and they leave with real-world applications for what they’re studying in the classroom. For the trainees, the programs also offer a great way to earn merit badges(荣誉徽章). At Space Camp, trainees can earn their Space Exploration badge as they build and fire model rockets, learn about space tasks and try simulated(模拟) flying to space with the crew from all over the world. The Aviation Challenge program gives trainees the chance to earn their Aviation badge. They learn the principles of flight and test their operating skills in the cockpit(驾驶舱) of a variety of flight simulators. Trainees also get a good start on their Wilderness Survival badge as they learn about water- and land-survival through designed tasks and their search and rescue of "downed" pilot. With all the programs, teamwork is key as trainees learn the importance of leadership and being part of a bigger task. All this fun is available for ages 9 to 18. Families can enjoy the experience together, too, with Family Camp programs for families with children as young as 7. Stay an hour or stay a week — there is something here for everyone! For more details, please visit us online at www.oursac.com (?http:?/??/?www.oursac.com?). 40. Why do people come to SAC? A. To experience adventures. B. To look for jobs in aviation. C. To get a degree in engineering. D. To learn more about medicine. 41. To earn a Space Exploration badge, a trainee needs to . A. fly to space B. get an Aviation badge first C. study the principles of flight D. build and fire model rockets 42. What is the most important for trainees? A. Leadership. B. Team spirit. C. Task planning. D. Survival skills. 13.B [2017·北京卷] Inspiring young minds!TOKNOW Magazine is a big hit in the world of children's publishing, bringing a unique combination of challenging ideas and good fun to young fans every month.What is so special about TOKNOW Magazine? Well, it has no ads or promotions inside—instead it is jam?packed with serious ideas. TOKNOW makes complex ideas attractive and accessible to children, who can become involved in advanced concepts and even philosophy(哲学)—and they will soon discover that TOKNOW feels more like a club than just a magazine. What's inside? Every month the magazine introduces a fresh new topic with articles, experiments and creative things to make—the magazine also explores philosophy and well?being to make sure young readers have a balanced take on life. Sounds too good to be true?Take a look online—evidence shows that thousands of teachers and parents know a good thing when they see it and recommend TOKNOW to their friends.Happy Birthday All Year! What could be more fun than a gift that keeps coming through the letterbox every month? The first magazine with your gift message will arrive in time for the special day.                                     SUBSCRIBE NOW □Annual Subscription Europe £55 Rest of World £65 □Annual Subscription with Gift Pack Includes a Mammoth Map, a Passport Puzzle Booklet, and Subscription Europe £60 Rest of World £70 Refund Policy—the subscription can be cancelled within 28 days and you can get your money back. 59.Why is TOKNOW a special magazine? A.It entertains young parents. B.It provides serious advertisements. C.It publishes popular science fictions. D.It combines fun with complex concepts. 60.What does TOKNOW offer its readers? A.Online courses. B.Articles on new topics. C.Lectures on a balanced life. D.Reports on scientific discoveries. 61.How much should you pay if you make a 12?month subscription to TOKNOW with gift pack from China? A.£55. B.£60. C.£65. D.£70. 62.Subscribers of TOKNOW would get ________. A.free birthday presents B.full refund within 28 days C.membership of the TOKNOW club D.chances to meet the experts in person 14.【2016·全国新课标I】A You probably know who Marie Curie was, but you may not have heard of Rachel Carson.Of the outstanding ladies listed below, who do you think was the most important woman of the past 100 years? Jane Addams(1860-1935) Anyone who has ever been helped by a social worker has Jane Addams to thank. Addans helped the poor and worked for peace. She encouraged a sense of community(社区)by creating shelters and promoting education and services for people in need In 1931,Addams became the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize. Rachel Carson(1907-1964) If it weren’t for Rachel Carson, the environmental movement might not exist today. Her popular 1962 book Silent Spring raised awareness of the dangers of pollution and the harmful effects of chemicals on humans and on the world’s lakes and oceans. Sandra Day O’Connor(1930-present) When Sandra Day O’Connor finished third in her class at Stanford Law School, in 1952,she could not find work at a law firm because she was a woman. She became an Arizona state senator(参议员) and ,in 1981, the first woman to join the U.S. Supreme Court. O’Connor gave the deciding vote in many important cases during her 24 years on the top court. Rosa Parks(1913-2005) On December 1,1955,in Montgomery, Alabama,Rasa Parks would not give up her seat on a bus to a passenger. Her simple act landed Parks in prison. But it also set off the Montgmery bus boycott. It lasted for more than a year, and kicked off the civil-rights movement. “The only tired I was, was tired of giving in,” said Parks. 21.What is Jane Addams noted for in history? A. Her social work. B. Her lack of proper training in law. C. Her efforts to win a prize. D. Her community background. 22. What is the reason for O’Connor’s being rejected by the law firm? A. Her lack of proper training in law. B. Her little work experience in court. C. The discrimination against women. D. The poor financial conditions. 23. Who made a great contribution to the civil-rights movement in the US? A. Jane Addams. B. Rachel Carson. C. Sandra Day O’Connor. D. Rosa Parks. 15.【2016·全国新课标II】A What’s On? Electric Underground 7.30pm-1.00am Free at the Cyclops Theatre Do you know who’s playing in your area? We’re bringing you an evening of live rock and pop music from the best local bands. Are you interested in becoming a musician and getting a recording contract(合同)? If so, come early to the talk at 7.30pm by Jules Skye, a successful record producer. He’s going to talk about how you can find the right person to produce you music. Gee Whizz 8.30pm-10.30pm Comedy at Kaleidoscope Come and see Gee Whizz perform. He’s the funniest stand-up comedian on the comedy scene. This joyful show will please everyone, from the youngest to the oldest. Gee Whizz really knows how to make you laugh! Our bar is open from 7.00pm for drinks and snacks(快餐). Simon’s Workshop 5.00pm-7.30pm Wednesdays at Victoria Stage This is a good chance for anyone who wants to learn how to do comedy. The workshop looks at every kind of comedy, and practices many different ways of making people laugh. Simon is a comedian and actor who has 10 years’ experience of teaching comedy. His workshops are exciting and fun. An evening with Simon will give you the confidence to be funny. Charlotte Stone 8.00pm-11.00pm Pizza World Fine food with beautiful jazz music; this is a great evening out. Charlotte Stone will perform songs from her new best-selling CD, with James Pickering on the piano. The menu is Italian, with excellent meat and fresh fish, pizzas and pasta(面食). Book early to get a table. Our bar is open all day, and serves cocktails, coffee, beer, and white wine. 1. Who can help you if you want to have your music produced? A. Jules Skye. B. Gee Whizz. C. Charlotte Stone. D. James Pickering. 2. At which place can people of different ages enjoy a good laugh? A. The Cyclops Theatre B. Kaleidoscope C. Victoria Stage D. Pizza World 3. What do we know about Simon’s Workshop? A. It requires membership status. B. It lasts three hours each time. C. It is run by a comedy club. D. It is held every Wednesday. 4. When will Charlotte Stone perform her songs? A. 5.00pm-7.30pm. B. 7.30pm-1.00am. C. 8.00pm-11.00pm. D. 8.30pm-10.30pm. 16.【2016·天津】A A language programme for teenagers Welcome to Teenagers Abroad! We invite you to join us on an amazing journey of language learning. Our Courses Regardless of your choice of course, you'll develop your language ability both quickly and effectively. Our Standard Course guarantees a significant increase in your confidence in a foreign language, with focused teaching in all 4 skill areas—speaking, listening, reading and writing. Our Intensive Course builds on our Standard Course, with 10 additional lessons per week, guaranteeing the fastest possible language learning (see table below). Course Type Days Number of Lessons Course Timetable Standard Course Mon?Fri 20 lessons 9:00—12:30 Intensive Course Mon?Fri 20 lessons 9:00—12:30 10 lessons 13:00—14:30 Evaluation Students are placed into classes according to their current language skills. The majority of them take an online language test before starting their programme. However, if this is not available, students sit the exam on the first Monday of their course. Learning materials are provided to students throughout their course, and there will never be more than 15 participants in each class. Arrivals and Transfer Our programme offers the full package—students are taken good care of from the start through to the very end. They are collected from the airport upon arrival and brought to their accommodation in comfort. We require the student's full flight details at least 4 weeks in advance. Meals/Allergies(过敏)/Special Dietary Requirements Students are provided with breakfast, dinner and either a cooked or packed lunch (which consists of a sandwich, a drink and a dessert). Snacks outside of mealtimes may be purchased by the student individually. We ask that you let us know of any allergies or dietary requirements as well as information about any medicines you take. Depending on the type of allergies and/or dietary requirements, an extra charge may be made for providing special food. 36.How does Intensive Course differ from Standard Course? A.It is less effective. B.It focuses on speaking. C.It includes extra lessons. D.It gives you confidence. 37.When can a student attend Standard Course? A.13:00—14:30 Monday. B.9:00—12:30 Tuesday. C.13:00—14:30 Friday. D.9:00—12:30 Saturday. 38.Before starting their programme, students are expected to ________. A.take a language test B.have an online interview C.prepare learning materials D.report their language levels 39.With the full package, the programme organizer is supposed to________. A.inform students of their full flight details B.look after students throughout the programme C.offer students free sightseeing trips D.collect students' luggage in advance 40.Which of the following may require an extra payment? A.Cooked dinner. B.Mealtime dessert. C.Packed lunch. D.Special diet. 17.【2015·北京卷】B Revolutionary TV Ears TV Ears has helped thousands of people with various degrees of hearing loss hear the television clearly without turning up the volume(音量) and now it’s better and more affordable than ever! With TV Ears wireless technology, you set your own headset volume, while other TV listeners hear the television at a volume level that’s comfortable for them. You can even listen through the headset only and put the TV on mute(静音) if the situation calls for a quiet environment —maybe the baby is sleeping. Or perhaps you are the only one who is interested in listening to the ballgame. TV Ears patented technology includes a revolutionary noise reduction car tip, not used in any other commercially available headset. This tip reduces outside noise so that television dialogue is clear and understandable. Get the technology that has proven to help the most demanding customers. That’s why TV Ears has earned the trust and confidence of audiologists(听觉学家) nationwide as well as world-famous doctors. Doctor Recommended TV Ears!“My wife and I have used TV Ears almost daily for the past two years and find them a great help in our enjoyment of television . As a retired ear doctor, I heartily recommend TV Ears to people with normal hearing as well as those with hearing loss.” — Robert Forbes, M. D, CA Customer Recommended TV Ears!“ Now my husband can have the volume as loud as he needs and I can have the TV at my hearing level. TV Ears is so comfortable that Jack forgets he has them on ! He can once again hear and understand the dialogue.” — Darlene & Jack B, CA Risk Free Trial! TV Ears comes with a 30-day risk free trial. Special Offer — Now $59.95. If you’re not satisfied, return it. Money-back guarantee! Call now ! 800-123-7832 60. TV Ears helps you _____. A. improve your sleeping quality B. listen to TV without disturbing others C. change TV channels without difficulty D. become interested in ballgame programs 61. What makes TV Ears different from other headsets? A. It can easily set TV on mute. B. Its headset volume is adjustable. C. It has a new noise reduction car tip. D. It applies special wireless technology. 62. This advertisement is made more believable by _____. A. using recommendations B. offering reasons for this invention C.providing statistics. D.showing the results of experiments. 18.【2015·陕西】A Share with us Would you like to have your writing published in this magazine? Then let us know! We pay for stories, anecdotes and jokes: Anecdotes and Jokes $50 What’s made you laugh recently? A funny sign? A colleague’s be haviour? Got a joke? Send it in for Laughter is the Best Medicine! Email: Juliet@sws.com (?mailto:Juliet@sws.com?) Smart Animals Up to $100 Send us a tale about the strange behaviour of unique pets or wildlife in up 300 words. Email: audry@sws.com Power of Love Up to $150 Acts of generosity can change lives or just give you that warm feeling full of love. Share your moments 100—500 words. Email: susan@sws.com (?mailto:susan@sws.com?) My Story $350 Do you have an inspiring or life-changing story to tell? Your story must be true, unpublished, original and 800-1000words. Email: nanjc@sws.com For more information, please visit: http://www.sws.com./share 46. How much will the magazine pay for a joke to be published? A. $50 B. $100 C. $150 D.$350 47. If you want to share a story of your pets with the readers, you need to submit it to . A. Anecdotes and Jokes B. Smart Animals C. Power of Love D. My Story 48. A story showing people’s generosity should be emailed to the editor at . A. juliet@sws.com (?mailto:juliet@sws.com?) B. susan@sws.com (?mailto:susan@sws.com?) C. Audrey@sws.com (?mailto:Audrey@sws.com?) D. nanjc@sws.com (?mailto:nanjc@sws.com?) 49. An inspiring story sent to the magazine should . A. describe strange behaviour B. contain less than 800 words C. be real and original D. be published before 19.【2015·天津】A University Room Regulations Approved and Prohibited Items The following items are approved for use in residential (住宿的) rooms: electric blankets, hair dryers, personal computers, radios, televisions and DVD players. Items that are not allowed in student rooms include: candles, ceiling fans, fireworks, waterbeds, sun lamps and wireless routers. Please note that any prohibited items will be taken away by the Office of Residence Life. Access to Residential Rooms Students are provided with a combination (组合密码) for their room door locks upon check-in. Do not share your room door lock combination with anyone. The Office of Residence Life may change the door lock combination at any time at the expense of the resident if it is found that the student has shared the combination with others. The fee is $25 to change a room combination. Cooking Policy Students living in buildings that have kitchens are only permitted to cook in the kitchen. Students must clean up after cooking. This is not the responsibility of housekeeping staff. Kitchens that are not kept clean may be closed for use. With the exception of using a small microwave oven (微波炉) to heat food, students are not permitted to cook in their rooms. Pet Policy No pets except fish are permitted in student rooms. Students who are found with pets, whether visiting or owned by the student, are subject to an initial fine of $100 and a continuing fine of $50 a day per pet. Students receive written notice when the fine goes into effect. If, one week from the date of written notice, the pet is not removed, the student is referred to the Student Court. Quiet Hours Residential buildings must maintain an atmosphere that supports the academic mission of the University. Minimum quiet hours in all campus residences are 11:00 pm to 8:00 am Sunday through Thursday. Quiet hours on Friday and Saturday nights are 1:00 am to 8:00 am. Students who violate quiet hours are subject to a fine of $25. 36. Which of the following items are allowed in student rooms? A. Ceiling fans and waterbeds. B. Wireless routers and radios. C. Hair dryers and candles. D. TVs and electric blankets. 37. What if a student is found to have told his combination to others? A. The combination should be changed. B. The Office should be charged. C. He should replace the door lock. D. He should check out of the room. 38. What do we know about the cooking policy? A. A microwave oven can be used. B. Cooking in student rooms is permitted. C. A housekeeper is to clean up the kitchen. D. Students are to close kitchen doors after cooking. 39. If a student has kept a cat in his room for a week since the warning, he will face _____. A. parent visits B. a fine of $100 C. the Student Court D. a written notice 20.【2015·安徽】A Welcome to the Electronic Village to explore new ways of language teaching and learning. Electronic Village Program (Thursday, June 18, 2015) Nearpod ? 9:00 am to 10:00 am ? Room 501Nearpod is a software program that creates a rich context (语境) for students to learn vocabulary. The presenter will show how to use it. TEO ? 2:00 pm to 3:00 pm ? Room 502Our students come from different backgrounds but have the same desire to learn on-line. The presenter will use examples from his first on-line class to explain how any teacher can begin teaching on-line with TEO. Kahoot ? 10:30 am to 11:30 am ? Room 601Kahoot software can be used to create grammar tests which can be graded on a network. It can provide students with instant feedback (反馈), including reports about their strengths and weaknesses. Prezi ? 3:30 pm to 4:20 pm ? Room 602Uses of Prezi in listening and speaking courses draw students' attention to speaking more fluently. The presenter will show how students can use Prezi to confidently present on a variety of topics, including introducing family, friends, and hobbies. 56. Nearpod can be used to ______. A. offer grammar tests B. teach listening on-line C. help vocabulary learning D. gain fluency in speaking 57. If you want to improve your speaking skills, you can go to____________. A. Room 501 B. Room 502 C. Room 601 D. Room 602 58. Which of the following can assess your grammar learning? A. Nearpod. B. Kahoot. C. TEO. D. Prezi. 59. A teacher who wants to learn on-line teaching is expected to arrive by ______. A. 9:00 am B. 10:30 am C. 2:00 pm D. 3:30 pm 模拟题 1.武汉第二中学2019届高三五月全仿真模拟考试 The Visitor Oyster card A Visitor Oyster card is the cheapest way to pay for a single adult journeyin London. It’s a plastic smartcard. You can use it on the bus, tube, tram, DLR,London Overground and most National Rail services. It’s much cheaper than buying individual tickets, in some cases costing 50% less than the price of a regular paper ticket. How to get a Visitor Oyster card You can buy a Visitor Oyster card online. Your card will be delivered by post.The card costs ?5 and you choose how much money you want to add to the card.This means you can start using the card the moment you arrive in Central London. How does the Visitor Oyster card work? The Oyster card works on a pay-as-you-go system. You start by adding money to the card. Then you travel, the cost of the fare will automatically be deducted from your Visitor Oyster card. For example, if you add ?20 to the card and make a tube journey of ?2.30, you will have ?17.70 left on the card. A few more points: ·A child under the age of 11 travels free when accompanied by an adult. ·You’ll save more money if you use the tube several times. The Visitor Oyster cardis “capped (给……定上限)” at ?6.80 per day. ·You’ll pay more during peak times. Peak fares apply from Monday to Friday (6:30am—9:30 am; 4:00 pm —7:00 pm), except for public holidays. ·Reuse the Oyster card by adding credit at a tube station, Oyster ticket shop orVisitor Centre. ·Receive a discount on the Thames Clippers River Bus services. 1. What can we learn about the Visitor Oyster card? A. You can’t use it during public holidays. B. You can have it mailed directly to your home. C. You can get a free Oyster card if you order online. D. You can receive a 50% discount at any shop in London. 2. How much money will be deducted if you take the tube four times in a day witha Visitor Oyster card? A. ?2.30. B. ?3.40. C. ?6.80. D. ?9.20. 3. Where can you add credit to your Visitor Oyster card? A. On the Internet. B. At a bus station. C. At a tube station. D. In convenience stores. 2. 山东省菏泽市第一中学2019届高三最后一模 Every man dreams of having a good car. With luxury cars, like Bentley, Lamborghini and Rolls-Royce, going into the world of SUVs, if you have deep pockets, you will be spoilt for choice. ◆Lamborghini Aventador SVJ Using a new aerodynamic system allows it to set a car lap record of 6: 44 97 at Nurburgring, one of the longest and most challenging circuits in the world. Plus, carbon fiber can be seen everywhere, which makes the car strong and lightweight. There’re only 900 being built and you’11need to cough up $517, 770 to buy one. ◆Aston Martin DBX The DBX is Aston Martin’s maiden SUV product. It features a choice of two gas engines—a 4.0-liter V8 from Mercedes and a 5.2-liter V12 from its own. The price is predicted to be around $250, 000. ◆Audi E-tron Being an eco-friendly motoring. it is an all-electric SUV that makes up for its rather ordinary appearance with design, luxury and technology. At the front and back are electric motors which insure progress is rapid. In addition to plenty of storage space, the Audi E-tron provides side cameras instead of side mirrors and air suspension that adapts to the terrain (地 形). Hand over $74, 800 and it’s yours. ◆Tesla Roadster Tesla Roadster will turn most heads, Zero to 60 in 1.9 seconds means it will leave most cars for dust. The top speed is 250 mph, which is also unheard of for most cars—let alone an a11-electric one. Having advanced autonomous driving systems and a huge touchscreen for surfing the Internet, it won’t make you regret for paying $200, 000. 1. What’s special about Lamborghini Aventador SVJ? A. It offers two gas engines. B. It is an all-electric SUV. C. It uses lightweight materials. D. It has the most challenging circuit. 2. Which car is suitable if you want one with adaptable air suspension? A. Lamborghini Aventador SVJ. B. Aston Martin DBX. C. Audi E-tron. D. Tesla Roadster 3. Which of the following does Tesla Roadster provide? A. Self-driving systems. B. A gas-saving engine. C. Side cameras. D. Much storage space. 3.山东省临沂市2019届高三三模考试 Scientists in Western Australia claim to have made a new discovery—they have found gold in the leaves and twigs of trees. The researchers believe that the trees suck up the gold from deep underground,over 30 metres down. The discovery has been described as the first of its kind in the world. Australian gold exploration companies are pleased because it will make finding gold cheaper. Rather than drilling deep holes to find gold,they have more ways to examine tree leaves and branches. There is only a tiny amount of gold in the leaves. It would take 500 trees to make one gold ring. The gold is found using a special X—ray machine owned by an Australian government agency. A pure X-ray and a powerful microscope scan the leaves and branches. The claim that this is the first time that gold particles(微粒)have been found in living material might not be true,though. Ancient Chinese wisdom understood the connection between plants and the precious stones and minerals underneath them. They used plant life to find minerals and that was thousands of years ago. In the Zhou Dynasty,it was written in a book that a certain plant grew only near deposits of gold. Over the next 2,000 years,Chinese people wrote about different plants and how they grew,showed where minerals and precious stones such as jade,copper,lead,silver and gold were. Even more importantly,in the 1 000s,Su Song described how copper,gold,silver,lead and tin were observed and taken from certain plants. These were amazing scientific discoveries. Meanwhile,this knowledge was unknown in the rest of the world until about 1 600.This was when a British man realised that oak trees grew larger and greener where there was alum(明矾)in the ground. Maybe ancient Chinese has more knowledge to teach modern scientists. 1. What can we know from Paragraph 1 ? A. 500 dead trees can make one gold ring. B. The trees can absorb the gold from deep underground. C. Scientist have found gold 30 meters below underground. D. The companies find it hard to find gold. 2. How do scientists find gold in the leaves? A. By observing the leaves carefully. B. By drilling deep holes. C. By using a special x—ray. D. By referring to ancient books. 3. Who first discovered that there was connection between plants and minerals? A. Ancient Chinese people. B. Su Song. 4 2015-2019年高考英语真题和模拟题分项汇编(解析版) 阅读理解 专题九 事实细节 1. 【2019·全国卷I,A】 Need a Job This Summer? The provincial government and its partners offer many programs to help students find summer jobs. The deadlines and what you need to apply depend on the program. Not a student? Go to the government website to learn about programs and online tools available to help people under 30 build skills, find a job or start businesses all year round. Jobs for Youth If you are a teenager living in certain parts of the province, you could be eligible(符合条件)for this program. Which provides eight weeks of paid employment along with training. Who is eligible: Youth 15-18 years old in select communities(社区). Summer Company Summer Company provides students with hands-on business training and awards of up to $3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses. Who is eligible: Students aged 15-29, returning to school in the fall. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program You could apply to be a Stewardship Youth Ranger and work on local natural resource management projects for eight weeks this summer. Who is eligible: Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year. Summer Employment Opportunities(机会) Through the Summer Employment Opportunities program, students are hired each year in a variety of summer positions across the Provincial Public Service, its related agencies and community groups. Who is eligible: Students aged 15 or older. Some positions require students to be 15 to 24 or up to 29 for persons with a disability. 21. What is special about Summer Company? A. It requires no training before employment. B. It provides awards for running new businesses. C. It allows one to work in the natural environment. D. It offers more summer job opportunities. 22. What is the age range required by Stewardship Youth Ranger Program? A. 15-18. B. 15-24. C. 15-29. D. 16-17. 23. Which program favors the disabled? A. Jobs for Youth. B. Summer Company. C. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program. D. Summer Employment Opportunities. 【语篇解读】本文是一篇应用文,介绍了四种适合学生的暑期工作。 21. B 细节理解题 根据第五段第一句“暑期公司为学生提供实践商业培训,并提供高达3000美元的奖励,让他们开始经营自己的暑期业务”. 可知,Summer Company 为创业者提供奖金。故B正确。 22. D 细节理解题 根据第八段中“Who is eligible: Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year.合资格人士:入职时年满16或17岁,但在今年12月31日前未满18岁的学生”故D正确。 23. D 细节理解题 根据最后一段最后一句:有些职位要求残疾人士的年龄在15至24岁或29岁之间。故D正确。 2. 【2019·全国卷II,A】 My Favourite Books Jo Usmar is a writer for Cosmopolitan and co-author of the This Book Will series(系列)of lifestyle books. Here she picks her top reads. Matilda Roald Dahl I once wrote a paper on the influence of fairy tales on Roald Dahl's writing and it gave me a new appreciation for his strange and delightful words. Matilda's battles with her cruel parents and the bossy headmasters,Miss Trunchbull,are equally funny and frightening,but they're also aspirational. After Dark Haruki Murakami It’s about two sisters-Eri,a model who either won’t or can’t stop sleeping,and Mari, a young student . In trying to connect to her sister. Mari starts changing her life and discovers a world of diverse ”night people” who are hiding secrets. Gone Girl Gillian Fynn There was a bit of me that didn't want to love this when everyone else on the planet did but the horror story is brilliant. There's tension and anxiety from the beginning as Nick and Amy battle for your trust. It's a real whodunit and the frustration when you realise what's going on is horribly enjoyable The Stand Stephen King This is an excellent fantasy novel from one of the best storytellers around. After a serious flu outbreak wipes out 99.4% of the world's population, a battle unfolds between good and evil among those let. Randall Flagg is one of the scariest characters ever. 21. Who does "I" refer to in the text? A. Stephen King. B. Gillian Flynn. C. Jo Usmar. D. Roald Dahl 22. Which of the following tells about Mari and Eri? A. Cosmopolitan. B. Matilda. C. After Dark. D. The Stand. 23. What kind of book is Gone Girl?) A. A folk tale. B. A biography. C. A love story. D. A horror story. 【语篇解读】 这是一篇应用文。短文介绍了作家Jo Usmar最喜欢的书籍。 21.C 【解析】事实细节题。由Matilda中的第一句可知:我曾经写过一篇关于童话故事对罗尔德·达尔写作有影响的论文,这篇论文让我对他奇怪而有趣的文字有了新的认识。结合第一段最后一句:Here she picks her top reads.在这里,Jo Usmar挑选了她最喜欢的书。推出“I”指的是Jo Usmar。故选C。 22.C 【解析】事实细节题。由After Dark的第一句可知,故事讲的是两个姐妹---Eri是一个昏睡不醒的模特。玛丽,是一个充满活力的学生。故选C。 23.C 【解析】事实细节题。由Gone Girl的第一句的后半部分“......but the horror story is brilliant”可知,但是这个恐怖的故事很精彩。所以推出Gone Girl是一个恐怖故事。故选D。 3. 【2019·全国卷III,A】 OPENINGS AND PREVIEWS Animals Out of Paper Yolo!Productions and the Great Griffon present the play by Rajiv Joseph,in which an origami(折纸术)artist invites a teenage talent and his teacher into her studio. Merri Milwe directs. In previews. Opens Feb.12.(West Park Presbyterian Church,165 W.86th St.212-868-4444.) The Audience Helen Mirren stars in the play by Peter Morgan,about Queen Elizabeth II of the UK and her private meetings with twelve Prime Ministers in the course of sixty years. Stephen Daldry directs. Also starring Dylan Baker and Judith Ivey. Previews begin Feb.14.(Schoenfeld,236 W.45th St.212-239-6200.) Hamilton Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musical about Alexander Hamilton,in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story. Thomas Kail directs. In previews. Opens Feb.17.(Public,425 Lafayette St.212-967-7555.) On the Twentieth Century Kristin Chenoweth and Peter Gallagher star in the musical comedy by Betty Comden and Adolph Green,about a Broadway producer who tries to win a movie star's love during a cross-country train journey. Scott Ellis directs,for Roundabout Theatre Company. Previews begin Feb.12.(American Airlines Theatre,227 W.42nd St.212-719-1300.) 21. What is the play by Rajiv Joseph probably about?. A. A type of art. B. A teenager's studio. C. A great teacher. D. A group of animals. 22. Who is the director of The Audience? A. Helen Mirren. B. Peter Morgan. C. Dylan Baker. D. Stephen Daldry. 23. Which play will you go to if you are interested in American history? A. Animals Out of Paper. B. The Audience. C. Hamilton. D. On the Twentieth Century. 【语篇解读】这是一篇介绍话剧开幕和新剧首映的应用文。 A 【解析】事实细节题。根据话剧Animals Out of Paper的第二句,可知,Rajiv Joseph创作的话剧是关于一种折纸的艺术。故选A。 22.D 【解析】事实细节题。根据话剧The Audience的Stephen Daldry directs.可知,它是Stephen Daldry导演的。故选D。 23.C 【解析】事实细节题。根据话剧Hamilton 的第一句,可知,话剧Hamilton的主题是美国怎样诞生的,由此可知,如果你对美国历史感兴趣,你可以看这部剧。故选C。 4. 【2019·北京卷,A】 Want to explore new cultures,meet new people and do something worthwhile at the same time? You can do all the three with Global Development Association(GDA).Whatever stage of life you're at,wherever you go and whatever project you do in GDA,you'll create positive changes in a poor and remote community(社区). We work with volunteers of all ages and backgrounds. Most of our volunteers are aged 17-24.Now we need volunteer managers aged 25-75.They are extremely important in the safe and effective running of our programmes . We have such roles as project managers,mountain leaders,and communication officers. Depending on which role you choose,you could help to increase a community's access to safe drinking water,or help to protect valuable local cultures. You might also design an adventure challenge to train young volunteers. Not only will you help our young volunteers to develop personally,you'll also learn new skills and increase your cultural awareness. You may have chances to meet new people who'll become your lifelong friends. This summer we have both 4-week and 7-week programmes: Country Schedule 4-week programmes 7-week programmes Algeria 5 Jul.- 1Aug. 20Jun. -7Aug. Egypt 24 Jul-20 Aug. 19Jun.-6 Aug. Kenya 20 Jul.-16Aug. 18 Jun.-5 Aug. South Africa 2Aug.-29 Aug. 15 Jun.-2Aug. GDA ensures that volunteers work with community members and local project partners where our help is needed. All our projects aim to promote the development of poor and remote communities. There is no other chance like a GDA programme. Join us as a volunteer manager to develop your own skills while bringing benefits to the communities. Find out more about joining a GDA programme: Website:wwwglodeve.org Email:humanresources@glodeve.org 31. What is the main responsibility of volunteer managers? A. To seek local partners B. To take in young volunteers C. To carry out programmes D. To foster cultural awareness 32. The programme beginning in August will operate in__________. A. Egypt B. Algeria C. Kenya D. South Africa 33. The shared goal of GDA’s projects to __________. A. explore new cultures B. protect the environment C. gain corporate benefit D. help communities in need 【语篇解读】这是一篇招聘志愿者的广告。 31. C 【解析】事实细节题。题干问管理人员的主要职责是什么。根据第三段第一句,可知:根据岗位不同,管理人员可以帮助增加小区的饮用水,可以规划地方文化,可以设计挑战项目培训年轻的志愿者,从这些内容上可以判断出其主要职责是执行项目计划。故选C。 32. D 【解析】事实细节题。题干问八月份这个项目将在哪里开展。根据这个表格中4-week programmes中的最后一个为South Africa,故选D。 33. D 【解析】事实细节题。题干问GDA的所有项目的共同目的是什么。根据倒数第二段最后一句,可知:其目标就是促进偏远贫穷区域的发展,即帮助有需要的小区。故选D。 5. 【2019·天津卷,A】 History Fair Competition Understanding history is vital to understanding ourselves as a people and as a nation. History is much more than the study of dusty old objects and events long past. It is an essential part of who we are today and who we will become. Thornton fiddle School History Fair Competition makes understanding history exciting,engaging,and fun! This Year's Theme All participants must address how communication or transportation technology has promoted the quality of life for Americans throughout history. To many people,technology means computers,hand-held devices,or vehicles that travel to distant planets. However,technology is also the application of scientific knowledge to solve a problem,touching lives in countless ways. Individuals or groups may enter one of the following categories: ·Performance ·Documentary(纪实作品) ·Essay Writing Category Requirements Performance: A dramatic presentation of the topic no more than 10 minutes long. If special clothes are used,they should truly represent a given period. Documentary: A visual presentation(such as a video,slide show,or computer project)no more than 10 minutes long. A desktop computer,screen,projector,and loudspeakers will be available. Students must provide their presentations on CDs before Friday,March 23. Essay Writing: An academic paper of 2,000 to 2,500 words. No illustrations(图解)are allowed. Please do not include covers. A list of references must be included. Important Dates January 5 Submit a topic proposal to your history teacher. The teacher may require a second proposal if the first is off-topic or unclear. February 5 Submit a first draft of your essay,performance script(剧本),or documentary highlights. February 19 A committee of teachers will evaluate materials and give opinions. Students then have an opportunity to improve their products. March 9 Submit a final draft of your essay. March 15 Performance and documentary committee preview March 24 Thornton Middle School History Fair Competition 7:00A. M-9:00A. M Participants signing in at the gym 10:00A. M. -6:00PM. Competition and judges' review 7:00P.M. Awards ceremony and picnic 36. According to Paragraph 1,what is the major goal of understanding history? A. To preserve national traditions. B. To prepare for a history competition. C. To better know the present and future. D. To further explore historical mysteries. 37. What is the theme of this year's competition? A. Technology advances science. B. Science interacts with technology. C. Science has made the study of history easy. D. Technology has improved the life of Americans. 38. Among the items provided by the school for a visual presentation are_________ . A. special clothes and a screen B. a desktop computer and a CD C. a projector and special clothes D. a desktop computer and loudspeakers 39. What would a participant have to do with an essay of 1,500 words to meet the category requirement? A. Include more information in the essay. B. Remove the references. C. Provide a cover for the essay. D. Explain the details with illustrations. 40. What will the committee of teachers do on February 19? A. Preview performances and documentaries. B. Make comments on the materials. C. Improve the participant's first draft. D. Collect a second proposal from the participant. 【语篇解读】这是一篇介绍桑顿中学举办的历史展览竞赛相关信息的应用文。 36. C【解析】事实细节题。根据第二段第二句可知:历史告诉了今天我们是谁,将来我们要成为谁,它是我们重要的组成部分。所以了解历史的主要目地是更好地认知现在和未来。故选C。 37. D 【解析】事实细节题。由This Year’s Theme中的第一句可知:所有的参与者都必须要说明通信或运输技术怎样在整个历史过程中提高了美国人的生活质量。所以今年竞赛的主题是:技术提高了美国人的生活。故选D。 38. D【解析】事实细节题。由Documentary中的第二句可知:台式电脑、屏幕、投影仪和扬声器是可利用的。推出学校提供设备包括台式电脑和扩音器。故选D。

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  • ID:4-5951557 [精]2019年高考英语真题全国1卷(原卷+解析+听力原文)

    高中英语/高考专区/高考真题

    中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(全国卷I) 英 语 第一部分 听力(共两节,满分30分) 做题时,先将答案标在试卷上。录音内容结束后,你将有两分钟的时间将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。 第一节 (共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面5段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 例:How much is the shirt? A. ?19.15. B. ?9.18. C. ?9.15. 答案是C。 1.Where does this conversation take place? A. In a classroom. B. In a hospital. C.In a museum. 2.What does Jack want to do? A. Take fitness classes.B. Buy a pair of gym shoes.C. Change his work schedule. 3.What are the speakers talking about? A. What to drink. B. Where to meet. C. When to leave. 4.What is the relationship between the speakers? A. Colleges. B. Classmates. C. Strangers. 5.Why is Emily mentioned in the conversation? A. She might want a ticket. B. She is looking for the man. C. She has an extra ticket. 第二节(共15小题,每小题1.5分,满分22.5分) 听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。 听第6段材料,回答第6、7题。 6.How long did James run his business? A.10 years. B.13years. C.15 years. 7.How does the woman feel about James' situation? A. Embarrassed. B. Concerned. C. Disappointed. 听第7段材料,回答第8至10题。 8.What has Kate's mother decided to do? A. Return to school. B. Change her job. C. Retire from work. 9.What did Kate's mother study at college? A. Oil painting. B. Art history. C. Business administration. 10.What is Kate's attitude toward her mother's decision? A. Disapproving. B. Ambiguous. C. Understanding. 听第8段材料,回答第11至13题。 11.What is the man doing? A. Chairing a meeting. B. Hosting a radio program. C. Conducting a job interview. 12.What benefits Mary most in her job? A. Her wide reading. B. Her leaders' guidance. C. Her friends' help 13.Who will Mary talk about next? A. Her teacher. B. Her father C. Her mother. 听第9段材料,回答第14至17题。 14.Why does the man seldom do exercise? A. He lacks motivation. B. He has a heart problem. C. He works all the time. 15.What does Jacob Sattelmair probably do? A. He's an athlete. B. He's a researcher. C. He's a journalist. 16.Why does the woman speak of a study? A. To encourage the man. B. To recommend an exercise. C. To support her findings. 17.How much time will the man probably spend exercising weekly? A.300 minutes. B.150 minute. C.75 minutes. 听第10段材料,回答第18至20题。a 18.What did the scientists do to the road? A. They repaired it. B. They painted it. C. They blocked it 19.Why are young birds drawn to the road surface? A. It's warm. B. It's brown. C. It's smooth. 20.What is the purpose of the scientists' experiment? A. To keep the birds there for a whole year. B. To help students study the birds well. C. To prevent the birds from being killed. 第二部分 阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) 第一节 (共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。 A Need a Job This Summer? The provincial government and its partners offer many programs to help students find summer jobs. The deadlines and what you need to apply depend on the program. Not a student? Go to the government website to learn about programs and online tools available to help people under 30 build skills, find a job or start businesses all year round. Jobs for Youth If you are a teenager living in certain parts of the province, you could be eligible(符合条件)for this program. Which provides eight weeks of paid employment along with training. Who is eligible: Youth 15-18 years old in select communities(社区). Summer Company Summer Company provides students with hands-on business training and awards of up to $3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses. Who is eligible: Students aged 15-29, returning to school in the fall. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program You could apply to be a Stewardship Youth Ranger and work on local natural resource management projects for eight weeks this summer. Who is eligible: Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year. Summer Employment Opportunities(机会) Through the Summer Employment Opportunities program, students are hired each year in a variety of summer positions across the Provincial Public Service, its related agencies and community groups. Who is eligible: Students aged 15 or older. Some positions require students to be 15 to 24 or up to 29 for persons with a disability. 21. What is special about Summer Company? A. It requires no training before employment. B. It provides awards for running new businesses. C. It allows one to work in the natural environment. D. It offers more summer job opportunities. 22. What is the age range required by Stewardship Youth Ranger Program? A.15-18. B.15-24. C.15-29. D.16-17. 23. Which program favors the disabled? A. Jobs for Youth. B. Summer Company. C. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program. D. Summer Employment Opportunities. B For Canaan Elementary’s second grade in Patchogue, N.Y.,today is speech day ,and right now it’s Chris Palaez’s turn. The 8-year-old is the joker of the class. With shining dark eyes, he seems like the of kid who would enjoy public speaking. But he’s, nervous.“I’m here to tell you today why you should … should…”Chris trips on the“-ld,”a. pronunciation difficulty for many non-native English speakers. His teacher ,Thomas Whaley ,is next to him, whispering support.“…Vote for …me …”Except for some stumbles, Chris is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion ,Whaley invites the rest of the class to praise him. A son of immigrants, Chris stared learning English a little over three years ago. Whaley recalls(回想起)how at the beginning of the year,when called upon to read,Chris would excuse himself to go to the bathroom. Learning English as a second language can be a painful experience. What you need is a great teacher who lets you make mistakes. “It takes a lot for any student,” Whaley explains,“especially for a student who is learning English as their new language,to feel confident enough to say,‘I don’t know,but I want to know.’” Whaley got the idea of this second-grade presidential campaign project when he asked the children one day to raise their hands if they thought they could never be a president. The answer broke his heart. Whaley says the project is about more than just learning to read and speak in public. He wants these kids to learn to boast(夸耀)about themselves. “Boasting about yourself,and your best qualities,” Whaley says,“is very difficult for a child who came into the classroom not feeling confident.” 24. What made Chris nervous? A. Telling a story. B. Making a speech. C. Taking a test. D. Answering a question. 25. What does the underlined word “stumbles” in paragraph 2 refer to? A. Improper pauses. B. Bad manners. C. Spelling mistakes. D. Silly jokes. 26. We can infer that the purpose of Whaley’s project is to _________. A. help students see their own strengths B. assess students’ public speaking skills C. prepare students for their future jobs D. inspire students’ love for politics 27. Which of the following best describes Whaley as a teacher? A. Humorous. B. Ambitious. C. Caring. D. Demanding. C As data and identity theft becomes more and more common, the market is growing for biometric(生物测量)technologies—like fingerprint scans—to keep others out of private e-spaces. At present, these technologies are still expensive, though. Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device(装置)that gets around this problem: a smart keyboard. This smart keyboard precisely measures the cadence(节奏)with which one types and the pressure fingers apply to each key. The keyboard could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user's typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each person. Thus, the keyboard can determine people's identities, and by extension, whether they should be given access to the computer it's connected to—regardless of whether someone gets the password right. It also doesn't require a new type of technology that people aren't already familiar with. Everybody uses a keyboard and everybody types differently. In a study describing the technology, the researchers had 100 volunteers type the word “touch”four times using the smart keyboard. Data collected from the device could be used to recognize different participants based on how they typed, with very low error rates. The researchers say that the keyboard should be pretty straightforward to commercialize and is mostly made of inexpensive, plastic-like parts. The team hopes to make it to market in the near future. 28. Why do the researchers develop the smart keyboard? A. To reduce pressure on keys. B. To improve accuracy in typing C. To replace the password system. D. To cut the cost of e-space protection. 29. What makes the invention of the smart keyboard possible? A. Computers are much easier to operate. B. Fingerprint scanning techniques develop fast. C. Typing patterns vary from person to person. D. Data security measures are guaranteed. 30. What do the researchers expect of the smart keyboard? A. It'll be environment-friendly. B. It'll reach consumers soon. C. It'll be made of plastics. D. It'll help speed up typing. 31. Where is this text most likely from? A. A diary. B.A guidebook C. A novel. D. A magazine. D During the rosy years of elementary school(小学), I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes, which allowed me to keep my high social status. I was the queen of the playground. Then came my tweens and teens, and mean girls and cool kids. They rose in the ranks not by being friendly but by smoking cigarettes, breaking rules and playing jokes on others, among whom I soon found myself. Popularity is a well-explored subject in social psychology. Mitch Prinstein, a professor of clinical psychology sorts the popular into two categories: the likable and the status seekers. The likables’ plays-well-with-others qualities strengthen schoolyard friendships, jump-start interpersonal skills and, when tapped early, are employed ever after in life and work. Then there’s the kind of popularity that appears in adolescence: status born of power and even dishonorable behavior. Enviable as the cool kids may have seemed, Dr. Prinstein’s studies show unpleasant consequences. Those who were highest in status in high school, as well as those least liked in elementary school, are “most likely to engage(从事)in dangerous and risky behavior.” In one study, Dr. Prinstein examined the two types of popularity in 235 adolescents, scoring the least liked, the most liked and the highest in status based on student surveys(调查研究). “We found that the least well-liked teens had become more aggressive over time toward their classmates. But so had those who were high in status. It clearly showed that while likability can lead to healthy adjustment, high status has just the opposite effect on us." Dr. Prinstein has also found that the qualities that made the neighbors want you on a play date-sharing, kindness, openness — carry over to later years and make you better able to relate and connect with others. In analyzing his and other research,Dr. Prinstein came to another conclusion: Not only is likability related to positive life outcomes, but it is also responsible for those outcomes, too. "Being liked creates opportunities for learning and for new kinds of life experiences that help somebody gain an advantage, ” he said. 32. What sort of girl was the author in her early years of elementary school? A. Unkind. B. Lonely. C. Generous. D. Cool. 33.What is the second paragraph mainly about? A. The classification of the popular. B. The characteristics of adolescents. C. The importance of interpersonal skills. D. The causes of dishonorable behavior. 34. What did Dr. Prinstein’s study find about the most liked kids? A. They appeared to be aggressive. B. They tended to be more adaptable. C. They enjoyed the highest status. D. They performed well academically. 35. What is the best title for the text? A. Be Nice-You Won’t Finish Last B. The Higher the Status, the Beer C. Be the Best-You Can Make It D. More Self-Control, Less Aggressiveness 第二节 (共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。 Is Fresh Air Really Good for You? We all grew up hearing people tell us to “go out and get some fresh air.” 36 According to recent studies,the answer is a big YES,if the air quality in your camping area is good. 37 If the air you’re breathing is clean-which it would be if you’re away from the smog of cities-then the air is filled with life-giving,energizing oxygen. If you exercise out of doors,your body will learn to breathe more deeply,allowing even more oxygen to get to your muscles(肌肉)and your brain. Recently,people have begun studying the connection between the natural world and healing(治愈). 38 In these places patients can go to be near nature during their recovery. It turns out that just looking at green,growing things can reduce stress,lower blood pressure,and put people into a better mood(情绪).Greenery is good for us. Hospital patients Who see tree branches out their window are likely to recover at a faster rate than patients who see buildings or sky instead. 39 It gives us a great feeling of peace. 40 While the sun's rays can age and harm our skin, they also give is beneficial Vitamin D. To make sure you get enough Vitamin D—but still protect your skin— put on sunscreen right as you head outside. It takes sunscreen about fifteen minutes to start working, and that's plenty of time for your skin to absorb a day's worth of Vitamin D. A. Fresh air cleans our lungs. B. So what are you waiting for? C. Being in nature refreshes us. D. Another side benefit of getting fresh air is sunlight. E. But is fresh air really as good for you as your mother always said? F. Just as importantly, we tend to associate air with health care. G. All across the country, recovery centers have begun building Healing Gardens. 第三部分 语言知识运用(共两节,满分45分) 第一节 (共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 Every year about 40,000 people attempt to climb Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa. They 41 with them lots of waste. The 42 might damage the beauty of the place. The glaciers(冰川)are disappearing, changing the 43 of Kilimanjaro. Hearing these stories, I’m 44 about the place — other destinations are described as “purer” natural experiences. However, I soon 45 that much has changed since the days of disturbing reports of 46 among tons of rubbish. I find a 47 mountain, with toilets at camps and along the paths. The environmental challenges are 48 but the efforts made by the Tanzania National Park Authority seem to be 49 . The best of a Kilimanjaro 50 , in my opinion, isn’t reaching the top. Mountains are 51 as spiritual places by many cultures. This 52 is especially evident on Kilimanjaro as 53 go through five ecosystems(生态系统)in the space of a few kilometers. At the base is a rainforest. It ends abruptly at 3, 000 meters, 54 lands of low growing plants. Further up, the weather 55 — low clouds envelope the mountainsides, which are covered with thick grass. I 56 twelve shades of green from where I stand. Above 4, 000 meters is the highland 57 : gravel(砾石), stones and rocks. 58 you climb into an arctic-like zone with 59 snow and the glaciers that may soon disappear. Does Kilimanjaro 60 its reputation as a crowded mountain with lines of tourists ruining the atmosphere of peace?I found the opposite to be true. 41. A. keep B. mix C. connect D. bring 42. A. stories B. buildings C. crowds D. reporters 43. A. position B. age C. face D. name 44. A. silent B. skeptical C. serious D. crazy 45. A. discover B. argue C. decide D. advocate 46. A. equipment B. grass C. camps D. stones 47. A. remote B. quiet C. all D. clean 48. A. new B. special C. significant D. necessary 49. A. paying off B. spreading out C. blowing up D. fading away 50. A. atmosphere B. experience C. experiment D. sight 51. A. studied B. observed C. explored D. regarded 52. A. view B. quality C. reason D. purpose 53. A. scientists B. climbers C. locals D. officials 54. A. holding on to B. going back to C. living up to D. giving way to 55. A. changes B. clears C. improves D. permits 56. A. match B. imagine C. count D. add 57. A. village B. desert C. road D. lake 58. A. Obviously B. Easily C. Consequently D. Finally 59. A. permanent B. little C. fresh D. artificial 60. A. enjoy B. deserve C. save D. acquire 第二节 (共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 The polar bear is found in the Arctic Circle and some big land masses as far south as Newfoundland. While they are rare north of 88°,there is evidence 61 they range all the way across the Arctic, and as far south as James Bay in Canada. It is difficult to figure out a global population of polar bears as much of the range has been 62 (poor) studied; however, biologists calculate that there are about 20,000-25,000 polar bears worldwide. Modem methods 63 tracking polar bear populations have been employed only since the mid-1980s,and are expensive 64 (perform) consistently over a large area. In recent years some Inuit people in Nunayut 65 (report) increases in bear sightings around human settlements, leading to a 66 (believe) that populations are increasing. Scientists have responded by 67 (note) that hungry bears may be congregating(聚集) around human settlements, leading to the illusion(错觉) that populations are 68 (high) than they actually are. Of 69 nineteen recognized polar bear sub populations, three are declining, six 70 (be) stable, one is increasing, and nine lack enough data. 第四部分 写作(共两节,满分35分) 第一节 短文改错(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 I became interesting in playing football thanks to a small accident. One afternoon where I was in primary school, I was walking by the school playground. Suddenly football feel just in front of me but almost hit me. I stopped the ball and kicked it hardly back to the playground. To everyone`s surprising, the ball went into the net. All the football player on the playground cheered loudly, say that I had a talent for football. From now on, I started to play my football with classmates after school. I am a good player now. 第二节 书面表达(满分25分) 假定你是李华,暑假在伦敦学习,得知当地美术馆要剧版中国画展。请写一封信申请做志愿者,内容包括: 1.写信目的: 2.个人优势: 3.能做的事情。 注意: 1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.结束语已为你写好。 2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试英语(全国卷I)答案与解析 听力部分 1-5 BABCA 6-10 CBACC 11-15 BACAB 16-20 ACBAC 阅读理解 A 【解题导语】本文是一篇应用文,介绍了四种适合学生的暑期工作。 21. B 细节理解题 根据第五段第一句“暑期公司为学生提供实践商业培训,并提供高达3000美元的奖励,让他们开始经营自己的暑期业务”. 可知,Summer Company 为创业者提供奖金。故B正确。 22. D 细节理解题 根据第八段中“Who is eligible: Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year.合资格人士:入职时年满16或17岁,但在今年12月31日前未满18岁的学生”故D正确。 23. D 细节理解题 根据最后一段最后一句:有些职位要求残疾人士的年龄在15至24岁或29岁之间。故D正确。 B 【解题导语】本文是一篇记叙文,介绍了二年级老师Thomas Whaley发起一项总统竞选演讲活动,帮助孩子们建立自信。 24. B 细节理解题 根据第一段 ... today is speech day, and right now it’s Chris Palaez’s turn和第二段But he’s nervous可知Chris是因为作演讲而紧张。故B正确。 25. A猜测词义题 根据第二段to tell you ....on the …可知Chris因为作演讲而紧张,演讲时说话有点磕巴,故推出stumbles指停顿。故A正确。 26. A 推理判断题 根据倒数第二段倒数第二句和最后一句以及最后一段boasting about yourself, and your best qualities可知,Whaley老师发起竞选活动是为了帮助学生找到自己的优点,看到自信,strength除基本意义“力量”之外,还有“优点”之意,故A正确。 27. C 推理判断题 本文主要介绍了Canaan Elementary二年级老师发起一项总统竞选演讲活动,帮助孩子们建立自信,可推知Whaley老师是一个很有爱心、关心学生的老师。故C正确。 C 【解题导语】 本文是一篇科普新发明的说明文,介绍了一种高科技智能键盘,这种键盘可以防止个人身份和数据在电子空间被盗。 28. D 细节理解题 根据第一段最后一句“不过,目前这些技术仍然很昂贵。”和第二段第一句, 可知,研发智能键盘是为了减少保护电子空间的成本。故D正确。 29. C 细节理解题 根据第三段第二句,可知,人与人打字的模式不同,使得这一发明能够实现这一需要。故C正确。 30. B 细节理解题 根据最后一段最后一句,可知,实现智能键盘商业化很容易,并且其造价并不贵,所以研发团队希望在不久的将来能将其投放市场。故B正确。 31. D 推理判断题 本文是一篇科普说明文,介绍一种高科技智能键盘,由此可推断可能刊登在话题众多杂志上。故D正确。 D 【解题导语】?本文是一篇说明性的议论文。从社会心理学视角讨论了青少年小学与中学阶段的成长经历,论述了个体受欢迎程度,最后总结出:受欢迎的人比不受欢迎的人以及地位高的人将来的适应能力更强,更具优势。 32. C 推理判断题 根据题干中的elementary school可将答案定位到第一段第一句,该句提到I enjoyed sharing my dolls and jokes,可推断出,作者在小学时期是一个慷慨大方的女孩。故C正确。 33. A 细节理解题 根据第二段内容,本段前两句为主旨句,提出受欢迎度这一说法,然后把受欢迎的人分为两类,后面就两种分类展开论述。classification与第二句中的“categories范围,范畴”为同义替换。故A正确。 34. B 推理判断题 根据第二段中的第三句以及第四段中的二三四句,可知,最不受欢迎的青少年会对同学变得不友好。地位高的人也会出现这种情况。讨人喜欢的能力会在今后的生活和工作中发挥作用,带来良好的适应力。可推出,受欢迎的孩子往往适应能力更强。adaptable与原文中的adjustment为同义替换。故D正确。 35. A 主旨大意题 全文主旨:受欢迎度对青少年的影响。B选项“地位越高越好”,显然违背文章主旨;C选项“成为最好的自己,你可以的”,文中没有提及成为最好的会成为最受欢迎的;D选项“多一些自我控制,少一些攻击性”,文中没有提及自我控制。再根据最后一段中“讨人喜欢可以创造学习的机会和新的生活体验,帮助别人获得一种优势”可推知,正确选项为A “友善一点,你将不会排在最后 ”。 故A正确。 36-40 【答案与解析】 本文是一篇说明文,主要谈及到户外呼吸新鲜空气对人体的好处。 36. E 过渡句。根据本段第一句话“人们总是让我们出去呼吸新鲜空气”和空后 “回答是肯定的”,可知此处应为一般疑问句,即“新鲜空气果真如妈妈总说的那样好吗?” 37. A 主题句。通过阅读本段后面内容可知,本段主要讲述了远离城市雾霾,呼吸新鲜空气对人体带来的好处。而对人体呼吸和氧气相关器官,就是肺部。只有肺里清洁,呼吸才能畅通无阻。由此常识推断,选项A更符合本段主题。 38. G 过渡句。本段空后提到in these places“在这些地方” 可知,空格处应该是某个地点。故选G与语境相符合。 39. C 总结句,描述大自然的作用,故选C。 40. D 主题句。空后一句提到,尽管太阳光线会使人的皮肤老化、受损,但也能提供有益人体的维生素D。可知,空格处应该与太阳光线有关。故选D。 完形填空 【解题导语】 本文是一篇夹叙夹议的说明文,介绍了乞力马扎罗山的环境污染以及当地机构努力治理之后的改观。 41.D 根据空前句:每年大约40000人试图攀登非洲最高峰 —— 乞力马扎罗山,空后句提到:……可能破坏这一地方的美丽,可知此空选“bring,带来”了大量的垃圾。 42.C 根据语境知登山者带来了大量的垃圾,所以可能破坏了这一地区的美丽。crowds此处意为“一群……的人”,首句的40,000 people也是提示。 43.C 根据上文可知:乞力马扎罗山因为人类活动所受到的影响,冰川正在消失,这改变了乞力马扎罗山的“面貌”。face意为“外观;面貌”。 44.B 破折号后“其他目的地都被描述为更加纯净的自然之旅”,与乞力马扎罗山受到污染形成对比,作者对此有些怀疑 —— 为什么别的地方是干净,而乞力马扎罗山却被污染了呢? 45.A 上一段作者对乞力马扎罗山被污染的消息感到怀疑,而however表示转折,说明作者发现真相并非如此。 46.C 根据“令人不安的报道”的表达,可知:那些报道都是关于乞力马扎罗山的污染,推出:登山者必然是在满是垃圾的山上搭帐篷露营。 47.D 根据下文提到的“在营地和沿途中都有卫生间”,推出:一座环境“干净”的山。 48.C 根据but可知其前后含义应该对比,再根据上文提到的“干净”的山,推知句意为:环境保护的难度虽然巨大,但是坦桑尼亚国家公园管理局的努力似乎见效了。 49.A 根据上文可知:坦桑尼亚国家公园管理局为环境保护所做的努力有了回报。pay off“成功;奏效”;spread out“展开”;blow up“爆炸”;fade away“(人) 衰弱;病重死亡”。 50.B 本段主要描述了乞力马扎罗山五种生态系统,第一句为主题句,点明:攀登乞力马扎罗山最棒的体验并不在于登顶,言外之意: 而是体验五种生态系统的变化。experience意为“经历;体验”。 51.D 句意:在诸多文化里,山被看作代表某种精神的意义。be regarded as被视为……。 52.A 根据上一句:很多文化将山视为有着精神层面的意义,这是一种“观点,看法”。 53.B 根据常识:登山者在登山途中,在短短几公里的空间内可以经历五种生态系统。 54.D give way to本意为“给……让路”,此处指“被……替代”;hold on to意为“保住;不送或不卖”;go back to意为“回到;重新开始”;live up to意为“符合;不辜负”。语境意:这五种生态系统,从下至上,雨林突然变成了(为...让路)大量的低矮植物。 55.A 根据语境:生态系统发生了变化,气候自然也要发生改变。 56.C 本段描写的是:乞力马扎罗山生态系统的多样性,虽然都是绿色,但也各不相同,推出此处表达:从作者所站的地方就能“数”出12种色度不同的绿色。shade在此意为“浓淡深浅;色度”。 57.B 根据空后描述的砾石,石头和岩石,结合常识,可知海拔4000米以上就是高原荒漠。 58.D 本段前面的内容,推出此处应该要到达山的最高处了,“最终Finally”合理。 59.A 根据空前“一个类似北极的地区”可知,这个地区有终年积雪。permanent意为“永久的”。 60. B 文章开头讲到乞力马扎罗山受到污染,作者提出了质疑,并发现其环境污染问题已经有了很大改观;随后描写了乞力马扎罗山奇妙的生态系统,因此最后得出结论:乞力马扎罗山是否挤满了破坏其宁静气氛的游客呢?这一说法是否名副其实?答案是否定的。deserve one’s reputation意为“实至名归”。 语法填空 61. that 考查同位语从句的连接词that,说明evidence的具体内容,“证据表明……”。 62. poorly 考查副词作状语,修饰动词has been studied。 63. of / for method of / for 考查固定搭配,意为“……的方法”。 64. to perform考查动词非谓语。该句为“be+形容词+不定式”结构,主语methods与perform为被动关系,但用不定式的主动式作状语。 65. have reported 考查时态。由in recent years可知表示从过去某时一直持续到现在,故用现在完成时。 66. belief 考查名词。根据冠词a及后面的同位语从句可知,此处应填名词belief。 67. noting 考查动词非谓语。介词后应用note的动词-ing形式,noting作宾语。 68. higher 考查形容词比较级。根据than可知,此处用high的比较级。 69. the 考查冠词。此处特指19种被辨认出的北极熊亚种群,故用定冠词the。 70. are 考查时态和主谓一致。根据空白处前面的are及空白处后面的is和lack可知,本句是现在时态,又根据six,因此此处填are。 短文改错 第一句:interesting → interested 考查形容词辨析。interesting意为“令人感兴趣的”,interested意为“感兴趣的”,主语I与动词interest为被动关系,因此将interesting改为interested。 第二句:where → when 考查含有定语从句的复合句,先行词是one afternoon,关系副词在定语从句中作时间状语,所以应用表示时间的when。 第三句:football前加a ;but → and 考查冠词和连词。football是可数名词,前面用不定冠词a表示泛指;“足球落到我的面前”与“我几乎被砸中了”是并列关系,不表示转折,故将but改为and。 第四句:hardly → hard 考察副词辨析。句意为“我截住了球并用力地将它踢回操场”。hardly意为“几乎不”,hard意为“用力地”,故将hardly改为hard。 第五句:surprising → surprise 考查固定搭配。to sb’s surprise是固定结构,意为“使某人惊讶的是”,因此将surprising改为surprise。 第六句:player → players; say → saying 考查名词单复数和动词非谓语。all后面应用player的复数形式;主语All the football players与say为主动关系,故用动词-ing作伴随状语,因此将say改成saying。 第七句:now → then; 去掉my 考查时间副词和习惯搭配。本文讲述的是过去的事情,所以应用from then on “从那时起”;play后跟球类运动名词时, 名词前不加任何成分。 书面表达 考查文体:书信体——申请信。申请职位为志愿者。 相关词汇句式: 写信目的:I am writing to apply for / express my interest in / recommend myself as ... 个人优势:I am good at …;I have the ability to …;I am experienced in …;I work hard and I can get along well with others. 能做的事:I’ll devote myself to … / I’ll try my best to … 可以适当增加相关细节,丰富文章内容。还可以运用高级词块和句式,如:可胜任be qualified for;同样重要的是equally important;做某事没有困难have no difficulty in doing sth ;which引导的定语从句,if引导的条件状语从句可以加入增加亮点。 参考范文 Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to apply for a volunteer of the Chinese Painting Exhibition to be be held in your art gallery. I think I am quite qualified for this post.Firstly ,I have been learning Chinese painting since childhood and have a good knowledge of it. More importantly, I can speak both Chinese and English fluently, so I have no difficulty in communicating with others. If I am lucky enough to be chosen as a volunteer, I believe I can serve visitors perfectly and answer their questions about the paintings correctly.After some proper training,I will be more professional. I would appreciate it if you could offer me a precious opportunity.?I’m looking forward to your reply. Yours, Li Hua 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)

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  • ID:4-5890104 [精]2019年高考英语压轴卷五(含听力书面材料和解析)

    高中英语/高考专区/模拟试题

    中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 2019年高三英语压轴卷五 第一部分听力(共两节,满分30分) 做题时,先将答案标在试卷上,录音内容结束后,你将有两分钟的时间将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。 第一节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面5段对话,每段对话后有一个小题。从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 例: How much is the shirt? ? 19.15. B.? 9.18. C.? 9.15. 答案是C。 1.Where does the woman put her rings ? A. On the floor. B. On the table . C. Beside her side. 2.What is the result about the reserved table? A. There is no table for the man. B. Peter has succeeded in reserving a table. C. The man replaced Peter to reserve a table . 3.Why did the woman thank the man? A. He locked the bicycle for her. B.He handed the homework for her. C. He lent the notebook to her.. 4.Where can the conversation take place ? A.At home. B.In a bookshop. C.At the library. 5.Who will eat some bread after school? A. The man. B. The woman. C. Neither. 第二节(共15小题;每小题1.5分,满分22.5分) 听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。 6.What does the man show to the woman? A. ID card , driver's license and my taxi driver's ID. B. ID card , driver's license and my taxi. C. Visa , driver's license and my taxi driver's ID. 7.Why did the woman check the taxi driver? A.His speed was too fast. B.He refused to pick her up. C. An old couple accused him. 听第7段材料,回答第8至10题。 8.What does the man complain about? A.There are too much housework to do for him. B.The woman is too slow to come quickly. C. The woman’s son can’t cook anything. 9.Why does the woman do all things herself? A. Her husband is on business. B. She only lives with her son. C. Her husband is unwilling to help her. 10.Whose name is Luck ? A. Her son. B. Her husband. C.Her puppy . 听第8段材料,回答第11至13题。 11.Where is her favorite orange skirt? A. In a bag. B. In the bathroom. C. In the laundry room. 12.Which skirt will the woman wear ? A.The orange one. B.The white one. C.The French one. 13.What color shoes disagree with all white ? A.Red B.Green C.Black. 听第9段材料,回答第14至16题。 14.What has the woman been doing all day? A. She has been doing laundry. B. She has been cleaning all day. C. She has been giving the dog a bath 15.Who is Tony likely to be ? A.Their neighbor. B. Their friend.. C. Their son. 16.What made the woman so angry? A. Her husband ruined the sofa by the wet clothes. B. Her son and her husband were too naughty. C. Her son sprayed her husband with a water pipe. 听第10段材料,回答第17至20题。 17. How many experiences in China are mentioned ? A. Three. B. Four. C. Five. 18. Why can one be a Panda-Nurse only in China ? A. Because the Giant Panda is an endangered animal. B. Because over 29 conservation areas were set up in SiChuan. C. Because the endangered animals are mainly in China. 19.How much money is reduced if comparing $100 for 3 with $40 each? A. $20 for 3. B. $40 for 3. C. $60 for 3. 20.How long can you travel 2000 miles by High-Speed train in China ? A.18 hours. B. 14 hours. C. 7 hours 第二部分阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) (共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C、和D)中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A Job recruitment: Sales Manager Requirements: college degree or more, at least two years' experience in a food industry, speak English and German fluently ,and have a good team spirit. Contact: Mr Smith , 87932456 Teachers wanted Requirements: The teaching object: 4-7 years old children The requirements for teachers and children, like English skills, good Contact: Miss Li, 86312249 Company officials Number: 1 man company size: 50 - 99 Company nature: state-owned enterprises Education requirements: Bachelor Position Description: 1.News-gathering clues to participate in industry conferences, business activities, interviews and reports; 2.Market research, market information and demand, and make the appropriate municipal details . Contact: Manager Green, 84609235 English teachers in demand wanted: Do you like English ? Can you speak English well ? Are you brave to adapt to new and tough living conditions ? Do you hope hard work ? Do you like cute children in mountainous villages? Do you want to build up your personality ? If your answer is "yes",then we have a job for you as an English teacher in the remote Africa. Please call Mr.frank at 84497818 21.How many jobs are fit for a college graduate skilled at English? A. Only one B. Two C.Three D. All of the above. 22. If Jane have a master degree, which position can she apply for? A. Sales Manager, English teachers in demand. B. Company officials, Teachers wanted. C. Sales Manager,Company officials D. Teachers wanted Job , Recruitment: Sales Manager 23. You want to travel to Africa to develop your independence, who may you as well call ? . A. Mr.frank at 84497818 B. Manager Green at 84609235 C. Mr Smith at 87932456 D. Miss Li at 86312249 B Xi?Liya, 27, is a hard-working woman with a promising career path. For a woman in her situation, single is increasingly common in modern China.Even if her parents think otherwise. At 27, Xi has already reached the age at which society would recognize her as a?shengnü, or “leftover woman.” The term carries a deep difference for one’s social and family life, as well as work.“A woman must do what she is supposed to do at her age. If she doesn’t get married before she turns 30, she will be passed over and marriage will remain a big problem for the rest of her life,” Xi’s mother said.In search of a solution to deal with pressure, Xi chose the trick: hiring a handsome man to pretend her boyfriend when it was time to visit her family and friends. “Although there’s always a risk they will find out, I just want to get my marriage off their mind,” Xi said. Marriage rates are on the decline across China.In the past, marriages were arranged by coworkers or family members. But this phenomenon has hardly disappeared with China’s educated female workforce.In the big cities, more women are choosing to postpone(延缓)marriage. “Getting married is not an essential thing I am eager to do in my life. If I don’t feel like it’s the right person and the right time, I would rather stay single,” Xi said.“But the biggest problem is that I don’t know what to do now. It seems impossible to convince my parents that my generation has a different attitude towards this matter. All I can do is work hard and be a better person. Maybe that can comfort them and make them proud of me.” The importance of “getting married” has become less important than finding a good match.Nevertheless, Chinese parents continue to push their children to marry early. Hu Xingdou, a social commentator at the Beijing Institute of Technology, said the trend of leftover women pushing back against family pressures by hiring boyfriends shows the strong clash(冲突,不协调)between old and new ideas. 24. What should be the title according to the whole article? A. The marriages in China B. The life of well-educated women in China C. The leftover ladies in China D. The special group in China 25. Which answer is closest to the underlined word? A. Interesting B. Improving C. Decreasing D.Changing 26. What attitude does Xi?Liya have to her marriage? A. Getting married is an necessary thing that she can’t wait to finish . B. She don’t know how to look for her right boyfriend. C. She prefers to keep single. D. What can make her parents relaxed may be her higher position. 27. According to Hu Xingdou, what does the trend of leftover ladies actually show? A. There are different views between young generation and parents B. Traditional marriages arranged by parents are better C.Our country is developing faster and faster D.Hiring boyfriends is also a trend 。 C Traces of poop(粪便) have been found on a number of McDonald's touchscreen kiosks, an investigation has found. Diners use the touchscreen kiosks, which have been rolled out to restaurants across the world, to order their food in a bid to speed up the process.They then collect their meals from the counter, often without washing their hands.Metro swabbed kiosks in eight restaurants in the UK and found traces of gut(肠道) bacteria on every single one of them.Scientists at London Metropolitan University analyzed the samples and found a host of infection-causing bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecalis, which is more commonly found in hospitals.One kiosk was even found to have Staphylococcus, a contagious bacteria that can cause blood poisoning and even toxic shock syndrome(中毒性休克综合症). Matawele, who analyzed the results, said that the presence of Staphylococcus was "worrying" because of how quickly it can spread and the fears that it is becoming resistant to antibiotics.He added: "It starts around people's noses, if they touch their nose with their fingers and then transfer it to the touchscreen someone else will get it, and if they have an open cut which it gets into, then it can be dangerous." The study tested touch screens at six London branched and two in Birmingham. Three-quarters of the machines tested showed traces of bacteria proteus which is found in human and animal poop and can cause septicaemia(败血症).Klebsiella bacteria was also found, which can cause painful urinary tract infections, septicemia and diarrhea. Some species of the germs can even get into the respiratory tract and cause pneumonia. McDonald's say that they regularly clean the screens with disinfectant but the scientist feels it's not enough as some of the germs remain there for days at a time. What causes poop bacteria on a McDonald's touch screen? McDonald's touchscreens widely used. Too many diners ordering food . Customers without washing their hands. D. Diners using McDonald's touchscreens in toilets. 29.Why do the bacteria on McDonald's touchscreen make us worry ? A.Some customers have suffered from them. B.They probably have effect on customers’ health . C.They spread quickly throughout the world. D. McDonald hasn’t taken effective measures. 30.How was the bacteria on a McDonald's touch screens found ? A.Experiments in eight restaurants in the UK. B.Customers sent to hospital in Birmingham . C.Matawele taking samples from McDonald's kiosks . D.Scientists analyzing the samples form some McDonald’s . 31.What's the scientists' attitude to McDonald's measures to be taken? A.Doubtful. B.Approval . C.Neutral. D. Indifferent. D US?billionaire??Bill?Gates?unveiled?on Tuesday?in?Beijing?a?reinvented?toilet?that?doesn’t need?water?or?sewers?and?uses? chemicals?to?turn human waste?into?fertilizer.The?Microsoft Corp?co-founder,?who?a?day earlier?was one?of?the?high profile guests?at?a?major?trade?event in?Shanghai,?also?lauded?the?globalized?and?free?trade systems?that?made?the toilet technology?possible. Twenty?cutting-edge?sanitation?products?were?on?display,?intended?to?destroy?harmful bacteria?and?prevent?disease."I? have?to?say,?a?decade?ago?I?never?imagined that?I'd?know?so?much?about?poop,"?Mr?Gates joked?at?the?conference. "And?I?definitely?never?thought?that?Melinda?would?have?to?tell?me?to stop?talking?about?toilets?and?poop?at the?dinner?table."Bill Gates said the new generation of toilets, a combination of innovative technologies, could be a key part of China's toilet revolution. It?is?the?first?time?Gates’?foundation?has?addressed?an?event?in?China.?China?is?promoting?a three-year“toilet?revolution”? to?build?or?upgrade?64,000?public?toilets?by?2020?to?help?boost tourism?and?economic growth.The?toilet,?which?Gates?said? was?ready?for?sale?after?years?of?development,?is?the?brainchild?of research?projects?funded by?the?Bill?and?Melinda?Gates? Foundation. “The?current?toilet?simply?sends?the?waste?away?in?the?water,?whereas?these?toilets?don’t?have the?sewer.?They?take?both?the liquids?and?solids?and?do?chemical?work?on?it,?including?burning it?in?most?cases,”?Gates told?Reuters.He?compared?the?change?from?traditional?toilets?to?waterless?models?as?similar?to?development in?computing?around?the?time?he?founded?Microsoft?in?the?mid-1970s.“In?the?way?that?a?personal?computer?is?sort?of?self?contained,?we?can?do?this?chemical processing?at?the?household?level,”?he?said. 32.What is special about a?reinvented?toilet? A.It doesn’t need?water?or?sewers?. B.It can turn human waste?into?fertilizer . C.It uses the?globalized?and?free?trade systems?. D.It is funded by?the?Bill?and?Melinda?Gates?Foundation. 33.What is the similar meaning to the underlined word in Paragraph Three? A.Promotion.      B.Outcome. C.Creation. D.Procedure. 34.What is the main idea of the last paragraph? A.The advantages of a?reinvented?toilet. B.The?change?from?traditional?toilets?to?waterless?models. C.Microsoft?’s choice about?toilets or computers. D.The similarities between toilets and computers. 35.What can be a suitable title for the text ? A.From Microsoft?to new toilets B.Toilet’s development?similar?to?computer’s C. Gates promotes 'a?reinvented?toilet' in Beijing D.Saving energy is the current trend 第二节(共5小题,每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项,选项中有两项为多余选项。 When you greet your dog, you may naturally give them a friendly pat on the head as a sign of your affection.The?same?can?be?said?if?you?meet?a lovely?puppy?in?the?street?and?your?first Response is?to give?them?a?stroke(轻抚)?on?the?head?to?say?hello. 36 Patting a dog on the head, in fact,is a threatening behaviour. 37 Approach the dog from the side and lower yourself to their level.Sarah Bartlett is a qualified international dog training instructor. She told The Mirror: "The wrong way to approach a dog is to walk up to them and just lean straight over them to pat them." 38 The Hound Helpers Ltd worker showed: "Dogs don't like you going over their head. It's quite a threatening gesture for them.Don’t touch them directly" Offer your hand to the dog. If the dog sniffs your hand, then they are safe to pet.The dog experts at Vet Street have referred to the best places on a dog's body to stroke. 39 Again, remember to reach in?from the?side?so?as?not?to?appear?threatening. Always stroke in a gentle manner and avoid being too forceful or heavy handed. This will be calming for the dog. 40 A.Besides, this should make them eager for far closer behavior from you . B. But according to one expert dog trainer, this is all wrong.? C. It can be a faithful companion to either rich or poor. D. Medium-size or small dogs are best suited for the space of the city.? E. Then how on earth should you approach a dog? F. They are including the chest,shoulders base of the neck and under the chin. G. Give them space and let the dog choose whether to come to you. 第三部分英语知识运用(共两节,满分55分) 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1847. He was the son of a man who 41 on the workings of the human voice, how it is produced and used, and 42 , in teaching the deaf how to use it. Perhaps this 43 of the elder Bell was one of the reasons he married whom. For the woman who would 44 the inventor of the telephone... was deaf! Young Alexander Graham Bell 45 up with his father's passions. In 1870, because of poor health, he 46 to Canada. It was not long before his success in teaching the 47 to speak brought him to the 48 of a wealthy businessman in Boston who had a deaf daughter, Mabel. Would Mr. Bell please 49 Mabel how to speak? Yes, he would. And he 50 . And they fell in love. It was she who 51 him through a lot of the exhausting experiments, who 52 him through the depressions that often inflict(打击) those whose drive to 53 is so eager, while he developed the then remarkable 54 that transformed 55 into electrical impulses(脉冲) that could then be changed back into human 56 at the end of a wire. He had 57 yet another unknown world, the one that up until then had denied human speech between people distant from one another. A year later, in 1877, he and Mabel were married. He later became an American citizen. Alexander Graham Bell 58 in 1922: Mabel five months later. She loved him that much. His name is 59 to live as long as man real history. After all, there is the constant 60 of how he brought the human family into closer touch. 41.A.counted B.depended C.relied D. focused 42.A.instantly B. specially C. especially D.evidently 43.A. style B. advantage C. hobby D.doubt 44.A. give birth to B.came across C. think highly of D. get familiar with 45.A.picked B. grew C.turned D.came 46.A. moved B.returned C. travelled D.belonged 47.A.homeless B.blind C. deaf D. disabled 48.A. mercy B.admission C. attention D.worry 49.A. search B. teach C.show D.replace 50.A. had B. has C. does D. did 51.A. inspired B. designed C.protected D. commanded 52.A. harmed B. pulled C.carried D.endangered 53.A. fail B. advance C. succeed D.pass 54.A. instrument B.method C. trial D.revolution 55.A. word B. speech C.mark D. character 56.A. voice B.sound C. noise D.scene 57.A.removed B. entered C. selected D. experienced 58.A.fell B.?ended C.settled D. died 59.A.probable B.possible C. likely D. frequent 60.A.warning B.base C. signal D. reminder 第II卷 注意事项: 用0.5毫米黑色笔迹的签字笔将答案写在答题卡上。写在本试卷上无效。 第三部分英语知识运用(共两节,满分55分) 第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 The label, Made in China, is 61 that is becoming increasing common in shopping centers all over the world. In the United States, shoppers at Wal-Mart the nation’s largest retailer have a wide selection of products mostly 62 (produce) in China. The great amount of Chinese imports has created a large selection of goods in other countries, as people begin to buy more and more products made in China. These goods are 63 ( ready) available in other Asian nations, 64 Chinese-made goods are quite popular. Chinese brand names are also becoming more well-known outside of China. The development of China has amazed the world with its growth. And also, as China is a 65 (develop)economy with large amounts of labor, 66 (industry)are beginning to relocate in an effort 67 (minimize) costs and increase profits. The results of the relocation are that nations are beginning to try to limit the flow of Chinese goods with the use of taxes and import restrictions. Despite this tension, the effect of development 68 the Chinese economy has been massive. The rise of the Chinese domestic industry and the large amounts of trade with the international community 69 (give) the Chinese economy a large amount of influence. This influence will lead to even more development as China continues to expand 70 role in the international community. 第四部分写作(共两节满分35分) 第一节短文改错(共10小题,每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(﹨)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 Last Sunday, my family went for walk in a nearby park. We wanted to breathe the fresh air and having fun there. However, when going out,we find it was cloudy and smoggy. Only a few people were walking quick on the streets wearing their masks. I was wondering why the matter was when my little brother began to cough loudly. Suddenly I realized that it was air pollution. So we had to go to home that day. Smoke from cars, buses, and factories make the air dirty,that is harmful to our health. I think they all should do some thing to keep the air clean. 第二节书面表达 (满分25分) 假如你是李华,最近,你校学生会准备举办一场主题为“国学经典”的读书交流会。你得知美国交换生Bob对此很感兴趣。现请你代表学生会给他写一封英文邮件,介绍并邀请他参加。邮件包括以下内容: 1.时间:星期四下午3:00; 2.地点:报告厅(lecture hall); 3.内容:阅读经典名著,交流读书体会等。 注意:1.词数100左右,可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 2.文章开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。 生词: seminar研讨会、交流会 comprehension理解 Dear Bob, I’m glad that you're interested in the reading seminar to be held in our school. Yours Li Hua 2019年高三英语压轴卷五答案及解析 答案: 听力部分 1-5 BBACC 6-10 BACCA 11-15 ABBCB 16-20 ACBAC 阅读理解 A 【解题导语】本文是一篇广告应用文。文章是四则招聘广告。 21.B事实细节题。根据第二则招聘中The requirements for teachers and children, like English skills, good和第四则招聘中wanted: Do you like English ? Can you speak English well ?这两则招聘中有明显对英语的要求,可知答案B。 22.C事实细节题。根据第一则招聘中Requirements: college degree or more大学及以上,第四则招聘中Education requirements: Bachelor 学士学位。题目中Jane有硕士学位,所以可以应聘这两个职位。 23.A事实细节题。根据第四则招聘If your answer is "yes",then we have a job for you as an English teacher in the remote Africa.知道工作地点是非洲,符合题干“你想去旅游”又根据前面wanted的要求,知道此工作可以锻炼独立生活能力,核查电话,A的内容符合第四则招聘。 B 【解题导语】本文是一篇记叙文,以Xiliya为主人公叙述剩女的感受和来自于家庭的压力,以专家的话指出问题所在,引发读者正视和思考这一社会现实问题。 24.C主旨题目题。阅读第一段可知,作者提出文章的大意: For a woman in her situation, single is increasingly common in modern China.Even if her parents think otherwise.可知下文也会主要谈大龄剩女的问题,所以C(中国的大龄剩女)为最佳题目。 25.C猜测词义题。第三段划线后面的句子提到, In the big cities, more women are choosing to postpone(延缓)marriage 。推知划线句子意思应为“结婚率在中国呈下降趋势”选项C正确。 26.B推理判断题。根据第三段Xiliya自己的叙述“Getting married is not an essential thing I am eager to do in my life. If I don’t feel like it’s the right person and the right time, I would rather stay single,” Xi said.“But the biggest problem is that I don’t know what to do now.” 知道她苦恼于找不到合适的伴侣,也不知怎样做,而不是不婚主义。所以选项B为最佳答案。 27.A 事实细节题。根据最后几句,Hu Xingdou said the trend of leftover women shows the strong clash between old and new ideas.可知权威人士把这一现象归为了年轻人与长辈之间观念的不同 C 【解题导语】 本文涉及饮食环境话题:一项调查发现,麦当劳的许多自助点餐机触摸屏上都有粪便的痕迹。 28.C 事实细节题。根据第二段第一二句:顾客使用自助点单触摸屏来加快点餐速度,这种点餐方式已经在世界各地的餐馆推行。然后,他们通常是不洗手就从柜台上取餐。故C正确。 29.B 推理判断题。根据第二、三、四段中对所含病毒导致的疾病的叙述,推出“B他们很可能影响 人们的身体健康“正确;A项”一些顾客已经深受其苦”原文未涉及;第二段第二句涉及到用自助点餐机触摸屏点餐在全球推行,推出C项错误。最后一段涉及:麦当劳方面表示,他们会定期用消毒剂清洗屏幕,推出D错误。故B正确。 30.D 事实细节题。根据第二段第三句:《英国都市地铁报》对英国8家麦当劳餐厅的自助点餐机进行了取样,可知A,C错误。根据第二段第四句:伦敦都市大学的科学家对样本进行了分析....可知D正确。 31.A 推理判断题。根据最后一段:麦当劳方面表示,他们会定期用消毒剂清洗屏幕,但科学家认为这是不够的;故A正确。 D 【解题导语】?本文为科普说明文,涉及环保和科普新发明的话题。美国亿万富翁比尔-盖茨本周二在北京推介了最新研发的未来派“新世代厕所” 32.B事实细节题。根据第一段第一句的内容:that?doesn’t need?water?or?sewers?and?uses?chemicals?to?turn human waste?into?fertilizer,可知:此项最新研究最终以“使用化学物质就能将人类粪便转化为肥料”为目的,故B正确。 33.C词义猜测题。由本句“The?toilet...is?the?brainchild?of research?projects?”主语The?toilet和后面的定语research?projects?推出,划线词为“产物,创造物”,故C正确。 34.A段落大意题。本段第一句主要谈新型厕所的工作原理,第二句和第三句谈盖茨把厕所革命与电脑革命联系比较,从而说明可以在每家每户化学分解的生态制肥优势。故A正确。 35.C主旨大意题。由全文主要内容:比尔-盖茨本周二在北京推介了最新研发的未来派“新世代厕所”,无需使用水,也不用连接下水道,仅使用化学物质就能将人类粪便转化为肥料。故C正确。 36-40 BEGFA 【答案与解析】 36.B 过渡句。前文涉及到人们喜欢和狗狗打招呼,后一句提及“事实上,拍狗狗的头会被它视作威胁行为”此处为过渡句,故B适合“但一位专业狗狗训练员表示,这是不对的”。 37.E 过渡句。很明显后文在介绍怎样接近宠物狗,此处引起下文应为E: 那究竟应该如何与狗狗亲近呢? 38.G 标题句。段落内容主要提及:"狗狗不喜欢你凌驾于它们的头顶之上。于它们而言,这是具有威胁性的动作。也不要直接抚摸他们。”此段主题句应为G:给它们留有空间,让它自行选择是否要走近你。 39.F细节句。根据前面句意:兽医街的狗狗专家揭示了狗狗最喜欢被人抚摸的身体部位。此句应为F:这些部位包括胸部、肩部、颈部和下巴。 40.A 细节句。前一句句意:轻轻抚摸会让狗狗安静下来。此句是前一句的延伸,故应为A:它们也会更想和你有更多亲密接触。 完形填空 41~45DCCAB 46~50 ACCBD 51~55ABCAB 56~60 ABDCD 【解题导语】 本文记述了电话发明者亚历山大·格雷厄姆·贝尔的传奇一生和伟大事迹。 41.D 此处句意:他的父亲全神贯注于研究人的声音的发生和作用的全过程,特别是(especially)教耳聋的人如何运用声音。focus on聚焦在,专注于。 42.C 根据41的解释。 43.C 句意:也许老贝尔的这一爱好(hobby)成为他后来与什么样的人结婚的原因之一。 44.A 句意:因为后来生下电话的发明者的那位妇女(即贝尔的母亲)......是个聋人!give birth to sb. 生下某人。 45.B 句意:年轻的亚历山大·格雷尼姆·贝尔带着自己父亲的执着爱好长大。grow up 成长,长大。 46.A 句意:1870年,他由于健康不佳移居(move to )加拿大。 47.C 句意:不久之后,他就以成功地教会耳聋者说话而引起波士顿一位富商的注意(attention),而这位富商有一位耳聋的女儿叫梅布尔。后文a deaf daughter也是提示。 48.C 根据47的解释。 49.B 根据上一句中before his success in teaching the 7 to speak的提示 。 50.D 句意:是的,他会教的。并且他也这么做了(he did)。后来他们两人恋爱了。 51.A 句意:是梅布尔鼓舞(inspire)他进行了所有那些使人精疲力竭的实验,也是梅布尔使他克服了沮丧情绪。 52.B 根据51的解释,pull sb.through…使某人渡过难关或恢复健康。 53.C 句意:那是一种常常困扰着紧张工作去夺取成功的人们的沮丧情绪。drive to succeed成功的驱动力。 54.A 句意:而他研制出当时很了不起的一种工具(instrument)。 55.B 句意:它能把人说的话(speech)转变为电脉冲,之后又在金属丝的未端使之还原成人说的话。 56.A根据56的解释,指有转换为人说的话(human voice)。 57.B 句意:这样他就进入了(enter)又一个全新的未知世界,一个在此之前一直使相距遥远的人无法通话的未知新世界。 58.D 句意:亚历山大·格雷厄姆·贝尔死于(die)1922年,梅布尔在他去世5个月后也死了。 59.C 句意:贝尔的名字很可能会像人类记忆历史那样永世长存。Sb./sth is likely to do sth固定句式,某人很可能做某事。 60.D 句意:毕竟有了这样一件不断提醒人们的物品(reminder),使人们铭记是贝尔使人类大家庭彼此得以保持密切的联系。 语法填空 one produced readily where developing industries to minimize on have given its 短文改错 Last Sunday, my family went for ^ walk in a nearby park. We wanted to breathe the fresh air and having fun there. a have However, when going out,we find it was cloudy and smoggy. Only a few people were walking quick on the streets wearing found quickly their masks. I was wondering why the matter was when my little brother began to cough loudly. Suddenly I realized that it what was air pollution. So we had to go to home that day. Smoke from cars, buses, and factories make the air dirty,that is harmful makes which to our health. I think they all should do some thing to keep the air clean. we things 书面表达 Dear Bob, I’m glad that you’re interested in the reading seminar to be held in our school. Now, I’d like to introduce something about it to you. It will be held at 3:00 on Thursday afternoon in the lecture hall. Some famous writers in our city and many Chinese teachers in our school are invited to attend this seminar. The participants will read some classical works like Tang poetry and some written by Confucius. Besides, they’ll share their thoughts and comprehension of the classical works. There’s no doubt that the seminar will help you understand Chinese culture and learn Chinese well. Would you like to join us? I’m looking forward to your early reply. Yours, Li Hua 听力材料 (Text1) W: Where are my gold rings ? M: Did you drop them off on the floor? W: No, I often put them on the table of my side. (Text2) W: Sir, I am sorry .We don't seem to have a table for new comers. M: But my partner Peter said he had called you for me. W: Oh! The name Peter......Yes!This way ,please! (Text3) W: Mike! Thank you for helping me lock my bicycle. M: You are welcome. By the way, do you mind if I look at your maths notebook? W: Of course not. Please hand it in for me in time. (Text4) M:?I?was?looking?for?Gone with the wind ,?but?I?couldn't?find?it?on?the shelf. W:?Maybe somebody?borrowed?it. Let me check it on the register. (Text5) M: Bertha, what will you have for lunch? W: I took some bread with me. After school I will buy some bacon and boiled eggs.What about you? M: My treat! Go to the cafe with me. W:Great! (Text6) W: Please show me your ID and other certificates. M: My ID card. Here are my driver's license and my taxi driver's ID. What seems to be the problem, officer? W: I received a report from an old couple that said you refused to pick them up. I hope if you know a lawyer …… M: That was a misunderstanding,madam.My car broke down at that time.You can check the traffic videos.My car was carried by the rescue truck on June 4. (Text7) M: What's up, Denise?You are so slow. I have been waiting for you nearly an hour. W: Sorry for that.I'm trying my best as fast as I can. I needed to prepare lunch for my son,you know Peter can’t cook anything. Then I had to pick up my clothes from the laundry. But on the way there I've really got to buy some food in the pet store for my puppy Luck. M:My god!You are too busy.Why not let your husband help you? W:He is on business to America these days.If he were at home,I would be free from cooking. M:He learned how to cook the meal? W:Yes,he likes doing some delicious dishes!He says cooking is also an art. (Text8) W: Honey, where's my favorite orange skirt? I thought you said that you would wash it, so l put it in the bathroom. M: It has to be dry-cleaned, sweetheart.I put it in a bag at the door. I will take it there this afternoon. W: It should be done by tomorrow. So I have to choose another white skirt in the closet. M:Put on your white blouse which I bought for you in France. W: Ok! The shoes?Which color will match white? Red,green or black? M: Red or green.Either! W: But I like the black ones. Black ones agree with the orange skirt very well. M: You are right!Black shoes are too dark to match white blouse and white skirt. (Text9) W: I feel dirty. I've been cleaning all day, and I really need to take a shower before we go out Can you wait about half an hour? M: Sure. I thought you would only be doing laundry. What made you so dirty? W: Well, I also had to give the dog a bath, and you know how that is…..Who put wet clothes on the furniture! Look! It has ruined the leather on this sofa. M: Oh, I’m sorry, dear! It's me. I was wet when I got home.I took off my clothes immediately just now. I forgot to throw them in the washing machine. W: It is sunny outside.Why were you wet? M: I washed our car with Tony .You know Tony is so naughty that he sprayed me with a water pipe. W: I am really mad at you and your child. You two created more dirty things and you even ruined the sofa . (Text10) I'm Jason from England. Let me share with you my experience in China. These experiences are not available in the UK and cannot be done.First ,in China,you can become a Panda-Nurse. The Giant Panda is an endangered animal mainly in Si Chuan province; an estimated 1,800 pandas live in the wild and over 29 conservation areas were set up in SiChuan by 2016, with twenty pandas living outside of China. However, reports show that the numbers of wild panda are on the rise. Besides,you can talk price when shopping. Prices demanded by merchants are seen as higher by Chinese customers. The customer thinks he is fooled by the price fixed. So you can bargain with the merchant. This is also a rule to buy much, to enjoy more discount. For example“$40 each? I give you $100 for 3!” If you are travelling,you can travel 1,000 miles in less than 7 hrs for $80 with High-Speed train. Or you can avoid paying taxes if your income is below average and still get free social benefits with pension. In addition,you can even go back in time, by experiencing ancient China in Xian,Luo Yang or BeiJing. 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)

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  • ID:4-5885322 [精]2019年高考英语压轴卷四(含听力书面材料和解析)

    高中英语/高考专区/模拟试题

    中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 2019年高三英语压轴卷四 第一部分听力(共两节,满分30分) 做题时,先将答案标在试卷上,录音内容结束后,你将有两分钟的时间将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。 第一节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面5段对话,每段对话后有一个小题。从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 例: How much is the shirt? ? 19.15. B.? 9.18. C.? 9.15. 答案是C。 1.What will the woman do next? A. Go to the bakery’s. B. Attend the family party. C. Book a cake online. 2.Who is the dream girl of the man? A. Mary. B. Mandy. C. Athena. 3.What may the speakers have a try next time? A. Have a picnic. B.Go hiking . C. Climb the hill. 4.How is the man likely to go to the airport? A. To take a bus with another colleague. B. To drive David’s car himself. C. To share the woman’s car with others. 5.What are they talking about? A.Their P.E. teacher. B.The city marathon. C. A gift of flowers. 第二节(共15小题;每小题1.5分,满分22.5分) 听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。 6.How long did the man stay in Canada? A. For two weeks. B. For five days. C. For half a month. 7.Where did the man travel to? A.Vancouver. B. Toronto. C. Tokyo. 听第7段材料,回答第8至10题。 8.What relationship are the speakers ? A.Wife and husband. B.Mother and son. C. Doctor and nurse. 9.What is the man ‘s favourite? A. Mangoes. B. Fast food. C Spaghetti. 10.Why does the woman leave some necessary phone numbers? A. The man can ask for help in case of an emergency. B. The man can order his meal on the phone. C. The man can greet his grandmother. 听第8段材料,回答第11至13题。 11.What sports did the woman do before going to bed? A. She went for a long walk. B. She did some jogging. C. She did more exercise the usual. 12.What meal did the woman leave out that day? A.Lunch and supper. B. Breakfast and supper. C. Breakfast and lunch. 13.Why did the man refuse to sign up for the gym club? A.Because he didn’t like going to the gym. B.Because he needn’t lose weight. C.Because he must accompany their son to a walk. 听第9段材料,回答第14至17题。 14.What are the speakers planning to do? A.Put up a tent in the house. B.Invite neighbors to the party. C.Pretend to go camping in the yard. 15.Where will they cook their meals? A. In their kitchen. B. On the campfires?. C. In the neighbor’s. 16.What food must they cook during camping? A.?Cakes with banana?and nut . B. Chicken pancakes. C. Chocolate?chips. 17. What does the woman think of the man? A. Imaginative. B. Considerate. C. Brave. 听第10段材料,回答第18至20题。 18. Why did the goldfish King live 3 years? A. Because mother fooled the speaker to avoid his sadness. B. Because the goldfish is the king and the strongest. C. Because mother cared it very carefully. 19.At what age was the speaker afraid of wearing long body hair? A.At the age of 6. B. At the age of 4. C. At the age of 5. 20.When does the speaker press the button on the handbrake now? A. when I miss my parents. B. When I half know the lie. C. When I am stuck in traffic. 第二部分阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) (共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C、和D)中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A Recruitment Ad. Sodexho,the largest multi-service company in the world, specializes in catering, cleaning services, facility management, etc. Due to its rapid development in Shanghai, Sodexho China is now looking for talent with minimum 3 years experience in services management in the following areas: ??? Catering Manager ??? Aged 27 to 30.? College graduate. 3 years' experience in catering. Preferably in managerial position. Fluent English in both written and spoken communication. Self-motivated and service-oriented. Call at +86-21-345672134. ??? Sales Administrator ??? Bachelor degree majoring in English with good computer skills. Detailoriented and prior working experience as a translator will be advantageous. Call at +86-21-354675634. ??? Business Development Manager ??? Minimum 3 years' relevant experience preferably in service business. Bachelor degree or above. Proficient in English and computer operation. Self-motivated and team-oriented. Call at +86-21-367234534. ??? We Provide You Not Just Job, But A Career In Sodexho.Any other information at +86-21-353467834. 21.Which position don’t give the requirement of computers? A. Business Development Manager B. Sales Administrator C. Catering Manager D. Facility Manager 22. Wang Li ever translated a book for his professor in English,so who can she call to apply for a position? A. +86-21-345672134 B. +86-21-367234534 C. +86-21-354675634 D. +86-21-353467834 23.What is right about Sodexho ? A. The largest travel company in the world B. Developing in facility management. C.Branches mostly in Shang Hai . D. Employees with experience wanted. B I hurried into the local department store to?grab?some last minute Christmas gifts. I looked at the crowded people and?knew why Christmas was beginning to become such a drag. Meanwhile,out of the corner of my eye I saw a little boy about 5 holding a lovely doll.? He kept?touching her hair and he held her so gently. I kept looking over at the little boy and wondered who the doll was for. I watched him turn to a woman and he said, "Aunt!Are you sure I don't have enough money?" She replied a bit impatiently, "You know that you don't have enough money for it." The aunt told the little boy she would be back in a few minutes. And then she left . The boy continued to hold the doll.? After a bit I asked the boy who the doll was for. "It is the doll my sister wanted so badly for Christmas. She just knew that Santa would bring it. "I told him that maybe Santa was going to bring it . He said, "No, Santa can't go where my sister is.... I have to give the doll to my Mama to take to her. "I asked him where his sister was. He looked at me with the saddest eyes and said, "She was gone to be with Jesus. My Daddy says that Mamma is going to have to go be with her." My heart nearly stopped beating. Then the boy said, " I told him to tell her to wait till I got back from the store." He pulled out some picture he'd had taken at the front of the store. "I want my Mama to take this with her so they doesn't ever forget me. I love my Mama so very much but Daddy says she will need to be with my sister." I saw that the little boy had lowered his head and had grown so quiet. While he was not looking I reached into my purse and pilled out something. I asked the little boy, "Shall we count that money one more time?" He grew excited and said, "Yes,I just know it has to be enough." Of course it was plenty for the doll. He softly said, "Thank you Jesus for giving me enough money." ? I could not keep from thinking about the little boy as I finished my shopping in a totally different spirit than when I had started.? 24.Why did the lady hurry to buy something for Christmas ? A. She didn’t want to prepare so far ahead. B. She knew when there would be the cheapest goods C.She didn’t like buying gifts in a crowded situation D. She was too busy to choose gifts carefully 25. Which has the closest meaning to the underlined sentence? A.The writer got heart disease suddenly. B. The writer was so shocked that her heart stopped. C. The writer showed great sympathy on hearing the boy’s words. D. The writer recognized the boy according to his description. 26. Why did the writer count the money again with the boy? . A. To let the boy confirm the money was enough. B. To wonder whether the money was enough. C.To help the boy count the bills correctly . D. To want to know how much the boy was short of 27. Which one can be chosen as the best title? A.A doll to his sister B. A boy and his aunt C. No money for a gift D. My unforgettable experience C An outright ban on plastics could cause even more harm to the environment and lead to triple (三倍的)the amount of greenhouse gas emissions.That's the finding of experts from Herriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, who say that replacing plastic with alternate materials such as metal and glass won't help the environment. The team say this is because the manufacturing of these replacements could double global energy consumption.Campaigners have called for reductions or bans, with recent programs such as the BBC's Blue Planet highlighting the impact of plastics on the world's oceans.But the team of forty academics said arguments surrounding a reduction or ban are 'often shortsighted and not based on facts'. The waste products produced when making metal and glass are all bad for the environment.The major environmental impact of glass and metal production is caused by atmospheric emissions from melting activities.The combustion(氧化) of natural gas/fuel oil and the decomposition of raw materials during the melting lead to the emission of CO2. Professor David Bucknall, who led the research, said that transportation of consumer goods in plastic packaging means fewer vehicles because plastic is lightweight,therefore burning less fuel and greatly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The academics draw expertise(专家意见) from engineering, science, economics and social science, saying there needs to be a 'circular economy' for plastic usage.'Almost everything we touch or interact with on a daily basis is made of or contains a plastic of some description,' said Professor David Bucknall, .'In many cases there is no credible alternative to using a plastic so we need to move towards a "circular economy" for plastics, rather than the largely 'make-use-dispose' model we currently adopt.' 28.What does the second paragraph mainly talk about? A.Agreements about reducing or banning plastic. B.The reasons for an outright ban on plastics . C.Alternate materials replacing plastic . D.Opinions against an outright ban on plastics . 29.Why does David Bucknall refer to plastic packaging? A.To show plastic is also helpful.      B.To prove plastic is used widely. C.To represent fact that is hard to change. D.To spread plastic should be banned. 30.What is the finding of experts from Herriot-Watt University ? A.More harm to the environment results from a ban on plastics. B.Plastics will increase the amount of greenhouse gas . C.Metal and glass won't help the environment. D.A"circular economy" for plastics is a better idea. 31.What might be written in the following paragraph? A.How to recycle plastic effectively. B.What is “make-use-dispose”. C.Where to find credible alternative. D.When to realize the zero greenhouse gas emissions. D This app will tell you which famous painting your selfie most resembles. It is said that a new app has quickly become popular abroad, which has swept the social networks abroad.In two weeks, it was already well ahead of IOS and Android downloads. They say life imitates art, and that holds true even for centuries-old classical paintings and contemporary selfies. Google's Arts & Culture app was first launched in 2016, offering "virtual access" to some of the most famous art collections in the world, and many stories about arts and culture from around the world. The new feature in the Google Arts & Culture app can use facial recognition technology to match your selfie with a famous portrait. The portraits are pulled from a database of celebrated works collected from over 1000 museums worldwide, so the chances of a half-decent match should be fairly high, shouldn't they? According to Google, the app uses experimental "computer vision technology" to make the matches.The latest update of the app, however, makes use of Google's extensive knowledge of machine-learning-based facial recognition, and the front camera of your smartphone, to find your fine art doppelganger.In Rennaisance-era portraiture and mid-20th-century surrealism , there was no Photoshop and far less strategic lighting, so putting more work into your selfie won't necessarily guarantee a more flattering match."This feature allows you to explore [art] in a fun, new way," Google said. Well now the results are in, and it’s fair to say that they are mixed, at best. This seems to part of the appeal .However, as people have begun posting their amusing (mis)matches online and they are proving to be wildly popular. Sadly, the feature isn’t yet available outside of the U.S.So if you’re not stateside and would like to give it a try, you’ll have to be a little patient. What is life imitates art according to the text? A. Google's Arts & Culture app first launched in 2016. B. Selfies matching centuries-old classical paintings. C.Machine-learning-based facial recognition. D.The front camera of your smartphone . 33. How did they make the matches? A. App can use facial recognition to match your selfie with a portrait. B. The app uses experimental "imitation technology" to make the matches. C. The new feature can match your selfie with a famous authority . D.Exploring a perfect match in the worldwide museums is functioning . 34. What is the true meaning of the underlined sentence ? A. None of the people is satisfied with their matches B.People are all content to post their matches online. C.The technology is popular because of accurate matches. D.This feature is widely popular with the imperfect results . 35. What can we infer from the last paragraph ? A. The feature has not been used outside the USA. B.The feature is not popular all over the world except in America. C.Other countries will not approve the new technology in the future. D.The writer is sad that the new technology can’t be used in his country. 第二节(共5小题,每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项,选项中有两项为多余选项。 Chinese uniform have been disliked by students for a long time, especially with the popularity of foreign films and television programs. 36 , because these clothes look almost the same, which are large size and can’t reflect anything beautiful. 37 .As students realize the difference and appreciate western styles, they advocate the school to make some changes. 38 .Korean TV shows are very popular in China. We have learned the school life and what they wear as students. Girls wear the skirts and the boys wear the clothes that makes them look handsome. We feel so jealous of their uniform. But after Korean students see Chinese uniform, they like it because its large size made them comfortable and convenient to do exercise. 39 .The Victoria and Albert Museum in London has added the school uniform of a middle school in Shen Zhen to its permanent collection, Chinese media report. The news first circulated on Chinese micro blogs. 40 , with the museum's explanation saying the comfortable and practical outwear has not only cultivated an unofficial civic identity in the industrial city, but also has become part of Chinese popular culture. A. I think students have the right to make them look beautiful and energy. B. But in other countries, the uniforms look charming and beautiful C. The new uniforms would take students’ attention away from their studies D. In China, students feel so bad about their uniforms E. Indeed, some schools have put forward new styles and had good response F. However, the latest news reported that Korean students liked Chinese uniform G. A blogger posted pictures of the school uniform being displayed in the museum 第三部分英语知识运用(共两节,满分55分) 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 Over the past few years, I've experienced enough hardship.It 41 grief, financial insecurity, and my first child’s death , significantly rewriting the image I used to 42 so confident and optimistic. And after a short time , I was 43 with anxiety and PTSD. I still have bad days and 44 days, but treatment and medicine have changed my life, along with the ongoing 45 of buying stuff. I spent years rolling my 46 when my friends talked about their homeopathic remedies(顺势疗法). But last winter, in the 47 period, I went out with a friend. Two hours later I was on Amazon online, 48 something called a Happy Light. I talked to my 49 about it, and a few days later, I was eating my 50 at my desk, feeling like I had 51 a Yankees night game. Using the light did not feel like 52 in the warm, natural light of the sun. It was 53 extremely bright, and I was not immediately 54 . But I kept routinely 55 it on every cold, dark morning regardless, until the sunrise caught up with my alarm. In the spring, at a checkup to see how I was 56 to Wellbutrin(安非他酮), my physician mentioned that my vitamin D level was 57 , and recommended I start taking a supplement. "Some of my patients say it 58 their moods," he added. Well then, sign me up, I thought, making a mental note to drive to the drug store on the way home. There's the noise machine, which helps block out screaming street 59 . They say money can't buy happiness, but it can reduce my 60 . 41.A.represented B.referred C. included D. focused 42.A.admit B. rank C. consider D.recognize 43.A. infected B. diagnosed C.connected D.combined 44.A. better B.worse C. harder D. simpler 45.A.dream B. experiment C.choice D.function 46.A. eyes B.neck C. fists D.body 47.A.easiest B.longest C. best D. worst 48.A. selling B.exchanging C. renting D. ordering 49.A. physician B. nurse C.waiter D.employer 50.A. dinner B. lunch C. breakfast D. supper 51.A. prepared B. watched C.expected D. designed 52.A. dashing B.shining C.washing D. bathing 53.A. instead B. otherwise C.therefore D.thus 54.A. amused B. charmed C. astonished D.entertained 55.A.centering on B. putting on C. turning on D. depending on 56.A. sticking B.contributing C. leading D. responding 57.A. low B.high C. wrong D.perfect 58.A.eases B. improves C.misreads D. cures 59.A.voice B.sound C. noise D.whisper 60.A. temper B.mood C. tense D. anxiety 第II卷 注意事项: 用0.5毫米黑色笔迹的签字笔将答案写在答题卡上。写在本试卷上无效。 第三部分英语知识运用(共两节,满分55分) 第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 When the writer called up her mother in the countryside on the phone, she 61._________ (learn)that snakes came near their house and that the snakes seemed to have made their home near their house. 62.__________ (hear) this, the writer felt proud and consider 63._________ a chance for her to distinguish 64.____________(she) by inventing something merciful 65.____________ would catch snakes but not harm them. She set about 66.____________(research) the habits of the snakes in order to find the easiest way to trap them. She decided to cool them so that they could be 67.____________(easy)caught. However, her first two plans were not successful. She clearly realized that she needed to improve her design again. As a result, she had to attempt a third time. This time she carried a small net 68._____________(use) for catching fish, which helped her fulfill her aim successfully. 69.____________(press) by her friends and relations, she was determined to send her 70.______________(invent) to the patent office to get recognition for her successful idea. 第四部分写作(共两节满分35分) 第一节短文改错(共10小题,每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(﹨)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 Worrying about the preparations for her feast , Lala quickly came back to home with her collection of nuts and fruit. It was a time that family groups gathered again. They reunited as they follow the animal herds across the grasslands. If only it can be just like last year! Then she was so happy when Dahu chose her like the future mother of his children. It was great honor to be chosen. Having heard wolves howling in the forest, Lala accelerated her walk up the path to the caves feared that there might be wild beasts lying in wait for her. After a while, the first of the guests began to arrive for dinner. Lala’s spirits rose. Yes, it was going to be as wonderfully as last year. She smiled to herself and went out to welcome his friends and neighbors. 第二节书面表达 (满分25分) 假定你是你校学生会主席李华,上周你校组织一个文化交流团到英国某高中进行文化交流;现已回国,请你代表你校交流团给英国活动负责人David写一封信,内容包括: 1. 感谢对方的招待; 2. 此行的体验和收获; 3. 邀请对方暑假来中国体验中国文化。 注意:1. 词数100左右;2. 可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Dear David, Yours Li Hua 2019年高三英语压轴卷四答案及解析 答案: 听力部分 1-5CBACA 6-10ACBAA 11-15 BACCB 16-20ABABC 阅读理解 A 【解题导语】本文是一篇广告应用文。文章是Sodexho公司上海分公司的招聘广告。 21.C事实细节题。根据第二则招聘中Bachelor degree majoring in English with good computer skills.和第三则招聘中Proficient in English and computer operation.这两则招聘中有明显对电脑的要求,而第一则招聘未提及电脑的要求。故C正确。 22.C事实细节题。根据第二则招聘中Detailoriented and prior working experience as a translator will be advantageous.当翻译的经历会是一个优势。核对每则招聘下面的电话,故C正确。 23.D事实细节题。根据第一段介绍知道Sodexho是世界最大的综合服务公司,特别是在餐饮、清洁服务、设施管理等方面。现招聘至少有三年服务工作管理经验的人员。故D正确。 B 【解题导语】 本文是一篇记叙文。作者去商场进行圣诞节购物,碰到一个想为去世的妹妹买玩偶的小男孩,明白事情的原委后作者悄悄帮助了他,并使自己心情变好。 24.C推理判断题。根据第一段第二句I looked at the crowded people and?knew why Christmas was beginning to become such a drag.可知,作者的内心讨厌这种节日前的熙熙攘攘的购物。故C正确。 25.C猜测句义题。根据划线部分后面的句子,可知:作者悄悄地拿出了自己的一些钱,善意地撒谎让小男孩再数一遍所带的钱,其实是同情孩子的遭遇,所以出现了“我的心脏几乎停止了跳动”故C正确。 26.A细节理解题。根据最后一段第二句While he was not looking I reached into my purse and pilled out something和后面的Of course it was plenty for the doll.可知作者偷偷地把自己的钱夹在其中,巧妙的维护了小孩的尊严,故A正确。 27.A 主旨题目题。本文主要写作者去商场进行圣诞节购物,碰到一个想为去世的妹妹买玩偶的小男孩,明白事情的原委后作者悄悄帮助了他,并使自己心情变好。可知题目为“给妹妹的玩偶”。 C 【解题导语】 本文为说明文,涉及环保话题。专家表示,完全禁用塑料可能对环境造成更大的危害,导致温室气体排放量增加至之前的三倍。用金属和玻璃等替代材料取代塑料并不会有益环境。 28. D 段落大意题。根据第二段内容,主要谈金属和玻璃等替代材料消耗能源较大,且减少或禁用塑料的观点“往往缺乏远见,也缺乏事实依据”,所以推出“D反对全面禁止塑料制品的看法”正确。 29.A 推理判断题。根据第四段“运输塑料包装的消费品使用的车辆更少,因为塑料很轻。因此需要燃烧的燃料更少,能够极大地减少温室气体排放”,可推出引用大卫-巴克内尔的话想说明塑料有时只有自己的优点的。 30.D 细节理解题。根据第一段第一句:完全禁用塑料可能对环境造成更大的危害,导致温室气体排放量增加至之前的三倍。推出A.B错误。根据第三句:专家表示,用金属和玻璃等替代材料取代塑料并不会有益环境。推出C错误。根据文章最后一段专家的观点点明主题,故”D塑料遵循‘循环经济’是一个好主意”正确。 31.A 推理判断题。 根据文章主要谈论:不能完全禁用塑料;和文章最后一句“在很多情况下,没有可靠的材料来替代塑料的使用,所以塑料的使用需要遵循‘循环经济’,而不是我们现在广泛采用的‘用后即弃’模式。”推出后文应该谈一些有效循环使用塑料的方法,故A正确。 D 【解题导语】本文是科技创新说明文,主要介绍了谷歌艺术和文化应用软件的一项新功能可以用面部识别技术把你的自拍照和一幅著名的肖像画相匹配。 32.B 细节理解题。根据二段最后一句“据说,生活模仿艺术即使是对历史悠久的经典画作和当代的自拍照而言也是适用的”,推出B正确。 33.A 细节理解题。根据第三段第一句可知,谷歌艺术和文化应用软件的一项新功能可以用面部识别技术把你的自拍照和一幅著名的肖像画相匹配。故选A: App can use facial recognition technology to match your selfie with a famous portrait. 应用程序可以使用面部识别技术来匹配你的自拍照和一幅著名的肖像。 34.D猜测句意题。根据第五段第二句:然而,这似乎也是该应用软件吸引力的一部分,因为人们已经开始在网上晒出自己搞笑的(不)匹配肖像画了,这也说明该应用软件非常受欢迎。故推出正确答案为:D尽管结果并不完美,但这一特性却广受欢迎。 35.A推理判断题。根据最后一段可知:遗憾的是,美国以外地区的用户还无法使用该功能,所以如果你不在美国,还想试一试的话,你必须要耐心一些。故A正确。 36-40 DBFEG 【答案与解析】 36.D 细节句。根据后一句句意:因为这些衣服看起来是几乎一样的,而且基本都是大尺寸的,看不出任何美丽、好身材。根据语境此处应为学生对校服的观点,故应为D:在中国,学生对他们自己的校服都是不喜欢的。 37.B 过渡句。根据下一句句意:学生意识到差异并欣赏西方风格,他们提议学校做出一些改变。故应为B“但纵观其他国家,校服看起来迷人、漂亮。”合适。 38.F 段落主题句。根据后文解释韩国学生觉得中国校服舒服,推出此段主题应为F“但最新新闻报道,韩国学生喜欢中国校服”合理。 39.E 段落主题句。根据后文谈及深圳校服在维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆收藏展出,推出此处应是E:事实上,有些学校已经更换了新的风格,也收到了好的效果。 40.G 细节句。根据前文语境和后文with the museum's explanation saying,此处应为“一位博主发布了学校校服在博物馆展出的照片”衔接自然,故用G合适。 完形填空 41~45CCBAB 46~50 ADDAC 51~55 BDABC 56~60 DABCD 【答案及解析】:本文记述了作者患焦虑症进行治疗和康复的过程中,购物疗法起到了积极的作用。 41.C 根据前面句意:最近几年,我经历了做够多的艰难困苦。推出句意:这包含(included)有沉浸于悲伤之中无法自拔、经济得不到保障、长子的离世。 42.C 句意:很大程度上改写了我对自己的自信乐观的看法。consider+sth+adj认为…是…怎样的。 43.B 句意:我被诊断为焦虑症以及创伤后应激障碍。be diagnosed with….被诊断为…;be infected with被感染…。 44.A 句意:我的生活仍有起有伏,但治疗改变了我的生活,当然出去购物也起到了积极作用。对应前面的bad days其后为better days。 45.B 根据4的解释,此处为:the ongoing experiment of buying stuff正在进行中的购物实验。 46.A 句意:多年来当朋友们谈论顺势疗法时,我都会翻白眼表示不屑。rolling my eyes翻白眼,习惯搭配。 47.D 句意:但去年冬天,我在最痛苦(worst)的时候和朋友出去了。治疗2小时后,我竟然开始逛亚马逊了,还订购了一个叫做"快乐灯"的物件。 48.D 根据7的解释,ordered 订购。 49.A 根据句意及17空所在句子,推出:我和我的医生交谈。physican医生,外科医师。 50.C 根据8的解释。 51.B 根据后面的night game推出句意:应为吃早餐。 52.D 句意:灯光治疗并不像在暖洋洋的阳光下沐浴,相反,灯光治疗是处于极亮的环境中,一开始我并没有被这种环境迷住。bathing洗澡,沐浴。 53.A 根据12的解释,“instead 相反” 符合语境。. 54.B 根据12的解释,was charmed被迷住。 55.C 句意:但每个冰冷、黑暗的早晨,我都会打开灯光,直到太阳升起,闹铃作响。Kept turning on it只保持每天早晨打开灯。centering on以…为中心; putting on穿上; depending on依赖;指望。 56.D句意:春天的时候,我做了关于安非他酮反应的检查,医生说我的维生素D水平很低,建议我开始服用补充剂。respond to 对…作出反应。 57.A 根据16的解释。 58.B句意:"有些病人告诉我,补充剂可以让改善(improve)他们的情绪,"医生补充道。。 59.C 句意:这家药店还可以买到噪音机,有助于消除街道上嘈杂的噪音(noise)。 60.D 句意:人们常说金钱买不到快乐,但却能缓解我的焦虑(anxiety)。 语法填空 61.learned 62.Hearing 63.it 64.herself 65.that 66.researching 67.easily 68. used 69.Pressed 70.invention 改错: 1.第一句的Worrying→Worried 2.第一句home前的 to去掉 3.第二句的that→when 4.第三句的follow→ followed 5.第四句的can →could 6.第五句的like→ as 7.第六句的great前加 a 8.第七句的feared→fearing 9.第十句的wonderfully→ wonderful 10.第十一句的his→ her 第二节 书面表达(满分25分) Dear David, I am delighted to tell you we have returned China safely and I’m writing to express our gratitude for your reception. We were impressed with your warm entertainment. Without your careful preparation, the journey couldn’t have been so successful. We have benefited a lot from the visit. We got a precious chance to learn about the British culture and history. It also offered us a platform where we could display traditional Chinese culture like paper-cutting and Chinese painting to more foreigners. It will arouse people’s greater interest in each other’s culture and promote cultural exchange. We are sure to develop a closer friendship as more activities are held. We would like to invite you to visit China this summer holiday so you can experience the Chinese culture in person and have a deeper understanding of it. (136 words) 听力材料 (Text1) M: Hey, we’ re going to family party after work. Please don’t forget it. W: OK!I won’t.And now I am preparing to book a birthady cake online. (Text2) W: I heard you danced with your dream girl last night . M: Oh!You are kidding!I did dance with girls,but they were Mary and Athena, not Mandy. (Text3) W: We usually go hiking for vocation. Maybe we can try something different this weekend. M: Like what?During last hiking , Lucy admired the boy having a picnic with classmates. Tent (Text4) W:How are you going to the airport tonight.Your car has been lent to David . M: I’m going to take the inconvenient bus. W: I will pick you up .Another colleague will also catch the same flight. (Text5) W: Our P.E. teacher have got the second prize in the city marathon. M: Oh!Congratulate him! W: He is a good teacher with a strong profession! M: Maybe we students should give him a branch of flowers as gift. (Text6) W: Hi ,Michael! I heard you just came back from a holiday. M Yes. I stayed for two weeks in Canada,and five days in Norway. W: You do travel a lot,don't you? M:Yes,I visited Vancouver, Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal, Quebec city, etc. W: Oh!Great! Only hearing your destinations, I seemed to enjoy the beautiful resorts! M: Well. I've been to quite some remote north area.It’s too freezing.If you want,next time we two families can go to Tokyo together.I am longing there. (Text7) M:?You?can,?but?I?can't?go?with?you.?I?promised?to go for a walk with our son every evening. (Text9) M:Since Rose has just recovered from the illness, ?we?can't?go?camping?this?year,?let's put up a tent to pretend we're?camping?. W:Well,?we?have?a?big?yard.?We?can?set?up?a?tent?,have a picnic and?sleep?outside?for?a?few?nights. That?sounds?fun!?What?else? MI'll?get?some?wood?and?have?campfires?out?in?the?middle?of?the?yard.?We?can?cook? dinner on the fire. And breakfast,?too. W: Maybe the police will come to forbid that in case some neighbor call them. M: I have visited some familiar of our block ang explained the wish to them. W:?Sure!?You are so considerate.?Let's?make?a list?of?what?we'll?have?to eat,?Any?ideas? M:?I?really?want?pancakes.?With?chicken in them and chocolate?chips?on?them. W:?Hmm,?delicious,?but?wouldn't?you?rather?have?cakes?Our daughter’s favourite. M:?Of course. Cakes with banana?and nut,?it?is!?By the way ,Rose would?like?honey?on?top. W:?No problem! (Text10) When I was 6 years old, my mom bought me a goldfish, his name was King. Some weeks after King arrived we decided to give him some friends, so I ended up with an aquarium with 15 fish.Every month, one or two fish would die and my mom used to replace them with new ones. The only fish remaining was King, he lived for 3 years!Five years ago, when I was 18, I was telling to a friend how long my goldfish stayed with us, when my mom interrupted me and told me the truth: "son, your fish didn't live for 3 years, I've replaced him every time he died and you never noticed it".My mother is creative when it comes to deceiving.'If you don't dry yourself properly after showering, your body hair is going to grow out making you look like a furry bear'She dropped this on a 4- year- old me. The image of looking like a bear scared the living day lights out of me. Well played maa, well played!When I was as little as five, my Dad told me that pressing the button on the handbrake would make the car fly and that he only used it in case of an emergency as it was very very dangerous.Back then I half knew he was teasing but now, when I am stuck in awful traffic, I gently press the button and tell myself it's always there for me in case I need help. 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)

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  • ID:4-5867528 [精]2019年高考英语压轴卷三(含听力书面材料和解析)

    高中英语/高考专区/模拟试题

    中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 2019年高三英语压轴卷三 第一部分听力(共两节,满分30分) 做题时,先将答案标在试卷上,录音内容结束后,你将有两分钟的时间将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。 第一节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面5段对话,每段对话后有一个小题。从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 例: How much is the shirt? ? 19.15. B.? 9.18. C.? 9.15. 答案是C。 1.What causes the man not to type something? A. The woman is using his computer. B. The computer is being checked. C. There is something wrong with his computer. 2.What happened to the woman? A. She took the wrong subway. B. She couldn’t find the right direction. C. She didn’t take her subway from the museum. 3.Who prefers playing golf? A. The man. B.The woman. C. Neither. 4.How much will the woman pay for more than two hours? A. 10 dallors. B. 15 dallors. C. 5 dallors. 5.What will the woman do before going out ? A. Finish her homework. B. Find some shade. C. Wear some sunscreen. 第二节(共15小题;每小题1.5分,满分22.5分) 听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。 6.Why is the woman sad? A.Because her bird was died . B. Because her cat was poisoned . C. Because her cat died for some reason. 7.What will the man do next ? A.Help the woman to find the reason . B.Get another cat for the woman C. Bury the bird and the cat together. . 听第7段材料,回答第8至10题。 8.What is the matter with the man? A. He wants to broadcast a song for his mother. B. He is hunting for an announcer job. C. His mother got lost with him. 9.Where may the conversation take place? A.On a ship. B.At the railway station. C. At the airport. 10.What is the mother like ? A. A deaf and fat old woman. B. A talkactive middle-aged woman. C. A wounded woman in left leg. 听第8段材料,回答第11至13题。 11.What are the two speakers going to do? A.Take babies to the park . B.See the doctor’s with the babies. C.Go shopping. 12.How old can the babies be taken out in the open air? A.More than four months. B. More than one month. C. More than one year. 13.Why does the woman compare her husband with hens ? A.Because he is saying something all the time. B. Because he does housework too slowly. C. Because he is too protective for twins. 听第9段材料,回答第14至16题。 14.Why does the man take part in the competition ? A.To learn cooking skills. B.To create his private dish . C.To prove his cooking level. 15.At what country did he go to learn cooking? A. Chinese. B. France. C. Italy. 16.How old may the man be now? A. 18 years old. B. 20 years old. C. 25 years old. 17. What is the best dish the man can cook? A. A special type of egg dish. B. Italian dishes. C. Chinese dishes. 听第10段材料,回答第17至20题。 18. Who are clear up the road? A. Villagers and citizens. B. Soldiers and volunteers. C. Drivers and residents. 19.What is the weather like for the rest of today? A. Clear . B. Cloudy. C. Rainy. 20.How many degrees will the temperature drop later tonight ? A. 13 degrees. B. 10 degrees. C. 8 degrees. 第二部分阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) (共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C、和D)中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A Business Managers Wanted Wuhan Foreign Trade Company?recruites two business managers with?the?requirements for the candidates / applicants?as follows: Must have a college /university?degree or above; Skilled/Skillful in/at English(especially listening and?speaking); Expert at basic computer?skills;? Good at communication and exchanges; Can drive (a car); The?priority will be given to those with two years'?relevant?experience. Production Technologist Draftsperson Duties: Under the leadership of the Chief Engineer,to be responsible for detailed product design of the machines. Also will investigate and recommend improvements to the product lines (产品类型). Qualifications (资历): Graduate of a Mechanical Engineering degree or diploma course, or a Drafting course with emphasis on Mechanical Drafting. Experience with agricultural equipment would be an advantage. Please apply to: Chief Engineer Agricultural Manufacturing Industries 2020 Harvard Avenue (大街) 21.Which job is fit for a college graduate skilled at English and computers? A. Chief Engineer. B. Business managers. C. Production Technologist. D. Draftsperson. 22. If Jane have a Mechanical Engineering degree, which position can she apply for? A. Business managers, Wuhan Foreign Trade Company. B. Draftsperson, Agricultural Manufacturing Industries. C. Chief Engineer, 2020 Harvard Avenue. D. A driver , Wuhan Foreign Trade Company. 23. If you are offered as a draftsperson , you may . A. be responsible to design the machines B. experience some agricultural equipment C. be under the leadership of the Sales Manager D. teach a Drafting course B I was standing in the checkout line behind a woman who looked to be in her 60s. When it was her turn to pay, the cashier greeted her by name and asked her how she was paying. The woman looked down, shook her head and said:“Not so good. My husband just lost his job and my son is up to his old tricks again. The truth is, I don’t know how I’m going to get through the holidays.” Then she gave the cashier food stamps. My heart ached. I wanted to help but didn’t know how. Should I offer to pay for her groceries or ask for her husband’s resume? As I walked into the parking lot, I saw the women returning her shopping cart. I remembered something in my purse that I thought could help her. It wasn’t a handful of cash or an offer of a job for her husband, but maybe it would make her life better. My heart pounded as I approached the woman. “Excuse me,”I said, my voice trembling a bit.“I couldn’t help overhearing what you said to the cashier. It sounds like you’re going through a really hard time right now. I’m so sorry. I’d like to give you something.” I handed her the small card from my purse. When the woman read the card’s only two words, she began to cry. And through her tears, she said :“You have no idea what this means to me.” I was a little startled by her reply.Not having done anything like this before, I didn’t know what kind of reaction I might receive. All left for me to say was :“Oh. Would it be OK to give you a hug?” After we embraced, I walked back to my car --and began to cry, too. The words on the card? “You Matter.” A few weeks earlier, a colleague gave me a similar card as encouragement for a project I was working on. When I read the card, I felt a warm glow spread inside of me. Deeply touched, I came home and ordered my own box of You Matter card and started sharing them. 24. What should be the title according to the whole article? A. An experience in a shop B. A strange woman C. A “You Matter.”card D. A friendly hug 25. Which answer is closest to the underlined word? A. satisfied B. amazed C. frightened D. touched 26. Why did the author show the old woman her own card? A.She remembered something to give the old woman encouragement.. B. She gave a shopping card to help the poor woman . C. She preferred to give her something she could afford D.Her greetings by card made the old woman relaxed . 27.What can we infer according to the last paragraph? A. Later a colleague asked for a “You Matter.”card. B. “You Matter.”cards may make some money. C.More You Matter cards will be shared with others. D.The old woman reading the card, the author felt encouraged. C “Food in France is still primarily about pleasure,” says Mark Singer, technical director of cuisine at Le Cordon Bleu in Paris.“Cooking and eating are both pastimes(消遣) and pleasure.”The French might start their day with bread, butter, jam, and perhaps something hot to drink—it’s a time of the day when the whole family can be united.Singer, born in Philadelphia, has lived in France for more than 40 years. “Although things have changed greatly in the past 20 years when it comes to food in the country,” he says, “and what was a big affair with eating has been slowly softened up, there are still events in the year, like birthdays and New Year’s Eve and Christmas Eve that are still really anchored in traditional food and cooking.But it’s not every day.” “Some people think French food life may be a performance,” adds Jennifer Berg, director of graduate food studies at New York University.“They want to believe that France is this nation where people are spending five hours a day going to 12 different markets to get their food.The reality is most croissants(羊角面包) are factory?made, and most people are buying convenience food, except for the very small group of people in high society.But part of our identity relies on believing that myth.” In Italy, as in France, takeout is still relatively rare.“Eating fast is not at all part of our culture,” says Marco Bolasco, editorial director of Slow Food and an Italian food expert.“Our meals are relaxed, even during a lunch break. Food in Italy is love, and nutrition, and pleasure,” he says.An Italian child’s first experience with food is not small round cakes or rice or eggs, but probably ice cream,notes Bolasco.Status and wealth play less of a role in food. 28.What does Mark Singer mean by saying that in paragraph 1? A.People prefer to cook at home in the morning. B.Food in France is popular because they are delicious. C.Traditional food is always bread, butter for them. D.Cooking and eating bring more pleasure than food itself. 29.What does the underlined word “softened up” in Paragraph 3 refer to? A.increased up      B.cut down C.concentrated on D.spread out 30.What can be inferred according to the last paragraph? A.There is something in common with food between France and Italy. B.An Italian child is not fond of small round cakes or rice or eggs. C.Takeout is relatively rare in Italy but not rare in France. D.Eating fast is at all part of Italian culture. 31.What’s the right method of developing the passage? A.Time order B.Geography clues C.Authorities’ points of the view D.Opinions of ages D Babies born via c-section(剖腹产) are more likely to become?obese ?than those born naturally, a study has revealed.Research from New York University found that mice born via a c-section are more likely to have an unbalanced amount of good and bad bacteria in their stomachs, which puts them at risk for gaining too much weight?. For the study, researchers observed 34 mice that were delivered by c-section and 35 mice that were born naturally.They tracked their body weights and?analyzed?their?intestinal(肠壁)?bacteria until the mice had grown into adults.Mice that were born via a c-section put on about 30 percent more weight than their counterparts who'd had a natural birth. Females, specifically, who had been delivered by c-section had gained a staggering 70 percent more weight than the mice born naturally.The sharp increase is credited to a difference in the bacteria found in the stomachs of the two groups of mice.The microbiome, which houses such bacteria, in mice born naturally progressed normally throughout the course of the study.However, that of mice born by c-section, matured too quickly at first and then decreased later in their lives. The research team said that c-sections, while critical in about 15 percent of births, are widely overused, citing that 50 percent of births in Brazil, Iran and the Dominican Republic are performed via the operation.They are hopeful that their work will?prevent?unnecessary c-section and bring down the growing?obesity?rate in the US. 32.What can we know from paragraph 1? A.An unhealthy bacteria in mice’s stomachs must cause obesity?. B.The study at first has been done by using some mice . C.The mice are divided into two halves according to their born ways. D.That Babies born via c-section become?obese than those born naturally is only guessed. 33.What is the similar meaning to the underlined word in Paragraph Two? A.Partners in the study      B.Parents giving birth to them C.Twins born by one mother D.The other in each pair 34.What can be inferred according to the last paragraph? A.C-sections are widely used in Brazil, Iran and the Dominican Republic B.More than half of births in Brazil are performed via the operation. C.The research team hope that their work will?warn?unnecessary c-section. D.The research has brought down the growing?obesity?rate in the US. 35.Where can this passage come form? A.A medical website B.An album of new inventions C.A biography magazine. D.A text book ? 第二节(共5小题,每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项,选项中有两项为多余选项。 Every year, there will be a great awarding ceremony about the people who touch the whole China. People from all walks of life get nominated(提名) and 36 . We are moved to find that the small potatoes doing the ordinary jobs devote themselves to the world. Cleaners are part of them. We ever dreamed to be scientists, policemen and teachers, because these jobs look so decent(体面的). But as we grow up and receive more education, we realize that every job has its value. No matter what kind of job people work on, they will find their places and make great contributions to the world. 37 .? Every early morning , when we are deep in our sleeping , cleaners have begun their daily work . 38 . However, when people walking on the street to their jobs, few will ever think of the people who make all of this. By this time, the cleaners have finished their jobs and just returned home. So many of us will never notice their existence. Although cleaners work seems to be the least important, 39 . Cleaners are always treated to be the small potatoes, because they are everywhere but seems to be invisible to the public. They make the world beautiful. 40 .Cleaners deserve our applause and respect. A. By their sweat and diligent work, streets are cleaned up and refreshed. B. the public give them full attention C. it specifically for them to create a holiday or festival is also necessary D. Without them, we couldn’t enjoy the comfortable environment E.There are some people looking down upon clearners F. So we can’t judge a person by his job G. their devotion to the world will be ever lasting and encouraging 第三部分英语知识运用(共两节,满分55分) 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 Super Dan and his lifetime competitor Lee Chongwei met in the Olympic games again. They had been in the same 41 twice and Super Dan won at last. They are the best two 42 players all the time. When they 43 in the final match, the competition would be very fierce. Lin Dan 44 the championship in the grand slam(大满贯), while Lee only defeated Lin in the small game. Lee always lack a grand slam to 45 himself.?In 2012, Lin Dan still defeated Lee and won the 46 medal in London Olympic Games. Lee was very disappointed but he decided to 47 . Now both of them are not 48 anymore, and they met in the Rio Olympic Games. Lee defeated his lifetime 49 Lin. No matter which won, everybody did not care about the result, they just 50 the big match.? Lin and Lee are best competitors, and they get 51 by competing with each other. Behind the Olympic Games, the two heroes are friends. In the recent Thomas cup match, Lee was 52 by accident, and Lin Dan's best 53 was that his old friend would 54 quickly to turn up in London. During last year's Mid-Autumn festival, they 55 text messages on the Mid-Autumn blessings to each other. Lin once said, "although we 56 different countries, which does not mean that we are the 57 . On the contrary, we are friends." Lin Dan and Lee, two such brilliant figures, are not absolute winners or 58 . They are great with one another for the whole life time, or 59 forever .In the world , there lives a Wei as well as a Dan. The two are 60 a legend of history. 41.A. date B.tradition C.weather D. situation 42.A. volleyball B.baseball C. badminton D. tennis 43.A. greeted B. met C. noticed D.recognised 44.A. won B. devoted C. performed D.pretended 45.A. treat B. prove C.doubt D. amaze 46.A. gold B.silver C. bronze D.wooden 47.A. change B. insist C. survive D. debate 48.A. brave B. strong C. young D. swift 49.A. coach B.teammate C. host D.competitor 50.A. enjoyed B. watched C. hoped D. dreamed 51.A. replaced B. improved C. compared D. admitted 52.A.charged B. fined C. injured D. wounded 53.A. attitude B. answer C.relief D. hope 54.A. recover B. respond C. solve D.stand 55.A.added B. passed C. sent D. posted 56.A.select B. reunite C.affect D. represent 57.A. enemies B. partners C. athletes D. players 58.A. failures B. losers C. owners D.leaders 59.A. just B. ever C. even D. only 60.A.remembering B. reading C. recording D. writing 第II卷 注意事项: 用0.5毫米黑色笔迹的签字笔将答案写在答题卡上。写在本试卷上无效。 第三部分英语知识运用(共两节,满分55分) 第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 Nowadays, as Chinese economy develops so fast, people’s life standard improves. They have more money and start to run 61 amusement. Travel is the first choice and independent travel has more supporters .Some 80.2% of travelers prefer to make their own travel plans instead of 62 (go) on group trip, according to a China Youth Daily survey. More freedom to travel by oneselves 63 what they value. " I can go to any tourist site of the city. Sometimes people tell me the interesting place and I can change my schedule anytime.Group travel focuses on shopping and the tourist guide will guide you to buy 64 ( product) . “In that case, you can do nothing but shop.” said Qin Mingxuan 65 works at a financial firm in Beijing, “What’s more, you have to compete for the food and the seat with other visitors. 66 (choose) independent travel , I can decide how long I will?stay in one place by 67 (me). I like to spend more time with local people." Choices about how to travel freely is also their right. "Without travel agents, tourists have free choices of transportation.I can drive and enjoy the scenery along the road. 68 the road is suitable for riding a bike, I will choose that,?" Qin said. The people' s favorite transportation is driving, with 74.4%. There are details about dos and don'ts .A total of 61.6% like a 69 (detail) travel plan, 61.2% say travel with companions is much 70 (safe), and 57.6% suggest booking accommodations in advance. 第四部分写作(共两节满分35分) 第一节短文改错(共10小题,每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(﹨)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 David, Sorry to learn that you’ve put on weight.Eat too much junk food in McDonald’s and KFC must be the reason,I guess. You have to realize that food is not always as health as what was said in the advertisements.If you know more about them,we will find fried chicken and French fries are rich in fat,sugar and salt.They can make you to gain weight and become sick. What you ought to have every day are cereal noodles,rice,fruit and vegetables rather than the junk food.Energy-giving food,body-building food and protective food makes up a balance diet.In word,you must have an idea of how a healthy diet should be and stick to it. I hope my advice can help you improve your health. Yours, Li Hua 第二节书面表达 (满分25分) 你所在市打算于2019年5月19日承办国际半程马拉松。假如你是李华,你校将招募的志愿者。请你写一封100字左右的申请信。内容包括: 1.热爱体育; 2.英语流利; 3.良好组织能力,性格开朗。 注意:1.字数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.开头语已为你写好。 Dear Sir or Madam, I have heard the news that you are recruiting volunteers for the International Half Marathon to be held on May 19,2019. Yours Li Hua 2019年高三英语压轴卷三答案及解析 答案: 听力部分 1-5CABBC 6-10CBCBA 11-15ABCCB 16-20CABAC 阅读理解 A 【解题导语】本文是一篇应用文。文章介绍了武汉对外贸易公司和哈佛大街2020号农业制造公司招聘职位的广告。 21.B事实细节题。根据第一则招聘启事Must have a college /university?degree or above;Skilled/Skillful in/at English(especially listening and?speaking);Expert at basic computer?skills;?可知:新毕业的有英语和电脑知识的大学生应该申请第一份工作。故B正确。 22.B事实细节题。根据第二则招聘,Qualifications (资历): Graduate of a Mechanical Engineering degree or diploma course.故B正确。 23.A推理判断题。根据第二则招聘:Duties: Under the leadership of the Chief Engineer,to be responsible for detailed product design of the machines. Also will investigate and recommend improvements to the product lines.可知:在总工程师的领导下,负责机器的详细产品设计。还将调查并建议改进产品系列。故A正确。 B 【解题导语】本文是一篇记叙文,记述了作者在收银台前遇到一位丈夫失业手头拮据的老妇人,引发作者的爱心,展示给她一张鼓励卡,从而说明给他人认可,尊重和鼓励是人与人之间最好的爱。 24.C主旨题目题。通读全文可知:作者在收银台前遇到一位丈夫失业手头拮据的老妇人,展示给她一张写着“你很重要”的鼓励卡,从而说明给他人认可,尊重和鼓励是人与人之间最好的爱。A “You Matter.”card 是贯穿全文的,有象征意义。 25.B推理判断题。通过划线后面两句话, Not having done anything like this before, I didn’t know what kind of reaction I might receive.可知:之前没有做过类似的事情,我不知道我应该有什么样的反应。说明作者手足无措,推断划线部分应为:吃惊的,所以选项B为正确答案。 26.A推理判断题。 第五段提到, I remembered something in my purse that I thought could help her. It wasn’t a handful of cash or an offer of a job for her husband, but maybe it would make her life better.可知:我记得我钱包里有什么东西可以帮助她。这不是一把现金,也不是为她丈夫提供一份工作,但也许这会让她的生活更美好。选项A正确。 27.C推理判断题。根据最后一段Deeply touched, I came home and ordered my own box of You Matter card and started sharing them.。我被深深地感动了,我回到家,订了我自己的一盒鼓励卡,然后开始分享。所以选项C为最佳答案。 C 【解题导语】 本文为说明文,涉及饮食话题。作者通过专家的话语来说明法国人和意大利人对于食物是一种享受的态度。 28.D推理判断题。根据第一段的内容和Mark Singer所说的话,可知家庭成员一起准备饭菜和共进早餐远远比食物本身更让人快乐,故D正确。 29.B词义猜测题。由后文中的“there are still events in the year, like birthdays and New Year’s Eve and Christmas Eve that are still really anchored in traditional food and cooking.But it’s not every day.”可知,法国传统美食受到冲击,人们只是偶尔在重大节日中才去享用传统美食,并不是每一天。cut down削弱,故B正确。 30.A推理判断题。由本段中的“In Italy,as in France”,再结合第一段中的“Food in France is still primarily about pleasure”和最后一段中的“Food in Italy is love, and nutrition, and pleasure”可推知,这两种食物是有共同点的,故A正确。 31.C写作手法题。由文中的“says Mark Singer,chnical director of cuisine at Le Cordon Bleu in Paris.”“ adds Jennifer Berg, director of graduate food studies at New York University.”以及“says Marco Bolasco, editorial director of Slow Food and an Italian food expert.” 知道文章主要是权威人士的对食物的观点。故C正确。 D 【解题导语】本文为科普说明文,涉及现在流行的剖腹产话题。作者通过一项研究说明; 剖腹产出生的婴儿比顺产出生的婴儿更容易出现肥胖问题。 32.B推理判断题。根据第一段第二句的内容:Research from New York University found that mice born via a c-section are more likely to have an unbalanced amount of good and bad bacteria in their stomachs, which puts them at risk for gaining too much weight,可知:此项最新研究是通过小白鼠先进行试验的,故B正确。 33.D词义猜测题。由本句“Mice that were born via a c-section put on about 30 percent more weight than their counterparts who'd had a natural birth.”可知,通过剖腹产的老鼠与同组自然顺产的对应者相比,发现剖腹产出生的增重多百分之三十,故D正确。 34.C细节理解题。由本段中的“They are hopeful that their work will?prevent?unnecessary c-section and bring down the growing?obesity?rate in the US.”可推知,研究组人员希望他们的工作预防不必要的剖腹产,并希望降低美国的肥胖率。故C正确。 35.A推理判断题。由全文主要内容:剖腹产出生的婴儿比顺产出生的婴儿更容易出现肥胖问题。知道文章是科普说明文,与医学有感。故A正确。 36-40 BFAGD 【解题导语】 文章论述:清洁工的工作虽然平凡,但没有了千万清洁工的默默付出,我们难以享受舒适的工作和生活环境,他们是最值得尊敬的。 1.B 细节句。前一句句意:各行各业的人都会被提名。此处应为:公众也会给予他们充分的关注。 2.F 主旨句。本段主要论述行业没有高低贵贱之分。很明显,此句尾句应为: 所以我们不应通过工种来评判一个人。 3.A细节句。前一句句意:每天,当多数人还在睡梦中时,清洁工早已工作在岗位上。根据逻辑性应为A:用他们的汗水和勤劳的双手换来了道路的清新通畅。 4.G过渡句。前后两句为让步关系。前一句句意:尽管作为清洁工,他们的工作很微不足道。此空应为:他们对世界的奉献将永远是持久和鼓舞人心的。 5.D过渡句。前一句提及:他们让世界变得美丽。后一句:清洁工是值得我们的掌声和尊敬的。本句为过渡句D:如果没有他们,我们将无法享受到这舒适的环境。 完形填空 41~45DCBAB 46~50 ABCDA 51~55BCDAC 56~60 DABCD 【解题导语】 本文记叙了林丹和李宗伟两位羽毛球运动员,在赛场上是竞争者,赛场下是惺惺相惜的朋友;一时共生,此生同在,既生“伟”,也生“丹”,他俩共同书写着这部历史传奇。 1.D 句意:超级丹和他一生的对手李宗伟在奥运会上再次相遇。他们已经试过两次在这样的场景下相遇了。situation情况,情景,故D正确。 2.C 根据常识,两个人是羽毛球运动员,badminton羽毛球。 3.B 句意:所以当他们在决赛相遇时(met),竞争会非常激烈。 4.A 句意:林丹赢得过(won)大满贯,而李只在小比赛中打败过林丹。 5.B 句意:李一直缺乏一个大满贯来证明(prove)自己。故B正确。 6.A 句意:2012年,林丹仍然击败了李,赢得了伦敦奥运会的金牌。gold金 , silver 银, bronze 铜,wooden木。 7.B 句意:李非常失望,但是他决定坚持(insist)。 8.C 句意:现在他们两人都不再年轻(young)了,却在里约热内卢奥运会相遇。 9.D 句意:李打败了他一生的竞争对手林。文章第一句也有提示:his lifetime competitor Lee Chongwei。 10.A 句意:无论谁赢,观众都不在乎,他们就享受(enjoy)观看这样的大比赛。 11.B 句意:林和李是最好的对手,他们通过相互竞争来提高(improved)彼此水平。 12.C 句意:不久前的汤姆斯杯比赛,李宗伟不慎受伤退赛。injure在事故中受伤。 13.D 根据12的解释,句意:林丹最希望就是……A.attitude态度 B. answer回答 C.relief安慰,缓解 D. hope希望。 14.A句意:林丹最希望就是老对手能够迅速恢复(recover)出现在伦敦的赛场上。 15.C 句意:去年的中秋节期间,这对老朋友还互发短信送上中秋的祝福。send text messages发短信。 16.D句意:虽然大家都代表不同的国家比赛。A.select挑选 B. reunite团结 C.affect影响 D. represent代表。 17.A 句意:我们不是敌人。相反,我们是好朋友。 18.B 句意:林丹与李宗伟,两个如此出彩的人物,没有绝对的胜利者或失败者。winners与losers形成对比。 19.C句意:他们因有彼此的存在而有伟大的一生,甚至(even)是永远。即:一时共生,此生同在。 20.D句意:既生“伟”,也生“丹”,他俩,注定成为千古佳话,共书一部历史传奇。writing书写。 语法填空 61. after 62. going 63. is 64. products 65. who 66. Choosing 67. myself 68. If 69. detailed 70. safer 短文改错 【详解】 第一处:考查动词作主语。Eat too much junk food in McDonald’s and KFC是动词作主语,所以用动名词形式,所以Eat→Eating。 第二处:考查形容词作表语。文中that food is not always as health as ,而health应为表语的主体,所以应为形容词形式health→healthy 第三处:考查时态。“what was said in the advertisements”,表示 “广告中说的话”,所以was改为is。 第四处:考查代词一致。文中“If you know more about them,we will find fried chicken”,应该人称一致,所以we→you。 第五处:考查动词的非谓语做宾补。make sb do sth,所以make you to gain weight中的to去掉。 第六处:考查主谓一致。Energy-giving food,body-building food and protective food 是主语部分,为复数,所以makes→make。 第七处:考查动词作定语。balance→balanced。 第八处:考查固定搭配。“In a word总之”,所以在In word之间加a。 第九处:考查从句。“how a healthy diet should be”在句中做of的宾语从句,句意为“一种健康饮食是什么样的”所以how→what。 第十处:考查不可数名词。advice不可数,故advices→advice。 书面表达 Dear Sir or Madam I have heard the news that you are recruiting volunteers for the International Half Marathon to be held in 2022. So I am writing to apply to be one of the volunteers. I am Li Hua, an 18-year-old boy who is built up by doing sports regularly in my spare time. I love sports so much that I can devote all my energies to serving the game.Besides, with a very good command of English, I can speak the language fluently, which makes me more qualified to help foreigners. Meanwhile, not only do I have the ability to organize activities, but also I am outgoing and energetic, which benefits me in communicating with strangers. Everything taken into account. I think I am a good fit for the position.I would appreciate it if you could consider my application and offer me the opportunity at your convenience. Looking forward to your reply. Yours Li Hua 听力材料 (Text1) W:David, you aren’t typing on your computer!May I use it for a while? M:Oh! Sorry!There seems to be something wrong with it. I am waiting to have it checked. (Text2) W: This subway goes to the museum, right? M: No! You should have got on the opposite train. This subway is returning from the museum. W: I am going the wrong direction.Ah! (Text3) W: Do you like playing golf, Terry! M: Not really! I am tired of walking so far! W: On the contrary, I am enjoying the breathtaking scenery on the golf course! (Text4) W: Excuse me.Is it a parking here? M: Yes,but 5 dallors an hour. W: How much if I park for about two hours? M: It depends. Less than two, 10 dallors. More than two , by the number of three. (Text5) W: I have finished my homework! Can I go out with friends ? M: Yes, Julia, but it's hot outside. Without?sunscreen?you'll?get?as red as a?lobster.? W: Okay. I'Il apply some sunscreen and play in the shade. (Text6) M: What’s the matter ?Why are you looking so upset, Janis? W: Oh, dear,my cat died last night. M: What happened? W: There was a bird in my courtyard yesterday afternoon. It couldn’t fly.My cat caught it and ate it a little before I noticed that! M: Maybe the bird had been poisoned.But it's not your fault. I can get a new cat for you next week. (Text7) M: Is there anything I can do for you? W: I have just got lost with my mother.Would you please help me find her? M: Sure. We will make a broadcast for you. May I have her name……. W: Excuse me,my mother is deaf . She can’t listen anything. W: Why not make a broadcast to passengers asking them to help? Besides, now I am calling our police of the railway station.Please tell me her appearance and clothes. M: OK.In her sixties and fatter!She wears a green overcoat , black trousers and red scarf, especially with a bandage on the left arm. W: Write all down.Please don’t be too worried! M:Thank you!Hope to find her sooner. (Text8) W: Let's take the kids to the park.The sun is fine and the weather is so warm. M: Hey, that sounds like a good idea! But we can take them out when they are so small. W: Yes, the fresh air will do them good.And the doctor says they can be taken out at the age of one month. M: Yeah, they've been over four months. W: Look!It's like summer out today.So nice! M: Okay, we'll get them ready. Cover their quilts! Wear their caps!And gloves! W: There is no need to do those.You are too protective. Like hens! M: What, like hens, aha ……you are hens? I am cock at most!Haha…. W: You! Much more!If you are so slow! The twins are waiting! M: OK!Babies!Let’s go! (Text9) W: Welcome to the cook competition. Tell me a little about why you want to sigh up for the contest. M: Well,thirteen years ago, I was taught to cook.And then for three years I was practising cooking.At my twenty age,I learned all my father’s new private dishes. Ever since then, I have created my unique dishes and cooked food for the customers.In a word,I want to win the first to prove my cooking ability. W: Did you go to the cooking school? And what is the best dish you can cook? M: Yes, when I was 18, I went to the Michelin chefs school in France. There, I learned how to cook a special type of egg dish that has both Italian and Chinese taste. W: Sounds good. Hope you can have a perfect performance! M:Thanks a lot.I will try my best! (Text10) After an earthquake, several parts of our state have been destroyed. The heavy rain also caused some small damage in the mountainous districts. As a result, many sections of the main county road connecting to the state highway have been damaged or blocked by stones and mud. Rescuers from army and volunteers are currently working around the clock to clear the road. So please adjust your route if you are driving in or out of the state in the following days. As for the rest of today, it will be a mostly clear night with no further earthquake and rainfall. However, there will be a sharp temperature drop later tonight because of the west wind, from around 10 degrees during the previous evenings down to 2 degrees. After a foggy morning, the sun will finally come out tomorrow around noon, bringing the temperature up to about 13 degrees. The weather will stay mostly sunny until Wednesday when a new round of storms is expected to come at dawn with many clouds. 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)

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  • ID:4-5823793 [精]2019年高考英语压轴卷二(含听力书面材料和解析)

    高中英语/高考专区/模拟试题

    中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 2019年高三英语压轴卷二 第一部分听力(共两节,满分30分) 做题时,先将答案标在试卷上,录音内容结束后,你将有两分钟的时间将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。 第一节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面5段对话,每段对话后有一个小题。从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 例: How much is the shirt? ? 19.15. B.? 9.18. C.? 9.15. 答案是C。 1.What does the man prefer ? A. Do some exercise. B. Go to the shop. C. Hang out everywhere. 2.What is the woman ‘s weekend plan ? A. To go to the doctor’s. B. To have hair colored. C. To pull her tooth. 3.What will the boy do first the following time? A. Eat something. B.Do his homework. C. Have a rest. 4.How much does renting a ship two days by a member card ? A. 380 dollars. B. 360 dollars. C. 400 dollars. 5.What do the speakers do after work? A. Buy a new flat. B. Enjoy their private time. C.Go to their new flat. 第二节(共15小题;每小题1.5分,满分22.5分) 听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。 6.What does the woman complain about? A.The man forgot to collect a child from school. B. The man didn’t come to have lunch with them. C. The man was too busy to call her. 7.What relationship are the speakers? A.Collegues. B.Couple. C.Friends . 听第7段材料,回答第8、10题。 8.Why does the man think the woman have many dresses? A. Her husband is very rich. B. She is always wearing a different dress. C. She is a model. 9.What is her husband? A .A costume designer. B. A company manger C. A college professor . 10.How much does the woman spend on dresses? A. Most of her salary. B. Not very much. C. Hardly. 听第8段材料,回答第11至13题。 11.Which tickets is the woman buying? A. Single. B. Return. C. Both. 12.How much should the woman pay for tickets? A. $423. B. $360. C. $306 13.Where can they leave from? A. Platform 4. B. Platform 2. C. Platform 10. 听第9段材料,回答第14至16题。 14.For what does the woman ask for help? A. How to find a job. B. What job to choose. C.How to make applications. 15.What is the first step in finding a job? A. To practice the talking or writing techniques. B. To decide what you’ re good at and put it into words. C. To target the right employers . 16.What attitude should one have facing the repeated rejection ? A. Unconfident . B. Cautious. C. Brave. 听第10段材料,回答第17至20题。 17. Why is the remote village Xichong famous ? A. It escaped from the worst typhoon. B. It has13 million residents C. It is a destination for surfing. 18. What topic does the speaker talk about? A. Typhoon Mangkhut. B. South China Sea C. Xia Bing’s business. 19.How much does wind speed of typhoon reach? A. 100 meters per hour . B. 100 miles per hour . C. 100 miles per minutes. 20.What happened to the brick guard house ? A.It disappeared. B. Its foundation washed away. C. It became ruins. 第二部分阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) (共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C、和D)中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A Google Position: HR Manager/Business Partner-Shanghai Job Description: HR Business Partners are needeed in our business units and are charged not only to deliver world class people services but also to work with leadership to get us to the next level. The fast-paced environment at Google requires a person who can perform well in a fluid and ever-changing (不断变化的)organization and offers a unique opportunity to be challenged at every task.. Responsibilities: 1.Deliver HR support to the Google Shanghai office. 2.Advise and partner managers and employees in all HR matters, with particular focus on performance management(绩效管理), career development, succession planning(继任计划), and managing change. 3.Carry out and run local employee and leadership development programs. 4.Partner with teams in delivering and raising awareness on all our core HR processes(核心人力资源流程), facilitating compensation processes, and employee survey feedback and action planning. Requirements: 1.BA/BS degree preferred with a strong academic record. MBA or Masters a plus. 2.Experience working with R&D setup 3.10-14 years of work experience, of which 6+ years is in broad-based HR career. 4.Strong analytical approach, and ability to suggest, develop, execute, and track success of HR projects. 5.Hard-working, well-organized, and able to manage numerous projects simultaneously under deadline pressure. 6.Very confident with a proactive and outgoing personality, good communications and listening skills, and a team player attitude. 7.Change management experience in an international, highly-matrixed global organization. The resume emailed to :jobs@google.com 21.Which position is wanted according to the advertisement? A. HR Manager. B. Product salesperson. C. Branch manager in some local companies. D. Google Shanghai Ordinary staff. 22. If you are offered the job there,which one doesn’t belong to your duty? A. Focus on performance management B. Determine investment and serve the staff C. Run local employee and leadership programs. D. deliver and raise awareness on all core HR processes 23. What is a must to an applicant ? A. Be a new graduate with a MBA or Masters degree. B. Have 10-14 years of work experience. C.Have 6+ years experience in broad-based HR career D.Have BA/BS degree with a strong academic record B Few years ago I decided to grow vegetables in the backyard. I’m an organic gardener. I helped run the three-generation-old family vegetable and fruit farm, so I believed I knew much about gardening. Believing a small amount of manure (粪肥) would work. I made a few phone calls and the truck was soon on its way. It was a big truck. “Excuse me but there must be a mistake. I only ordered a small amount of it, but…..” Obviously, I didn't have a choice as he put it down in my backyard. As the manure was being put down I could hardly breathe. When the truck left, I realized that the smell was really terrible and it was drifting (飘散). Soon, for blocks, everyone knew there was a terrible accident somewhere. After days of hard work, I had tried everything I could find to get rid of it, but there was still a pile left. In the middle of the night I woke with a brilliant idea. I would put a sign on the pile and see what would happen. I laughed so hard because within hours of putting up the sign, people came from blocks away. They brought baskets, bags, and some really funny containers. I don't know how they heard so fast that I was trying to get rid of manure. I was so absorbed in watching that I forgot to take pictures of them all. The whole pile was gone in less than an hour. 24.What is the author like? A .He likes smelling manure B. He plants many kinds of crops C. He orders too much manure by mistake D. He chooses a wrong king of manure 25. In Paragraph 3, what is the author ‘s purpose? A. To explain why she had so much manure B. To explain how to use manure C. To show how terrible the smell was D. To share her knowledge about manure 26. What can we learn from the story? A. He is a wise man who speaks little. B. He who controls himself is not fit to command others. C. He who risks nothing gains nothing. D. Kill two birds with one stone. 27. What did the author probably write on the sign? A. Help me B. Manure left C. Don't steal manure D. Manure for free C Snowflake is one of 1,000 words to be added to the latest edition of the Oxford English Dictionary.According to the latest edition of the OED, 'snowflake' is “an insult to describe someone who is "too sensitive or as feeling entitled to special treatment or consideration".The words are just a few of 1,000 new words that have made it into the new edition of the “bible” of the English language. The OED also gives the approval to ‘madnsplain’ – ladies, you’d better ask a man for a more accurate explanation of that word – and BFN – standing for ‘big fat negative’.To make it into the noble bible of the English language the OED requires several independent examples of a word being used and evidence that it has been in use “for a reasonable amount of time”.Before the latest edition, researchers consulted the online parenting website-Mumsnet in an attempt to find the latest new words coming into widespread use. Other words include: TTC (trying to conceive) BFN (big fat negative) or a BFP (big fat positive), while further down the line parents may try CIO (cry it out) as a means of baby sleep training.OED Senior Editor Fi Mooring said: “These words reflect personal experiences but many of them also be used much more widely, even with people who are not parents.“The distinctive lexicon(词典) of parenting maps a whole range of human experience, from immense joy to immeasurable sorrow and, considering its relevance to so much of the population it seemed an new category of vocabulary in the Dictionary.” 10 of the new words in the OED: Mansplain – A man explaining something needlessly, overbearingly, or condescendingly, especially to a woman, in a manner thought to reveal a patronisingor chauvinistic attitude(高高在上的态度). Me time – when an individual devotes time to doing what they want in order to relax Ransomware – Malicious software that can be used to carry out cyber attacks Hangry - when someone is bad-tempered or irritable as a result of hunger Snowflake - used as an insult to describe someone who is overly sensitive or as feeling entitled to special treatment or consideration Tomoz – an abbreviated (缩略的)form of tomorrow BFN – big fat negative BFP – big fat positive TTC – trying to conceive CIO – cry it out, referring to sleep training for a baby 28.What is snowflake ? A. an insult to describe a natural phenomenon B. a brand of beer in China C. referring to a sensitive or self-centered man D. a latest word to desrible a pragnant woman 29. What do we know about the new words added to the latest Dictionary? A. They are usually widely used. B. They are popular on the Internet. C. Some of them are based on traditional culture . D. They should be several meanings and often used. 30. Which word may be used by a young parents when they train their baby? A. BFN. B. BFP. C. CIO. D. TTC 31. What's the purpose of the article above? A. To teach students how to look up words in the dictionary. B. To introduce the latest new words in Oxford English Dictionary . C. To help to develop the English language D. To prove the society is developing rapidly. D They have beaten us at chess, Go and co-written a Europop album. Now computers are taking a step into a very human territory: the reading comprehension test. Alibaba on Monday said its artificial research outperformed mere human beings in a global reading comprehension test that seeks answers to such pressing questions as “what was Nikola Tesla’s ethnicity?” and “how big is the Amazon rainforest?”Luo Si, chief scientist of natural language,dubbed the machines’ victory “a milestone”. In the test last week, companies subjected their artificial intelligence systems to queries(质询) from the Stanford Question Answering Dataset, which assessed reading comprehension. The computers’ answers were compared against average human responses and ranked. Tying in top place were Microsoft, the US software giant, and Alibaba.While Microsoft and Alibaba won by the slimmest of margins(优势) — at accuracy levels a few basis points above humans’ 82.3 per cent in providing exact matches to questions — the tie provided a fitting symbol of the AI arms race being waged by the US and China. China aims to use its vast collection of data, collated from its 1.4 billion population including 730m who are online, to overtake the US in creating a $150 billion industry. Tencent, which boasts just shy of one billion monthly active users on its social media WeChat app, and Alibaba have adopted AI in operations such as customising news and ads, and are investing in new fields. Similar technology, relying on drilling down in texts such as Wikipedia(维基百科) to learn and parrot information, has been used for answering the presumably more prosaic questions that flood in from buyers (“where’s my package?”) on Alibaba’s Singles Day shopping festival. 32. Which field is the artificial machines stepping in ? A.Chess. B. Go. C. Album. D.Reading . 33. What can we learn from the passage? A. The computers’answers were compared with human’s and ranked . B. Tencent is leading its rivals in autonomous driving . C. Alibaba boasts one billion monthly users on WeChat . D. Baidu have adopted AI in operations such as news and ads . 34. Towards artificial research, what is the writer’s attitude? . A.Suspicious B. Supportive C. Ambiguous D. Indifferent 35. Where is the passage probably from? . A. A science magazine B. A fashion talk show C. A foreign guide D. An teaching reference book. 第二节(共5小题,每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项,选项中有两项为多余选项。 How to fall asleep in 120 seconds The US Navy Pre-Flight School developed a scientific method. _36___There are some steps . If you follow them, falling asleep is a piece of cake. ___37___ Relax all of your face muscles——no squinting(斜眼) or frowning(皱眉). Your forehead should be smooth. Let everything go loose. Breathe out as you feel your cheeks, mouth, tongue, and jaw relax. When you relax your face ,you signal to the rest of your body it's time to sleep. Make your upper body relaxed. Now it's all about the shoulders. Let them drop as low as they can. You should feel the back of your neck go lifeless. Let all the muscles there go even looser. ___38__ Let them also drop down your body. In a word, your upper body should be relaxed, like it's sinking into you. You're more than halfway there. Talk to your legs. Next step is your legs. Tell your right upper leg muscle to sink. And tell the same thing to your right calf(小腿) muscles. __39___Repeat the process with the left leg, talking to your upper leg, then your calf, then your ankle and foot. Don’t think about anything __40__ That's it. No thinking about what went wrong that day, or what time you need to get up. When you're physically relaxed and your mind is still for at least 10 seconds, you'll be asleep. A . Relax your face. B. Rub your face repeatedly. C. It is aimed at falling asleep day or night in under two minutes. D. Feel the muscles go relaxed, as your leg sinks into the ground. E. The last step is to clear your mind for 10 seconds F. Then do the same thing for your ankle and foot. G. Next are your arms. 第三部分英语知识运用(共两节,满分55分) 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 Cindy, my dog, was six years old and she was the most home-loving dog. I loved her and she knew it. When my son was born, she was immediately very 41 over him. My son was almost three years old. We lived near a 42 road and we were very careful of always keeping the child inside – without 43 . One morning, around 4 am, our son somehow 44 to ‘escape’ through his bedroom window. Cindy 45 not to go outside (apart from the garden) without us. She also knew that our son wasn't allowed to 46 the front door without us, evidenced by her pushing at him if he 47 the front door handle. This day, she 48 my son through the window. At 5 am, the 49 woke us knocking on the door. Their words were - “your son was nearly killed but your dog 50 it”. The driver said he was driving along in the dark and in the 51 he could see something ‘light coloured’ 52 on the road. As he got closer, he could see a dog at the side of the road barking at the ‘ 53 coloured’ thing. At the 54 moment, he realised that this was a 55 and was too late to stop. He said he could see the dog 56 out into the road , jump at the child’s back and throw him out of the 57 of the lorry and at the same time, the lorry hit the dog and 58 her. Hearing these words, all the people especially me cried and cried. That was 39 years ago and I still 59 Cindy every day. She was a rough collie (苏格兰牧羊犬) and I can understand why this dog was 60 for the movies. 41.A. protective B.dependent C.admirable D. believable 42.A.wide B. busy C. smooth D.narrow 43.A. permission B. exception C.account D. discount 44.A.lied B. pretended C. managed D. sought 45.A. imagined B.gained C.guessed D. knew 46.A.came near B.passed by C. go through D.get away with 47.A. touched B. damaged C.repaired D. spotted 48.A. encouraged B.prevented C. helped D. followed 49.A. narrator B. police C.driver D. spy 50.A. saved B. bit C. limited D. tricked 51.A.neighborhood B. distance C.scene D. direction 52.A. bowing B. flying C.weeping D. moving 53.A. combined B.balanced C. light D. dark 54.A. last B.first C. best D.worst 55.A. dog B. baby C.angel D. goddess 56.A. escape B.roll C. wander D. run 57.A. path B. location C.back D. top 58.A.drowned B.?injured C. killed D. starved 59.A.praise B.memorize C. remember D. miss 60.A.consulted B.apologized C. chosen D. allowed 第II卷 注意事项: 用0.5毫米黑色笔迹的签字笔将答案写在答题卡上。写在本试卷上无效。 第三部分英语知识运用(共两节,满分55分) 第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 Chinese has overtaken French, Spanish and German to become one of the most popular foreign languages for job seekers in the UK. Research shows graduates in Chinese earn 61.average yearly salary of ?31,000 or 62 .(much). “I had a lot of friends on other courses 63.didn’t do much in first or second year. But for Chinese majors, you have to spend hours and hours 64.(write) characters,” says Hannah Jackson, who graduated in Chinese Studies from Sheffield University in 2012. Hannah describes her course as “majorly intense”. “Most of my friends admitted to crying in the first week owing 65.the course intensity (强度). I was almost told at one point that I might want to reconsider and drop out.” “The degree is 66.(absolute) worth it. The efforts 67.(pay) off so far. I like that I could live, work and operate with relative ease in China. Looking around at people who have studied French or Spanish at university, I find there’s no such chance 68.(use) what they’ve learned in the workplace,” Hannah says. Hannah went to look for a job in Shanghai, where she found more employment 69.(opportunity). After working as a project manager for Intralink Group for four years, she set up 70.(she) own company earning ?5,000 a day. She has now returned to the UK and works in business development for the Body Shop. 第四部分写作(共两节满分35分) 第一节短文改错(共10小题,每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(﹨)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 Cherry, whom is about 5 or 6 years old, is my favorite pet. About three years before, Cherry showed up at our house. I have just lost my cat and was very sadly, so I didn’t plan to own another pet. At first, we ignored her. We were getting ready leave for a vacation. My two daughter kept wanting us to keep her and fed her behind my back. Finally I had to tell them if he was still here when we got back, we would keep her. I was sure a dog would move on. Guess what? When we got back from vacation, but the dog was still around. It seemed like an angel had send her to us. 第二节书面表达 (满分25分) 假如你是李华,下周你将参加一场名为”“Classic literature”英语演讲比赛。请你写一封电子邮件,向你的英国笔友Bill求助。要点如下: 1.对主题的看法; 2.请求修改演讲稿; 3.表示感谢,邀请暑假来中国。 注意:1.字数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.开头语已为你写好。 Dear Bill, How are you getting on these days? Yours Li Hua 2019年高三英语压轴卷二答案及解析 答案: 听力部分 1-5ACABC 6-10ABBAC 11-15CABAB 16-20CCABB 阅读理解 A 【解题导语】本文是应用文,为谷歌上海办事处招聘人力资源经理的招聘启事。 21. A 细节理解题。根据文章开头:Google Position: HR Manager/Business Partner-Shanghai 判断,招聘职位为HR Manager。 22. B 细节判断题。根据Responsibilities中的介绍:determine investment intention and serve the staff,决定投资意向和为职工服务不属于这一职位的范畴。 23. D 细节理解题。根据Requirements:对职位应聘要求的描述:1.本科以上学历,有较强的学术记录。MBA或硕士学位。2。有与研发部门合作的经验。3.10-14年工作经验,其中6年以上为基础广泛的人力资源工作。正确答案为D. B 【解题导语】本文是一属记叙文。作者叙述了自己买粪肥引发的小事故,以及自己巧妙解决这一难题的故事。 24.C 事实细节题。从第二段“Excuse me but there must be a mistake. I only ordered a small amount of it, but…..” Obviously, I didn't have a choice as he put it down in my backyard.可知:对不起,一定是弄错了。我只要求少量的,但是……显然,我是没有选择的,因为他把它放在我的后院。故C正确。 25.C段落大意题。根据文章的第三段,可知: 当肥料被放下时,我几乎不能呼吸了。当卡车离开时,我意识到,味道真的很可怕。很快,每个人都知道在某个地方似乎发生了一起可怕的事故。答案为C。 26.D主旨大意题。根据A. He is a wise man who speaks little. 聪明不是挂在嘴上;B. He who controls himself is not fit to command others. 正人先正己;C. He who risks nothing gains nothing. 收获与风险并存;D. Kill two birds with one stone.一箭双雕。及文章大意知道:作者巧妙处理了粪肥,而且每位获取的人也利用了这个肥料。一举两得。故D正确。 27.D推理判断题。根据文章,作者叙述了自己买粪肥引发的小事故,以及自己巧妙解决这一难题的故事。因为肥料多,有难闻的气味,作者和有可能在牌子上写;有机肥免费使用。 C 【解题导语】本文介绍了牛津词典新收录了一些词汇和怎样才符合被收录的条件,并且列举了一些典型词汇加以说明。 28.C细节理解题。根据第一段中:'snowflake' is “an insult to describe someone who is "too sensitive or as feeling entitled to special treatment or consideration".可知:雪花是对于那些过分敏感或者认为自己享有特权或者优待的人贬义统称。故C“指一个敏感或以自我为中心的人。”正确。 29.D细节理解题。根据第二段内容可知:加入词典的新词要有几个不同的例子,而且在某段时间内要相当程度的引用次数,才能被收入词典之内。在最新改版以前,研究人员访问了在线亲子养育的网站Mumsnet的网站来看下是不是有什么时下流行的新词。故D“它们应该有几个意思,最新的和经常使用的”正确。 30.C细节理解题。根据第三段while further down the line parents may try CIO (cry it out) as a means of baby sleep training.可知:在进一步的研究中,家长们可能会把CIO(哭出来)作为一种婴儿睡眠训练的方法。 31.B主旨大意题。第一段引出话题:牛津词典新收录的1000个词条;第二段第三段主要谈新词的选择和标准,第四段列举10个新收录词汇。故选B. D 【解题导语】本文是科普说明文,主要介绍了电脑又进军一个非常人性的领域:阅读理解测试,以及测试过程和电脑在中国的发展现状。 32.D细节理解题。根据第一段They have beaten us at chess, Go and co-written a Europop album. Now computers are taking a step into a very human territory: the reading comprehension test可知,电脑已经在国际象棋和围棋上打败我们,合写了一张欧洲流行乐专辑。现在,电脑又进军一个非常人性的领域:阅读理解测试。故选D。 33.A推理判断题。根据第一段可知:在上周进行的测试中,参赛公司让各自的人工智能系统解答斯坦福问答数据集的提问,该数据集评估阅读理解能力。计算机的答案被与普通人的答复进行比较,然后据此排名。故选A. 34.B推理判断题。根据第一段可知:电脑已经在几个领域打败人类,如今进军阅读领域。后面第四段又出现这样的描述:at accuracy levels a few basis points above humans’ 82.3 per cent in providing说电脑准确且正确率高,可推知作者是看好这一技术的,故选B。 35.A推理判断题。文章主要介绍了电脑又进军一个非常人性的领域:阅读理解测试,以及测试过程和人工智能在中国的发展现状。故“A 科学杂志” 是来源出处。 36-40 CAGFE 【解题导语】 本文是一篇说明文,介绍了如何在两分钟内入睡的方法。 1 C 过渡句。根据上句 “美国海军预备飞行学校开发了一种科学方法”可知,此处应与之相呼应,“这种方法的目的就是无论白天或晚上在两分钟内进入睡眠状态。”故选C。 2 A 标题句。根据本段的含义可知,此处的子标题应是Relax your face.故选A。 3 G 过渡句。根据下文“Let them also drop down your body.”可知,此处的them指代的是arms,故选G。 4 F 细节句。根据上文的“下一个目标是你的腿。让右大腿和右小腿一样放松。”以及下文的“左腿也重复这个过程,从大腿到小腿,然后是脚踝和脚。”可知,此处应指的是“让右脚踝和脚一样放松。”故选F. 5 E 细节句。根据子标题Don’t think about anything可知,此处应是“最后一步是清空大脑十秒钟”,故选E。 完形填空 41~45 ABBCD 46~50 CADBA 51~55BDCAB 56~60 DACDC 【解题导语】 本文是一篇记叙文,记述了作者饲养的一只苏格兰牧羊犬尽职尽责,牺牲自己救了孩子性命的感人故事。 41.A 句意:我儿子一出生,她马上就十分注意保护他。protective关切保护的。 42.B 句意:我儿子差不多三岁时,我们家附近一条路上车很多,我们一直很警惕不让孩子出前门——从无例外。a busy road 一条繁忙的马路,指车很多。 43.B 根据2的解释,with exception无一例外。 44.C 根据后文叙述在路上出事故,推出句意:一天早上凌晨4点左右,我儿子不知怎么地成功“逃”出了卧室窗户。manage to do 设法做成某事。 45.D 根据后一句She also knew that…,推出此处为knew。 46.C 句意:他也知道不允许孩子在我们不在身边时通过前门出去。go through 通过。 47.A 句意:我儿子一碰(touch)前门把手它就会推他。 48.D 根据后文他救了我儿子,推出句意:那天它跟着(follow)我儿子从窗户出去了。 49.B 根据常识:出了交通事故,应该是警察来通知家人。故police正确。 50.A 根据后文内容可知:那条狗救了(save)我儿子的命。 51.B 句意:离很远他就看见一个“浅色东西”正在马路上移动。in the distance 在远处。 52.D 根据孩子很小的事实推断和11的解释,moving合乎语境。 53.C根据上一句提示“light coloured”。 54.A 根据后一句:“太晚了以至于停不住车”推出句意:最后一刻(the last moment)他才发现那是个孩子。 55.B 根据14的解释。 56.D句意:“司机刹车时狗就跑出来(run out of)冲到路上,跳到孩子背后,把他推出了卡车的路线。” 57.A 根据16的解释,“推出了卡车的路线throw him out of the path of the lorry”。 58.C 根据hit the dog和后一句人们痛哭,推出狗被撞而死(kill her)。 59.D句意:39年过去了,我每天都想念(miss)Cindy。 60.C 句意:它是一条苏格兰牧羊犬,我终能理解为什么拍电影这个品种的狗会被选中了。be chosen for sth 为…被选中。 语法填空 61. an 62. more 63. who/that 64. writing 65. to 66. absolutely 67. have paid 68. to use 69. opportunities 70. her 【分析】 本文是一篇新闻报道。文章讲了英国的就业形势日益严峻,但学中文的英国毕业生却越来越抢手。 61.考查固定短语。句意:研究显示,学中文的毕业生平均年薪达3.1万英镑以上。an average平均起来,该短语是固定短语,所以填an。 62.考查比较级。句意:研究显示,学中文的毕业生平均年薪达3.1万英镑以上。文中表示“更多”,用比较级,所以填more。 63.考查定语从句。___3___didn’t do much in first or second year.作定语,修饰friends,所以___3___didn’t do much in first or second year.是一个定语从句,friends是先行词,关系词在从句中作主语,指人,所以填who/that。 64.考查固定句型。句意:但是学中文,你每天都需要花大把时间写汉字。”spend time (in) doing sth.花费时间做某事,该句型是固定句型,所以填writing。 65.考查固定短语。句意:我身边大多数中文系同学都表示,由于学习强度太大,第一周都掉眼泪了。owing to由于,因为…,该短语是固定短语,所以填to。 66.考查副词。句意:中文学位,绝对值得拥有。该空修饰形容词worth,用副词,所以填absolutely。 67.考查时态。根据时间状语so far,可知用现在完成时,所以填have paid。 68.考查非谓语动词。句意:我发现身边学法语和西语的同学就很难有这样好的职业发展。该空作定语修饰chance,用不定式,所以填to use。 69.考查名词。该空作found的宾语,用名词。表示“就业机会”,是复数,所以用名词复数,填opportunities。 70.考查物主代词。题干中表示“她建立起了她自己的公司”,用形容词性物主代词,所以填her。 短文改错 【分析】 这是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲了作者去一家商店修表,看到一个坐轮椅的老人需要帮忙,作者询问老人是否需要帮忙。当作者得知修表费用很贵,准备离开时。老人说自己愿意为他出修表的费用。 【详解】 第一处:考查固定结构。“我的手表”和“修理”之间是被动关系,所以用have sth. done结构,所以repair→repaired。 第二处:考查动词。句意:店员检查了手表后,说她不得不和经理联系,看这个问题能否被修理。文中表示“联系”,而contact with表示“与…有交往”,所以去掉with。 第三处:考查固定短语。文中表示“当我正在等经理的回复”,用wait for,所以wait后加for。 第四处:考查冠词。文中表示“我看到轮椅上的一位老人”,泛指一位老人,old的首字母发音是元音,所以a→an。 第五处:考查时态。作者是在回忆昨天发生的往事,用一般过去时,所以ask→asked。 第六处:考查名词。句意:我问他是否需要一些帮助。help当“帮助”讲时,是不可数名词,所以helps→help。 第七处:考查形容词。这里含有一个倒装句,作was的表语,用形容词,所以kindly→kind。 第八处:考查代词。句意:我发现我没法做任何事情来帮助他。根据上文内容,可知这位老人为男性,所以her→him。 第九处:考查形容词。根据I was very sad可知这里意思是店员回复说,修理这个问题,需要花很多钱。表示“很多”,所以little→much。 第十处:考查连词。句意:我非常难过,正要离开这家商店,就在那时,这位老人说:“你是一个很好又体贴的男孩,我愿意帮你付钱。” 若主、从句表示的是两个同时(或几乎同时)发生的短暂性动作,一般要用 when,所以while→when。 书面表达 Dear Bill, How are you getting on these days? I am terribly busy nowadays because I am preparing for a Spoken English Contest to be held next week. But I am not sure about my writing, so I wonder if you can give me a hand. My first problem is the understanding of the topic “Classic Literature”. I don’t know much about it and find it hard to state my opinion in my speech draft. Will you be kind enough to describe your understanding ? My second problem is whether you can polish my speech draft when it is finished by myself. I would appreciate it greatly if you can do me a favor. And by the way, I’d like to invite you to China during this summer vacation. Thank you. Best wishes! Yours Li Hua 听力材料 (Text1) W: Do you like going to the shop and hang out somewhere with me,James? M: No, it is boring! I would rather swim or ride my bike. (Text2) M: I'm going to have my hair cut and colored. What about your weekend? W: Oh, I will go to the dentist and have one bad tooth pulled. (Text3) W: Have you started your homework, son? M: No, Mommy. I don’t want to write anything after a day’s school work. W: You are too lazy. M: OK. I'm going to eat something and then do homework. (Text4) W: Is this DA-ship- Company? I want to rent a ship.How much is it? M: 200 dollars a day. If you have a member card, we 'll give you a 10% discount. (Text5) M: Hi, are you free after work? W:Yes ,dear !What for? M:OK! Well, we have the new flat key today. We can go there to visit our new home! W:Oh!My favourite! To see two south bedrooms! (Text6) W:You promised me that you would pick our daughter up at noon but the teacher called me and asked me to school at 12:15 ! M:Oh! I'm sorry, but I am busy preparing for the meeting. What’s worse,I forgot to call you. Sorry again ! I will fetch her at once! W: I have picked her up and now we are eating out! You can come to pay for our lunch! M: OK! I ‘m sure to do that.And I will make an apology to Lucy in person. (Text7) W:Tim,look at my new red dress! M: Wow! Beautiful!Every time I see you, Lily, you're always wearing a different dress. You must have many dresses for different situations. W: Not exactly. I have one for every day of the week. M: And I guess your husband support you to do that . I mean buying some new clothes and admire you! W: He is a costume designer. You know!So I needn’t buy clothes and he often designed my dress himself. In fact,I have to try on most works for him. I am glad to act as a model ! M:Dear me! I forgot that! You are so happy with him!Many women will envy you! (Text8) W: Hi, could I have tickets for the next train to London, please? M:Do you choose single or return? How many tickets will you buy? W: Uh, one single and two returns the day after tomorrow. M: And one single is $153, the two returns are$360 together. W: Oh ,the two returns include a child ticket. M: The child ticket is half of the adult ticket. W: Here is the money.Where am I leaving from,please? M:The next train is at 4: 10 p. m, leaving from platform 2.Give me your ID cards who book tickets? W: The ID cards,please.What about the child ticket? M: I can only look at him and measure his height .Let your child come nearer. (Text9) W: The graduation is coming. I have to find a job, but I really don’t know how to start. What is your suggestion? M: Do you have the feeling that there are lots of jobs out here but it seems you cannot find one. W: How do you know? M: I felt the same when I hunted for a job before. The first thing you should do is to know what you’ re good at and put it into words. W: What do you mean? M: Actually, many of us are not naturally good at talking or writing about ourselves, so you have to brush up on the techniques. W: And after knowing myself, I may decide which job suits me. M: Right! Once you 've worked out why you’ re a good match for a job, it will be eaiser to make convincing applications. W: Then what should I do? M: Target the right employers, and reduce the chance of repeated rejection. W: I hate being rejected. It will make me unconfident. M: With any hunt there's always the possibility of disappointment, but don’ t let that turn into defeat.Fighting! W: OK!Thank you very much. (Text10) Four days ago, e of the world’s largest population centers escaped from the worst when Typhoon Mangkhut swept through Hong Kong and the cities of the Pearl River Delta, but not this remote village, a destination for something still novel in China: surfing.When the storm hit the village, called Xichong, it created the highest sea waves.And these waves destoryed dozens of small shops, cafes and guest cottages. Wind speed reached 100 miles per hour and scores of trees facing the South China Sea were fallen down.A brick guard house had stood onto the beach from a bank overlooking the sea, but its foundation washed away. A large piece of pink wall —being the color of choice here —collapsed, a reminder of the awesome power of typhoon. In a matter of hours, the typhoon destroyed a beachfront of Shenzhen, a center of global trade, investment and technology with 13 million residents. “Too horrible to look at,” said Xia Bing, who owns privileges along a section of the beach . Until Sunday his business included a cafe called Brother, changing facilities for swimmers and surfers, and some bungalows for overnight guests — all now ruins and broken branches. Facilities like air-conditioners and a television simply disappeared. 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)

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  • ID:4-5718199 [精]2019年高考英语压轴卷一(含听力书面材料和解析)

    高中英语/高考专区/模拟试题

    中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 2019年高三英语压轴卷一 第一部分听力(共两节,满分30分) 做题时,先将答案标在试卷上,录音内容结束后,你将有两分钟的时间将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。 第一节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面5段对话,每段对话后有一个小题。从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 例: How much is the shirt? ? 19.15. B.? 9.18. C.? 9.15. 答案是C。 1.From what day did Mark’s summer holiday begin? A. July 26. B. July 16. C. August 5. 2.Why do the woman stay inside today? A. Because of her illness. B. Because of the rain. C. Because of the bad weather. 3.How often does the bus comes today? A. Every 15 minutes. B. Every 3 minutes. C. Every 12 minutes. 4. What happened to the men? A. He had made a mistake. B. He was informed by mistake. C.He paid for a damaged book. 5. What can we know about the thank-card? A. It is very formal and serious. B. It is only kidding. C. It is so grateful. 第二节(共15小题;每小题1.5分,满分22.5分) 听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。 6.What are the speakers ? A.Workers B. Students. C. Teachers. 7.Why does the man call to the woman? A.Because he doesn’t want to work there . B. Because he can’t go to work due to his illness. C. Because he want to make some complaints . 听第7段材料,回答第8、10题。 8.Why does the man ask for a cold water? A.Because he wants to cool himself. B. Because he has a stomachache . C. Because he felt sick. 9.Where may the conversation take place? A In a hotel. B.In a cafe. C On a bus. 10.What will be offered for the man? A. A warm water. B. A plastic bag. C. Some bills . 听第8段材料,回答第11至13题。 11.What subjects mentioned are there in the passage? A. Science, Maths,English,History and Music. B. Science,Chinese,Maths,English and Music. C. Science, Maths,English ,Art and Music. 12.What relationship is the speakers? A. Music teacher and student. B.Sister and brother. C Mother and son. 13.What will be banned for the man ? A. Watching TV. B. Playing the guitar. C. Learning maths . 听第9段材料,回答第14至16题。 14.What does the woman want the man to do? A.To help her look after her vegetables. B. To visit her and pick some melons. C. To take care of her home while she is away. 15.What should she do before she goes on vacation? A. Lock??the?door?and?make?sure?all?the?windows?are?shut. B. Continue the?milk and newpapers deliery?service. C. Inform all her neighbors about her leaving. 16.How often will the vegetables be watered? A. Every third day. B. Every second day. C. Every day. 17. What kind of job may the man be? A. An official . B. A soldier. C.A block guard. 听第10段材料,回答第17至20题。 18. What does the speaker like to drink? A. Beer. B. Wine. C. Whiskey. 19.How much alcohol does Whiskey contain? A. 44%. B. 14%. C. 40%. 20.Which man is more likely to choose good quality beer to drink ? A.A softer personality. B. A better taste of life. C. A higher social status. 第二部分阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) (共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C、和D)中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A These countries are blessed with a variety of amazing natural landscapes, all of which have fascinating natural cultural landscapes.Hope the following is helpful for you to choose one or some to travel. Nepal?–?The?World’s?Hiking?Capital Nepal’s?natural?landscapes?are?some?of?the?most?amazing?and?beautiful?in?the?world.?Even?themost?well-traveled?will?find?themselves?attracted?by?the?breathtaking?views?of?Nepal.?Not?only?is Nepal?the?hiking?capital?of?the?world,?it’s?also?a?very?cheap?country. Norway?–?Lights?and?Laughter Norway?is?a?hikers?paradise.?The?country?is?popular?with?those?who?want?to?explore?glaciers ,?or?chase?the?Northern?Lights.?From?August,?you’ll?catch?the?end?of?the?midnightsun?and,?if?you’re?lucky,?you may witness the?start?of?the?dancing?light?show. Iceland?–?Geologically?Diverse Iceland?is?volcanically?and?geologically?active.?The?country?consists?mainly?of?a?plateau characterized(高原的特征)?by?sand,??fields,?mountains?and?glaciers.?Visitors?to?Iceland?can?also be absorbed in?Iceland’s?favorite?pastime:?relaxing?in?warm,?mineral-rich?hot?springs?that?relax ?the?body and?the?mind. Australia?–?Complex?Architecture?and?Excellent?Beaches Australia?has?a?huge?variety?of?things?to?see?and?do.?Australia’s?national?parks?and?vast ?range of?landscapes?are?what?make?it?so?extraordinary.?From?the?Mornington?Peninsula?National ?Park facing?the?open?sea?to?the?Great?Barrier?Reef?that’s?one?of?the?natural?wonders?of?the?world,? Australia’s?sights?are?never?ending.?Australia?also?offers?a?range?of?man-made?marvels,?including? the?Sydney?Opera?House. 21.Which place has another name “The?World’s?Hiking?Capital”? A. Australia B. Iceland C. Norway D. Nepal 22. Which of the following can’t you enjoy in Norway? A.Walking everywhere as a hikers?. B. Exploring glaciers . C.Chasing the?Northern?Lights D. Relaxing yourself?in hot?springs 23. Which place may an architect probably choose as his travel destination? A. Nepal B. Iceland C. Australia D. Norway 24.Who is the passage intended for? . A. Busy businessmen B. English teachers C. Travelers fond of adventures D. Exchange students B A?mom?got?a?shock?when?she?came?home?from?a shopping?trip?to?find?her?baby?daughter completely bald. "My?boyfriend?and?mother-in-law?shaved?my baby!"?Alexandra 58?posted?on the?US?WebsiteBabycentre. She?explained?that?her?boyfriend?had?brought?up?the idea?of?shaving?a?week?earlier,?suggesting?that?it would?give?their?baby?better?hair."I?felt it?bull?and refused,"?she?added. "Whether?it?works?or?not,?I'm?still?upset?he?chose?to?do?it?without?my consent?and?that?his?Mom was?a?participant,?since?she's?already?in?the?doghouse?for?coming over?Christmas?Eve?and mothering?my baby?with?kisses?when?she?had?the?flu." "My?poor?baby?looks?so?funny?and?I'm?amazed?she?sat?through?it."?The?mom?says?it's?a?"cultural thing"?for?her?boyfriend?and?his?family,?who?are?from?Mexico."He?apologized?and?admitted?he?was?wrong?for?doing?so?but?it?was?my mother-in-law's?idea since?she?gave?him?a?new?electric shaver?for?Christmas?and?he?didn't?let me?know?because?he knew?I'd?get?mad?and?he?wanted?her? to?have?pretty?hair?and?he?feels?he?doesn't?have?a?say?in anything?else." Perth-based?hair?science?expert?Simone?Lee?says?it's?a?myth?that?shaving?a?baby's?head?will improve?hair?growth."There's?no?scientific?evidence?or?reason?behind?that?theory,"?Lee?tells Mamamia."Shaving?hair?will?not?make?the?hair?grow?any?thicker?or?faster.?The?growth?of?hair depends?on?the?follicles(毛囊)?beneath?the?scalp."However,?after?shaving,?a?baby's?regrowth?can look? thicker."When?babies?are?first?born,?their hair?can?be?quite?irregular,"?Lee?explains."So?by?shaving?the? hair,?when the?hair?does?grow?back,?it's?quite?even more regular.?To?the?eye,?it?would appear?as?though? there?were?more?hair,?even?though?there isn't." She?says?“in?some?cultures,?shaving?babies?is?a?tradition.We?do?have?people?come?in?with?that?train?of?thought:?'Will?you?please?shave?our?baby'shead?'?" 25. Which?word can?be?best?replaced??"bald"?? . A.hairy B. hairless C. changed D. missing 26. Why is shaving the baby in Simone?Lee’s opinion? A.To make its mother angry and annoyed. B. To help it grow thicker and more hair C. To follow the local tradition D.To play a joke on the baby 27.What is the attitude of the baby mother to the shaving? . A.Neutral B. Indifferent C. Critical D. Disapproval? 28. Which of the following statements can Simone?Lee?agree on? A.Shaving?a?baby's?head must improve?hair?growth B.The hair of babies first born is?quite?disharmonious. C. they will grow more and better hair after shaving. D. there is no?scientific?evidence to support the baby’s shaving. C China's oracle bone scripts, an ancient type of Chinese characters were carved on animal bones or turtle shells, have successfully entered the UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, according to the Chinese Ministry of Education.So far, China has 11 pieces of documentary files on the list, including the documents of the Nanjing Massacre. Oracle is an ancient Chinese text with the earliest on keel and is an early form of Chinese characters, and sometimes is considered to be one of the style of Chinese characters and also China's oldest existing a mature text.The characters inscribed(雕刻) on the bones and shells have contributed greatly to Chinese civilization, enabling Chinese culture to be passed on from generation to generation and become the only civilization to last up to the present.However, in the past 100 years since being discovered, only about 2,000 characters from the oracle bone scripts have been decoded. There are at least 3,000 more remaining to be deciphered(破译).According to published materials, there are about 150,000 pieces of unearthed oracle bone scripts, and about 100,000 were preserved in the Chinese mainland, 30,000 in Taiwan and the other 20,000 were scattered across the world. It is expected that by entering the Memory of the World Register, the archaeological study of the ancient characters could be encouraged."It is only a new beginning," said Song Zhenhao, director of the Oracle Bone Scripts Study Center of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, hoping that the new achievement could inject a vigor into the ancient study. 29.What can we infer about China's oracle bone scripts according to paragraph 2? A.The oracle bone scripts have been easily decoded. B.Oracle bone scripts remain mysterious and can’t be decoded. C.Many oracle bone scripts are waiting to be decoded. D.Oracle bone scripts can be discovered all over the world. 30.What does the underlined word “inject a vigor into” in the last paragraph mean? A.promote. B.result in C.guide D.conduct 31.Which of the following can be the main idea of the text? A.China's oracle bone scripts have entered the UNESCO. B.China has 11 pieces of documentary files in Memory of the World Register. C.China's oracle bone scripts have made a great contribution to human beings. D.The archaeological study of the ancient characters could be encouraged. D Scientists have successfully tweaked(调整) the DNA of mice with a specific genetic mutation to prevent them from going completely deaf. If the gene-editing technique is proven safe, it could one day be used to treat the same type of hearing loss in people. Researchers injected the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 inside the ears of live mice with a deafness-causing genetic mutation. The molecular scissors(分子剪刀) were able to precisely cut the disease-causing copy of the gene without disrupting the healthy copy, according to a study published today in Nature. Even though the researchers think they were able to repair only a small part of cells in the ear that prevented treated mice from losing all their hearing. Gene editing has been making huge strides in the past few years. Just last month, scientists attempted to edit a person's DNA inside his own body for the first time in order to cure a debilitating genetic disorder called Hunter syndrome. The technique described in today's study also attempts to edit DNA inside the body of a living animal - in this case, mice. Though the treatment is still years from coming to a clinic near you, it's an important step in the development of gene therapies, which tinker with genes in order to treat or prevent diseases. "We have entered the age where the human genome(基因) is a real drug target," says Fyodor Urnov, the associate director at Altius Institute for Biomedical Sciences, who was not involved in the study. The researchers "have provided the first important step and a strong perspective of hope for people who have this mutation." The gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 is based on a defense mechanism bacteria use to ward off viruses by cutting off bits of their DNA. Scientists have engineered that mechanism to edit pieces of the genetic code, creating unusually muscular beagles, for instance, and mosquitoes that don't transmit malaria. The technique is advancing fast: Last year in China, doctors took immune cells from a patient with lung cancer, edited them, and then injected the cells back into the patient to help defeat the disease. 32. What is the main idea of the passage? A.Scientists have used a new technology to cure people of hearing loss. B. Scientists have successfully prevented mice from going completely deaf. C. The molecular scissors were able to cut the disease-causing copy of the gene . D. Doctors took immune cells from a patient with lung cancer to help defeat the disease. 33. Where did researchers inject the gene-editing tool during the experiment? A.Inside the living mice. B. In the patients’ deaf ears.. C. Inside the ears of living mice with deafness-causing gene. D. In the brain of the mice with genetic mutation . 34. What is the result of using the new technology according to the article? A. It has stopped the deaf mice from falling ill. B. It has completely repaired all fraction of cells in the deaf ears. C. It will be used to cure hearing loss of human beings. D. It only can prevent mice from going completely deaf. 35. What does the last paragraph suggest? A. The writer is confident to make the technology more successful. B. The new technology leads to more unusually muscular beagles. C. Editing the immune cells can defeat all kinds of cancers. D. The new medical science is advancing fastest in China. 第二节(共5小题,每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项,选项中有两项为多余选项。 Helen Keller, American blind writer, said: if I were given three days to see, I would not want to see too many wonderful things. 36 . Still let me quietly see the miracle of the night into the day, the blooming of flowers to wither, the changing of the sky white clouds.According to the above,we know eyes are so impotant for us. National Eye Caring Day in China is on June 6th, which came from 1996. 37 . They hoped to catch the public’s attention to protect their eyes. Nowadays, many young people haven’t realized the loss of sight, and have no idea to protect their eyes. 38 . Most people are born with good eyesight. But look at the students in college, we can see over ninety percents of them are wearing glasses. 39 .So it is easy to get short sight. Though the students are asked to do eye exercise during the break time, still their sight becomes weaker. 40 . They should let children know the beauty of nature and spend more time to appreciate the scenery. Seeing different colors and taking a break after reading for a long time, we can protect our eyes. Parents shouldn’t just give their children ipads when they feel annoyed. A. The young generation often watch the electronic products for a long time.? B. What's more, a balanced diet is necessary to keep our eyes healthy. C. So it is important to let the public know the ways to protect eyes. D. Parents have the responsibility to supervise kids to protect their eyes. E. At that time the doctors advised the government to name a day. F. It can do harm to our health and bring us trouble. G. Because when the darkness came, I would miss them too much. 第三部分英语知识运用(共两节,满分55分) 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A couple on Staten Island were having work done in their backyard, and discovered buried treasure worth a small fortune.Husband Matthew said finding the 41 in a safe was like a childhood dream come true. They had trouble with deer 42 their trees, so they had new trees 43 around the their yard, but in the process they 44 the exciting thing that at first they thought was just a box 45 electric wires . “It was really 46 when the deer ate away all the leaves,”husband Matthew said.They 47 a company, and that's when they realized there was not a lot of wires inside... instead, they guessed it was a safe filled with cash and 48 .Contained in the safe, soggy bills totaling $52,000, diamonds, rubies and more were found. “And there are all these bags with hundreds and jewelry, diamonds, engagement rings, dozens of rings, gold with jade,” Matthew said. “It was 49 .” The Emanuels also found something else contained inside--a piece of paper with an 50 . After the couple did a bit of 51 , they concluded the address was connected to a home on their 52 . So they headed over to their 53 . “First I knocked on the door and I asked them if they were ever 54 and they said they were,” Matthew said.The 55 proved the couple were robbed in 2011, with a 56 having $52,000 inside.So, the Emanuels did the right thing. They returned everything, making their neighbors very 57 . “A couple of people asked us, 'Why did you 58 it?',”wife Maria said. “It wasn't even a question. It wasn't ours.”Meanwhile the couple added, they hadn't received an 59 , but that the true reward was good blessing.Now, where the safe once stood, is a ceramic elephant in 60 of their incredible find. 41.A.treasure B.money C.wealth D. fortune 42.A.picking B. eating C. digging D. attacking 43.A. blown B. watered C. placed D. cut 44.A. discovered B. invented C. recovered D. protected 45.A.adding B. acting C. including D. containing 46.A.hopeful B.hopeless C. curious D. obvious 47.A. brought back B. brought up C. brought in D.brought out 48.A. gold B. jewels C. bills D. fees 49.A. bright B. extra C. ancient D. attractive 50.A. address B. name C. number D. word 51.A.experiments B. research C. operations D.housework 52.A. farm B.road C. block D. ground 53.A. partners’ B.children’s C.friends’ D. neighbors’ 54.A. informed B. educated C. robbed D. buried 55.A. leaders B. police C. judges D.lawyers 56.A. pack B. suitcase C. box D. safe 57.A. grateful B. concerned C. amazed D. determined 58.A. pay B.take C. return D. care 59.A. identity B. prize C. invitation D. reward 60.A. charge B. honour C. favor D.need 第II卷 注意事项: 用0.5毫米黑色笔迹的签字笔将答案写在答题卡上。写在本试卷上无效。 第三部分英语知识运用(共两节,满分55分) 第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 The International Children's Day (ICD) 61 (celebrate) in many countries, usually, but not always, is on June 1 each year. The ICD had its origin in the World Conference for Children in Geneva, Switzerland in 1925. It is not clear as to why June 1 was chosen 62 the ICD. One theory has it that a number of Chinese 63 (orphan) in San Francisco (USA) were gathered.They were celebrating the Dragon Boat Festival in 1925.The date happened 64 (be) on June 1 that year, and also met with the meeting in Geneva. On that day, the school always prepare some funny games for students,all of 65 leave the children 66 happy childhood. For most parents, they are very busy and don’t take Children’s Day 67 (serious).Most parents believe that 68 is no need to spare extra time to play with them. It is totally wrong thought. They will miss some important moments.Some parents satisfy their kids by 69 (give) money and buying what they want. Actually, it is better to spend some time with children, or have communication with them. Everything the elders do 70 (remember) by the young hearts.It is said that company is the best love.? 第四部分写作(共两节满分35分) 第一节短文改错(共10小题,每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(﹨)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 Riding bike is the basic skill for most people. I still remember the first time when I learn riding. It is the great achievement for me. My parents paid special attention to let me master the basic skills when I was very small. They believed that these skill were easy to learn by a kid. When my father gave me a bike, I felt so exciting and was so eager to learn it. At first, he would hold the bike for me, tell me to look forward to and never look back. And I just couldn't do it. I needed to check why he was there. My father secret started to let go. At last I learned ride bike. 第二节书面表达 (满分25分) 假定你是李华,你校举办一个学生书法展览(The Calligraphy Exhibition Festival),请你做代表以邮件形式邀请外教老师Peter来参加,内容包括: 1.时间和地点 2. 意义和目的 3.展览内容及活动说明 注意: 1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Dear Mr Peter, 2019年高三英语压轴卷一答案及解析 答案: 听力部分 1-5ACCBB 6-10CBCCA 11-15 ACBCA 16-20 BCBAC 阅读理解 A 【解题导语】本文是应用文,介绍了几个国家有幸拥有众多奇特惊人的自然景观,又有各种迷人的人文景观。 21. D 细节理解题。根据小标题Nepal?–?The?World’s?Hiking?Capital判断,正确答案为D. Nepal。 22. D 细节判断题。根据Norway?–?Lights?and?Laughter中的介绍:挪威是徒步者的天堂,很受那些想去冰川和海湾探险、追逐北极光的游客的欢迎。从八月份开始,你就可以捕捉到午夜阳光的尾巴,如果幸运的话,还可以看见舞动的极光秀。只有D不能享受到,泡温泉属于Iceland的特色项目,所以选择D。 23. C 推理判断题。根据小标题Australia?–?Complex?Architecture?and?Excellent?Beaches 判断,正确答案为“C. Australia应该为建筑师的首选”。 24. C 推理判断题中的写作对象题。根据文章开头的介绍,本文主要介绍四个国家的自然或人文景观,所以是针对喜爱冒险的旅行者的。 B 【解题导语】本文主要讲述了一位母亲叙述自己吃惊于婆婆和丈夫给婴儿剃头的事情,科学家就这一文化传统提出看法和解释。 25.B猜测词义题。根据第一段第二句可知, "我的男朋友和婆婆剃光了女儿的头发!"Alexandra58在美国网站Babycentre上发文说道。所以推出bold的含义是:hairless 无头发的。 26.C推理判断题。根据第四段可知, 给婴儿剃头能让他们长出漂亮长发只是神话,并没有科学证据或原因支持这一理论,加上最后一段第一句,在有些文化中,给宝宝剃头是个传统。故C正确。 27.D推理判断题。根据第一段?a?shock,第二段I?called?bull?and refused,第三段He?apologized?and?admitted?he?was?wrong?for?doing?so?可推知,婴儿的母亲不赞成这一做法。故D disapproval 正确。 28.D推理判断题。根据第三段:Shaving?hair?will?not?make?the?hair?grow?any?thicker?or?faster.可知C错误。 C 【语篇导读】本文介绍了我国的甲骨文成功入选了联合国教科文组织《世界记忆名录》,以及甲骨文的作用、历史和文化价值。 29.C推理判断题。根据第二段中:不过,在甲骨文被发现后的100年中,被释读出来的甲骨文仅约有2000字,至少仍有3000字有待释读。根据已出版的资料,大约有15万份出土的甲骨文,其中有10万份保存在中国大陆,3万份位于台湾,另外2万份分布在全世界。选项A甲骨文很容易被破解。B Oracle bone scripts remain mysterious and can’t be decoded. 甲骨文仍然是神秘的,无法解码。D Oracle bone scripts can be discovered all over the world. 甲骨文可以在世界各地发现。与原文不符合,故C“许多甲骨文的骨牌正在等待破译”正确。 30.A猜测词义题。根据第二段中:在甲骨文被发现后的100年中,被释读出来的甲骨文仅约有2000字,至少仍有3000字有待释读。另根据最后一段第二句内容可知:中国社会科学院甲骨文研究中心主任宋镇豪表示:“这只是一个新的开始。”他希望这项新成就可以为古代研究注入活力。所以此处应为promote刺激,提升,注入活力。故A正确。 31.A 主旨大意题。第一段主要谈我国的甲骨文成功入选了联合国教科文组织《世界记忆名录》第二段谈甲骨文的历史、现状和文化价值,第三段谈甲骨文入选《世界记忆名录》对这一文字的研究的推动价值。主旨还是就“甲骨文成功入选了《世界记忆名录》”谈甲骨文的文化价值。 D 【语篇导读】本文是科普说明文,主要介绍了科学家已成功调整了携带特定基因突变的小鼠的DNA,以预防它们完全失聪。如果能证明基因编辑技术是安全的,那么有朝一日这一方法或能用于治疗人类相同类型的听力损失。 32.B 主旨大意题。根据第一段可知,科学家已成功调整了携带特定基因突变的小鼠的DNA,以预防它们完全失聪。最大干扰项是D“医生们从一位患肺癌的病人身上提取了免疫细胞来帮助战胜这种疾病”根据最后一段本句表达正确,但不是文章要表达的主题。故选B。 33.C细节理解题。根据第二段第一句Researchers injected the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 inside the ears of live mice with a deafness-causing genetic mutation.可知:研究人员将基因编辑工具CRISPR-Cas9注射到活的小鼠的耳内。 34.D推理判断题。根据第二段最后一句可知:尽管研究人员认为他们只能修复耳内的一小部分细胞,但可以防止被治疗的小鼠完全失聪。故“D 它仅能防止小鼠完全失聪”正确。 35.A推理判断题。根据文章最后一句:这一技术正在飞速发展:去年在中国,医生从肺癌患者体内取走了免疫细胞,对这些细胞进行编辑,然后将其重新注回患者体内,以帮助他们战胜肺癌。可推知:A 作者有信心使类似的技术得到更广泛的应用,并取得更大的成功。是正确推测。 36-40 GECAD 【语篇导读】 本文是一篇应用文,讲述了中国爱眼日的由来和保护眼睛的重要性。 36.G 前一句句意:假如给我三天光明,我不想看太多精彩的事物。此句应为:因为等到黑暗到来,我会过度怀念它们。 37.E第一句:6月6日是全国爱眼日,起源于1996年。本句应为: ?当时医生们建议政府确定那么一个日子。衔接后面的一句:他们希望能通过特殊日子的提醒引起公众保护眼睛的意识。 38.C 前一句句意:现在,许多年轻人还没有意识到所失去的视力,也不知道如何保护自己的眼睛。所以此处为C:因此,让大家了解如何保护眼睛很重要。 39.A根据语境,此空应为:年轻一代经常长时间玩电子产品。衔接后一句句意:因此他们很容易近视。 40.D 本段主要谈父母在保护孩子视力中的引导责任。故段首句D:“父母有责任督促孩子保护自己的眼睛。”正确。 完形填空 41~45 ABCAD 46~50DCBAA 51~55BCDCB 56~60 DACDB 【语篇导读】【答案及解析】: 本文是一篇记叙文,讲述了伊曼纽尔夫妇在后院种树时,发现了埋藏的一箱珠宝,根据所留地址,将财宝物归原主,不计回报的感人故事。 41.A 根据前一句的treasure推出此答案。 42.B 句意:由于总有鹿来吃(eating)树叶,所以他们在院子周围种了新树。 43.C 根据42的解释,had new trees placed使新树被种植。 44.A 句意:但就在忙着种树时,二人发现(discovered)了如此让他们惊喜起初以为只是个“电线箱”的东西。文章开头第一句有提示。 45.D 根据44的解释,a box containing electric wires 装电线的箱子;contain v.包含,装有。本段第8空后有提示contained. 46.D 句意:丈夫马修说:“因为鹿把树叶都吃光了,所以这个箱子很明显(obvious)就被看到了。” 47.C 句意:随后他们请来了一个公司过来,这才意识到箱子里并不是一堆乱电线。bring in请来;引进。 48.B 后一句有提示,应为:jewels 珠宝。 49.A 句意:马修说道:“保险箱里面有许多装了百元大钞的袋子,袋子里还有各类珠宝、钻石、订婚戒指、其他各种戒指,黄金和玉石。都在闪闪着发亮。”bright 明亮的,闪亮的。 50.A 句意:除了金银财宝之外,夫妇俩还在保险箱里找到了一张纸,上面写着某个地址(address)。 51.B 句意:经过一番调查研究后,这对夫妇得出结论,这正是自己所在街区一户人家的地址。do research做调查研究。 52.C 根据51的解释,在这个街区on the block。 53.D 本段最后一句有提示neighbors。 54.C 句意:我先去敲了门,然后问他们是否被人抢劫过(rob),他们说是的。后一句有提示。 55.B 句意:经警察局(police)证实,这户人家确实曾在2011年遭遇抢劫。 56.D 句意:当时被抢走了一个装有52000美元的保险箱(safe)。 57.A 句意:他们把所有东西都物归原主,对此他们的邻居感激不尽(grateful)。 58.C 根据上一段最后一句提示,选择return。 59.D 句意:同时他们还表示,并没有因为这个举动而获得任何奖励(reward),但真正的奖励就是福气。 60.B 句意:现在,找到保险箱的那个地方安放着一尊瓷象,以纪念他们难以置信的发现。in honour of 为纪念……。 语法填空 61.celebrated 62. as 63.orphans 64. to be 65. which 66. a 67.seriously 68. there 69. giving 70. will be remembered 短文改错答案: Riding bike is the basic skill for most people. I still remember the first time when I learn riding. It is the great achievement for me. learned a My parents paid special attention to let me master the basic skills when I was very small. They believed letting that these skill were easy to learn by a kid. When my father gave me a bike, I felt so exciting and was so skills excited eager to learn it. At first, he would hold the bike for me, tell me to look forward to and never look back.. And I just couldn't do it. I needed to check why he was there. My father secret started to let go. At last I But whether secretly learned∧ ride bike. to 第二节书面表达(满分25分) One possible version: Dear Peter, I'm Li Hua,your Chinese student. It's my pleasure to invite you to the Calligraphy Exhibition Festival in our school. The Calligraphy Exhibition Festival will be held in the school library from 2:00 to 4:00 in the afternoon of next Saturday, June 9. The activity is aimed to enrich school life and arouse Chinese traditional culture.There will be a variety of exhibitions at the event,such as Five Traditional Chinese Written Forms, brush calligraphy, wonderful handwriting with pen or ball- pen ,etc. Selected students will also perform calligraphy arts on the scene.If you are curious about Chinese culture,don’t miss the excellent opportunity. Looking forward to your coming from the bottom of my heart. . Yours, Li Hua 听力材料 (Text1) W: Mark!I have heard you had a short summer holiday. M: You are right.①We only had a ten-day vacation. And on August 5,we returned to school. (Text2) M: Darling!It’s so strange that you should stay at home on weekend! W: You see,②the weather is so cloudy.I don’t want to be caught in the rain. M: After all, I still remember you had a bad cold after you were wet last time. (Text3) W: I am new here.Could you tell me how often the subway to the museum comes? M: Generally speaking ,③every 15 minutes.But today is Sunday .The time is shorter by three minutes each. (Text4) W: I have been waiting for you for 30 minutes. What happend to Ben? M: I was informed to the libiary just now.They said I had torn a book,but turned out another Ben did so. (Text5) M: Congratulations,Laory!You received a thank-you card from some where.Give it to you. W:Let me see . M:I know you are so friedly to help others….. W: It's just a joke.My husband thank me for not scolding him for getting drunk last night. (Text6) M: Hello! I’m Joe. Is that Meli speaking? W: Yeah! Speaking. M:⑥This morning I had a high fever .So I’m afraid I can’t go to work and mark the students’papers with our group. W: I’m sorry to hear that.Hope you will recover soon.As for the papers ⑦we other 10 teachers can finish it.Don’t worry! (Text7) M: Excuse me, Miss. I feel sick. Could you bring me a glass of ice water? W: Yes, Sir. But I suggest a glass of warm water, which I think will make your stomach feel better. M: Well, I'd like A glass of warm water, please. I feel like I'm a little dizzy. W: There's a vomit bag in the seat back pocket in front of you. Do you need any medicine? M: No, thank you very much for your kind service. W: You're welcome. I'll bring you the warm water soon. If you have any other questions, please press the red button for help. (Text8) W: You need to try harder in school. Today I called your headteacher and asked your performance in school.Your marks inscience are so low recently. M: I am trying my best. I simple don 't understand science, that's all. W: Is that the same reasoning you have formath? M:Yes, andEnglish, too. W: Tell me one single subject you're doing well in. Er….What about history? M:Well, I'm doing wonderfully in my music class.As for history, I am good at only the parts about Woodstock Music Festival. W:That's it! You're grounded! No guitar for a month. M:Great, now I'll surely have a low GPA. (Text9) W:I'?going?away?on?vacation?to?Germany?for?a short time,?and?I’?d?like?you?to?keep?an?eye on?my?home while?I'?m?away. M: Certainly,?madam.?What's?your?name?and?address? W: Sophia. My full name is Sophia Miller. And my house is 201 in the last line. M: OK.?You must?lock??the?door?and?make?sure?all?the?windows?are?shut tightly,?right? W: I will.And I?'ll?stop?the?milk and newpapers deliery?service. M:?Well done!By the way,?you?won’t?leave?any?ladders?outside in case of thieves. W:?No,?we?don’t?have?any.But I am afraid to trouble you to water my vegetables every other day. M: Oh?Fresh vegetables! And I like that job. W:?There are some small melons and after some days, you can pick some to cook. M: Thank you for the delicious melons.But are?you?friends with?the?people?next?door? In?my?opinion,?tell?them?to?give?us?a?call if?they?see?or?hear?anything unusual. (Text10) I love?wine.?I used?to?drink?beer?when I?was younger,?but?now?mostly?just?drink?wine.When drink beer,?maybe?after?one?or?two I start?to?feel?sick.?But?when I'm?drinking?wine, I can? easily drink?a?whole?bottle,?and?I?can easily?taste?a?good?quality?wine?versus?a?bad quality?wine,I can?taste the different?flavor.?So some?people?can?say?I?taste?cherries.?I taste strawberries.I'm starting to learn?that?stuff?as well. When we're?saying Whiskey,?Martini,?those are?types?of?alcohol. But?wine?itself would?be stuff?like Champagne,?red?wine. ?Whiskey?is?a different?kind?of?drink.?It's?incredibly strong. It's about?40%.It's?super?strong.Yes,?wine?is?made? of?grapes.?That's?the difference?between it?and?Whiskey.?Whiskey doesn’t?have?grapes.?And?then?the?percentage of ?alcohol,?wine is?about 11?to?14?generally,and?Whiskey?is?about?40. The?most?famous place?in?the?world?for?Whiskey is probably Scotland.?Scotland?does?really?good?Whiskey, and?Ireland?as?well,?where I'm?from. Spain is?more?popular?for?wine,?and Portugal?is another famous?country for?wine.Argentina Chile and?Brazile?are?starting?to? come.Then?you?have?Australiawho?have?a?really?good?wine?as?well.?France people?love?wine,?wine?and?cheese.If?you? drink?a?good?quality?wine,?it's?a?kind?of symbol?of your?social?status.Mostly?the lower class?would?drink?beer. 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)

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  • ID:4-5567712 [精]第39讲 议论文写作(解析版+原卷版)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    第39讲 议论文写作(原卷版) 近几年高考题中,议论文的特点是根据阅读材料所描述的某一事件、现象、观点或话题发表个人观点、意见和建议的一类读写任务,其实质就是要求考生根据题目要求写议论文。英语议论文有其独特的框架结构,能清晰展示作者的观点和思路,值得考生仔细斟酌,备考时掌握其诀窍,考场上游刃有余。 真题透析: ★【2018·江苏卷】 请阅读下面文字,并按照要求用英语写一篇150 词左右的文章。 【写作内容】 1. 用约30个词概括上述利用排名(ratings)进行消费的现象; 2. 谈谈你如何看待消费排名,然后用2-3个理由或论据支撑你的看法。 【写作要求】 1. 写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句; 2. 作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称; 3. 不必写标题。 【评分标准】内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____ 【佳作欣赏】 Possible version one: As a major channel of consumption information, the rating is an efficient source of information for shopping in our own consumption. Interestingly, the same rating may have different influences on different consumers. I tend to consult consumption ratings whatever I purchase. Firstly, the higher rating means the higher quality of the product, or better service. Based on the ratings, I bought my beloved backpack, saw interesting films and tasted delicious foods. Secondly, ratings can save time to make decisions in shopping. For example, there are huge amounts of reference books which I am often confused to choose from. In that case, it is both convenient and economical to buy books according to the ratings. There is no doubt that it is unwise to depend completely on the ratings in consumption. The advantages and disadvantages of ratings are often closely related. It is necessary to hold an objective attitude towards ratings. Possible version two: Nowadays, most commodities or services are rated through certain channels. These ratings, easy to access, are playing an increasingly important role in customers' purchase decision. However, results are sometimes unsatisfactory. There is no denying that such ratings might bring convenience to consumers, but they are often misleading and unreliable. As we all know, most of the ratings are based on others’ judgment on the product or service concerned. Every judgment comes from a specific need or a unique psychological state. Apparently, blindly following others' advice will affect our own judgment. Another fact should not be neglected that some of the ratings are the outcome of a careful manipulation of companies or sellers. It has become a common practice for some to pay for good ratings on their products or services so as to increase their sales. Therefore, we should give a second thought to these ratings whenever we go shopping. 【亮点解析】 本作文是读写作文,即先用30词概括阅读材料,然后针对材料中的话题写一篇议论文谈看法。首先要认真阅读两段有关消费排名现象及观点的纯文字材料,然后进行比较和分析,表明态度,作出价值判断。 文章首段要简要介绍两段材料,第一段材料为一对母子买旅行箱看了网上的评论,结果买回来的旅行箱质量很好。第二段材料为一帮人去餐馆吃饭,看了on-line rating,结果饭菜很不好吃,从而凸显出online rating的不靠谱。 然后写考生对online rating的看法,表明观点,注意用2-3个论据来支撑自己的看法。 文章属于议论文,要注意主题句的使用,论点之间要注意有条理。文章可主要采用一般现在时,第三人称来写。 一、文体特征 议论文以议论为主要表达方式,运用概念、判断和推理来表明作者对某一议论对象的观点和主张。英语的论辩(argumentation)和劝说(persuasion)往往联系紧密,难分彼此,因此人们常用argumentation或argumentative writing把这两者包容在其中。然而,严格来说,论辩的目的是要获得真理,但劝说的目的是要使被劝说者赞同劝说者的意愿。 写作要点: 要写好议论文,必须注意以下几点: 1.确定论点,通常在文章的第一段提出。 2.要有足够的论据,可以列举生活的实例。 3.论证要有严密的逻辑性,所有事实、原因、理由应紧密地同结论联系起来。 4.层次要清楚。 5.态度诚恳、友好,因为议论文重在说理,以理服人。 6.论据要充分,欲证明自己的观点必须有充分的证据。作者可以列举事实、展示数据、提供事例、借助常识或利用亲身经历。 二、技巧点拨 议论文(1)——正反观点型解题指导  文章结构 1.开头:提出问题; 2.主体:陈述不同的观点及其理由; 3.结尾:说明自己的观点。 段落框架 1.第一段 开门见山,提出主题(1-2句) 2.第二段 表达不同观点 3.第三段 说明自己的观点 议论文(2)——利弊对比型解题指导 这种题型往往要求先说明一下现状,再对比事物本身的利弊,有时也会单从一个角度(利或弊)出发,最后往往要求考生表明自己的态度(或对事物前景提出预测)。 文章结构 1.说明事物现状; 2.事物本身的优缺点(或一方面); 3.你对现状(或前景)的看法。 段落框架 1.第一段 讨论议题 2.第二段 优点 3.第三段 缺点 4. 第四段 说明自己的观点 三、分类写作模板 【模板01】 Topic ①Recently we’ve had a discussion about _______.②Our opinions are divided on this topic. ③Most of the students are in favour of it .④Here are the reasons. First, _______. Second, _______. Finally. ⑤However, the others are strongly against it.⑥Their reasons are as follows. In the first place, _________. What’s more, ___________. In addition, _________. ⑦Personally speaking, ______________________. 【模板02】 谚语/警句型议论文模板 The good old proverb?reminds us that?. Indeed, we can learn many things from it.________________(引出名言,阐明含义) First of all, ________________?. For example,?________________. Secondly,?________________. Another case is that?________________. Furthermore,?________________.(举例说明理由) In my opinion,?________________.(自己的观点)In short, whatever you do, please remember the saying?. If you understand it and apply it to your study or life, you’ll necessarily benefit a lot from it. ________________(总结) 【模板03】 正反观点对比型议论文模板   There is a widespread concern over the issue that?________________. But it is well known that the opinion concerning this hot topic varies from person to person. ________________(引出话题)   A majority of people think that?_____________.(观点一)In their view there are two factors contributing to this attitude as follows: In the first place,?________________.(支持观点一的原因一)In the second place,?________________.(支持观点一的原因一)So it goes without saying that?________________.   The other people, however, differ in their opinion on this matter. They hold the idea that?________________.(观点二)In their point of view, on the one hand, ________________?; on the other hand,?________________.(支持观点二的原因)Therefore, there is no doubt that________________?.   As far as I am concerned, I firmly support the view that?________________. It is not only because?________________, but also because?. The more?, the more________________?.("我"的观点) 【模板04】 利弊对比型议论文模板   Nowadays, there is a widespread concern over?________________.(引出话题或对象)   In fact, there are both advantages and disadvantages in?. Generally speaking, it is widely believed that there are several positive aspects as follows. Firstly,?________________.(优点一)And secondly, ________________?.(优点二)   Just as a popular saying goes, "Every coin has two sides."?is no exception, and in other words, it still has negative aspects. To begin with,?________________.(缺点一)In addition, ________________?.(缺点二)   To sum up, we should try to bring the advantages of?into full play, and reduce the disadvantages to the minimum at the same time. In that case, we will definitely make a better use of?________________.(总结) 四、增加细节的高分技巧 (一).开头句型? 1.As far as ...is concerned 就……而言 比如说:就我而言 As far as I concerned? 2 It can be said with certainty that... +从句 可以肯定地说…… 3.As the proverb says, 正如谚语所说的, 可以用来引用名言名句 4 .It has to be noticed that... 它必须注意到,…… 5 .It’s generally recognized that... 它普遍认为…… 6 .It’s likely that ... 这可能是因为…… 7 .It’s hard that... 这是很难的…… 8 There’s no denying the fact that...毫无疑问,无可否认?…… 9 .Nothing is more important than the fact that... 没有什么比这更重要的是…… 10 .what’s far more important is that... 更重要的是…… (二).衔接句型? 1.A case in point is ... 一个典型的例子是…… 3 But the problem is not so simple. Therefore,+句子 ( 然而问题并非如此简单,所以……) 4 .But it’s a pity that... 但遗憾的是… it’s a pity that….遗憾的是…… 5 In spite of the fact that...尽管事实…… In spite of 尽管 6 .Further, we hold opinion that... 此外,我们坚持认为,…… 7 .However , the difficulty lies in..+名词或者动名词 .然而,困难在于…… 8.Similarly, we should pay attention to... 同样,我们要注意…… 9 As it has been mentioned above...正如上面所提到的……(可以用来对前面所说的话进行补充说明) 10.In this respect, 从这个角度上? 11.However, 然而 (三).结尾句型? 1.I will conclude by saying... 最后我要说…… 2.Therefore, we have the reason to believe that...因此,我们有理由相信…… 3.All things considered,总而言之 = In a word=In conclusion It may be safely said that...它可以有把握地说…… 4.Therefore, in my opinion,因此,在我看来,? 5.From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that…通过以上讨论,我们可以得出结论…… 6.The data/statistics/figures lead us to the conclusion that….通过数据我们得到的结论是,…… 7.It can be concluded from the discussion that...从中我们可以得出这样的结论? 8.From my point of view, it would be better if...在我看来,如果……也许更好? (四).举例句型? 1. Here is one more example这里有不止一个的例子 2.Take … for example.就拿……为例子 (五).常用于引言段的句型? 1. Some people think that … 有些人认为…… To be frank, I can not agree with their opinion for the reasons below. 坦率地说,我不能同意他们的意见,理由如下。? 2. I believe the title statement is valid because…. 我认为这个论点是正确的,因为…… 3. I cannot entirely agree with the idea that ….我无法完全同意……这一观点的说法…… 4. Along with the development of…, more and more….随着……的发展,越来越多…… 5 It is commonly/generally/widely/ believed /held/accepted/recognized that….它通常是认为…… 6. As far as I am concerned, I completely agree with the former/ the latter.就我而言,我完全同意前者/后者的观点。? (六). 表示比较和对比的常用句型和表达法? 1. A is completely different from B. (A和B完全不同) 2 The difference between A and B is lies in +名词或者动名词 ( A和B不同的地方是……) . (七). 演绎法常用的句型? 1. There are several reasons for…, but in general, they come down to three major ones.有几个原因……,但一般,他们可以归结为三个主要的。? 2. Many ways can contribute to solving this problem, but the following ones may be most effective.有很多方法可以解决这个问题,但下面的可能是最有效的。 ( 可以用在保护环境等话题的作文) 4. Generally, the advantages can be listed as follows.一般来说,这些优势可以列举如下。 5. The reasons are as follows. ……的理由如下 (可以用来列举理由原因) (八).因果推理法常用句型? 1.Because/Since we read the book, we have learned a lot. 由于阅读这本书,我们已经学到了很多。? 2. If we read the book, we would learn a lot. 由于阅读这本书,我们已经学到了很多。 3. We read the book; as a result / therefore / thus / hence / consequently / for this reason / because of this, we’ve learned a lot. 由于阅读这本书,我们已经学到了很多。? 4. As a result of /Because of/Due to/Owing to reading the book, we’ve learned a lot. 由于阅读这本书,我们已经学到了很多。 (一)词汇类错误 考试时,考生很容易出现单词拼写错误和词形变化错误;而词性不清和词汇用法方面的错误主要还是受汉语思维的影响。其应对措施是在备考时要多注意容易拼错或容易出现词形变化错误的单词,真正用心去体会英语词汇的词性和运用,对一些固定习语更不能想当然地改动。 单词拼写错误 【例1】误:By the way, he's a senior High School student named Lihua from Tian Jin, china. 正:By the way, he's a senior high school student named Li Hua from Tianjin, China. 2.词形变化错误 【例2】误:People throwed cans, paper, bags and so on into the river water. 正:People threw cans, paper, bags and so on into the river water. 3.词性不清错误 【例3】误:Everyone in my family is like the dog. 正:Everyone in my family likes the dog. 4.词汇用法错误 【例4】误:He opened the light after he entered the room. 正:He turned on the light after he entered the room. 5.擅自改动习语 【例5】误:Nowadays most parents attach much importance with education. 正:Nowadays most parents attach much importance to education. 【变式训练1】 改正下列句子中的错误 Doing a part?time job always effects study. 2.There is no doubt that keeping an English diary helps you a lot with writen English. 3.In my surprise, he has got the first prize. 4.We must pay attention our pronunciation when we speak English. 5.We are all entire responsible for our actions and for our reactions. (二)语法类错误 一个正确的句子除了用词得当外,语法也应该准确无误。如果语法不正确,再好的构思也难以正确地表达,语法类错误的多少会直接影响作文的档次。英语书面表达中语法类错误主要表现在: 1.时态错误 【例6】误:When he came back, he found that his wife has gone to bed. 正:When he came back, he found that his wife had gone to bed. 2.语态错误 【例7】误:Children who raise in poor families can generally deal with problems more effectively in their adult years. 正:Children who are raised in poor families can generally deal with problems more effectively in their adult years. 3.主谓一致错误 【例8】误:Some students like books that is written by Lu Xun. 正:Some students like books that are written by Lu Xun. 4.比较级使用错误 【例9】误:With the development of transportation, the world seems to be getting more and more smaller. 正:With the development of transportation, the world seems to be getting smaller and smaller. 5.非谓语动词使用错误 【例10】误:The teacher came into the lab, following by some students. 正:The teacher came into the lab, followed by some students. 【变式训练2】改正下列句子中的错误 If it won't rain tomorrow, we'll go camping. 7.Not only Tom but also I are tired of one examination after another. 8.They think students should have their own time to study and it is more quieter at home.___ 9.There are a lot of students stand in a queue to welcome the old soldier. 10.She said she would pay a visit to Suzhou in the next month. (三)汉语式英语 一般来说,英汉两种语言既有许多相似之处,又有许多不同之处。在写作时如果想当然地去写,会出现许多汉语式英语,其中主要包括: 1.纯汉语式思维和汉语式语序 【例11】误:At this school studying, I really very happy. 正:Studying at this school, I am really very happy. 2.句子成分残缺 【例12】误:There are many students don't support the project. 正:There are many students who don't support the project. 【例13】误:He told me that all my classmates sitting in the classroom. 正:He told me that all my classmates were sitting in the classroom. 3.句子粘连 【例14】误:The old man has two sons, both of them work in the same company. 正:The old man has two sons, and both of them work in the same company. 正:The old man has two sons, both of whom work in the same company. 4.主谓搭配不当 【例15】误:He happened an accident yesterday. 正:An accident happened to him yesterday. 5.动宾搭配不当 【例16】误:They are trying their best to improve their production. 正:They are trying their best to increase their production. 6.形容词和名词搭配不当 【例17】误:We walked a far way before planting trees. 正:We walked a long way before planting trees. 7.动词和副词搭配不当 【例18】误:My grandfather very likes black tea and has it every day. 正:My grandfather likes black tea very much and has it every day. 8.介词和宾语搭配不当 【例19】误:They will build a monument on memory of the national hero. 正:They will build a monument in memory of the national hero. 【变式训练3】 改正下列句子中的错误 We are impossible to finish the work in such a short time. 12.It's known that the cost in big cities is very expensive. 13.He came here to attend the meeting in car. 14.I haven't heard from your letter for a long time and I miss you very much. 15.I have many collections of stamps, some of them are my favorite. 考生对议论文写作思路应该清晰,具体例子如下: 一、开门见山引出论点 在文章开头,通过主题句鲜明地提出观点或引出将要论述的内容,防止在论述的过程中跑题。常用的句式有: 过渡/引出话题 There is no doubt that ... It can not be denied that ... No one can ignore the fact that ... From what is mentioned above, we know ... 提出观点 From my point of view ... As far as I am concerned ... I hold the view/belief that ... Personally, I believe that ... 表达立场 Actually, I am in favour of the idea that ... In some way, I am against the thought that ... 二、多种形式展示论据 议论文在写作手法上以议论为主,如通过对比观点、阐述原因、列举例子等进行议论,但有时也要运用说明、叙述、描写等手法。议论中的说明常为议论的开展创造条件或是对议论的补充;叙述和描写应是为论点提供依据,因此,叙述应该是概括的,描写应该是简要的。议论文常用的句式有: 总述原因 There are several reasons that contribute to ... My views are based on the following reasons. 分层论述 To begin with/First of all ...Besides/Furthermore/...Finally/Last but not (the) least ... On (the) one hand ...On the other hand ... For one thing ...For another ... 列举例子 Take ...for example. For example/instance ... 引出经历 It reminds me of the time when ... What impresses me most is that ... 分析因果 Thanks to/Owing to/Because of ... Consequently/Therefore/Thus/As a result ... 讨论后果 Just imagine what would be like if there were no ... 三、总结升华,重申观点 在文中或文末,考生可以用不同的语言重申主题或提出解决问题的建议,从而使文章结构严谨、主题鲜明。常用的句式有: To sum up/In short/In conclusion/On the whole/All in all ... Taking all the factors into account, we can draw a conclusion that ... From the discussion above, it can be safely concluded that ... Therefore, it is necessary for us to ... To be brief, we should be aware of the importance of ... Only when we/Only by ..., can we ... 细节典例 英语书面表达高分突破,有很多技巧,但是最主要是要做到“言之有序,言之有意,言之有技”,怎样做到这几点,具体细节典例分析如下: (一)确定主语 英语句子无论多长都有自己的主语(祈使句省略了主语you)。写句子前首先要确定主语,其次要特别注意汉语与英语的区别。例如: 1.北京八月多雨。 【例1】误:Beijing rains much in August. 正:It rains much in Beijing in August. 2.写得很匆忙,我们发现书中满是错误。 【例2】误:Written in a hurry, we found the book full of mistakes. 正:Written in a hurry, the book was found full of mistakes (by us). (二)确定谓语动词 英语中没有动词就构不成句子,但动词千变万化,稍不注意就会写错句子。在写句子时应特别注意以下几个方面: 1.注意及物与不及物动词的正确运用。 【例3】误:The living standard of the people has raised in the past twenty years. 正:The living standard of the people has risen/has been raised in the past twenty years. 2.注意延续性与非延续性动词的正确运用。 【例4】误:His grandmother has died for fifteen years. 正:His grandmother has been dead for fifteen years. 3.注意一些不可用于被动语态的动词或动词短语。 【例5】误:That dictionary is belonged to the library. 正:That dictionary belongs to the library. 五.写作典例 (2018·盐城高三模拟)请阅读下面短文,并按照要求用英语写一篇150词左右的文章。 What can you do when you are unhappy? If you want to let out your anger or pressure by breaking things, you just do. Now a school in Nanjing has built a “stress wall” to help students who feel unhappy due to heavy schoolwork or for other reasons. The leader of the school said the idea of a stress wall started when footprints were found on some newly painted walls and some school windows were broken. “These things happen because some students feel lots of pressure from their studies or because they don't get along well with other students. When under stress, the body gets ready to either run or fight and becomes very nervous. Hitting the wall can help relax the body and take away stress,” he said. “Tests and homework make me sad,” said a junior girl, “I can't wait to hit the wall. It will help me a lot with my problems.” However, another girl student who wouldn't give her name said,“The wall won't help because it can't talk,” and she added,“I need to talk to someone when I'm sad.” [写作内容] 1.以约30个单词概括短文内容; 2.以约120个单词就“Should the stress wall be built”这一主题发表你的看法,包括以下要点: (1)学生的压力来源; (2)是否该建此墙并说明理由; (3)如认为不该建请提供一些其他有效的减压方式。 [写作要求] 1.可以参照阅读材料但不得直接引用原文的句子; 2.作文中不得出现真实的姓名和学校名称。 [评分标准] 内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。 [审题] 审题时应做到: (1)定时态:一般现在时。 (2)定人称:第一和第三人称。 [谋篇] 第一段:概括短文内容。 第二段:压力来源。 第三段:我的观点。 第四段:减压方法。 [满分范文] ①The passage conveys to us that to help students with stress, a school built a “stress wall” for students to relax, towards which students hold different opinions. ②Nowadays, students are under great pressure, mainly coming from their school work as well as peer relationship. ③As far as I am concerned, building a stress wall is not appropriate. ④For one thing, even if students punch the wall heavily, the true stress in the bottom of their hearts can not be let out. ⑤For another, this may lead to the result of solving a problem with violence of fixing a bad temper, which has bad effects on their health growth. ⑥In order to decrease our stress, here are my suggestions. ⑦To begin with, we can design more outdoor activities for students to get rid of the stress. ⑧What's more, it is strongly suggested that we should take part in some sports events, which can surely help students out of stress and improve their health at the same time. ⑨All in all, only when we let out the stress properly can we live a happy school life. [满分缘由] 1.行文架构 (1)概括短文内容  ↓ (2)压力来源:学习和同学关系  ↓ (3)我的观点:不赞成建压力墙;两个方面去阐述  ↓ (4)减压建议:参加课外活动;体育锻炼 2.亮点词汇 hold different opinions, as far as I am concerned, for one thing, in the bottom of one's heart, for another, to begin with, what's more, get ride of, all in all 3.亮点句式 句①含有宾语从句和定语从句; 句②coming from ...为现在分词作非限制性定语; 句③building ...为动名词作主语; 句⑤中含有which引导的定语从句; 句⑧中使用了句式it is suggested that ...和which引导的定语从句;  句⑨中使用了倒装句。 【题组过关1】 (用定语从句改写)Nowadays, students are under great pressure, mainly coming from their school work as well as peer relationship. (用chances are that ...和by doing ...改写) To begin with, we can design more outdoor activities for students to get rid of the stress. 一.以下句子含有考生常犯的错误,请改正 1.It is high time that we do something to reduce traffic accidents. 2.While having our dinner, the doorbell rang. 3.Recently our village has taken place great changes. 4.Dr. Smith, together with his wife, are to arrive on the evening flight. 5.Eating at school is very convenient for students. 6.Would you please meet my uncle at the airport because this is the first time visit to the US? 7.The car hitted the old man and drived away. 8.I have two friends, their names are Tom and Jim. 9.There are many students are planting trees on the hill. 10.At weekends, we would play basketball, swimming in the pool or go for a picnic. 二.下面的考生作文中共有10处语言错误,请改正 假定你是李华,最近与好朋友Lucy吵架了,现在给外教Melinda写一封邮件请求帮助。邮件内容包含: 1.吵架的原因; 2.吵架后的心情; 3.请求Melinda给出解决办法。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Dear Melinda, The reason why I am writing to you is because I quarreled with my friend Lucy and I need your help now. The quarrel was occurred when we were discussing whether we should go shopping at last weekend. Because the coming examination, she insisted on studying at school while I opposed strongly. After the incident, we have not chatted any more, caused me great depression. I am sincere sorry to see things going like this and I have been felling frustrated ever since. I really don't want to lose this friend. Could you please offer me some effective and practical advice? Looking forward to you reply. Best wishes! Yours, Li Hua 三、模拟真题演练 (2018·南通市高三模拟)请阅读下面短文,并按照要求用英语写一篇150词左右的文章。 President Xi Jinping stated that Chinese tourists should be better behaved when travelling abroad. “Our citizens should be educated to behave in a civilized way when travelling abroad. Do not throw water bottles everywhere. Do not damage coral reefs. Eat more sea food and less instant noodles. Spend more to help local economies grow,” said Xi Jinping. Chinese tourism abroad has grown rapidly. It is reported that 100 million citizens travelled abroad last year, and that number is expected to double by 2020 as individual wealth grows along with the economy. Yet the awareness of proper manners has not grown as fast as the number of tourists. Some Chinese tourists have been heavily criticized in recent years for misbehaving while travelling abroad for reasons such as being noisy, jumping queues and damaging cultural relics. Recently, incidents like Chinese tourists drawing graffiti (涂鸦) in an ancient Egyptian temple have severely damaged the image of Chinese holidaymakers. In response, the Chinese government has made great efforts to educate Chinese tourists on appropriate behaviour when travelling both abroad and within China. [写作内容] 1.用约30个单词写出上文概要; 2.用约120个单词阐述你对文明出游的看法,并用2~3个理由或论据支撑你的看法。 [写作要求] 1.写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句; 2.作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称; 3.不必写标题。 [评分标准] 内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。 _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ (2018·山东师大附中模拟)与人为善是中华民族的传统美德。假如你是新华中学高三学生李华,要参加近期学校组织的以“与人为善”为主题的英语演讲比赛。请你写一篇100词左右的英语演讲稿。内容要求包括: 1.讲述自己“与人为善”的一个事例; 2.呼吁同学们传承美德,与人为善。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。 My dear fellows, I’m Li Hua, a Senior 3 student from Class 18. __________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Best wishes. (2017·江苏卷)请认真阅读下面有关我国电影票房收入(box-office income)的柱状图及相关文字,并按照要求用英语写一篇150词左右的文章。 One Day in 2016. At Home. Son: Mum, shall we go and see a film tonight? Mother: Why bother? We can stay at home and watch films online. It’s convenient with our new and faster network Son: But it feels good in a cinema. Mother: And the price… We have to pay 50 yuan a ticket. Son: Only 10 yuan more than last year. Mother: But still we cannot get the money’s worth. Some films are just boring… 【写作内容】 1. 用约30个单词概述柱状图信息的主要内容; 2. 我国电影票房收入变化的原因有哪些,简要谈谈你的看法(上述对话仅供参考,原因不少于两点); 3. 谈谈你对我国电影票房收入走向的看法,并简要说明理由。 【写作要求】 1. 写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句; 2. 作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称; 3. 不必写标题。 【评分标准】 内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。 _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Saturday Afternoon. In a Shopping Centre. Li Jiang: Hi, Su Hua. Which movie shall we see? Su Hua: Whatever. We’ve got so many choices, Kung Fu Yoga, Journey to the West…Each sounds great! Li Jiang: Yeah! And some movie stars are fantastic. Su Hua: And the high-tech!... Li Jiang: Perfect! Let’s get some food first. We only have 20 minutes left. Su Hua: No hurry. The cinema is on the same floor. 1 第39讲 议论文写作(解析版) 近几年高考题中,议论文的特点是根据阅读材料所描述的某一事件、现象、观点或话题发表个人观点、意见和建议的一类读写任务,其实质就是要求考生根据题目要求写议论文。英语议论文有其独特的框架结构,能清晰展示作者的观点和思路,值得考生仔细斟酌,备考时掌握其诀窍,考场上游刃有余。 真题透析: ★【2018·江苏卷】 请阅读下面文字,并按照要求用英语写一篇150 词左右的文章。 【写作内容】 1. 用约30个词概括上述利用排名(ratings)进行消费的现象; 2. 谈谈你如何看待消费排名,然后用2-3个理由或论据支撑你的看法。 【写作要求】 1. 写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句; 2. 作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称; 3. 不必写标题。 【评分标准】内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____ 【佳作欣赏】 Possible version one: As a major channel of consumption information, the rating is an efficient source of information for shopping in our own consumption. Interestingly, the same rating may have different influences on different consumers. I tend to consult consumption ratings whatever I purchase. Firstly, the higher rating means the higher quality of the product, or better service. Based on the ratings, I bought my beloved backpack, saw interesting films and tasted delicious foods. Secondly, ratings can save time to make decisions in shopping. For example, there are huge amounts of reference books which I am often confused to choose from. In that case, it is both convenient and economical to buy books according to the ratings. There is no doubt that it is unwise to depend completely on the ratings in consumption. The advantages and disadvantages of ratings are often closely related. It is necessary to hold an objective attitude towards ratings. Possible version two: Nowadays, most commodities or services are rated through certain channels. These ratings, easy to access, are playing an increasingly important role in customers' purchase decision. However, results are sometimes unsatisfactory. There is no denying that such ratings might bring convenience to consumers, but they are often misleading and unreliable. As we all know, most of the ratings are based on others’ judgment on the product or service concerned. Every judgment comes from a specific need or a unique psychological state. Apparently, blindly following others' advice will affect our own judgment. Another fact should not be neglected that some of the ratings are the outcome of a careful manipulation of companies or sellers. It has become a common practice for some to pay for good ratings on their products or services so as to increase their sales. Therefore, we should give a second thought to these ratings whenever we go shopping. 【亮点解析】 本作文是读写作文,即先用30词概括阅读材料,然后针对材料中的话题写一篇议论文谈看法。首先要认真阅读两段有关消费排名现象及观点的纯文字材料,然后进行比较和分析,表明态度,作出价值判断。 文章首段要简要介绍两段材料,第一段材料为一对母子买旅行箱看了网上的评论,结果买回来的旅行箱质量很好。第二段材料为一帮人去餐馆吃饭,看了on-line rating,结果饭菜很不好吃,从而凸显出online rating的不靠谱。 然后写考生对online rating的看法,表明观点,注意用2-3个论据来支撑自己的看法。 文章属于议论文,要注意主题句的使用,论点之间要注意有条理。文章可主要采用一般现在时,第三人称来写。 一、文体特征 议论文以议论为主要表达方式,运用概念、判断和推理来表明作者对某一议论对象的观点和主张。英语的论辩(argumentation)和劝说(persuasion)往往联系紧密,难分彼此,因此人们常用argumentation或argumentative writing把这两者包容在其中。然而,严格来说,论辩的目的是要获得真理,但劝说的目的是要使被劝说者赞同劝说者的意愿。 写作要点: 要写好议论文,必须注意以下几点: 1.确定论点,通常在文章的第一段提出。 2.要有足够的论据,可以列举生活的实例。 3.论证要有严密的逻辑性,所有事实、原因、理由应紧密地同结论联系起来。 4.层次要清楚。 5.态度诚恳、友好,因为议论文重在说理,以理服人。 6.论据要充分,欲证明自己的观点必须有充分的证据。作者可以列举事实、展示数据、提供事例、借助常识或利用亲身经历。 二、技巧点拨 议论文(1)——正反观点型解题指导  文章结构 1.开头:提出问题; 2.主体:陈述不同的观点及其理由; 3.结尾:说明自己的观点。 段落框架 1.第一段 开门见山,提出主题(1-2句) 2.第二段 表达不同观点 3.第三段 说明自己的观点 议论文(2)——利弊对比型解题指导 这种题型往往要求先说明一下现状,再对比事物本身的利弊,有时也会单从一个角度(利或弊)出发,最后往往要求考生表明自己的态度(或对事物前景提出预测)。 文章结构 1.说明事物现状; 2.事物本身的优缺点(或一方面); 3.你对现状(或前景)的看法。 段落框架 1.第一段 讨论议题 2.第二段 优点 3.第三段 缺点 4. 第四段 说明自己的观点 三、分类写作模板 【模板01】 Topic ①Recently we’ve had a discussion about _______.②Our opinions are divided on this topic. ③Most of the students are in favour of it .④Here are the reasons. First, _______. Second, _______. Finally. ⑤However, the others are strongly against it.⑥Their reasons are as follows. In the first place, _________. What’s more, ___________. In addition, _________. ⑦Personally speaking, ______________________. 【模板02】 谚语/警句型议论文模板 The good old proverb?reminds us that?. Indeed, we can learn many things from it.________________(引出名言,阐明含义) First of all, ________________?. For example,?________________. Secondly,?________________. Another case is that?________________. Furthermore,?________________.(举例说明理由) In my opinion,?________________.(自己的观点)In short, whatever you do, please remember the saying?. If you understand it and apply it to your study or life, you’ll necessarily benefit a lot from it. ________________(总结) 【模板03】 正反观点对比型议论文模板   There is a widespread concern over the issue that?________________. But it is well known that the opinion concerning this hot topic varies from person to person. ________________(引出话题)   A majority of people think that?_____________.(观点一)In their view there are two factors contributing to this attitude as follows: In the first place,?________________.(支持观点一的原因一)In the second place,?________________.(支持观点一的原因一)So it goes without saying that?________________.   The other people, however, differ in their opinion on this matter. They hold the idea that?________________.(观点二)In their point of view, on the one hand, ________________?; on the other hand,?________________.(支持观点二的原因)Therefore, there is no doubt that________________?.   As far as I am concerned, I firmly support the view that?________________. It is not only because?________________, but also because?. The more?, the more________________?.("我"的观点) 【模板04】 利弊对比型议论文模板   Nowadays, there is a widespread concern over?________________.(引出话题或对象)   In fact, there are both advantages and disadvantages in?. Generally speaking, it is widely believed that there are several positive aspects as follows. Firstly,?________________.(优点一)And secondly, ________________?.(优点二)   Just as a popular saying goes, "Every coin has two sides."?is no exception, and in other words, it still has negative aspects. To begin with,?________________.(缺点一)In addition, ________________?.(缺点二)   To sum up, we should try to bring the advantages of?into full play, and reduce the disadvantages to the minimum at the same time. In that case, we will definitely make a better use of?________________.(总结) 四、增加细节的高分技巧 (一).开头句型? 1.As far as ...is concerned 就……而言 比如说:就我而言 As far as I concerned? 2 It can be said with certainty that... +从句 可以肯定地说…… 3.As the proverb says, 正如谚语所说的, 可以用来引用名言名句 4 .It has to be noticed that... 它必须注意到,…… 5 .It’s generally recognized that... 它普遍认为…… 6 .It’s likely that ... 这可能是因为…… 7 .It’s hard that... 这是很难的…… 8 There’s no denying the fact that...毫无疑问,无可否认?…… 9 .Nothing is more important than the fact that... 没有什么比这更重要的是…… 10 .what’s far more important is that... 更重要的是…… (二).衔接句型? 1.A case in point is ... 一个典型的例子是…… 3 But the problem is not so simple. Therefore,+句子 ( 然而问题并非如此简单,所以……) 4 .But it’s a pity that... 但遗憾的是… it’s a pity that….遗憾的是…… 5 In spite of the fact that...尽管事实…… In spite of 尽管 6 .Further, we hold opinion that... 此外,我们坚持认为,…… 7 .However , the difficulty lies in..+名词或者动名词 .然而,困难在于…… 8.Similarly, we should pay attention to... 同样,我们要注意…… 9 As it has been mentioned above...正如上面所提到的……(可以用来对前面所说的话进行补充说明) 10.In this respect, 从这个角度上? 11.However, 然而 (三).结尾句型? 1.I will conclude by saying... 最后我要说…… 2.Therefore, we have the reason to believe that...因此,我们有理由相信…… 3.All things considered,总而言之 = In a word=In conclusion It may be safely said that...它可以有把握地说…… 4.Therefore, in my opinion,因此,在我看来,? 5.From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that…通过以上讨论,我们可以得出结论…… 6.The data/statistics/figures lead us to the conclusion that….通过数据我们得到的结论是,…… 7.It can be concluded from the discussion that...从中我们可以得出这样的结论? 8.From my point of view, it would be better if...在我看来,如果……也许更好? (四).举例句型? 1. Here is one more example这里有不止一个的例子 2.Take … for example.就拿……为例子 (五).常用于引言段的句型? 1. Some people think that … 有些人认为…… To be frank, I can not agree with their opinion for the reasons below. 坦率地说,我不能同意他们的意见,理由如下。? 2. I believe the title statement is valid because…. 我认为这个论点是正确的,因为…… 3. I cannot entirely agree with the idea that ….我无法完全同意……这一观点的说法…… 4. Along with the development of…, more and more….随着……的发展,越来越多…… 5 It is commonly/generally/widely/ believed /held/accepted/recognized that….它通常是认为…… 6. As far as I am concerned, I completely agree with the former/ the latter.就我而言,我完全同意前者/后者的观点。? (六). 表示比较和对比的常用句型和表达法? 1. A is completely different from B. (A和B完全不同) 2 The difference between A and B is lies in +名词或者动名词 ( A和B不同的地方是……) . (七). 演绎法常用的句型? 1. There are several reasons for…, but in general, they come down to three major ones.有几个原因……,但一般,他们可以归结为三个主要的。? 2. Many ways can contribute to solving this problem, but the following ones may be most effective.有很多方法可以解决这个问题,但下面的可能是最有效的。 ( 可以用在保护环境等话题的作文) 4. Generally, the advantages can be listed as follows.一般来说,这些优势可以列举如下。 5. The reasons are as follows. ……的理由如下 (可以用来列举理由原因) (八).因果推理法常用句型? 1.Because/Since we read the book, we have learned a lot. 由于阅读这本书,我们已经学到了很多。? 2. If we read the book, we would learn a lot. 由于阅读这本书,我们已经学到了很多。 3. We read the book; as a result / therefore / thus / hence / consequently / for this reason / because of this, we’ve learned a lot. 由于阅读这本书,我们已经学到了很多。? 4. As a result of /Because of/Due to/Owing to reading the book, we’ve learned a lot. 由于阅读这本书,我们已经学到了很多。 (一)词汇类错误 考试时,考生很容易出现单词拼写错误和词形变化错误;而词性不清和词汇用法方面的错误主要还是受汉语思维的影响。其应对措施是在备考时要多注意容易拼错或容易出现词形变化错误的单词,真正用心去体会英语词汇的词性和运用,对一些固定习语更不能想当然地改动。 单词拼写错误 【例1】误:By the way, he's a senior High School student named Lihua from Tian Jin, china. 正:By the way, he's a senior high school student named Li Hua from Tianjin, China. 2.词形变化错误 【例2】误:People throwed cans, paper, bags and so on into the river water. 正:People threw cans, paper, bags and so on into the river water. 3.词性不清错误 【例3】误:Everyone in my family is like the dog. 正:Everyone in my family likes the dog. 4.词汇用法错误 【例4】误:He opened the light after he entered the room. 正:He turned on the light after he entered the room. 5.擅自改动习语 【例5】误:Nowadays most parents attach much importance with education. 正:Nowadays most parents attach much importance to education. 【变式训练1】 改正下列句子中的错误 Doing a part?time job always effects study. 2.There is no doubt that keeping an English diary helps you a lot with writen English. 3.In my surprise, he has got the first prize. 4.We must pay attention our pronunciation when we speak English. 5.We are all entire responsible for our actions and for our reactions. 【答案】 1.effects→affects 2.writen→written 3.In→To 4.attention后加to 5.entire→entirely (二)语法类错误 一个正确的句子除了用词得当外,语法也应该准确无误。如果语法不正确,再好的构思也难以正确地表达,语法类错误的多少会直接影响作文的档次。英语书面表达中语法类错误主要表现在: 1.时态错误 【例6】误:When he came back, he found that his wife has gone to bed. 正:When he came back, he found that his wife had gone to bed. 2.语态错误 【例7】误:Children who raise in poor families can generally deal with problems more effectively in their adult years. 正:Children who are raised in poor families can generally deal with problems more effectively in their adult years. 3.主谓一致错误 【例8】误:Some students like books that is written by Lu Xun. 正:Some students like books that are written by Lu Xun. 4.比较级使用错误 【例9】误:With the development of transportation, the world seems to be getting more and more smaller. 正:With the development of transportation, the world seems to be getting smaller and smaller. 5.非谓语动词使用错误 【例10】误:The teacher came into the lab, following by some students. 正:The teacher came into the lab, followed by some students. 【变式训练2】改正下列句子中的错误 If it won't rain tomorrow, we'll go camping. 7.Not only Tom but also I are tired of one examination after another. 8.They think students should have their own time to study and it is more quieter at home.___ 9.There are a lot of students stand in a queue to welcome the old soldier. 10.She said she would pay a visit to Suzhou in the next month. 【答案】 6.won't→doesn't 7.are→am 8.more→much或去掉more 9.stand→standing 10.去掉in (三)汉语式英语 一般来说,英汉两种语言既有许多相似之处,又有许多不同之处。在写作时如果想当然地去写,会出现许多汉语式英语,其中主要包括: 1.纯汉语式思维和汉语式语序 【例11】误:At this school studying, I really very happy. 正:Studying at this school, I am really very happy. 2.句子成分残缺 【例12】误:There are many students don't support the project. 正:There are many students who don't support the project. 【例13】误:He told me that all my classmates sitting in the classroom. 正:He told me that all my classmates were sitting in the classroom. 3.句子粘连 【例14】误:The old man has two sons, both of them work in the same company. 正:The old man has two sons, and both of them work in the same company. 正:The old man has two sons, both of whom work in the same company. 4.主谓搭配不当 【例15】误:He happened an accident yesterday. 正:An accident happened to him yesterday. 5.动宾搭配不当 【例16】误:They are trying their best to improve their production. 正:They are trying their best to increase their production. 6.形容词和名词搭配不当 【例17】误:We walked a far way before planting trees. 正:We walked a long way before planting trees. 7.动词和副词搭配不当 【例18】误:My grandfather very likes black tea and has it every day. 正:My grandfather likes black tea very much and has it every day. 8.介词和宾语搭配不当 【例19】误:They will build a monument on memory of the national hero. 正:They will build a monument in memory of the national hero. 【变式训练3】 改正下列句子中的错误 We are impossible to finish the work in such a short time. 12.It's known that the cost in big cities is very expensive. 13.He came here to attend the meeting in car. 14.I haven't heard from your letter for a long time and I miss you very much. 15.I have many collections of stamps, some of them are my favorite. 【答案】 11.We_are_impossible→It_is_impossible_for_us 12.expensive→high 13.in→by 14.your_letter→you 15.some前加and或them→which 考生对议论文写作思路应该清晰,具体例子如下: 一、开门见山引出论点 在文章开头,通过主题句鲜明地提出观点或引出将要论述的内容,防止在论述的过程中跑题。常用的句式有: 过渡/引出话题 There is no doubt that ... It can not be denied that ... No one can ignore the fact that ... From what is mentioned above, we know ... 提出观点 From my point of view ... As far as I am concerned ... I hold the view/belief that ... Personally, I believe that ... 表达立场 Actually, I am in favour of the idea that ... In some way, I am against the thought that ... 二、多种形式展示论据 议论文在写作手法上以议论为主,如通过对比观点、阐述原因、列举例子等进行议论,但有时也要运用说明、叙述、描写等手法。议论中的说明常为议论的开展创造条件或是对议论的补充;叙述和描写应是为论点提供依据,因此,叙述应该是概括的,描写应该是简要的。议论文常用的句式有: 总述原因 There are several reasons that contribute to ... My views are based on the following reasons. 分层论述 To begin with/First of all ...Besides/Furthermore/...Finally/Last but not (the) least ... On (the) one hand ...On the other hand ... For one thing ...For another ... 列举例子 Take ...for example. For example/instance ... 引出经历 It reminds me of the time when ... What impresses me most is that ... 分析因果 Thanks to/Owing to/Because of ... Consequently/Therefore/Thus/As a result ... 讨论后果 Just imagine what would be like if there were no ... 三、总结升华,重申观点 在文中或文末,考生可以用不同的语言重申主题或提出解决问题的建议,从而使文章结构严谨、主题鲜明。常用的句式有: To sum up/In short/In conclusion/On the whole/All in all ... Taking all the factors into account, we can draw a conclusion that ... From the discussion above, it can be safely concluded that ... Therefore, it is necessary for us to ... To be brief, we should be aware of the importance of ... Only when we/Only by ..., can we ... 细节典例 英语书面表达高分突破,有很多技巧,但是最主要是要做到“言之有序,言之有意,言之有技”,怎样做到这几点,具体细节典例分析如下: (一)确定主语 英语句子无论多长都有自己的主语(祈使句省略了主语you)。写句子前首先要确定主语,其次要特别注意汉语与英语的区别。例如: 1.北京八月多雨。 【例1】误:Beijing rains much in August. 正:It rains much in Beijing in August. 2.写得很匆忙,我们发现书中满是错误。 【例2】误:Written in a hurry, we found the book full of mistakes. 正:Written in a hurry, the book was found full of mistakes (by us). (二)确定谓语动词 英语中没有动词就构不成句子,但动词千变万化,稍不注意就会写错句子。在写句子时应特别注意以下几个方面: 1.注意及物与不及物动词的正确运用。 【例3】误:The living standard of the people has raised in the past twenty years. 正:The living standard of the people has risen/has been raised in the past twenty years. 2.注意延续性与非延续性动词的正确运用。 【例4】误:His grandmother has died for fifteen years. 正:His grandmother has been dead for fifteen years. 3.注意一些不可用于被动语态的动词或动词短语。 【例5】误:That dictionary is belonged to the library. 正:That dictionary belongs to the library. 五.写作典例 (2018·盐城高三模拟)请阅读下面短文,并按照要求用英语写一篇150词左右的文章。 What can you do when you are unhappy? If you want to let out your anger or pressure by breaking things, you just do. Now a school in Nanjing has built a “stress wall” to help students who feel unhappy due to heavy schoolwork or for other reasons. The leader of the school said the idea of a stress wall started when footprints were found on some newly painted walls and some school windows were broken. “These things happen because some students feel lots of pressure from their studies or because they don't get along well with other students. When under stress, the body gets ready to either run or fight and becomes very nervous. Hitting the wall can help relax the body and take away stress,” he said. “Tests and homework make me sad,” said a junior girl, “I can't wait to hit the wall. It will help me a lot with my problems.” However, another girl student who wouldn't give her name said,“The wall won't help because it can't talk,” and she added,“I need to talk to someone when I'm sad.” [写作内容] 1.以约30个单词概括短文内容; 2.以约120个单词就“Should the stress wall be built”这一主题发表你的看法,包括以下要点: (1)学生的压力来源; (2)是否该建此墙并说明理由; (3)如认为不该建请提供一些其他有效的减压方式。 [写作要求] 1.可以参照阅读材料但不得直接引用原文的句子; 2.作文中不得出现真实的姓名和学校名称。 [评分标准] 内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。 [审题] 审题时应做到: (1)定时态:一般现在时。 (2)定人称:第一和第三人称。 [谋篇] 第一段:概括短文内容。 第二段:压力来源。 第三段:我的观点。 第四段:减压方法。 [满分范文] ①The passage conveys to us that to help students with stress, a school built a “stress wall” for students to relax, towards which students hold different opinions. ②Nowadays, students are under great pressure, mainly coming from their school work as well as peer relationship. ③As far as I am concerned, building a stress wall is not appropriate. ④For one thing, even if students punch the wall heavily, the true stress in the bottom of their hearts can not be let out. ⑤For another, this may lead to the result of solving a problem with violence of fixing a bad temper, which has bad effects on their health growth. ⑥In order to decrease our stress, here are my suggestions. ⑦To begin with, we can design more outdoor activities for students to get rid of the stress. ⑧What's more, it is strongly suggested that we should take part in some sports events, which can surely help students out of stress and improve their health at the same time. ⑨All in all, only when we let out the stress properly can we live a happy school life. [满分缘由] 1.行文架构 (1)概括短文内容  ↓ (2)压力来源:学习和同学关系  ↓ (3)我的观点:不赞成建压力墙;两个方面去阐述  ↓ (4)减压建议:参加课外活动;体育锻炼 2.亮点词汇 hold different opinions, as far as I am concerned, for one thing, in the bottom of one's heart, for another, to begin with, what's more, get ride of, all in all 3.亮点句式 句①含有宾语从句和定语从句; 句②coming from ...为现在分词作非限制性定语; 句③building ...为动名词作主语; 句⑤中含有which引导的定语从句; 句⑧中使用了句式it is suggested that ...和which引导的定语从句;  句⑨中使用了倒装句。 【题组过关1】 (用定语从句改写)Nowadays, students are under great pressure, mainly coming from their school work as well as peer relationship. (用chances are that ...和by doing ...改写) To begin with, we can design more outdoor activities for students to get rid of the stress. 【答案】 1.Nowadays, students are under great pressure,which_mainly_comes_from_their_school_work _as_well_as_peer_relationship. 2.To_begin_with,_chances_are_that_students_can_get_rid_of_the_stress_by_designing_more_outdoor_activities. 一.以下句子含有考生常犯的错误,请改正 1.It is high time that we do something to reduce traffic accidents. 2.While having our dinner, the doorbell rang. 3.Recently our village has taken place great changes. 4.Dr. Smith, together with his wife, are to arrive on the evening flight. 5.Eating at school is very convenient for students. 6.Would you please meet my uncle at the airport because this is the first time visit to the US? 7.The car hitted the old man and drived away. 8.I have two friends, their names are Tom and Jim. 9.There are many students are planting trees on the hill. 10.At weekends, we would play basketball, swimming in the pool or go for a picnic. 【答案】 1.do→did或在do前加should 2.在having前加we are或the_doorbell_rang→we_heard_the_doorbell_ringing 3.改为:Recently_great_changes_have_taken_place_in_our_village. 4.are→is 5.改为:It_is_very_convenient_for_students_to_eat_at_school. 6.去掉time 7.hitted→hit; drived→drove 8.their→whose或their前加and 9.去掉第二个are或在students后加who 10.swimming→swim 二.下面的考生作文中共有10处语言错误,请改正 假定你是李华,最近与好朋友Lucy吵架了,现在给外教Melinda写一封邮件请求帮助。邮件内容包含: 1.吵架的原因; 2.吵架后的心情; 3.请求Melinda给出解决办法。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Dear Melinda, The reason why I am writing to you is because I quarreled with my friend Lucy and I need your help now. The quarrel was occurred when we were discussing whether we should go shopping at last weekend. Because the coming examination, she insisted on studying at school while I opposed strongly. After the incident, we have not chatted any more, caused me great depression. I am sincere sorry to see things going like this and I have been felling frustrated ever since. I really don't want to lose this friend. Could you please offer me some effective and practical advice? Looking forward to you reply. Best wishes! Yours, Li Hua 【答案】 第一句:writting→writing;_because→that 第二句:去掉was;_去掉at 第三句:because后加of 第四句:caused→causing 第五句:sincere→sincerely;_felling→feeling 第七句:advices→advice 第八句:you→your 三、模拟真题演练 (2018·南通市高三模拟)请阅读下面短文,并按照要求用英语写一篇150词左右的文章。 President Xi Jinping stated that Chinese tourists should be better behaved when travelling abroad. “Our citizens should be educated to behave in a civilized way when travelling abroad. Do not throw water bottles everywhere. Do not damage coral reefs. Eat more sea food and less instant noodles. Spend more to help local economies grow,” said Xi Jinping. Chinese tourism abroad has grown rapidly. It is reported that 100 million citizens travelled abroad last year, and that number is expected to double by 2020 as individual wealth grows along with the economy. Yet the awareness of proper manners has not grown as fast as the number of tourists. Some Chinese tourists have been heavily criticized in recent years for misbehaving while travelling abroad for reasons such as being noisy, jumping queues and damaging cultural relics. Recently, incidents like Chinese tourists drawing graffiti (涂鸦) in an ancient Egyptian temple have severely damaged the image of Chinese holidaymakers. In response, the Chinese government has made great efforts to educate Chinese tourists on appropriate behaviour when travelling both abroad and within China. [写作内容] 1.用约30个单词写出上文概要; 2.用约120个单词阐述你对文明出游的看法,并用2~3个理由或论据支撑你的看法。 [写作要求] 1.写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句; 2.作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称; 3.不必写标题。 [评分标准] 内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。 _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 【答案】 The growth in overseas Chinese tourism has been matched by some tourists' bad behaviour abroad. Consequently, the government is taking action to ensure a positive image to the outside world. The media is full of examples of people behaving badly when travelling abroad. Unfortunately, a small but very visible minority of tourists frequently ignore local traditions and act in loud, overbearing and ill?mannered ways. Such behaviour causes damage on different levels. It hurts the feelings of local people and creates ill?will among them. In extreme cases, that may even damage important cultural monuments, reducing the world's cultural heritage. As a result, it injures the reputation of the tourists' own country.  For these reasons it is essential that tourists should behave appropriately when overseas. They should respect the law and customs of the places they visit, be friendly and fair to local people and develop a better understanding of the local culture. (2018·山东师大附中模拟)与人为善是中华民族的传统美德。假如你是新华中学高三学生李华,要参加近期学校组织的以“与人为善”为主题的英语演讲比赛。请你写一篇100词左右的英语演讲稿。内容要求包括: 1.讲述自己“与人为善”的一个事例; 2.呼吁同学们传承美德,与人为善。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。 My dear fellows, I’m Li Hua, a Senior 3 student from Class 18. __________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Best wishes. 【答案】 My__dear__fellows, I’m__Li__Hua,__a__Senior__3__student__from__Class__18. I feel it a great honor to stand here and share what I think “being kind to others” really conveys. On a hot summer day the heat seemed unbearable so that we children gathered to swim in a deep pond, where unfortunately one boy named Kyle got drowned. My playmates were at a loss when I, though fully aware of the risk, bravely dived into the water and pulled him up to the bank. Kyle was saved. After that I come to know the true meaning of being kind to others and shall surely keep on passing on this traditional virtue with my own kindness to others. Thanks for your listening. Best__wishes. (2017·江苏卷)请认真阅读下面有关我国电影票房收入(box-office income)的柱状图及相关文字,并按照要求用英语写一篇150词左右的文章。 One Day in 2016. At Home. Son: Mum, shall we go and see a film tonight? Mother: Why bother? We can stay at home and watch films online. It’s convenient with our new and faster network Son: But it feels good in a cinema. Mother: And the price… We have to pay 50 yuan a ticket. Son: Only 10 yuan more than last year. Mother: But still we cannot get the money’s worth. Some films are just boring… 【写作内容】 1. 用约30个单词概述柱状图信息的主要内容; 2. 我国电影票房收入变化的原因有哪些,简要谈谈你的看法(上述对话仅供参考,原因不少于两点); 3. 谈谈你对我国电影票房收入走向的看法,并简要说明理由。 【写作要求】 1. 写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句; 2. 作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称; 3. 不必写标题。 【评分标准】 内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。 _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______

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  • ID:4-5566098 [精]第38讲 记叙文写作(解析版+原卷版)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    第38讲 记叙文写作(原卷版) 近几年高考题中,记叙文书面表达有以下特点:1)题材以书信、报道、启事、日记、介绍、欢迎词等为主要形式;2)体裁广泛,记叙文、说明文、夹叙夹议类、议论文等各种文体都有所涵盖;3)内容贴近学生生活。记叙文书面表达要求学生根据写作材料中所列举提供的要点提示,写一篇短文。话题类作文的要点提示简单,涉及面广,各个要点之间既有相互独立性又有相互之间内在的连贯性;有相关写作的要求和说明。对于话题类作文,要做好谋篇布局,必须要准确审题,理顺关系,突出要点。 真题透析: ★【2018·北京卷】 假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,请根据以下四幅图的先后顺序,写一篇英文周记,记述你们上周接待外国学生,带领他们体验中国茶文化的全过程。 注意:词数不少于60。 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ 【完美习作】 Last week, we took the foreign students in our school to experience the authentic tea culture, which turned out be to extremely rewarding. On arriving at the tea house, the foreign students were impressed by the unique tea pots and tea cups. I gave them a vivid and informative introduction of tea culture, including its profound history, its rich variety, and the exquisite craftsmanship of making tea with their interest greatly sparked, I then began to teach them how to make tea. In order to deliver a clear presentation, I slowly explained the traditional procedure of making tea in detail. Absorbed in every move of mine, the foreign students were once again amazed by this unique culture and they couldn’t help taking pictures from time to time. Next came the moment when I asked them to have a try themselves. Washing the tea pots, adding tea leaves, and pouring water into the cups, they followed my instructions and were really immersed in charming tea culture. The tea house witnessed a really enjoyable time for all of us. At the end of the activity, holding the tea bags in our hands, we took a picture to memorize the unforgettable day. It suddenly hit me that traditional culture like tea culture was of great charm and huge value. And I swelled with pride to spread our own culture to people all over the world. 【审题指导】 本文为图片介绍类作文,这类作文是根据给出的一幅或几幅图画所提供的信息写短文。此类题的体裁较广泛,可以是记叙文、说明文,也可以是议论文。按照本文的要求可知,是写一篇记叙文。 1. 认真读图,把握中心。 根据提示可知,内容是带领外国学生体验中国茶文化的全过程,介绍了茶具,泡茶,沏茶,品茶的过程,所以这是这组图画所要表达的中心。 2. 初步构思,考虑用词、短语、句型和时态。 在把握了文章的中心后,应在内心构思一个基本的框架,并考虑使用恰当的词语、短语和句型,以充分地表达文章的内容。本文是讲述上周发生的事情,故时态要以过去时为主,人称是第一人称,尽可能地充分利用所学的短语或句型来表述具体的内容。这是体现自身能力的重要一环。 3. 连词成句,然后再连句成文。 运用适当的单词或短语正确表达各图的意思。然后再将各图的单个句子串连起来。 串连时,要注意使用适当的连接词语或过渡性语句,不至于让读者觉得文章中出现跳跃现象,更使上下文更为紧凑、自然。 4. 反复审核,修改错误。 一篇文章写好后,应进行检查,看短文中是否有错,如拼写、用词、时态、语态及表达方面的错误。 5. 宜详则详,该略则略。 对于一些细节方面的内容,如果是文章必不可少的,在写作过程中是不可将其忽略的。 如果是可有可无的细节,则可视具体情况进行增删。据此,我们在读图时一定要注意阅读各图中的一些细节内容,看其是否影响文章的内容。 【亮点说明】 1.巧妙使用定语从句,提升了文章档次:Last week, we took the foreign students in our school to experience the authentic tea culture, which turned out be to extremely rewarding. 2.使用非谓语动词,使句子表达更简洁: On arriving at the tea house… I gave them a vivid and informative introduction of tea culture, including its profound history, its rich variety, Absorbed in every move of mine, the foreign students were once again amazed by this unique culture holding the tea bags in our hands, we took a picture to memorize the unforgettable day. 3.使用倒装句突出重点。 Next came the moment when I asked them to have a try themselves. 4.使用it做形式主语,使表达更地道。 It suddenly hit me that traditional culture like tea culture was of great charm and huge value. 一、文体特征 记叙文是以叙述为基本方法来记人、叙事的文章。记叙文是最常见、最基本的写作文体,它以真实的社会生活、自然景物为材料。 记叙文书面表达要注意以下几点: 一,掌握记叙文的“六要素”。一般按照事件发展的时间顺序来讲述,先交代事件发生的时间、地点以及事件所涉及的人物,然后叙述事件发生的原因、发展经过,最后交代结果。但有时也采取插叙和倒序的手法。 二,首先确定时间立足点,并以此确定时态。报道、日记或故事类记叙文通常是记录过去发生的事情,因此经常采用一般过去时。叙述当前的事情或自然、社会现象则用一般现在时。 三,从谋篇布局角度讲,该类文章可分为三段 第一段:引出话题 第二段:讲述过程 第三段:说明结果或发表感慨 二、技巧点拨 明确“五个W和一个H”: 要写好记叙文,首先要确定先写什么,再写什么,最后写什么,然后开始布局谋篇。我们可以借用英语新闻写作中经常用到的“五个W和一个H”的概念,即what(什么事),who(什么人),when(什么时候),where(什么地点),why(什么原因),how(怎么样)。整个写作内容的确定、写作材料的筛选,都要围绕这五个W和一个H进行。 构思层次: (1)场景 记叙文往往一开始就提供事情发生的背景,交代时间、地点和人物。 (2)结构 记叙文的叙述方式有顺叙、倒叙和插叙。 (3)人称 记叙文可用第一人称叙述,也可用第三人称叙述。 (4)时态 记叙文通常是记叙过去发生的事情,故常用过去时态。 记叙文写作要点: 1.活动的时间、地点、人物; 2.表明事情开端; 3.叙述事情的发展/活动内容一; 事情进一步发展/活动内容二; 事情发展的高潮/活动内容三; 4.事情的结束; 5.表明个人的看法或感受; 6.总结全文,再次抒发自己的感情。 叙述的顺序: 故事性文章的线索和顺序故事性文章以叙事为主, 即以事件发生发展的过程来写, 使整 个文章串联起来。叙事的写法一般用以下两种:顺叙和倒叙。顺叙多是按照事件发生、发展 的先后顺序进行叙述, 一般以时间推移为线索, 在文章的开头就交代出事件发生的时间、地 点和人物。而倒叙多是以事件的结局为文章的开端, 然后再按事件发生、发展的先后顺序进 行叙述。写作过程中还要注意选择正确的时态, 语言简炼明晰且紧密围绕主题。 对话的使用: 叙述一件事,我们常常用间接引语,但是,如果能适当使用直接引语,则可以生动地反 映人物的性格、品质和心理状态,使记叙生动有趣,使文章内容更加生动、具体。 要想达到好的语言效果,就要根据情况选择相应的表达方式和句子结构,并注意文章的 连贯,使文章显得紧凑而融为一体。 三、分类写作模板 【模板01】 Everyone has an unforgettable memory and cannot remove it. To me, it happened ______________1时间和地点___________, and I still remember the whole process vividly. At that time, I was ___________________2“我”在做什么__________. It was a sunny day and things were awfully _______________________3形容词____________ before it happened. Then ____________4事件_______________ drew my attention. I saw __________5详细说明当时情况________________, and to my _____________6表达感受的名词______________, ______________7当事人_________________ was ___________________8正在进行的动作 _____________. It did not last very long, but it impressed me so deeply that I would _______________9自己的感受_____________. Whenever I look back on what happened that day, I think it is right to _____________10理应采取的措施或态度一_____________. First for all, no one can deny its/his/her ________________11对当事人评价的名词_______________. Furthermore, it is important for us to _____________12理应采取的措施或态度二________________. I will cherish all these memories forever. 【模板02】 叙事记叙文: 第一段,开篇点题,交代清楚故事涉及的人物、时间、地点等; 第二段,具体叙述;讲述实践放生的原因、经过和结果; 第三段,总结:对事件的看法、感受等。 【模板03】 I still remember how __________①________ (心情) I was ___________②____________ (事件发生的时间), when I ____________③____________ (什么事件).   ____________④____________ (事件发生的过程). The smile shone in the whole day and the following days. A week later, ____________⑤___________ (事件的结果). Thanks to ___________⑥_____________, I ___________⑦_____________ (谈谈自己的看法). 四、增加细节的高分技巧 写作文时应多运用一些高级句式和复合句,并注意句式的灵活多变,让文章读起来抑扬顿挫,让考生深厚的语言功底得以体现,让作文跨上五档线! (一)常用7大句式,考场驾轻就熟 写作中,如果考生能够使用如强调句型、倒装句型等特殊句式,不仅能彰显考生的英语水平,还能提升写作档次。 1.强调句型 【即学即练】 (用强调句补全)through this voluntary work that it will enable me to learn English better and meanwhile to broaden my horizons.(2018·浙江卷6月书面表达) 2.倒装句 【即学即练】At no time (你应该)phone games absorb you again and disappoint your parents.(2018·四川重点中学评估书面表达) 【即学即练】Not only (它是)a practical technique for writing Chinese characters,but it’s a unique art form to purify our souls as well.(2018·福州质量检查书面表达) 3.省略句 【即学即练】As (补出省略成分) scheduled,we participated in several instructive activities.(2016·天津卷书面表达) 【即学即练】While ( take适当形式填空) this line,we can enjoy the beautiful scenery as well as the new looks of the villages and towns along the way.(2018·昆明调研书面表达) 4.虚拟语气 【即学即练】I wish that you (grasp适当形式填空) this opportunity to learn traditional Chinese culture further.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达) 【即学即练】Also,it’s time that I (take适当形式填空)it into consideration what I will take up in the future.(2018·昆明质量检查书面表达) 5.with复合结构 【即学即练】With prices (go)up so fast,we can’t afford luxuries.(2018·东北三省四市教研模拟) 【即学即练】In the picture,we can see a boy in worn clothes,sitting at a shabby wooden table (带着)a pile of books on it. 6.并列句型 【即学即练】To be honest,voters sometimes feel annoyed, (不是)because they hate voting, (而是)because they are divided between emotion and fairness.(2016·江苏卷书面表达) 【即学即练】Visiting this exhibition,we will (不但)enjoy the folk art works, (而且)learn a lot.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达) 7.it句型 【即学即练】I think great fun to learn the poems written in the Tang Dynasty with you.(填合适的词补全句子)(2017·全国卷Ⅰ书面表达) 【即学即练】Everyone in our society should help those in need,but it is more important to be sincere and earnest.(填合适的词补全句子) (二)言简意明的非谓语动词 恰当地运用非谓语动词,不仅句型多样、句子活泼,而且读起来结构紧凑、言简意明。 1.Located behind the library,the newly?built stadium looks really beautiful.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达) 2.Hearing that you are recruiting some volunteers to welcome the coming foreign students,I am gladly writing to apply for this job.(2018·浙江卷6月书面表达) 3.To get admitted,I have made good preparations beforehand,trying to know as much as I could about my city.(2017·天津卷书面表达) 4.Secondly,I have a good command of English,enabling me to communicate with others freely.(2018·银川检测书面表达) 【题组过关1】 1.句型转换 ①For another reason,different cultures and traditions from the past lead to many foreigners’ living and working there with gladness.(变强调句型) → ②You can expect to receive only when you learn to give.(变为倒装句) → ③When we are faced with difficulties,we need friends to give us comfort and help.(变为含有非谓语动词的简单句) → ④It’s time for us to take measures to protect endangered animals.(用虚拟语气改写句子) → 2.合并句子 ①Our school is located in a northern city of China.In our school,you can taste many kinds of delicious food.It is well famous for its snacks.(用定语从句和原因状语从句合并句子) → ②He said a lot at the meeting.His words were very attractive.(用名词性从句合并句子) → ③We should speak more English.We think it is very important.(用it作形式宾语改写句子) → 记叙文特别注重写作技巧,要求跌宕起伏不平淡,崇尚“意料之外,情理之中”的文学效果,是一种难度很大的文体。开头一般来说要做到开门见山,使读者了解文章要谈什么,最好能立刻引起该者的兴趣。下面介绍几种开头的常见写法: 1.开门见山法——直接切入主题。 (全国卷Ⅱ书面表达) I' d like to invite you lo join a visil Lo the nearby nursing home nexl Saturday for the double ninth festival. 我想邀请你在卜周六和我们一块去附近的敬老院过重阳节 2.故事背景法——交代人物、事件、吋间、地点、背景笭 (2015·北京高考书面表达) Last Tuesday, our class invited an old craftsman to teach us how to make dough figurines。 上周二,我们班邀请了一位老艺人来教我们如何做面人 3.往事追忆法—叫忆过去发生的某件事 I still remember my first trip to the: Mountain Tai as if it were yesterday.我依然记得第一次去泰山旅游的事情,就像是在咋天一样。 【题组过关2】根据提示翻译句子 1.(开门见山法)为了更好的了解我们学校,6月9日下午2:30 - 4:00在图书馆放映一部优秀的关于我们学校的英语短片。 (故事背景法)上周,我和我的同学发生了冲突。 (引用俗语法)交通问题是一个“棘手的问题”。 (点明主题法)我们在组织班级活动时可能会有不同的意见。 结尾有概括全文内容,首尾呼应,点题,表明中心,升华主题.但是切记要短小精悍.。记叙文的常用结尾法主要有: 1表示感谢法: (2016·全国卷乙书面表达) I d appreciate it if you could do me a favour.如果你能帮助我,我将感激不尽。 I' ll appreciate you taking my suggestion into account.我非常感激你能考虑我的建议。 Please accept my gratitude, now and always请接受我的感谢,现在到永远 2.表示期待法: (2016·全国卷甲书面表达) Hope to hear from you soon希望很快收到你的来信。 3.点题升华法—结尾总结全文,进一步升华主题 From this experience, I learned that being careful is very important and that we can t be too careful, especially in examinations从这次经历中,我了解到细心非常重要,尤其在考试时,我们再怎样细心都不为过。 4.问题设问法—通过问答的形式总结全文 Will you join us in the next century? How romantic and fantastic it will be! 你愿意在下个世纪加人我们吗?那将是多么浪漫和奇妙啊! 5.总结全文法——总结说明的事物,进一步说明其特征。 In a word, changes in our life in the past twenty years have brought us convenience and comfort.总之,过去20年里我们生活中的变化给我们带来了。 【题组过关3】根据提示翻译句子 1.(表示期待法)我也希望将来会有更多这类活动。(2016·天津高考书面表达) 2.(表示感谢法)我必须对你慷慨的帮助再次表示感谢。 (问题设问法)我还会惧怕困难吗吗?处处充满友爱的环境鼓励我前行。 4.(得出结论法)好的意见值得坚持,因为它们能使我们所有人受益。 5.(总结全文法)总之,环境保护是非常重要的,它可以使我们生活得更舒适和健康。 衔接与过渡词语的运用是语言连贯性得以实现的重要途径。在句与句之间,段与段之间恰当地使用一些承上启下的连接性语言是非常必要的。考生应掌握的连接性词语如下: 类型一、创造良好开端 表示“良好开端”的词汇常用在段落或文章的开头,用于开篇引出扩展句。常见的词汇有:first, firstly, first of all, at first, in the first place, above all, to begin/start with, today, now, nowadays, at present, recently, generally speaking, according to 等。 【例1】 (首先), I think everyone needs friends and is eager to get friendship. 【答案】First 【变式训练1】 (首先), I’d like to know when the class will start and how many students there will be in a class. 【变式训练2】 (当今), people in many big cities are complaining about the heavy traffic. 【变式训练3】 (首先), smoking should be banned in public areas. 【变式训练4】 (一般来说), the more you practise, the more skillfully you can write in English. 类型二、顺势承上启下 表示“承上启下”的词汇常用于承接主题句或第一个扩展句。常见的词汇有:second/secondly, also, besides, in addition, soon afterwards, after that, what’s more, furthermore,moreover, what’s worse, still less, to make matters worse, worse still, for example, in other words, especially, particularly, obviously, meanwhile, at the same time 等。 【例2】 (此外),it is big enough to hold all the teachers and students in our school.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达) 【答案】Besides 【变式训练5】 (而且),the stadium opens from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday to Friday.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达) 【变式训练6】 (另外),there are famous artists who will perform how to cut paper on the spot.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达) 【变式训练7】 (在我看来),every summer I stay at my uncle’s house in the country for three weeks and enjoy a wonderful life there.(2016·四川卷书面表达) 【变式训练8】 (与此同时),I will regard it as my duty to keep our environment clean and healthy. 类型三、巧妙转折过渡 表示“转折过渡”的词汇常用来表示不同或相反的意见或情况。常见的词汇有:but, yet, however, while, otherwise, or (else), on the contrary, on the other hand, contrary to, in any case, though, although, as, even if/though, despite, in spite of, regardless of 等。 【例3】 (另一方面), online shopping also has many disadvantages. 【答案】On the other hand 【变式训练9】 (相反), the volunteers always claim that they are tired of the life on earth. 【变式训练10】 (可是), a plan can bear no fruit without being actually carried out.(2016·浙江卷6月书面表达) 【变式训练11】 (刚刚), because my left foot was injured, I cannot go with you as planned. 一.句型转换 用过渡性词语完成句子 1. (首先), the most significant thing is to set a goal, work out a plan and carry out your plan step by step. 2. (况且),listening to some soft music does relax your mood and give you a new start. 3.I lost my way in the forest and (更糟的是),it became dark. 4. (因此),I suggest we be given more time for sports and sleep. 5. (总之),we should take effective measures to protect our enviroment. II 请用高级词汇替换下列句子中加黑部分 6.As high school students,we should be neatly dressed when at school. 7.The teacher directed the gifted students towards the more difficult courses. 8.We’ll try our best to improve the traditional friendship between us. 9.He has decided to be a teacher when he grows up. 10.When you are bored with the people sometimes,you’d better find a quiet place,listening to some classical music. 二.阅读下面短文,选择适当的过渡性词语填空 (江淮十校联考)近来,中学生普遍缺乏自我保护意识这一问题备受关注,请你用英语写一篇短文: 1.概括中学生自我保护的重要性; 2.就如何保护自己谈谈你的看法(至少两点)。 above all, besides, meanwhile, for one thing, for another thing, personally, in a word Recently, it has been a great public concern that the students lack self-protection awareness. There is a lack of social experience among students and therefore learning how to protect ourselves is of great significance to us all. ① ,security comes first. Without security, we can achieve nothing and cannot live up to parent’s expectation. ② ,_protecting ourselves contributes to the healthy development of the students, which is associated with the happiness of every family. ③ ,_it also helps to build a more harmonious society. ④ ,_in order to protect us students, ⑤ ,_we should strengthen our security awareness. ⑥ ,_when accidents occur, we should calm down and turn to teachers or parents for help. The government also plays a leading role in protecting students. ⑦ ,_only by the combined efforts of every side involved can we live and study in harmony. 三、模拟真题演练 (2018·山东师大附中模拟)与人为善是中华民族的传统美德。假如你是新华中学高三学生李华,要参加近期学校组织的以“与人为善”为主题的英语演讲比赛。请你写一篇100词左右的英语演讲稿。内容要求包括: 1.讲述自己“与人为善”的一个事例; 2.呼吁同学们传承美德,与人为善。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。 My dear fellows, I’m Li Hua, a Senior 3 student from Class 18. ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Best wishes. 【2018·全国II】你受学生会委托为校宣传栏“英语天地”写一则通知,请大家观看一部英语短片Growing Together,内容包括: (1)短片内容:学校的发展; (2)放映时间、地点; (3)欢迎对短片提出意见。 注意: (1)词数100左右; (2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ (2018年高考浙江卷 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=aYRTvA6MWb9yAAl+kBC30FLwNrJ2DPmZi8hQkgnDa4NqmylqBgtKlsECoIGEj9khRTiaj7FMBYYwUCZPpxVaN1asgMNnioTd5?/?qQ2Ckee0rlmcwLJd47bzG53Kw6uWlEw1s2MFPdIdKhIt+FLxVhdbiBhrZ?/?26aZ9LEZMNh8czh+Y6BQzjlohU2BLSlV+RAq4xBylhE3BHRzgvLIaP0d?/?DAAIQ4EHGCh7kOhYG+k?/?+4JlVtDWT1yXZQsoiSLZVHMqTigTVgkVtJS2WVEisB?/?GF+gxXkmje?/?WJdrNF18G1F+E2?/?Xl3ESPY04E2?/?urfqqb4ee1qqeAu1BrxLX2qXKUYgr6cQlMB9GUVkFjuhfwesjYlsIoIVUyVLPr2aN4TJf+n7iQEwFbZU5jPqh0JygZURfxFBtYn?/??/?dzXhwbTteLv2ivmVaJQVvwAVc4scOut5Bm2bcsLWZOrpZ99pZ?/?8ypQzBT4dDqKTpgMa?/?idTu7ZkKNwzBURQn1G78rka4874af1vwZiLdn7jePOVoM91Ott1k3aep7tT0aroEWBbzlk0Luk8coqWn1lw+ijAHU4Oqm44QpXpTnJfXT3hhxcUvW3v7pmCBZgUtsTHTDaBw7IcAZDbiUDEu09spHMGUdD8wudguX?/?abDhlEzt8lHLbxvRNy5g1mwvnhS3L?/?SknZMT3RgPOukS7OmEBNfGP4K+ZHJe" \t "https:?/??/?www.so.com?/?_blank?))读后续写 阅读下面短文,根据所给情节进行续写,使之构成一个完整的故事。 67. It was summer, and my dad wanted to treat me to a vacation like never before. He decided to take me on a trip to the Wild West. We took a plane to Albuquerque, a big city in the state of New Mexico. We reached Albuquerque in the late afternoon. Uncle Paul, my dad’s friend, picked us up from the airport and drove us up to his farm in Pecos. His wife Tina cooked us a delicious dinner and we got to know his sons Ryan and Kyle. My dad and I spent the night in the guestroom of the farm house listening to the frogs and water rolling down the river nearby. Very early in the morning, Uncle Paul woke us up to have breakfast. "The day starts at dawn on my farm," he said. After breakfast, I went to help Aunt Tina feed the chickens. while my dad went with Uncle Paul to take the sheep out to graze(吃草). I was impressed to see my dad and Uncle Paul riding horses. They looked really cool. In the afternoon, I asked Uncle Paul if I could take a hose ride, and he said yes, as long as my dad went with me. I wasn’t going to take a horse ride by myself anyway. So, my dad and I put on our new cowboy hats, got on our horses, and headed slowly towards the mountains. "Don’t be late for supper," Uncle Paul cried, "and keep to the track so that you don’t get lost!" "OK! " my dad cried back. After a while Uncle Paul and his fam house were out of sight. It was so peaceful and quiet and the colors of the brown rocks, the deep green pine trees, and the late afternoon sun mixed to create a magic scene. It looked like a beautiful woven(编织的)blanket spread out upon the ground just for us. Suddenly a little rabbit jumped out in front of my horse. 注意: (1)所续写短文的词数应为l50左右; (2)至少使用5个短文中标有下划线的关键词语: (3)续写部分分为两段,每段的开头语已为你写好; (4)续写完成后,请用下划线标出你所使用的关键词语。 Paragraph 1: Suddenly a little rabbit jumped out in front of my horse. ____________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 2: We had no idea where we were and it was getting dark. _____________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ (2018年北 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=aYRTvA6MWb9yAAl+kBC30FLwNrJ2DPmZi8hQkgnDa4NqmylqBgtKlsECoIGEj9khRTiaj7FMBYYwUCZPpxVaN1asgMNnioTd5?/?qQ2Ckee0rlmcwLJd47bzG53Kw6uWlEw1s2MFPdIdKhIt+FLxVhdbiBhrZ?/?26aZ9LEZMNh8czh+Y6BQzjlohU2BLSlV+RAq4xBylhE3BHRzgvLIaP0d?/?DAAIQ4EHGCh7kOhYG+k?/?+4JlVtDWT1yXZQsoiSLZVHMqTigTVgkVtJS2WVEisB?/?GF+gxXkmje?/?WJdrNF18G1F+E2?/?Xl3ESPY04E2?/?urfqqb4ee1qqeAu1BrxLX2qXKUYgr6cQlMB9GUVkFjuhfwesjYlsIoIVUyVLPr2aN4TJf+n7iQEwFbZU5jPqh0JygZURfxFBtYn?/??/?dzXhwbTteLv2ivmVaJQVvwAVc4scOut5Bm2bcsLWZOrpZ99pZ?/?8ypQzBT4dDqKTpgMa?/?idTu7ZkKNwzBURQn1G78rka4874af1vwZiLdn7jePOVoM91Ott1k3aep7tT0aroEWBbzlk0Luk8coqWn1lw+ijAHU4Oqm44QpXpTnJfXT3hhxcUvW3v7pmCBZgUtsTHTDaBw7IcAZDbiUDEu09spHMGUdD8wudguX?/?abDhlEzt8lHLbxvRNy5g1mwvnhS3L?/?SknZMT3RgPOukS7OmEBNfGP4K+ZHJe" \t "https:?/??/?www.so.com?/?_blank?)京海淀区高三期中)假设你是高三学生李华。请根据下面四幅图的先后顺序,写一篇英文日记,记录上周六你回到母校红星小学参加“校友日”的全过程。注意:词数不少于60。 提示词:校友日?Homecoming Day _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 1 第38讲 记叙文写作(解析版) 近几年高考题中,记叙文书面表达有以下特点:1)题材以书信、报道、启事、日记、介绍、欢迎词等为主要形式;2)体裁广泛,记叙文、说明文、夹叙夹议类、议论文等各种文体都有所涵盖;3)内容贴近学生生活。记叙文书面表达要求学生根据写作材料中所列举提供的要点提示,写一篇短文。话题类作文的要点提示简单,涉及面广,各个要点之间既有相互独立性又有相互之间内在的连贯性;有相关写作的要求和说明。对于话题类作文,要做好谋篇布局,必须要准确审题,理顺关系,突出要点。 真题透析: ★【2018·北京卷】 假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,请根据以下四幅图的先后顺序,写一篇英文周记,记述你们上周接待外国学生,带领他们体验中国茶文化的全过程。 注意:词数不少于60。 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ 【完美习作】 Last week, we took the foreign students in our school to experience the authentic tea culture, which turned out be to extremely rewarding. On arriving at the tea house, the foreign students were impressed by the unique tea pots and tea cups. I gave them a vivid and informative introduction of tea culture, including its profound history, its rich variety, and the exquisite craftsmanship of making tea with their interest greatly sparked, I then began to teach them how to make tea. In order to deliver a clear presentation, I slowly explained the traditional procedure of making tea in detail. Absorbed in every move of mine, the foreign students were once again amazed by this unique culture and they couldn’t help taking pictures from time to time. Next came the moment when I asked them to have a try themselves. Washing the tea pots, adding tea leaves, and pouring water into the cups, they followed my instructions and were really immersed in charming tea culture. The tea house witnessed a really enjoyable time for all of us. At the end of the activity, holding the tea bags in our hands, we took a picture to memorize the unforgettable day. It suddenly hit me that traditional culture like tea culture was of great charm and huge value. And I swelled with pride to spread our own culture to people all over the world. 【审题指导】 本文为图片介绍类作文,这类作文是根据给出的一幅或几幅图画所提供的信息写短文。此类题的体裁较广泛,可以是记叙文、说明文,也可以是议论文。按照本文的要求可知,是写一篇记叙文。 1. 认真读图,把握中心。 根据提示可知,内容是带领外国学生体验中国茶文化的全过程,介绍了茶具,泡茶,沏茶,品茶的过程,所以这是这组图画所要表达的中心。 2. 初步构思,考虑用词、短语、句型和时态。 在把握了文章的中心后,应在内心构思一个基本的框架,并考虑使用恰当的词语、短语和句型,以充分地表达文章的内容。本文是讲述上周发生的事情,故时态要以过去时为主,人称是第一人称,尽可能地充分利用所学的短语或句型来表述具体的内容。这是体现自身能力的重要一环。 3. 连词成句,然后再连句成文。 运用适当的单词或短语正确表达各图的意思。然后再将各图的单个句子串连起来。 串连时,要注意使用适当的连接词语或过渡性语句,不至于让读者觉得文章中出现跳跃现象,更使上下文更为紧凑、自然。 4. 反复审核,修改错误。 一篇文章写好后,应进行检查,看短文中是否有错,如拼写、用词、时态、语态及表达方面的错误。 5. 宜详则详,该略则略。 对于一些细节方面的内容,如果是文章必不可少的,在写作过程中是不可将其忽略的。 如果是可有可无的细节,则可视具体情况进行增删。据此,我们在读图时一定要注意阅读各图中的一些细节内容,看其是否影响文章的内容。 【亮点说明】 1.巧妙使用定语从句,提升了文章档次:Last week, we took the foreign students in our school to experience the authentic tea culture, which turned out be to extremely rewarding. 2.使用非谓语动词,使句子表达更简洁: On arriving at the tea house… I gave them a vivid and informative introduction of tea culture, including its profound history, its rich variety, Absorbed in every move of mine, the foreign students were once again amazed by this unique culture holding the tea bags in our hands, we took a picture to memorize the unforgettable day. 3.使用倒装句突出重点。 Next came the moment when I asked them to have a try themselves. 4.使用it做形式主语,使表达更地道。 It suddenly hit me that traditional culture like tea culture was of great charm and huge value. 一、文体特征 记叙文是以叙述为基本方法来记人、叙事的文章。记叙文是最常见、最基本的写作文体,它以真实的社会生活、自然景物为材料。 记叙文书面表达要注意以下几点: 一,掌握记叙文的“六要素”。一般按照事件发展的时间顺序来讲述,先交代事件发生的时间、地点以及事件所涉及的人物,然后叙述事件发生的原因、发展经过,最后交代结果。但有时也采取插叙和倒序的手法。 二,首先确定时间立足点,并以此确定时态。报道、日记或故事类记叙文通常是记录过去发生的事情,因此经常采用一般过去时。叙述当前的事情或自然、社会现象则用一般现在时。 三,从谋篇布局角度讲,该类文章可分为三段 第一段:引出话题 第二段:讲述过程 第三段:说明结果或发表感慨 二、技巧点拨 明确“五个W和一个H”: 要写好记叙文,首先要确定先写什么,再写什么,最后写什么,然后开始布局谋篇。我们可以借用英语新闻写作中经常用到的“五个W和一个H”的概念,即what(什么事),who(什么人),when(什么时候),where(什么地点),why(什么原因),how(怎么样)。整个写作内容的确定、写作材料的筛选,都要围绕这五个W和一个H进行。 构思层次: (1)场景 记叙文往往一开始就提供事情发生的背景,交代时间、地点和人物。 (2)结构 记叙文的叙述方式有顺叙、倒叙和插叙。 (3)人称 记叙文可用第一人称叙述,也可用第三人称叙述。 (4)时态 记叙文通常是记叙过去发生的事情,故常用过去时态。 记叙文写作要点: 1.活动的时间、地点、人物; 2.表明事情开端; 3.叙述事情的发展/活动内容一; 事情进一步发展/活动内容二; 事情发展的高潮/活动内容三; 4.事情的结束; 5.表明个人的看法或感受; 6.总结全文,再次抒发自己的感情。 叙述的顺序: 故事性文章的线索和顺序故事性文章以叙事为主, 即以事件发生发展的过程来写, 使整 个文章串联起来。叙事的写法一般用以下两种:顺叙和倒叙。顺叙多是按照事件发生、发展 的先后顺序进行叙述, 一般以时间推移为线索, 在文章的开头就交代出事件发生的时间、地 点和人物。而倒叙多是以事件的结局为文章的开端, 然后再按事件发生、发展的先后顺序进 行叙述。写作过程中还要注意选择正确的时态, 语言简炼明晰且紧密围绕主题。 对话的使用: 叙述一件事,我们常常用间接引语,但是,如果能适当使用直接引语,则可以生动地反 映人物的性格、品质和心理状态,使记叙生动有趣,使文章内容更加生动、具体。 要想达到好的语言效果,就要根据情况选择相应的表达方式和句子结构,并注意文章的 连贯,使文章显得紧凑而融为一体。 三、分类写作模板 【模板01】 Everyone has an unforgettable memory and cannot remove it. To me, it happened ______________1时间和地点___________, and I still remember the whole process vividly. At that time, I was ___________________2“我”在做什么__________. It was a sunny day and things were awfully _______________________3形容词____________ before it happened. Then ____________4事件_______________ drew my attention. I saw __________5详细说明当时情况________________, and to my _____________6表达感受的名词______________, ______________7当事人_________________ was ___________________8正在进行的动作 _____________. It did not last very long, but it impressed me so deeply that I would _______________9自己的感受_____________. Whenever I look back on what happened that day, I think it is right to _____________10理应采取的措施或态度一_____________. First for all, no one can deny its/his/her ________________11对当事人评价的名词_______________. Furthermore, it is important for us to _____________12理应采取的措施或态度二________________. I will cherish all these memories forever. 【模板02】 叙事记叙文: 第一段,开篇点题,交代清楚故事涉及的人物、时间、地点等; 第二段,具体叙述;讲述实践放生的原因、经过和结果; 第三段,总结:对事件的看法、感受等。 【模板03】 I still remember how __________①________ (心情) I was ___________②____________ (事件发生的时间), when I ____________③____________ (什么事件).   ____________④____________ (事件发生的过程). The smile shone in the whole day and the following days. A week later, ____________⑤___________ (事件的结果). Thanks to ___________⑥_____________, I ___________⑦_____________ (谈谈自己的看法). 四、增加细节的高分技巧 写作文时应多运用一些高级句式和复合句,并注意句式的灵活多变,让文章读起来抑扬顿挫,让考生深厚的语言功底得以体现,让作文跨上五档线! (一)常用7大句式,考场驾轻就熟 写作中,如果考生能够使用如强调句型、倒装句型等特殊句式,不仅能彰显考生的英语水平,还能提升写作档次。 1.强调句型 【即学即练】 (用强调句补全)through this voluntary work that it will enable me to learn English better and meanwhile to broaden my horizons.(2018·浙江卷6月书面表达) 【答案】It is 2.倒装句 【即学即练】At no time (你应该)phone games absorb you again and disappoint your parents.(2018·四川重点中学评估书面表达) 【答案】should you let 【即学即练】Not only (它是)a practical technique for writing Chinese characters,but it’s a unique art form to purify our souls as well.(2018·福州质量检查书面表达) 【答案】 is it 3.省略句 【即学即练】As (补出省略成分) scheduled,we participated in several instructive activities.(2016·天津卷书面表达) 【答案】it is 【即学即练】While ( take适当形式填空) this line,we can enjoy the beautiful scenery as well as the new looks of the villages and towns along the way.(2018·昆明调研书面表达) 【答案】taking 4.虚拟语气 【即学即练】I wish that you (grasp适当形式填空) this opportunity to learn traditional Chinese culture further.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达) 【答案】could grasp ②Also,it’s time that I (take适当形式填空)it into consideration what I will take up in the future.(2018·昆明质量检查书面表达) 【答案】took 5.with复合结构 【即学即练】With prices (go)up so fast,we can’t afford luxuries.(2018·东北三省四市教研模拟) 【答案】going 【即学即练】In the picture,we can see a boy in worn clothes,sitting at a shabby wooden table (带着)a pile of books on it. 【答案】with 6.并列句型 【即学即练】To be honest,voters sometimes feel annoyed, (不是)because they hate voting, (而是)because they are divided between emotion and fairness.(2016·江苏卷书面表达) 【答案】not...but... 【即学即练】Visiting this exhibition,we will (不但)enjoy the folk art works, (而且)learn a lot.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达) 【答案】not only...but also... 7.it句型 【即学即练】I think great fun to learn the poems written in the Tang Dynasty with you.(填合适的词补全句子)(2017·全国卷Ⅰ书面表达) 【答案】it 【即学即练】Everyone in our society should help those in need,but it is more important to be sincere and earnest.(填合适的词补全句子) 【答案】it (二)言简意明的非谓语动词 恰当地运用非谓语动词,不仅句型多样、句子活泼,而且读起来结构紧凑、言简意明。 1.Located behind the library,the newly?built stadium looks really beautiful.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达) 2.Hearing that you are recruiting some volunteers to welcome the coming foreign students,I am gladly writing to apply for this job.(2018·浙江卷6月书面表达) 3.To get admitted,I have made good preparations beforehand,trying to know as much as I could about my city.(2017·天津卷书面表达) 4.Secondly,I have a good command of English,enabling me to communicate with others freely.(2018·银川检测书面表达) 【题组过关1】 1.句型转换 ①For another reason,different cultures and traditions from the past lead to many foreigners’ living and working there with gladness.(变强调句型) → ②You can expect to receive only when you learn to give.(变为倒装句) → ③When we are faced with difficulties,we need friends to give us comfort and help.(变为含有非谓语动词的简单句) → ④It’s time for us to take measures to protect endangered animals.(用虚拟语气改写句子) → 【答案】 1.For__another__reason,it__is__different__cultures__and__traditions__from__the_ _past__that__lead__to__many__foreigners’__living__and__working__there__with__gladness. 2.Only__when__you__learn__to__give__can__you__expect__to__receive. 3.Faced__with__difficulties,we__need__friends__to__give__us__comfort__and__help. 4.It’s__time__we__should__take__measures__to__protect__endangered__animals. 2.合并句子 ①Our school is located in a northern city of China.In our school,you can taste many kinds of delicious food.It is well famous for its snacks.(用定语从句和原因状语从句合并句子) → ②He said a lot at the meeting.His words were very attractive.(用名词性从句合并句子) → ③We should speak more English.We think it is very important.(用it作形式宾语改写句子) → 【答案】 1.→Our__school__is__located__in__a__northern__city__of__China,where_you_can_ _taste__many__kinds__of__delicious__food because_it__is__well__famous__for__its__snacks. 2.→What__he__said__at__the__meeting__was__very__attractive. 3.→We__think__it__very__important__to__speak__more__English. 记叙文特别注重写作技巧,要求跌宕起伏不平淡,崇尚“意料之外,情理之中”的文学效果,是一种难度很大的文体。开头一般来说要做到开门见山,使读者了解文章要谈什么,最好能立刻引起该者的兴趣。下面介绍几种开头的常见写法: 1.开门见山法——直接切入主题。 (全国卷Ⅱ书面表达) I' d like to invite you lo join a visil Lo the nearby nursing home nexl Saturday for the double ninth festival. 我想邀请你在卜周六和我们一块去附近的敬老院过重阳节 2.故事背景法——交代人物、事件、吋间、地点、背景笭 (2015·北京高考书面表达) Last Tuesday, our class invited an old craftsman to teach us how to make dough figurines。 上周二,我们班邀请了一位老艺人来教我们如何做面人 3.往事追忆法—叫忆过去发生的某件事 I still remember my first trip to the: Mountain Tai as if it were yesterday.我依然记得第一次去泰山旅游的事情,就像是在咋天一样。 【题组过关2】根据提示翻译句子 1.(开门见山法)为了更好的了解我们学校,6月9日下午2:30 - 4:00在图书馆放映一部优秀的关于我们学校的英语短片。 (故事背景法)上周,我和我的同学发生了冲突。 (引用俗语法)交通问题是一个“棘手的问题”。 (点明主题法)我们在组织班级活动时可能会有不同的意见。 【答案】 In order to have a better understanding of our school, an outstanding English short movie about our school will be shown in the library from 2:30 to 4:00 in the afternoon on June 9th. Last week, I had a conflict with my classmate. 3.The traffic issue is “a hard nut to crack”. 4.We may have different opinions in organizing class activities. 结尾有概括全文内容,首尾呼应,点题,表明中心,升华主题.但是切记要短小精悍.。记叙文的常用结尾法主要有: 1表示感谢法: (2016·全国卷乙书面表达) I d appreciate it if you could do me a favour.如果你能帮助我,我将感激不尽。 I' ll appreciate you taking my suggestion into account.我非常感激你能考虑我的建议。 Please accept my gratitude, now and always请接受我的感谢,现在到永远 2.表示期待法: (2016·全国卷甲书面表达) Hope to hear from you soon希望很快收到你的来信。 3.点题升华法—结尾总结全文,进一步升华主题 From this experience, I learned that being careful is very important and that we can t be too careful, especially in examinations从这次经历中,我了解到细心非常重要,尤其在考试时,我们再怎样细心都不为过。 4.问题设问法—通过问答的形式总结全文 Will you join us in the next century? How romantic and fantastic it will be! 你愿意在下个世纪加人我们吗?那将是多么浪漫和奇妙啊! 5.总结全文法——总结说明的事物,进一步说明其特征。 In a word, changes in our life in the past twenty years have brought us convenience and comfort.总之,过去20年里我们生活中的变化给我们带来了。 【题组过关3】根据提示翻译句子 1.(表示期待法)我也希望将来会有更多这类活动。(2016·天津高考书面表达) 2.(表示感谢法)我必须对你慷慨的帮助再次表示感谢。 (问题设问法)我还会惧怕困难吗吗?处处充满友爱的环境鼓励我前行。 4.(得出结论法)好的意见值得坚持,因为它们能使我们所有人受益。 5.(总结全文法)总之,环境保护是非常重要的,它可以使我们生活得更舒适和健康。 【答案】 I also hope that there will be more events of this kind in the future. 2.I must thank you again for your generous help. 3.Will I be afraid of difficulties? The friendly environment encourages me to move forward. 4.Good opinions are worth sticking to because they can benefit us all. 5.To sum up, environmental protection is of great importance, which can make us live more comfortably and healthily. 衔接与过渡词语的运用是语言连贯性得以实现的重要途径。在句与句之间,段与段之间恰当地使用一些承上启下的连接性语言是非常必要的。考生应掌握的连接性词语如下: 类型一、创造良好开端 表示“良好开端”的词汇常用在段落或文章的开头,用于开篇引出扩展句。常见的词汇有:first, firstly, first of all, at first, in the first place, above all, to begin/start with, today, now, nowadays, at present, recently, generally speaking, according to 等。 【例1】 (首先), I think everyone needs friends and is eager to get friendship. 【答案】First 【变式训练1】 (首先), I’d like to know when the class will start and how many students there will be in a class. 【答案】First of all 【变式训练2】 (当今), people in many big cities are complaining about the heavy traffic. 【答案】Nowadays/Recently 【变式训练3】 (首先), smoking should be banned in public areas. 【答案】To begin/start with 【变式训练4】 (一般来说), the more you practise, the more skillfully you can write in English. 【答案】Generally speaking 类型二、顺势承上启下 表示“承上启下”的词汇常用于承接主题句或第一个扩展句。常见的词汇有:second/secondly, also, besides, in addition, soon afterwards, after that, what’s more, furthermore,moreover, what’s worse, still less, to make matters worse, worse still, for example, in other words, especially, particularly, obviously, meanwhile, at the same time 等。 【例2】 (此外),it is big enough to hold all the teachers and students in our school.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达) 【答案】Besides 【变式训练5】 (而且),the stadium opens from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday to Friday.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达) 【答案】What’s more 【变式训练6】 (另外),there are famous artists who will perform how to cut paper on the spot.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达) 【答案】In addition 【变式训练7】 (在我看来),every summer I stay at my uncle’s house in the country for three weeks and enjoy a wonderful life there.(2016·四川卷书面表达) 【答案】As far as I’m concerned 【变式训练8】 (与此同时),I will regard it as my duty to keep our environment clean and healthy. 【答案】Meanwhile/At the same time 类型三、巧妙转折过渡 表示“转折过渡”的词汇常用来表示不同或相反的意见或情况。常见的词汇有:but, yet, however, while, otherwise, or (else), on the contrary, on the other hand, contrary to, in any case, though, although, as, even if/though, despite, in spite of, regardless of 等。 【例3】 (另一方面), online shopping also has many disadvantages. 【答案】On the other hand 【变式训练9】 (相反), the volunteers always claim that they are tired of the life on earth. 【答案】On the contrary 【变式训练10】 (可是), a plan can bear no fruit without being actually carried out.(2016·浙江卷6月书面表达) 【答案】However 【变式训练11】 (刚刚), because my left foot was injured, I cannot go with you as planned. 【答案】But now 一.句型转换 用过渡性词语完成句子 1. (首先), the most significant thing is to set a goal, work out a plan and carry out your plan step by step. 2. (况且),listening to some soft music does relax your mood and give you a new start. 3.I lost my way in the forest and (更糟的是),it became dark. 4. (因此),I suggest we be given more time for sports and sleep. 5. (总之),we should take effective measures to protect our enviroment. 【答案】 1.First_of_all/To_begin_with 2.Besides/In_addition/Moreover 3.to_make_matters_worse/worse_still 4.Therefore 5.In_a_word/In_short II 请用高级词汇替换下列句子中加黑部分 6.As high school students,we should be neatly dressed when at school. 7.The teacher directed the gifted students towards the more difficult courses. 8.We’ll try our best to improve the traditional friendship between us. 9.He has decided to be a teacher when he grows up. 10.When you are bored with the people sometimes,you’d better find a quiet place,listening to some classical music. 【答案】 6.are__supposed__to 7.painstaking 8.promote 9.made__up__his__mind 10.fed__up__with 二.阅读下面短文,选择适当的过渡性词语填空 (江淮十校联考)近来,中学生普遍缺乏自我保护意识这一问题备受关注,请你用英语写一篇短文: 1.概括中学生自我保护的重要性; 2.就如何保护自己谈谈你的看法(至少两点)。 above all, besides, meanwhile, for one thing, for another thing, personally, in a word Recently, it has been a great public concern that the students lack self-protection awareness. There is a lack of social experience among students and therefore learning how to protect ourselves is of great significance to us all. ① ,security comes first. Without security, we can achieve nothing and cannot live up to parent’s expectation. ② ,_protecting ourselves contributes to the healthy development of the students, which is associated with the happiness of every family. ③ ,_it also helps to build a more harmonious society. ④ ,_in order to protect us students, ⑤ ,_we should strengthen our security awareness. ⑥ ,_when accidents occur, we should calm down and turn to teachers or parents for help. The government also plays a leading role in protecting students. ⑦ ,_only by the combined efforts of every side involved can we live and study in harmony. 【答案】 ①For_one_thing ②For_another_thing ③Meanwhile ④Personally ⑤above_all ⑥Besides ⑦In_a_word 三、模拟真题演练 (2018·山东师大附中模拟)与人为善是中华民族的传统美德。假如你是新华中学高三学生李华,要参加近期学校组织的以“与人为善”为主题的英语演讲比赛。请你写一篇100词左右的英语演讲稿。内容要求包括: 1.讲述自己“与人为善”的一个事例; 2.呼吁同学们传承美德,与人为善。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。 My dear fellows, I’m Li Hua, a Senior 3 student from Class 18. ____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Best wishes. 【答案】 My__dear__fellows, I’m__Li__Hua,__a__Senior__3__student__from__Class__18. I feel it a great honor to stand here and share what I think “being kind to others” really conveys. On a hot summer day the heat seemed unbearable so that we children gathered to swim in a deep pond, where unfortunately one boy named Kyle got drowned. My playmates were at a loss when I, though fully aware of the risk, bravely dived into the water and pulled him up to the bank. Kyle was saved. After that I come to know the true meaning of being kind to others and shall surely keep on passing on this traditional virtue with my own kindness to others. Thanks for your listening. Best__wishes. 【2018·全国II】你受学生会委托为校宣传栏“英语天地”写一则通知,请大家观看一部英语短片Growing Together,内容包括: (1)短片内容:学校的发展; (2)放映时间、地点; (3)欢迎对短片提出意见。 注意: (1)词数100左右; (2)可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 【答案】 Notice In order to have a better understanding of our school, an outstanding English short movie about our school will be shown in the library from 2:30 to 4:00 in the afternoon on June 9th. It is organized by the Student Union. Here are some relevant details about it. To begin with, the name of the movie is Growing Together, which is about the development of our beloved school. As we all expect, it will be not only meaningful but also interesting. What's more, every one of you will be welcome to enjoy the movie, have a heated discussion afterwards and give your own comments. Student Union June 8, 2018 【解析】英语书面通知的时态应该以一般将来时为主,多使用被动语态、简单句。在通知中不应当过度的使用较复杂的词语和读起来拗口的句子。 第二个注意点:层次一定要清晰,一个层次要表达一件事情,使人看起来一目了然。 (2018年高考浙江卷 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=aYRTvA6MWb9yAAl+kBC30FLwNrJ2DPmZi8hQkgnDa4NqmylqBgtKlsECoIGEj9khRTiaj7FMBYYwUCZPpxVaN1asgMNnioTd5?/?qQ2Ckee0rlmcwLJd47bzG53Kw6uWlEw1s2MFPdIdKhIt+FLxVhdbiBhrZ?/?26aZ9LEZMNh8czh+Y6BQzjlohU2BLSlV+RAq4xBylhE3BHRzgvLIaP0d?/?DAAIQ4EHGCh7kOhYG+k?/?+4JlVtDWT1yXZQsoiSLZVHMqTigTVgkVtJS2WVEisB?/?GF+gxXkmje?/?WJdrNF18G1F+E2?/?Xl3ESPY04E2?/?urfqqb4ee1qqeAu1BrxLX2qXKUYgr6cQlMB9GUVkFjuhfwesjYlsIoIVUyVLPr2aN4TJf+n7iQEwFbZU5jPqh0JygZURfxFBtYn?/??/?dzXhwbTteLv2ivmVaJQVvwAVc4scOut5Bm2bcsLWZOrpZ99pZ?/?8ypQzBT4dDqKTpgMa?/?idTu7ZkKNwzBURQn1G78rka4874af1vwZiLdn7jePOVoM91Ott1k3aep7tT0aroEWBbzlk0Luk8coqWn1lw+ijAHU4Oqm44QpXpTnJfXT3hhxcUvW3v7pmCBZgUtsTHTDaBw7IcAZDbiUDEu09spHMGUdD8wudguX?/?abDhlEzt8lHLbxvRNy5g1mwvnhS3L?/?SknZMT3RgPOukS7OmEBNfGP4K+ZHJe" \t "https:?/??/?www.so.com?/?_blank?))读后续写 阅读下面短文,根据所给情节进行续写,使之构成一个完整的故事。 67. It was summer, and my dad wanted to treat me to a vacation like never before. He decided to take me on a trip to the Wild West. We took a plane to Albuquerque, a big city in the state of New Mexico. We reached Albuquerque in the late afternoon. Uncle Paul, my dad’s friend, picked us up from the airport and drove us up to his farm in Pecos. His wife Tina cooked us a delicious dinner and we got to know his sons Ryan and Kyle. My dad and I spent the night in the guestroom of the farm house listening to the frogs and water rolling down the river nearby. Very early in the morning, Uncle Paul woke us up to have breakfast. "The day starts at dawn on my farm," he said. After breakfast, I went to help Aunt Tina feed the chickens. while my dad went with Uncle Paul to take the sheep out to graze(吃草). I was impressed to see my dad and Uncle Paul riding horses. They looked really cool. In the afternoon, I asked Uncle Paul if I could take a hose ride, and he said yes, as long as my dad went with me. I wasn’t going to take a horse ride by myself anyway. So, my dad and I put on our new cowboy hats, got on our horses, and headed slowly towards the mountains. "Don’t be late for supper," Uncle Paul cried, "and keep to the track so that you don’t get lost!" "OK! " my dad cried back. After a while Uncle Paul and his fam house were out of sight. It was so peaceful and quiet and the colors of the brown rocks, the deep green pine trees, and the late afternoon sun mixed to create a magic scene. It looked like a beautiful woven(编织的)blanket spread out upon the ground just for us. Suddenly a little rabbit jumped out in front of my horse. 注意: (1)所续写短文的词数应为l50左右; (2)至少使用5个短文中标有下划线的关键词语: (3)续写部分分为两段,每段的开头语已为你写好; (4)续写完成后,请用下划线标出你所使用的关键词语。 Paragraph 1: Suddenly a little rabbit jumped out in front of my horse. ____________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 2: We had no idea where we were and it was getting dark. _____________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 【答案】 Suddenly a little rabbit jumped out in front of my horse. Afraid that I might hurt the lovely small creature, I automatically let out a cry to stop my horse. However, it became scared and started to run like crazy. All this coming without warning, I was seized by fear. “Don't let go of the rope! Keep calm!” yelled Dad. I followed what he told me to. To my relief, it stopped slowly. But before we jumped off the horses, we found that we had been off the beaten track and got lost. ? We had no idea where we were and it was getting dark. Exhausted and hungry, I wondered if we could find our way back. I kept shouting for help, hoping my shouts could be heard by someone, but there was no reply. Dad sounded a little worried as he reminded me to calm down. It was then that my mind raced. “Listen, dad, the rushing river water,” I shouted excitedly, “we can return to the farm house down the river.” Before long, we caught sight of the lights in the distance. We knew we were safe. What a thrilling vacation, like never before, we had! ? 【解析】读后续写要求考生首先要读懂已有信息,不仅能读懂字面含义,还要理清文章的脉络。续篇这篇短文时,考生要搞清楚故事的发展进程、前因后果、地理位置、人物思想情感的变化等。在此基础上,考生要顺着文章的思路,根据线索,发挥想象,对其后的情节进行合理预测,并用语言表达出来。 通过阅读所给文章可知,父亲带儿子去西部荒野的一个朋友家体验农场生活,见父亲和叔叔骑马,儿子也很想骑,于是亲身上马体验。 根据第一段所给首句Suddenly a little rabbit jumped out in front of my horse.这一句是故事发展的转折点,可从rabbit出现后带来的反应扩展开,可以写马的反应,也可以写人的反应,但要注意与第二段首句相呼应。 第二段首句是We had no idea where we were and it was getting dark.这一句呼应前文Uncle Paul的叮嘱——不要误吃晚饭,可从如何寻路返回农场去写。 续写时注意要使用5个以上短文中标有下划线的关键词语,我们要熟悉所给划线词语,恰当的时候加以运用。最后还要注意所续写短文的词数应为150左右;续写完成后要用下划线标出你所使用的关键词语。 (2018年北 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=aYRTvA6MWb9yAAl+kBC30FLwNrJ2DPmZi8hQkgnDa4NqmylqBgtKlsECoIGEj9khRTiaj7FMBYYwUCZPpxVaN1asgMNnioTd5?/?qQ2Ckee0rlmcwLJd47bzG53Kw6uWlEw1s2MFPdIdKhIt+FLxVhdbiBhrZ?/?26aZ9LEZMNh8czh+Y6BQzjlohU2BLSlV+RAq4xBylhE3BHRzgvLIaP0d?/?DAAIQ4EHGCh7kOhYG+k?/?+4JlVtDWT1yXZQsoiSLZVHMqTigTVgkVtJS2WVEisB?/?GF+gxXkmje?/?WJdrNF18G1F+E2?/?Xl3ESPY04E2?/?urfqqb4ee1qqeAu1BrxLX2qXKUYgr6cQlMB9GUVkFjuhfwesjYlsIoIVUyVLPr2aN4TJf+n7iQEwFbZU5jPqh0JygZURfxFBtYn?/??/?dzXhwbTteLv2ivmVaJQVvwAVc4scOut5Bm2bcsLWZOrpZ99pZ?/?8ypQzBT4dDqKTpgMa?/?idTu7ZkKNwzBURQn1G78rka4874af1vwZiLdn7jePOVoM91Ott1k3aep7tT0aroEWBbzlk0Luk8coqWn1lw+ijAHU4Oqm44QpXpTnJfXT3hhxcUvW3v7pmCBZgUtsTHTDaBw7IcAZDbiUDEu09spHMGUdD8wudguX?/?abDhlEzt8lHLbxvRNy5g1mwvnhS3L?/?SknZMT3RgPOukS7OmEBNfGP4K+ZHJe" \t "https:?/??/?www.so.com?/?_blank?)京海淀区高三期中)假设你是高三学生李华。请根据下面四幅图的先后顺序,写一篇英文日记,记录上周六你回到母校红星小学参加“校友日”的全过程。注意:词数不少于60。 提示词:校友日?Homecoming Day _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 【答案】 Today, I had the pleasure of attending the Homecoming Day of my former school, Hong xing Primary School. Early in the morning,following some other former schoolchildren of different ages, I arrived at the school. There stood several pupils welcoming us. We first went around the campus and then visited the school museum to admire all the pleasant changes in recent years. Afterwards, several representatives, including me, had a tea party with some teachers and pupils, talking about our old days and their school life today. Unknowingly, several hours passed. Before leaving, all the former pupils were invited to leave a message on a wall. I wrote slowly and seriously that I was very grateful to my school for her giving me a happy and brilliant childhood. What a great Saturday! 27

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  • ID:4-5555402 [精]第37讲 说明文写作(原卷版+解析版)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    第37讲 说明文写作(原卷版) 近几年高考说明文多数以图表、表格或文字的形式给出提示,并往往融合在应用文体中进行考查,一般分为:场所路线介绍; 事物介绍; 方式方法或计划安排介绍三大类。说明文是对事物形状、性能、特点、成因等进行的理解式表达表述的文章。其形式多为文字提示或图表。这种文体使用比较广泛。在写作时要求语言简明扼要,通俗易懂,说明过程讲究层次性和条理性。 真题透析: ★【2018·全国卷Ⅲ】 假定你是李华,你的英国朋友Peter 来信询问你校学生体育运动情况。请给他回信,内容包括: 1.学校的体育场馆; 2.主要的运动项目; 3.你喜欢的项目。 注意: 1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ 【审题指导】 定体裁 ①普通书信 定人称 ②第一、三人称 定时态 ③一般现在时 定要点,定结构 ④开头:点明很高兴收到朋友的来信,将为朋友介绍学校里的体育运动情况 ⑤主体:介绍学校的体育场馆、主要的运动项目,以及自己喜欢的项目 ⑥结尾:邀请朋友来校体验 【学生习作】 Dear Peter, I’m ①very glad to hear from you. You asked me about the physical exercise in our school in your last letter. The following are relevant details. ②A new stadium has been built. ③It has become the new landmark in our school. ④As the stadium was set up, ⑤many sports are able to be held. ⑥It makes ping?pong, football as well as running competition enjoy great popularity. My favourite sport is playing basketball. ⑦It is because it has been giving me strength to face the challenges in my life. ⑧I hope you will come to our school and experience it in the near future. Yours, Li Hua 【升级方案】 1.升级词汇①:more__than delighted 2.在句②前加过渡词“首先”:To__start/begin with 3.句②③合并升级为定语从句: To__start__with,__a__new__stadium__has__been_built,__Which has become _the__new__landmark__in__our__school. 4.升级词汇⑤:a__wide__range of 5.句④⑤⑥升级为with结构,v.?ing作状语: With__the__stadium__set__up,__a__wide__range__of__sports__are__able__to__be__held,__making__ping?pong,__football__as__well__as__running__competition__enjoy__great__popularity. 6.句⑦升级句式: The__reason__is__that__it__has__been__giving__me__strength__to__face__the__challenges__in__my__life. 在句⑧前增添过渡语:All__in__all/In__conclusion 【完美习作】 Dear Peter, I’m more than delighted to hear from you. You asked me about the physical exercise in our school in your last letter. The following are relevant details. To begin with, a new stadium has been built, which has become the new landmark in our school. With the stadium set up, a wide range of sports are able to be held, making ping?pong, football as well as running competition enjoy great popularity. My favourite sport is playing basketball. The reason is that it has been giving me strength to face the challenges in my life. All in all, I do hope you will come to our school and experience it in the near future. Yours, Li Hua 一、文体特征 说明文是陈述客观事实,谓语动词通常用一般现在时态。 说明文具有以下特点: 1.?科学性。介绍事物或解说事理必须揭示其本质特征。做到概念准确,判断恰当,分类清楚。 2.?客观性。写说明文时,要按照事物的本来面目如实地加以介绍、说明和解释。不能带有个人愿望或主观倾向。 3.?知识性。说明文以说明为主要表达方式,用简洁的语言介绍事物或阐明事理,使人们获得关于某一事物的知识和道理。 4.?解说性。说明文的目的就是在于把事物、现象或道理解释、介绍清楚,让读者明白。 二、技巧点拨 三个注意: 1. 注意写作顺序。要特别讲究文章的层次和条理,能反映客观事物本身的逻辑顺序。对于不同的说明对象,在组织结构上可按时间顺序、空间顺序、结构顺序、工艺程序、计划安排等来写。 2. 注意说明方法。可采用举例、比较、对比分析、叙述的方式来描述,可采取先举例后总结或者先总结后举例的结构模式。不需要发表主张,抒发个人情感。 3. 注意人称时态。这种文体通常用第三人称,时态以一般现在时为主。 三个层次: 1. 抓住中心,分清主次。首先根据要仔细阅读文字提示或观察图表,确定文章的中心内容。再根据内容把文章文分成几个段落,每段都要拟定一个主题句。然后确定中心人称和主体时态。 2. 列全要点,扩编句子。以拟定的主题句为中心,选择恰当的词和句型组织材料,编写句子,形成段落。 3. 布局谋篇,连段成文。按照一定的逻辑顺序,用适当的过渡词把已经写好的段落串连成一篇完整的文章。 三个要素: 1. 准确把握说明对象及其特征 2. 理清顺序,层次分明; 3. 语言准确,简洁得体。 三个步骤: 说明文的主要特点是清晰,文章结构多采用“主题——主体——结语”的形式。 1.主题——对要说明的人物或事物简要介绍。 2.主体——按照题目提供的信息分层次,按一定顺序进行说明,注意要做到条理清楚,层次分明,语言简练,用词准确,一目了然。基本时态是一般现在时,为强调客观性,语言表述多用客观性动词,如seem,there be,maybe等,多用被动语态,多用书面语、长句、复合句。 3.结语——客观收尾,表示说明到此为止。 三、分类写作模板 【模板01】 介绍事物型说明文模板 ①________ is a most effective _______to _______. ②For most people, it’s almost impossible to ______. ③________is really _________.④With the functions of _______,it enables us to _______.⑤It can even ______. ⑥Just imagine, all this can be done with _______. ⑦A convenient tool can certainly make _______, but it doesn’t always help _______.⑧Too much _________.⑨Too many ________.⑩Relying too much on _______ makes ________. ①点明要介绍的事物的必要性 ②介绍该事物对多数人的重要意义 ③该事物优势或显著特点 ④该事物的作用 ⑤进一步说明该事物的作用 ⑥说明该事物的重要性 ⑦承上启下,介绍事物的另一方面 ⑧该事物的负面影响一 ⑨该事物的负面影响二 ⑩总结说明过分使用该物品给我们带来的负面影响。 【模板02】 说明原因型说明文模板   Nowadays, there are more and more?in some big cities. It is estimated that?____________________.(用具体数据说明某现象)   Why have there been so many?? Maybe the reasons can be listed as follows. The first reason is that?__________________.(原因一)Besides,?__________________.(原因二)The third reason is?__________________.(原因三)To sum up, the main cause of?is due to__________________?.(指出主要原因)   It is high time that something should be done. For one thing,?__________________.(解决建议一)   For another thing,?. All these measures will certainly?__________________.(解决建议二) 【模板03】 描述事物型说明文模板   What I have known about?is that?_________________.(具体描述某事物)   Firstly,?__________________.(描述要点一)__________________.(具体阐述要点一)Secondly,?__________________.(描述要点二)(具体阐述要点二)__________________. As a college student,?__________________.(结合自身描述要点三)   All in all,?__________________.(做出总结)Therefore, we should?__________________.(提出建议) 【模板04】 问题解决型说明文模板   In recent days, there has been a problem?, which is becoming more and more serious.(说明问题及其现状)First,?__________________. Second,?__________________.(进一步阐释现状)   We should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation. For one thing, ________. For another thing, ________. Finally, ________.(列举解决该问题的方法) Personally, I believe that ________/Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because ________.(结尾段,指出"我"的信心及理由) 【模板05】 说明利弊题型说明文模板 ?? Nowadays, many people prefer A because it is playing a more and more important role in our daily life. Generally/Generally speaking/On the whole, its advantages can be seen as follows./it has the following advantages. First of all, _________________ (A的优点之一). Besides,/What’s more, _________________(A的优点之二). ?? However, every coin has two sides./Everything has both advantages and disadvantages. The negative aspects are also apparent./Its disadvantages are also obvious. One of the important disadvantages is that _________________ (A的第一个缺点).To make matters worse,/To make the matter worse,/To make things worse/What’s worse, _________________(A的第二个缺点). ?? Through the above analysis, I believe that the positive aspects overweigh the negative ones./The above analysis shows us that it has more advantages than disadvantages. Therefore, I would like to _________________ (我的看法). ?? (From the comparison between these positive and negative effects of A, we should take it reasonably and do it according to the circumstances we are in. Only in this way can we_________________(对前景的预测).) 四、增加细节的高分技巧 从书面表达的评分标准中可以看出,恰当选用贴切、地道的高级词汇对提高书面表达的得分非常重要。写作时恰当使用一些大多数考生有可能想不到的词汇,恰当地求新求异或使用较为高级的短语、习语等来代替普通词汇,可以提高文章的得分档次。为写作增添色彩。请考生牢记并熟练运用下面的词汇: (一)、选用高级词汇“四原则” 1.具体性原则 在具备一定词汇量的条件下,具体的表达比泛泛而谈的内容更能引起阅卷人的共鸣。例如:当描述一个具体事物或人时,类似a nice/good man的表达让人感觉很空洞,我们可以用有个性的、具体的词描绘一个人,如kind?hearted(好心的);generous(慷慨的;大方的);easy?going(随和的)等。再如: It was with sincerity and faithfulness that we created a good atmosphere. →It was with sincerity and faithfulness that we created a harmonious atmosphere. 2.新颖性原则 写作时恰当得体地使用高中学过的、别人可能想不到的词汇,会给阅卷人耳目一新的感觉。 In the coming three years,our school life will be difficult. →In the coming three years,our school life will be challenging. 3.短语优先原则 多使用词组、习语来代替一些单词,以增加文采。 I want to tell you something about my plan for the summer vacation and I’d like you to help me. →I want to tell you something about my plan for the summer vacation and I’d like you to do me a favor.(全国卷Ⅰ书面表达) 4.避免重复原则 尽量避免过多地使用某一个单词,必要时选择使用其他恰当的同义词或词组来代替。 Any student who is interested is welcome to participate ... If you want to participate,you can send your photos to intlphotoshow@gmschool.com. →Any student who is interested is welcome to participate ... If you want to join,you can send your photos to intlphotoshow@gmschool.com.(全国卷Ⅱ书面表达) 【题组过关1】将给出的初级词汇换成高级词汇 1.另外 besides→ 2.总之 in a word→ 3.但是 but→ 4.机会 chance→ 5.选择 choice→ 6.考虑 consider→ 7.最终 finally→ 8.勤奋的 hardworking→ 9.分发 hand out→ 10.后果 result→ 11.应该 should→ 12.决定 decide→ 13.理解 understand→ 14.可用的 usable→ 15.使用 use→ 16.艰难的 difficult→ 17.改正,修改 correct→ 18.不同的 different→ 19.想要 want→ 20.做,从事 do→ 21.获得 get→ 22.记住 remember→ 23.种类繁多 all kinds of→ 24.和 and→ 25.反对 be against→ 26.厌烦 be bored with→ 27.忙于 be busy in/with→ 28.发生 happen→ 29.提高 improve→ 30.重要 important→ 31.立即 immediately→ 32.参加 join→ 33.巨大 large→ 34.有意义 meaningful→ 35.许多 many→ 36.明显 obvious→ 37.合适 proper→ 38.丰富 rich→ 39.与……不同 be different from→ 40.渴望做…… be eager to do→ 41.因为 because of→ 42.闻名 be famous for→ 43.越来越多 more and more→ 44.感到舒心 feel comfortable→ 45.成功做某事 succeed in doing sth.→ 开头一般来说要做到开门见山,使读者了解文章要谈什么,最好能立刻引起该者的兴趣。下面介绍说明文的常用开头法: 1.点明中心法—开门见山点明所要介绍的事物 (湖南高考书面表达) The pen is seen everywhere. In most cases, it only acts as a tool to write with, which l think is too simple.钢笔到处可见。在大多数情况下,它仅仅被当作书写工具,我认为这太单一了。 2引用数据法—运用数据引出所要论证的主题 A recent study shows that 50% of the school kids don’t have breakfast. 最近的研究表明,有50%的学生不吃早饭。 【题组过关2】根据提示翻译句子 1.(开门见山法)我想请你给我们学校的英语报纸写一篇文章。 (故事背景法)上周日,我和同学们去了香山公园。 (引用名言法)俗话说,“没有努力就没有收获。” (点明主题法)人们普遍认为阅读能增长我们的知识、拓宽我们的视野。 (往事追忆法)每当我想到我家附近那一条清澈小溪,就忍不住感到悲伤。 结尾有概括全文内容,进一步强调或肯定文章的中心思想,升华主题的作用。说明文的常用结尾法主要有: 总结全文法——总结说明的事物,进一步说明其特征。 In a word, changes in our life in the past twenty years have brought us convenience and comfort.总之,过去20年里我们生活中的变化给我们带来了。 【题组过关3】根据提示翻译句子 1.(表示期待法)我希望你会在中学过丰富多彩的生活。 2.(表示感谢法)如果你能到机场接我我将不胜感激。 3.(问题设问法)找一个伙伴和我们一起去如何?如果这样,我们可以互相帮助并且在旅途中保持愉快。 4.(得出结论法)因此我们得出结论:世界上没有什么东西和自由一样珍贵。 5.(引用名言法)总之,成功是重要的,失败也是重要的,因为它是成功之母。 类型一、增加亮点的定语从句 定语从句的应用可以非常有效地提升表达档次,在写作中如果我们可以把两个简单句合并为一个含有定语从句的复合句,或者把并列句改为含有定语从句的复合句,这些都能为文章增加亮点。 【例1】The film is mainly related to the development of our school.It will greatly help us students know the school’s history better and appeal to us to make contributions to our school’s development.(2018·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达)(改为定语从句) →The film is mainly related to the development of our school, will greatly help us students know the school’s history better and appeal to us to make contributions to our school’s development. 【答案】which 变式训练1:We will go to the Spring Mountain and there we can have a climb.(2017·浙江卷6月应用文写作)(改为定语从句)→We will go to the Spring Mountain, we can have a climb. 类型二、吸引眼球的状语从句 在英语写作中,状语从句是经常用到的句型,它的灵活运用能使作文更具吸引力。 【例2】: you have any opinion about the film,please send emails to studentunion@126.com.(2018·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达)(填状语从句连词) 【答案】If 变式训练2:We can set out early we will have more time to read and select books.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达)(填状语从句连词) 变式训练3: it comes to the season I like best,spring will always occur to me in no time.(2016·四川卷书面表达)(填状语从句连词) 类型三、提升档次的名词性从句 名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句,是写作中常见的高级表达方式。 【例3】I do believe I am very qualified for this voluntary work,because I have a good command of spoken English.(填宾语从句引导词)(2018·浙江卷6月书面表达) 【答案】that 变式训练4:It is known we can benefit a lot from playing Ping?Pong.(填主语从句引导词)(2017·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达) 变式训练5:That’s I think the trip along the Yangtze River is a better choice.(填表语从句引导词)(2017·北京卷书面表达) 一.句型转换 1.For another reason,different cultures and traditions from the past lead to many foreigners’ living and working there with gladness.(变强调句型) → 2.You can expect to receive only when you learn to give.(变为倒装句) → 3.When we are faced with difficulties,we need friends to give us comfort and help.(变为含有非谓语动词的简单句) → 4.It’s time for us to take measures to protect endangered animals.(用虚拟语气改写句子) → 二.合并句子 1.Our school is located in a northern city of China.In our school,you can taste many kinds of delicious food.It is well famous for its snacks.(用定语从句和原因状语从句合并句子) → 2.He said a lot at the meeting.His words were very attractive.(用名词性从句合并句子) → 3.We should speak more English.We think it is very important.(用it作形式宾语改写句子) → 三、模拟真题演练 (2018·太原二模)假定你是李华,你的英国朋友Mark希望向你了解国画的有关知识,因你临时有事,原定见面时间需要推迟。请给Mark写一封邮件,说明情况。要点包括: 1.表示歉意并说明原因; 2.重约见面讨论的时间; 3.推荐其先参观国画展览。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ (2018·福建质量检测) 假定你是李华,获悉你的英国朋友Henry想参加为外国人举办的汉语演讲比赛。请给他写封邮件,告知参赛信息。 内容包括: 1.演讲时间、地点; 2.演讲主题:最美家庭; 3.演讲注意事项。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 参考词汇:演讲比赛speech contest ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 1 第37讲 说明文写作(解析版) 近几年高考说明文多数以图表、表格或文字的形式给出提示,并往往融合在应用文体中进行考查,一般分为:场所路线介绍; 事物介绍; 方式方法或计划安排介绍三大类。说明文是对事物形状、性能、特点、成因等进行的理解式表达表述的文章。其形式多为文字提示或图表。这种文体使用比较广泛。在写作时要求语言简明扼要,通俗易懂,说明过程讲究层次性和条理性。 真题透析: ★【2018·全国卷Ⅲ】 假定你是李华,你的英国朋友Peter 来信询问你校学生体育运动情况。请给他回信,内容包括: 1.学校的体育场馆; 2.主要的运动项目; 3.你喜欢的项目。 注意: 1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __ 【审题指导】 定体裁 ①普通书信 定人称 ②第一、三人称 定时态 ③一般现在时 定要点,定结构 ④开头:点明很高兴收到朋友的来信,将为朋友介绍学校里的体育运动情况 ⑤主体:介绍学校的体育场馆、主要的运动项目,以及自己喜欢的项目 ⑥结尾:邀请朋友来校体验 【学生习作】 Dear Peter, I’m ①very glad to hear from you. You asked me about the physical exercise in our school in your last letter. The following are relevant details. ②A new stadium has been built. ③It has become the new landmark in our school. ④As the stadium was set up, ⑤many sports are able to be held. ⑥It makes ping?pong, football as well as running competition enjoy great popularity. My favourite sport is playing basketball. ⑦It is because it has been giving me strength to face the challenges in my life. ⑧I hope you will come to our school and experience it in the near future. Yours, Li Hua 【升级方案】 1.升级词汇①:more__than delighted 2.在句②前加过渡词“首先”:To__start/begin with 3.句②③合并升级为定语从句: To__start__with,__a__new__stadium__has__been_built,__Which has become _the__new__landmark__in__our__school. 4.升级词汇⑤:a__wide__range of 5.句④⑤⑥升级为with结构,v.?ing作状语: With__the__stadium__set__up,__a__wide__range__of__sports__are__able__to__be__held,__making__ping?pong,__football__as__well__as__running__competition__enjoy__great__popularity. 6.句⑦升级句式: The__reason__is__that__it__has__been__giving__me__strength__to__face__the__challenges__in__my__life. 在句⑧前增添过渡语:All__in__all/In__conclusion 【完美习作】 Dear Peter, I’m more than delighted to hear from you. You asked me about the physical exercise in our school in your last letter. The following are relevant details. To begin with, a new stadium has been built, which has become the new landmark in our school. With the stadium set up, a wide range of sports are able to be held, making ping?pong, football as well as running competition enjoy great popularity. My favourite sport is playing basketball. The reason is that it has been giving me strength to face the challenges in my life. All in all, I do hope you will come to our school and experience it in the near future. Yours, Li Hua 一、文体特征 说明文是陈述客观事实,谓语动词通常用一般现在时态。 说明文具有以下特点: 1.?科学性。介绍事物或解说事理必须揭示其本质特征。做到概念准确,判断恰当,分类清楚。 2.?客观性。写说明文时,要按照事物的本来面目如实地加以介绍、说明和解释。不能带有个人愿望或主观倾向。 3.?知识性。说明文以说明为主要表达方式,用简洁的语言介绍事物或阐明事理,使人们获得关于某一事物的知识和道理。 4.?解说性。说明文的目的就是在于把事物、现象或道理解释、介绍清楚,让读者明白。 二、技巧点拨 三个注意: 1. 注意写作顺序。要特别讲究文章的层次和条理,能反映客观事物本身的逻辑顺序。对于不同的说明对象,在组织结构上可按时间顺序、空间顺序、结构顺序、工艺程序、计划安排等来写。 2. 注意说明方法。可采用举例、比较、对比分析、叙述的方式来描述,可采取先举例后总结或者先总结后举例的结构模式。不需要发表主张,抒发个人情感。 3. 注意人称时态。这种文体通常用第三人称,时态以一般现在时为主。 三个层次: 1. 抓住中心,分清主次。首先根据要仔细阅读文字提示或观察图表,确定文章的中心内容。再根据内容把文章文分成几个段落,每段都要拟定一个主题句。然后确定中心人称和主体时态。 2. 列全要点,扩编句子。以拟定的主题句为中心,选择恰当的词和句型组织材料,编写句子,形成段落。 3. 布局谋篇,连段成文。按照一定的逻辑顺序,用适当的过渡词把已经写好的段落串连成一篇完整的文章。 三个要素: 1. 准确把握说明对象及其特征 2. 理清顺序,层次分明; 3. 语言准确,简洁得体。 三个步骤: 说明文的主要特点是清晰,文章结构多采用“主题——主体——结语”的形式。 1.主题——对要说明的人物或事物简要介绍。 2.主体——按照题目提供的信息分层次,按一定顺序进行说明,注意要做到条理清楚,层次分明,语言简练,用词准确,一目了然。基本时态是一般现在时,为强调客观性,语言表述多用客观性动词,如seem,there be,maybe等,多用被动语态,多用书面语、长句、复合句。 3.结语——客观收尾,表示说明到此为止。 三、分类写作模板 【模板01】 介绍事物型说明文模板 ①________ is a most effective _______to _______. ②For most people, it’s almost impossible to ______. ③________is really _________.④With the functions of _______,it enables us to _______.⑤It can even ______. ⑥Just imagine, all this can be done with _______. ⑦A convenient tool can certainly make _______, but it doesn’t always help _______.⑧Too much _________.⑨Too many ________.⑩Relying too much on _______ makes ________. ①点明要介绍的事物的必要性 ②介绍该事物对多数人的重要意义 ③该事物优势或显著特点 ④该事物的作用 ⑤进一步说明该事物的作用 ⑥说明该事物的重要性 ⑦承上启下,介绍事物的另一方面 ⑧该事物的负面影响一 ⑨该事物的负面影响二 ⑩总结说明过分使用该物品给我们带来的负面影响。 【模板02】 说明原因型说明文模板   Nowadays, there are more and more?in some big cities. It is estimated that?____________________.(用具体数据说明某现象)   Why have there been so many?? Maybe the reasons can be listed as follows. The first reason is that?__________________.(原因一)Besides,?__________________.(原因二)The third reason is?__________________.(原因三)To sum up, the main cause of?is due to__________________?.(指出主要原因)   It is high time that something should be done. For one thing,?__________________.(解决建议一)   For another thing,?. All these measures will certainly?__________________.(解决建议二) 【模板03】 描述事物型说明文模板   What I have known about?is that?_________________.(具体描述某事物)   Firstly,?__________________.(描述要点一)__________________.(具体阐述要点一)Secondly,?__________________.(描述要点二)(具体阐述要点二)__________________. As a college student,?__________________.(结合自身描述要点三)   All in all,?__________________.(做出总结)Therefore, we should?__________________.(提出建议) 【模板04】 问题解决型说明文模板   In recent days, there has been a problem?, which is becoming more and more serious.(说明问题及其现状)First,?__________________. Second,?__________________.(进一步阐释现状)   We should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation. For one thing, ________. For another thing, ________. Finally, ________.(列举解决该问题的方法) Personally, I believe that ________/Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because ________.(结尾段,指出"我"的信心及理由) 【模板05】 说明利弊题型说明文模板 ?? Nowadays, many people prefer A because it is playing a more and more important role in our daily life. Generally/Generally speaking/On the whole, its advantages can be seen as follows./it has the following advantages. First of all, _________________ (A的优点之一). Besides,/What’s more, _________________(A的优点之二). ?? However, every coin has two sides./Everything has both advantages and disadvantages. The negative aspects are also apparent./Its disadvantages are also obvious. One of the important disadvantages is that _________________ (A的第一个缺点).To make matters worse,/To make the matter worse,/To make things worse/What’s worse, _________________(A的第二个缺点). ?? Through the above analysis, I believe that the positive aspects overweigh the negative ones./The above analysis shows us that it has more advantages than disadvantages. Therefore, I would like to _________________ (我的看法). ?? (From the comparison between these positive and negative effects of A, we should take it reasonably and do it according to the circumstances we are in. Only in this way can we_________________(对前景的预测).) 四、增加细节的高分技巧 从书面表达的评分标准中可以看出,恰当选用贴切、地道的高级词汇对提高书面表达的得分非常重要。写作时恰当使用一些大多数考生有可能想不到的词汇,恰当地求新求异或使用较为高级的短语、习语等来代替普通词汇,可以提高文章的得分档次。为写作增添色彩。请考生牢记并熟练运用下面的词汇: (一)、选用高级词汇“四原则” 1.具体性原则 在具备一定词汇量的条件下,具体的表达比泛泛而谈的内容更能引起阅卷人的共鸣。例如:当描述一个具体事物或人时,类似a nice/good man的表达让人感觉很空洞,我们可以用有个性的、具体的词描绘一个人,如kind?hearted(好心的);generous(慷慨的;大方的);easy?going(随和的)等。再如: It was with sincerity and faithfulness that we created a good atmosphere. →It was with sincerity and faithfulness that we created a harmonious atmosphere. 2.新颖性原则 写作时恰当得体地使用高中学过的、别人可能想不到的词汇,会给阅卷人耳目一新的感觉。 In the coming three years,our school life will be difficult. →In the coming three years,our school life will be challenging. 3.短语优先原则 多使用词组、习语来代替一些单词,以增加文采。 I want to tell you something about my plan for the summer vacation and I’d like you to help me. →I want to tell you something about my plan for the summer vacation and I’d like you to do me a favor.(全国卷Ⅰ书面表达) 4.避免重复原则 尽量避免过多地使用某一个单词,必要时选择使用其他恰当的同义词或词组来代替。 Any student who is interested is welcome to participate ... If you want to participate,you can send your photos to intlphotoshow@gmschool.com. →Any student who is interested is welcome to participate ... If you want to join,you can send your photos to intlphotoshow@gmschool.com.(全国卷Ⅱ书面表达) 【题组过关1】将给出的初级词汇换成高级词汇 1.另外 besides→ 2.总之 in a word→ 3.但是 but→ 4.机会 chance→ 5.选择 choice→ 6.考虑 consider→ 7.最终 finally→ 8.勤奋的 hardworking→ 9.分发 hand out→ 10.后果 result→ 11.应该 should→ 12.决定 decide→ 13.理解 understand→ 14.可用的 usable→ 15.使用 use→ 16.艰难的 difficult→ 17.改正,修改 correct→ 18.不同的 different→ 19.想要 want→ 20.做,从事 do→ 21.获得 get→ 22.记住 remember→ 23.种类繁多 all kinds of→ 24.和 and→ 25.反对 be against→ 26.厌烦 be bored with→ 27.忙于 be busy in/with→ 28.发生 happen→ 29.提高 improve→ 30.重要 important→ 31.立即 immediately→ 32.参加 join→ 33.巨大 large→ 34.有意义 meaningful→ 35.许多 many→ 36.明显 obvious→ 37.合适 proper→ 38.丰富 rich→ 39.与……不同 be different from→ 40.渴望做…… be eager to do→ 41.因为 because of→ 42.闻名 be famous for→ 43.越来越多 more and more→ 44.感到舒心 feel comfortable→ 45.成功做某事 succeed in doing sth.→ 【答案】1.in addition/what’s more 2.to sum up/in conclusion/in summary 3.however 4.opportunity 5.alternative 6.take into account/consideration 7.eventually 8.diligent 9.distribute 10.consequence 11.be supposed to 12.make up one’s mind 13.make sense of/figure out 14.available 15.employ/make use of 16.painstaking 17.polish 18.various 19.intend 20.take up 21.gain 22.keep in mind 23.a wide range of 24.as well as 25.object to 26.be fed up with 27.be occupied in/with 28.occur/come about 29.promote 30.vital 31.in a flash 32.participate 33.enormous 34.rewarding 35.a large quantity of 36.apparent 37.appropriate 38.abundant 39.differ/vary from 40.be dying to do/long to do 41.on account of 42.have a reputation for 43.an increasing number of 44.feel at ease 45.make it 开头一般来说要做到开门见山,使读者了解文章要谈什么,最好能立刻引起该者的兴趣。下面介绍说明文的常用开头法: 1.点明中心法—开门见山点明所要介绍的事物 (湖南高考书面表达) The pen is seen everywhere. In most cases, it only acts as a tool to write with, which l think is too simple.钢笔到处可见。在大多数情况下,它仅仅被当作书写工具,我认为这太单一了。 2引用数据法—运用数据引出所要论证的主题 A recent study shows that 50% of the school kids don’t have breakfast. 最近的研究表明,有50%的学生不吃早饭。 【题组过关2】根据提示翻译句子 1.(开门见山法)我想请你给我们学校的英语报纸写一篇文章。 (故事背景法)上周日,我和同学们去了香山公园。 (引用名言法)俗话说,“没有努力就没有收获。” (点明主题法)人们普遍认为阅读能增长我们的知识、拓宽我们的视野。 (往事追忆法)每当我想到我家附近那一条清澈小溪,就忍不住感到悲伤。 【答案】 1.I’d like to ask you to write an article for our school’s English newspaper. 2.Last Sunday,my classmates and I went to the Xiangshan Park. 3.As the saying goes, “No pains, no gains.” 4.It is universally acknowledged that reading increases our knowledge and broadens our mind. 5.Whenever I think of the clean stream near my home, I cannot help feeling sad. 结尾有概括全文内容,进一步强调或肯定文章的中心思想,升华主题的作用。说明文的常用结尾法主要有: 总结全文法——总结说明的事物,进一步说明其特征。 In a word, changes in our life in the past twenty years have brought us convenience and comfort.总之,过去20年里我们生活中的变化给我们带来了。 【题组过关3】根据提示翻译句子 1.(表示期待法)我希望你会在中学过丰富多彩的生活。 2.(表示感谢法)如果你能到机场接我我将不胜感激。 3.(问题设问法)找一个伙伴和我们一起去如何?如果这样,我们可以互相帮助并且在旅途中保持愉快。 4.(得出结论法)因此我们得出结论:世界上没有什么东西和自由一样珍贵。 5.(引用名言法)总之,成功是重要的,失败也是重要的,因为它是成功之母。 【答案】 1.I_hope_you_will_live_a_rich_and_colorful_life_in_high_school. 2.I’d_appreciate_it_if_you_can_meet_me_at_the_airport. 3.How_about_finding_a_companion_to_be_with_us?_If_so,_we_can_help_each_other_and_be_happy_during_the_trip. 4.We,_therefore,_come_to_the_conclusion_that_nothing_is_so_precious_as_freedom_in_the_world. 5.In_a_word,_success_is_important,_and_so_is_failure,_because_it’s_the_mother_of_success. 类型一、增加亮点的定语从句 定语从句的应用可以非常有效地提升表达档次,在写作中如果我们可以把两个简单句合并为一个含有定语从句的复合句,或者把并列句改为含有定语从句的复合句,这些都能为文章增加亮点。 【例1】The film is mainly related to the development of our school.It will greatly help us students know the school’s history better and appeal to us to make contributions to our school’s development.(2018·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达)(改为定语从句) →The film is mainly related to the development of our school, will greatly help us students know the school’s history better and appeal to us to make contributions to our school’s development. 【答案】which 变式训练1:We will go to the Spring Mountain and there we can have a climb.(2017·浙江卷6月应用文写作)(改为定语从句)→We will go to the Spring Mountain, we can have a climb. 【答案】where 类型二、吸引眼球的状语从句 在英语写作中,状语从句是经常用到的句型,它的灵活运用能使作文更具吸引力。 【例2】: you have any opinion about the film,please send emails to studentunion@126.com.(2018·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达)(填状语从句连词) 【答案】If 变式训练2:We can set out early we will have more time to read and select books.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达)(填状语从句连词) 【答案】so that 变式训练3: it comes to the season I like best,spring will always occur to me in no time.(2016·四川卷书面表达)(填状语从句连词) 【答案】When 类型三、提升档次的名词性从句 名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句,是写作中常见的高级表达方式。 【例3】I do believe I am very qualified for this voluntary work,because I have a good command of spoken English.(填宾语从句引导词)(2018·浙江卷6月书面表达) 【答案】that 变式训练4:It is known we can benefit a lot from playing Ping?Pong.(填主语从句引导词)(2017·全国卷Ⅲ书面表达) 【答案】that 变式训练5:That’s I think the trip along the Yangtze River is a better choice.(填表语从句引导词)(2017·北京卷书面表达) 【答案】why 一.句型转换 1.For another reason,different cultures and traditions from the past lead to many foreigners’ living and working there with gladness.(变强调句型) → 2.You can expect to receive only when you learn to give.(变为倒装句) → 3.When we are faced with difficulties,we need friends to give us comfort and help.(变为含有非谓语动词的简单句) → 4.It’s time for us to take measures to protect endangered animals.(用虚拟语气改写句子) → 【答案】 1.For__another__reason,it__is__different__cultures__and__traditions__from__the_ _past__that__lead__to__many__foreigners’__living__and__working__there__with__gladness. 2.Only__when__you__learn__to__give__can__you__expect__to__receive. 3.Faced__with__difficulties,we__need__friends__to__give__us__comfort__and__help. 4.It’s__time__we__should__take__measures__to__protect__endangered__animals. 二.合并句子 1.Our school is located in a northern city of China.In our school,you can taste many kinds of delicious food.It is well famous for its snacks.(用定语从句和原因状语从句合并句子) → 2.He said a lot at the meeting.His words were very attractive.(用名词性从句合并句子) → 3.We should speak more English.We think it is very important.(用it作形式宾语改写句子) → 【答案】 1.Our__school__is__located__in__a__northern__city__of__China,where__you__can_ _taste__many__kinds__of__delicious__food,because__it__is__well__famous__for__its__snacks. 2.What__he__said__at__the__meeting__was__very__attractive. 3.We__think__it__very__important__to__speak__more__English. 三、模拟真题演练 (2018·太原二模)假定你是李华,你的英国朋友Mark希望向你了解国画的有关知识,因你临时有事,原定见面时间需要推迟。请给Mark写一封邮件,说明情况。要点包括: 1.表示歉意并说明原因; 2.重约见面讨论的时间; 3.推荐其先参观国画展览。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 【答案】 One possible version: Dear Mark, I hate to say sorry, but there is a change in my school arrangements.So I am afraid I won’t be able to keep my appointment to discuss Chinese paintings with you.I sincerely apologize to you for any inconvenience caused by the unexpected change.I suggest we put it off from 3 p.m. this weekend until the same time next Thursday.Will that be fine for you?Good news is that an exhibition of Chinese paintings is to be held this weekend. Works by some nationwide famous painters will be included in the exhibits. A visit there will definitely help better your understanding of the paintings. Looking forward to your reply. Yours, Li Hua (2018·福建质量检测) 假定你是李华,获悉你的英国朋友Henry想参加为外国人举办的汉语演讲比赛。请给他写封邮件,告知参赛信息。 内容包括: 1.演讲时间、地点; 2.演讲主题:最美家庭; 3.演讲注意事项。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 参考词汇:演讲比赛speech contest ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 【答案】 One possible version: Dear Henry, I am glad to hear that you have great interest in the Chinese speech contest intended for foreigners.I’m writing to tell you some details. The contest,due to start at 9 a.m. on March 16,will be held at the hall of Dalian University.The topic is The Most Beautiful Family.I believe you have a lot to share because family matters much wherever we are from. When delivering the speech,please speak loudly and clearly without referring to your notes,but with a smile on your face!Keep in mind that you have only five minutes for it. Hope everything goes smoothly.Looking forward to your good news. Yours, Li Hua 27

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  • ID:4-5375183 [精]第35讲 日常生活、新闻报道类文章(解析版+原卷版)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    第35讲 日常生活、新闻报道类文章(原卷版) "日常生活、新闻报道类"是高中英语新课标重要考查的阅读话题之一,也是英语核心素养的体现。综观近几年的高考英语阅读理解题,其中日常生活、新闻报道类内容主要涉及的是与人们生活息息相关的信息,如产品宣传、服务介绍、招生招聘等。 新闻报道类阅读是近几年高考英语阅读理解最常考的题材,在阅读理解的选材中占有很大的比重;命题者的目的是要考查考生提取信息和处理信息的能力,所以命题的题型多是以获取信息为主的细节理解题,兼顾推理判断题、主旨大意题和猜测词义题。 一、真题链接 【2018·浙江高考·C篇】 FLORENCE,Italy—Svetlana Cojochru feels hurt. The Moldovan has lived here seven years as a caregiver to Italian kids and the elderly,but in order to stay she's had to prove her language skills by taking a test which requires her to write a postcard to an imaginary friend and answer a fictional job ad. Italy is the latest Western European country trying to control a growing immigrant(移民) population by demanding language skills in exchange for work permits,or in some cases,citizenship. Some immigrant advocates worry that as hard financial times make it more difficult for natives to keep jobs,such measures will become more a vehicle for intolerance than integration(融合).Others say it's only natural that newcomers learn the language of their host nation,seeing it as a condition to ensure they can contribute to society. Other European countries laid down a similar requirement for immigrants,and some terms are even tougher. The governments argue that this will help foreigners better join the society and promote understanding across cultures. Italy,which has a much weaker tradition of immigration,has witnessed a sharp increase in immigration in recent years. In 1990,immigrants numbered some 1.14 million out of Italy's then 56.7 million people,or about 2 percent. At the start of this year,foreigners living in Italy amounted to 4.56 million of a total population of 60.6 million,or 7.5 percent,with immigrants' children accounting for an even larger percentage of births in Italy. Cojochru,the Moldovan caregiver,hoped obtaining permanent residence(居住权)would help her bring her two children to Italy;they live with her sister in Moldova,where salaries are among the lowest in Europe.She was skeptical that the language requirement would encourage integration. Italians always “see me as a foreigner,”an outsider,even though she's stayed in the country for years and can speak the local language fluently,she said. 1.Why does Cojochru have to take a language test? A.To continue to stay in Italy. B.To teach her children Italian. C.To find a better job in Italy. D.To better mix with the Italians. 2.Some people worry that the new language requirement may . A.reduce Italy's population quickly B.cause conflicts among people C.lead to financial difficulties D.put pressure on schools 3.What do we know about Cojochru? A.She lives with her sister now in Italy. B.She enjoys learning the Italian language. C.She speaks Italian well enough for her job. D.She wishes to go back to her home country.  【长难句解读】 The Moldovan has lived here seven years as a caregiver to Italian kids and the elderly, but in order to stay she's had to prove her language skills by taking a test which requires her to write a postcard to an imaginary friend and answer a fictional job ad.这个摩尔多瓦妇女已经在这里(意大利)7年了,她的工作是照顾意大利的小孩和老人,但为了能够继续留在意大利,她将不得不参加一个语言测试,以此来证明自己的语言能力,这个测试要求她给一个虚构的朋友写一张明信片,同时回复一则虚构的招聘广告。 [分析] 本句是并列复合句。根据but可知,本句是表示转折关系的并列句,但but前后又都包含较复杂的成分。前一部分的主要成分是The Moldovan has lived here seven years;后一部分主要成分是she's had to prove her language skills。同时第二部分中又包含定语从句which requires her to write a postcard to an imaginary friend and answer a fictional job ad,修饰先行词a test。 【2018·天津高考·D篇】I read somewhere that we spend a full third of our lives waiting. But where are we doing all of this waiting,and what does it mean to an impatient society like ours?To understand the issue,let's take a look at three types of “waits”. The very purest form of waiting is the Watched?Pot Wait.It is without doubt the most annoying of all. Take filling up the kitchen sink (洗碗池) as an example. There is absolutely nothing you can do while this is going on but keep both eyes fixed on the sink until it's full. During these waits,the brain slips away from the body and wanders about until the water runs over the edge of the counter and onto your socks. This kind of wait makes the waiter helpless and mindless. A cousin to the Watched?Pot Wait is the Forced Wait. This one requires a bit of discipline. Properly preparing packaged noodle soup requires a Forced Wait. Directions are very specific. “Bring three cups of water to boil,add mix,simmer three minutes,remove from heat,let stand five minutes.”I have my doubts that anyone has actually followed the procedures strictly. After all,Forced Waiting requires patience. Perhaps the most powerful type of waiting is the Lucky?Break Wait. This type of wait is unusual in that it is for the most part voluntary. Unlike the Forced Wait,which is also voluntary,waiting for your lucky break does not necessarily mean that it will happen. Turning one's life into a waiting game requires faith and hope,and is strictly for the optimists among us. On the surface it seems as ridiculous as following the directions on soup mixes,but the Lucky?Break Wait well serves those who are willing to do it. As long as one doesn't come to rely on it,wishing for a few good things to happen never hurts anybody. We certainly do spend a good deal of our time waiting. The next time you're standing at the sink waiting for it to fill while cooking noodle soup that you'll have to eat until a large bag of cash falls out of the sky,don't be desperate. You're probably just as busy as the next guy. 1.While doing a Watched?Pot Wait,we tend to . A.keep ourselves busy B.get absent?minded C.grow anxious D.stay focused 2.What is the difference between the Forced Wait and the Watched?Pot Wait? A.The Forced Wait requires some self?control. B.The Forced Wait makes people passive. C.The Watched?Pot Wait needs directions. D.The Watched?Pot Wait engages body and brain. 3.What can we learn about the Lucky?Break Wait? A.It is less voluntary than the Forced Wait. B.It doesn't always bring the desired result. C.It is more fruitful than the Forced Wait. D.It doesn't give people faith and hope. 4.What does the author advise us to do the next time we are waiting? A.Take it seriously. B.Don't rely on others. C.Do something else. D.Don't lose heart. 5.The author supports his view by . A.exploring various causes of “waits” B.describing detailed processes of “waits” C.analyzing different categories of “waits” D.revealing frustrating consequences of “waits” 【长难句解读】 There is absolutely nothing you can do while this is going on but keep both eyes fixed on the sink until it's full.在这件事情进行时你绝对没有什么事情可做,只是双眼盯着洗碗池直到它充满水。  本句是并列复合句。but连接两个并列分句,前面的并列分句中,you can do为that引导的定语从句修饰nothing,that可以省略,while引导时间状语从句;第二个分句中包含until引导的时间状语从句。  二、阅读话题词汇夯实 阅读单词识记:英汉互译 【日常生活、新闻报道类】 1.achieve v. → n.完成;成就 2. vt.任命;委派;指定;约定(时间、地点)→appointment n. 3. n.结论;结束→ vt.结束;推断 4. vt.赢得;挣得;赚得 5. v.雇用→ n.雇用→unemployment n. →employer n. → n.雇员 6. vt.雇用;租用 7. n.& vt.采访,会见,面试→ n.采访者;主持面试者→ n.接受面试者;被采访者 8. vt.经营;管理;设法对付→ n.经营;管理→manager n. 9. vt.停止;离开 10. vt.& vi.辞职 11. vt.& vi.退休 12. vt.承担;从事 13 v.调整;(使)适应;调节 14. n.津贴;零用钱 15. n.外貌→ vi.出现 16. n.申请人 17. n.申请 18. n.建筑师 19. n.助手,助理→ vt.帮助;协助→assistance n. 20. n.津贴;奖金;红利 21. n.候选人;应试者 22. n.执照;证(明)书 23. n.机会;机遇 24.consideration n. → adj.想得周到的;体贴的→ vt.思考,考虑;认为→ prep.考虑到;鉴于 25. vt.让……离开;开除;解散;解雇 26. adj.受过教育的;有教养的 27. n.期待,期望 28. v.失败;(考试)不及格 29. v.担任;拥有;保持;抓住 30. n.职业 31. n.机会 32. n.可能性;可能 33. n.物理学家 34. adj.潜在的;可能的;n.潜力 35. n.职位 36. n.职业,专业 37. vt.& vi.(使)具有资格;(使)具备合格条件 38. adj.有资格的 39. vt.& n.回答;回复 40 n.代表,典型(人物) 41. n.要求 42. n.秘书;书记 43. n.专科医生;专家 44. v.成功 45. n.幸福;福利 重点短语 1. 申请 2. 适合 3. 主管 4. 在某人的掌管之下 5. 忙于做;专心于 6. 失业 7. 感觉能胜任 8. 移交;交出 9. 搜寻;寻找 10. 符合;遇到;遭受 11. 展望未来;为将来设想 12. 负责;接管 ★【即学即练】 【2018·安徽省安师大附中马鞍山二中阶段性测试】 When Marco Polo travelled to Hangzhou, China about 700 years ago, he had never thought he'd be creating a job of social media ambassador in the 21st century in China. On May 20, one lucky foreigner would be selected to become the modern?day Marco Polo, getting a free 15?day trip to the scenic city of Hangzhou in China, and rewarded with $ 55,000 in the next year for working part?time to promote the city to the global audience. Five finalists from Australia, Romama, the U.S., Switzerland and France were in the final race. They came from a pool of 700 applicants from around the world, carefully selected by the Hangzhou Tourism Commission on their familiarity with China, social media presence and adventurous spirit. Located about 100 miles southwest to Shanghai, Hangzhou is home to 8.44 million population and among China's richest cities as measured by per capita GDP. Traditionally, Hangzhou is known for its charming West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage Site with traditional Chinese stories and tales, and the Grand Canal, which travels from Hangzhou to Beijing and was a key route of transportation in ancient China. The city's mild climate and charming environment drew 9.7 million tourists last year, contributing to 6.5% of the city's GDP. The lucky winner would start an all?expense?paid trip to Hangzhou, which, in addition to visits to tourist sites and tastings of delicious food, also would include a four?day ride along the Grand Canal and three evenings spent at a local resident's home. “It is in fact a part?time job. How you work that out efficiently is your problem,” Liam Bates, perhaps the strongest competitor because of his fluent Chinese, said.“We will see how hard it is to meet these numbers.” 1.The purpose of Hangzhou choosing a social media ambassador is to . A.keep Marco Polo in people's memories B.attract more foreign tourists to China C.encourage more foreigners to speak Chinese D.explore a new route of transportation 2.From Paragraph 3, we know that . A.Hangzhou is 100 miles northwest to Shanghai B.8.44 million visitors came to Hangzhou last year C.tourism plays an important role in the GDP of Hangzhou D.the Grand Canal travels from Hangzhou to Shanghai 3. Liam Bates was most likely to get the job mainly due to his . A.travel experience  B.fluent Chinese C.adventurous spirit D.excellent videos 4.Which of the following might be the best title for this passage? A. Hangzhou rewards international visitors to China B.Liam Bates creates a dream job of social media ambassador C.A dream job in China — $ 55,000 to the contemporary Marco Polo D. Hangzhou, a famous city for West Lake and the Grand Canal 阅读理解的三大方法 通过长时间的高考阅读的研究和整理,我大体将目前学生的阅读流程分为三类: 第一类:读文章——做题目——回头再读文章 此为传统方法,命中率高,但速度稍慢。优点是能够迅速理解全文的主题脉络,连贯地进行信息的排查,缺点是由于人的记忆力有限,很多细节在做题时已经忘却,有不确定的地方仍需回到原文细细查找,寻找依据,耗时费力。这种方法的使用,需要较好的英文基础外加优秀的强记能力,一般使用于高分段的学生。 不过,这种阅读流程的效果不单纯作用于考试,还可以切实提高英文阅读水平,对同学们大学以后的学习大有帮助。所以这种阅读顺序,我推荐给高一高二的学生在平时的阅读解题中大可以培养这种习惯,一方面确保准确率,第二稳步提升自己的英文阅读实力,但对于高三的同学,这种方法有些欠妥。由于复习时间的紧张,我们最好摒弃掉此类阅读习惯。 第二类:读题目(题干+选项)—— 读文章 —— 做题目 其实此类方法分两种,一种是只看题不看选项,即大致看看问题,然后带着问题再看文章;另一种是将题干和所有选择项看完,再看文章。第一种的优点是节约时间,缺点是由于不看选项,对于细节缺乏必要的把握,同样要返回文章找寻关键点,而且定位的时候没有精确的坐标;第二个就相对而言科学很多,优点是明了要重点注意的目标信息,有很好阅读的针对性,缺点是相对读文章的时间少了,难免断章取义缺少宏观的把握,容易陷入干扰选项设置的陷阱之中。 【典例1】 【2017·高考全国卷Ⅰ·A片段】 Pacific Science Center Guide ◆Visit Pacific Science Center's Store Don't forget to stop by Pacific Science Center's Store while you are here to pick up a wonderful science activity or souvenir to remember your visit. The store is located (位于) upstairs in Building 3 right next to the Laser Dome. 21.Where can you buy a souvenir at Pacific Science Center? A.In Building 1. B.In Building 3. C.At the Laser Dome. D.At the Denny Way entrance. 第一步 确定题干中的关键词 本题题干的关键词是:Where;souvenir;Pacific Science Center 第二步 根据关键词定位信息句 本题信息句是:to pick up a wonderful science activity or souvenir to remember your visit.The store is located (位于)upstairs in Building 3 第三步 比对选项确定答案 B 【典例2】 【2017·高考全国卷Ⅱ·B片段】I first met Paul Newman in 1968, when George Roy Hill, the director of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid,introduced us in New York City. When the studio didn't want me for the film—it wanted somebody as well?known as Paul—he stood up for me. I don't know how many people would have done that; they would have listened to their agents or the studio powers. 24.Why was the studio unwilling to give the role to the author at first? A.Paul Newman wanted it. B.The studio powers didn't like his agent. C.He wasn't famous enough. D.The director recommended someone else. 第一步 确定题干中的关键词 题干关键词是:the studio与the role 第二步 根据关键词定位信息句 用the studio和the role寻读,在文中找到“When the studio didn't want me for the film-it wanted somebody as well?known as Paul-he stood up for me.” 第三步 比对选项确定答案 根据信息句可知,电影公司不想让作者演这部电影,是因为他们想要一位像Paul一样出名的人来演,这说明我不出名。故选C。 【典例3】【高考全国卷Ⅲ·A片段】Chamber Orchestra:The Orchestra plays at Memorial Hall at 1406 Elm Street,which offers several concerts from March through June.Call 723?1182 for more information. http://www.chamberorch,com. 22.When can you go to a concert by Chamber Orchestra? A.February.      B.May. C.August. D.November. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 When;go to a concert by Chamber Orchestra 第二步 定位到原文信息句 Chamber Orchestra:The Orchestra plays at Memorial Hall at 1406 Elm Street,which offers several concerts from March through June. 第三步 整合推算得出答案 B 对于高三的同学们,还是建议多使用这种方法,方法虽有利弊,但对于时间紧张的你们,往往事半功倍。 第三类:读主题——读题目—— 读全文——做题目 先看懂各段首尾句或短文的第一段,大致明了文章的主题。此后细细地阅读题干推敲选项的大致设置,思考作者的行文规律和命题者的出题陷阱,然后带着已经在首尾句获得的信息和在题目中假设的思路回头进行有目的性的查找工作,准确率高且耗时相对较少。而我们现在的高考阅读文章均取自国内外的英文刊物,少有命题组自行行文的类型,此类文章逻辑严谨,结构清晰,所以气定神闲地先读完各段的首句再耐心的推敲考题选项的设置,往往会直接将四个选支排除掉一个或两个,这无疑对我们的解题帮助极大,减少了我们判断的压力轻松地将文章读完。 高考阅读虽错综复杂,但是只要你养成很好的阅读习惯,加上一些必要的解题技巧是一定能征服它的。 二、阅读理解的七大要求 在考试中,阅读理解是限时阅读。它主要考查考生两个方面的阅读理解能力:一是快速阅读能力;二是准确的理解能力。下面大家整理了英语阅读理解高分必备能力,希望对大家有帮助。 1文章体裁辨析能力 英语中,由于不同文体的英语文章有不同的写作方法。如果考生具备了识别英文文体的能力,能根据文体特征迅速抓住文章的要点,就会大大缩短阅读时间,提高理解效率。 2文章结构辨析能力 英语文章有一个共同的特点,一般说来,首先确定文章的主题句,即文章的中心,然后,后面的内容都是围绕这一中心来展开论述的。中心句一般位于文章最前面,也有的位于文章末尾,还有的位于文章的中间。有了文章结构的辨析能力,考生就能快速对文章进行全面、系统的掌握。从而根据试题的不同内容或要求在不同的部位准确找到答案的依据。 3归纳总结能力 虽然绝大多数英语文章有中心句,但也还有些文章根本没有中心句。如有些描述性的记叙就要求考生根据文章内容来归纳、总结出中心句。目前高考中的英语试题总有 3~4 题考查考生对文章中心的理解,这就要求考生一定要具有对文章的归纳、总结能力。 4生词猜测能力 掌握一定量的词汇是进行阅读的前提,但运用各种英语知识猜测生词的能力是考查考生阅读理解能力的一个重要方面。倘若单词都不认识,也就无法阅读下去。然而,并不是说,一定要把所有的单词都认识才能进行阅读。事实上,阅读当中出现一些生词,是一件非常正常的事情。不仅英语阅读如此,就连本族语也是这样。正因为如此,有些语言专家把阅读戏称为猜词游戏。因此,考生在英语阅读理解过程中碰到不认识的单词时,要根据各种知识大胆地猜测生词的意义,培养猜测生词意义的能力。 5长句分析能力 句子长而复杂是现代英语的一个显着特点,特别在现代科技英语中更是这样。作者为了把叙述说得准确、逻辑严密,往往是一个主句接一个或几个状语从句、宾语从句、定语从句、同位语从句、并列句,中间还来几个非谓语动词短语或插入语。这样不但使句子长,而且句子结构支离破碎,令读者不知从何处下手。因此,为了夺得高考英语阅读理解的高分,考生必须具备长句分析能力。 6综合推断能力 近年来,英语阅读理解中的推理判断题逐年增多,单从文章的字面找不出答案,而要根据文章中的某些词、短语或句子来推断出它内在的深层意义,或将几个事实综合起来对文章进行深层理解。因此,考生必须在平时的训练中提高综合推断能力。 7.陷阱识别能力 在英语阅读理解题所给选项中,常出现部分真实的情况,但往往以偏概全、过于笼统,增添枝叶,让选项中的确含有原文中的事实、细节,或原文中已有的情况,却并不与原文事实完全一致,故意扰乱考生的视觉,让考生信以为真,这就是英语阅读理解中的陷阱。因此,考生要具有对陷阱的识别能力,才能绕过陷阱,从而作出正确的选择。 三、易错总结 易错点一:粗心大意, 忽视题干 【典例1】 Once upon a time, a man punished his 5- year-old daughter for using up the family’s only roll of expensive gold wrapping paper. Money was tight, and he became even more upset when on Christmas Eve, he saw that the child had pasted the gold so as to decorate a shoebox to put under the Christmas tree. The man was upset on Christmas Eve because ______. A. his daughter used up the only roll of expensive gold wrapper paper. B. his daughter presented him an empty box. C. he thought his daughter was wasting the expensive gold paper. D. he was poor and couldn’t afford a gift for his daughter. 【答案】C 【点拨】读准题意, 正确判断 易错点二: 偏离原文,断章取意 【典例2】 What can we learn from the story? A.The unconditional love from others is most valuable. B. parents shouldn’t always be angry with children when they are wrong. C. We should value the golden box that others gave us. D. As children, don’t forget to give parents a box full of kisses on Christmas. 【答案】A 同样题型设题: ①Which one can be inferred from the passage? ②Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage? 【点拨】 忠于原文,各个排除 易错点三:主观臆断, 天马行空 【典例3】 Why did the father keep the empty box for many years? A.He missed his dead daughter much. B. He represents his daughter’s love and encouraged him to overcome difficulty. C. He really likes the golden box his daughter gave him. D. He is poor. 【答案】B 【点拨】 锁定目标, 仔细推敲 易错点四: 似是而非, 词义不明 【典例4】 The underlined word “ harshly” (paragraph4) can be replaced by ________. A. angrily B. excitedly C. immediately D. directly 【答案】A 【点拨】 辨别词义, 还原文意 例1.【2018·湖南省部分重点中学考前演练】 I'm sometimes told, “You have to make your own luck. If you don't try something, how can you succeed?” This is very true for competitions. There are people who regularly take part in all sorts of competitions with great enthusiasm. These people are nicknamed compers. The motivation for being a comper is obvious: it's about being a winner and being rewarded with a prize. These prizes can be small or large: from a box of chocolates to a new car, a trip of a lifetime around the world, or even a new house. Isn't that worth competing for? Of course competitions that offer money prizes attract entry from millions of people, making the odds of winning very unlikely. But one man who has been lucky is a retired lecturer from the UK called Martin Dove. He is a serial comper and has managed to bag prizes such as a yacht and a racehorse. Martin says: “ I've been a comper for 40 years. It's like admitting some addiction, isn't it?” He gets respect from other compers and also admits, “ Some people have called me the Master of Comping, the King of Comping, the Guru of Comping. But it's just a word, just a phrase. It's just because I frequently appeared in the media.” For many, winning remains a dream, but they continue to try their luck as there's always a small chance that they might succeed. But what if you do win? Then you have to ask: how am I going to spend all that money? Some people say that “money can't buy you happiness”.What do you think? 1.What does the author mean by“This is very true for competitions”? A.Competitions bring people luck. B.One must be in a competition to win it. C.Trying gets people to succeed. D.People naturally compete with each other. 2.Who are compers? A.Those always standing out in competitions. B.Those addicted to entering competitions. C.Those often entering competitions for prizes. D.Those competing for others' recognition. 3.What does the underlined word “odds” probably mean? A.Possibility.     B.Investment. C.Importance. D.Advantage. 4.What do Martin's words suggest? A.Any job can offer opportunities. B.He has attracted considerable attention. C.Persistence is the key to his success. D.He has set a good example to others. 【答案】1.B 2.C 3.A 4.B 【解析】 本文是一篇说明文,阐述了一种社会现象:有些人总是热衷于参加各种形式的比赛活动,目的就是获奖。你是否有过类似的经历呢? 1.B 考查推理判断。This指的应是前面的“If you don't try something,how can you succeed?”,再结合第二段提到的人们参加比赛赢奖可知,此处指的是对于比赛来说,一个人必须先参与进去然后才有可能赢得比赛,故选B。 2.C 考查推理判断。根据第二段中的“There are people who regularly take part in all sorts of competitions...it's about being a winner and being rewarded with a prize.”可知,compers指的是那些频繁地参加比赛以获取奖品的人。故选C。 3.A 考查词义猜测。根据画线词所在句“Of course competitions that offer money prizes attract entry from millions of people,making the odds of winning very unlikely”并结合常识可知,比赛的奖金是有限的,而参赛的人越多,获奖的概率就越小。由此可知,odds的意思是“概率,可能性”。故选A。 4.B 考查推理判断。根据第三段的最后两句及第四段的内容尤其是“gets respect from other compers”“Some people have called me the Master of Comping,the King of Comping,the Guru of Comping.But it's just a word,just a phrase.It's just because I frequently appeared in the media.”可知,Martin经常参加比赛,而且得到了一些大奖并赢得了其他参赛者的尊重,甚至一些人称其为“参赛大师”、“参赛之王”、“参赛专家”。由此可知,Martin得到了广泛的关注。故选B。 变式训练 【2018·广州综合检测二】 Scientists have solved the mystery of why the overwhelming majority of mammoth fossils(化石) are male. Much like wild elephants today, young male Ice Age mammoths probably travelled around alone and more often got themselves into risky situations where they were swept into rivers, or fell through ice or into mud, lakes or sinkholes that preserved their bones for thousands of years, scientists say. Females, on the other hand, travelled in groups led by an older matriarch who knew the landscape and directed her group away from danger. “Without the benefit of living in a herd led by an experienced female, male mammoths had a much higher risk of dying in natural traps such as mud holes, rock cracks and lakes,” said co-author Love Dalén of the Swedish Museum of Natural History in a report published on Thursday in the journal Current Biology. The study used genetic data to determine the sex of 98 woolly mammoth fossils in Siberia. Researchers found that 69% of the samples were male, a heavily unbalanced sex ratio, assuming that the sexes were fairly even at birth. “We were very surprised because there was no reason to expect a sex bias in the fossil record,” said first author Patricia Pecnerova, also of the Swedish Museum of Natural History. Therefore, researchers believe that something about the way they lived influenced the way they died. “Most bones, tusks, and teeth from mammoths and other Ice Age animals haven’t survived,” explained Dalén. “It is highly likely that the remains that are found in Siberia these days have been preserved because they have been buried, and thus protected from weathering.” These giant, tusked plant eaters disappeared about 4,000 years ago. While there is no scientific agreement on the causes of their disappearance from the planet, most believe that climate change, excessive hunting by humans and the spread of other animals into mammoth feeding grounds were influential factors. 1.The underlined word “matriarch” in Paragraph 3 means ________. A.figurehead        B.female leader C.experienced animal D.mature mammoth 2.Why do the majority of mammoth fossils come from male animals? A.Scientists find it easier to study male fossilised bones. B.There were more male mammoths in comparison to females. C.Male mammoths were better able to adapt to the changing circumstances. D.Male mammoths more frequently died in places where fossils could form. 3.Which of the following is suggested as a reason for mammoths dying out? A.The increasing competition for food. B.The cooling of the earth’s temperature. C.The disappearance of male mammoths. D.The risky behaviour of younger mammoths. 4.What is the text type of the passage? A.A newspaper article. B.An academic essay. C.A historical description. D.A science fiction story. 【2018·南昌NCS20180607项目一模】 When I was five or six years old, I remember watching TV and seeing other children suffer in other parts of the world. I would say to myself, “When I grow up, when I can get rich, I will save kids all over the world.” At 17, I started my career here in America, and by the age of 18, I started my first charity organization. I went on to team up with other organizations in the following years, and met, helped, and even lost some of the most beautiful souls, from six?year?old Jasmina Anema who passed away in 2010 from leukemia(白血病), and whose story inspired thousands to volunteer as donors, to my grandmother, who lost her battle with cancer in 2012, and her death is the very reason and the driving force behind the Clara Lionel Foundation(CLF). We’re all human. And we all just want a chance: a chance at life, a chance in education, a chance at a future, really. And at CLF, our mission is to impact as many lives as possible, but it starts with just one. People make it seem too hard to do charity work. The truth is, you don’t have to be rich to help others. You don’t need to be famous. You don’t even have to be college?educated. But it starts with your neighbor, the person right next to you, the person sitting next to you in class, the kid down the block in your neighborhood. You just do whatever you can to help in any way that you can. And today, I want to challenge each of you to make a commitment to help one person, one organization, one situation that touches your heart. My grandmother always used to say. “If you’ve got a dollar, there’s plenty to share.” 1.What did the author want to do at a young age? A.Watch TV.      B.Grow up quickly. C.Become wealthy. D.Help other children. 2.What directly caused the author to create and develop the CLF? A.A six?year?old kid’s request. B.Her grandmother’s death of cancer. C.Many volunteers’ inspiration. D.Other organizations’ encouragement. 3.What does the underlined word “one” in Paragraph 2 refer to? A.A chance. B.A task. C.A life. D.An organization. 4.What does the author suggest people do in the last paragraph? A.Do little things to help those around them. B.Work hard to get a college education. C.Challenge their friends to offer help. D.Do charity work whoever you are. 【2018·银川质量检测】 Recently I accepted a challenge to join Naasih, a motivational speaker, on a voyage through India designed to refresh my spirit. After too many hours, Naasih and I arrived in the slum(贫民窟) just as the sun was breaking across the smoggy Delhi sky. It seemed as if the small houses extended for miles, an ocean of tin roofs and laundry lines. Finally, Naasih stopped and turned to me. “Give me your bag,” he said. I handed it to him. I had promised to follow his directions, and in return, I was hoping to find whatever I thought was missing from my life. “I will meet you back here at sunset,” Naasih said and walked away. I began to walk through the streets. No one paid too much attention to the tall, hairless man walking among them. My throat was dry, my stomach turning over with hunger. And then I saw a small house and I knocked softly on the door. A young, skinny man, no older than 25, came to answer it. As I soon found out, the man is named Sankar and he was a Lakers fan. I also learned that he was a recently graduated university student who had left his family to go after a dream of success in the big city. Instead, he had found work in the back of a restaurant. After lunch, Sankar took me to play basketball with a group of children in a trash-filled field down the road. The sun was beginning to fall as the laughter of the basket games echoed(发出回声) through the slum. I was so caught up in my day with Sankar. I had started the morning in fear and exhaustion, but I was ending the day connected to something much larger. After the game, Sankar and I walked to Rata Road. There stood Naasih. He said, “You’re__shining,__Leon.” I had been knocked entirely out of my comfort zone, and I felt that wild burst of life that had been missing from my own. 5.Why did the author come to Sankar’s home? A.To play a game with him. B.To respond to Naasih’s request. C.To relieve his hunger and thirst. D.To learn how disadvantaged people live. 6.What can we learn about Sankar? A.He didn’t live as he dreamed. B.He found a good job in the city. C.He studied cooking in university. D.He had a great talent for basketball. 7.What does Naasih mean by saying “You’re shining, Leon” in the last paragraph? A.Leon is an inspiration to him. B.Leon has changed his state of mind. C.Leon is popular among the children. D.Leon is good at connecting with others. 8.What is the best title of the passage? A.A Chance to Make Acquaintances B.The Power of Sports Games C.The Pleasure from Indian Slums D.A Voyage of Finding the Self 【2018·长沙名校第二阶段测评】 With stress levels reaching new highs, it’s important for business owners to take steps to control and reduce their stress. It’s good for owners and for their business. Small and mediumsized business(SMB) owners are some of the most stressed out workers in the U.S. Not only do they feel the pressure of sustaining(维持) and growing their business, SMB owners also face the greatest business challenges from expanding sales channels to increasing tax complexities. Stress of employers and employees can cost your company 50 percent more in health insurance costs. Additionally, the serious health problems associated with stress could have a lasting, bad influence on your business. Finally, suffering high levels of stress means you aren’t taking the time to think creatively about how to grow or adapt your business to shifts in consumer habits or the competitive landscape(局面). When you take steps to decrease stress, your productivity increases and your business takes off. International studies have found that increased stress causes reduced productivity, while decreased stress lead to increased productivity. Reduced stress has great effects—energetic and active individuals positively affect the productivity of those around them. This is especially important to business owners who are the leaders of their company and staff. In addition to decreasing stress, a quick thinking session can immediately improve your decision-making and creative thinking. Large companies, including AOL and McKinsey & Company, have experienced increased sales performance as a result of thinking sessions introduced into the workday. 9.Why are SMB owners suffering great pressure? A.Because they need to expand their business abroad. B.Because they can’t afford the increasing tax. C.Because they don’t take steps to control stress. D.Because they can hardly bring in more profits. 10.What is the consequence of high levels of stress? A.Increasing unemployment. B.Unawareness of a healthy body. C.Decrease in the levels of productivity. D.Alarming rate of death. 11.What does the underlined word “them” refer to? A.Energetic and active individuals. B.Leaders and staff. C.Decreased stress levels. D.Business owners. 【2018·江西名校联盟5月检测】 Parents usually teach their children how to cross the street safely, by looking both ways for cars. But do they also teach them to put away their cell phones? The city of Honolulu, Hawaii wants everyone to learn that lesson. Texting while crossing the street will soon be banned in the city. Beginning on October 24, you could be fined from $15 to $99 if you step onto a Honolulu street while looking at your phone. Honolulu is the first major U.S. city to ban what is called “distracted walking”. It recently passed a law in a seven-to-two vote. The law says: “No pedestrian shall cross a street or highway while viewing a mobile electronic device(装置).” In other words, do not look at a screen when you cross the street or you could be fined. The law’s creators hope it will lower the number of people hit and killed by cars in the city. Mayor Kirk Caldwell told Reuters news agency,“We hold the unfortunate distinction of being a major city with more pedestrians being hit in crosswalks, particularly our seniors, than that of almost any other cities in the country.” The law includes all electronic devices with screens: cell phones, tablets, gaming devices, digital cameras and laptop computers. The law does permit an exception. Pedestrians may use such devices in the street to call emergency services and rescue workers, such as firefighters and police officers. Pedestrian deaths have been increasing as the use of cell phones rises. The Governors Highway Safety Association, or GHSA, says pedestrian deaths in the United States increased by 25 percent between 2010 and 2015. That trend continued in 2016 with the number of pedestrian deaths rising to almost 6,000, 11% higher than that in 2015. Other U.S. cities may follow Honolulu. The State of Washington was the first to outlaw distracted driving back in 2007. Now, 46 other states as well as D.C., Puerto Rico, Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands, also have laws against texting while driving. 12.What’s the passage mainly about? A.Honolulu will ban distracted walking. B.Texting while walking draws public attention. C.More cities in the U.S. will ban texting while driving. D.The number of people killed by cars in Honolulu is increasing. 13.In what case can people use electric devices in Honolulu streets? A.Walking with police officers. B.Making urgent calls. C.Helping rescue workers. D.Texting to consult about emergency services. 14.What does the author convey in Paragraph 5? A.Texting while walking should be banned quickly. B.Distracted walking caused a severe problem in Honolulu. C.Cell phones led to more and more pedestrian deaths in the U.S. D.Pedestrian deaths were caused by texting while walking. 15.Which U.S. state was the first to ban texting while driving? A.Hawaii. B.Washington. C.Puerto Rico. D.Guam. 20 第35讲 日常生活、新闻报道类文章(解析版) "日常生活、新闻报道类"是高中英语新课标重要考查的阅读话题之一,也是英语核心素养的体现。综观近几年的高考英语阅读理解题,其中日常生活、新闻报道类内容主要涉及的是与人们生活息息相关的信息,如产品宣传、服务介绍、招生招聘等。 新闻报道类阅读是近几年高考英语阅读理解最常考的题材,在阅读理解的选材中占有很大的比重;命题者的目的是要考查考生提取信息和处理信息的能力,所以命题的题型多是以获取信息为主的细节理解题,兼顾推理判断题、主旨大意题和猜测词义题。 一、真题链接 【2018·浙江高考·C篇】 FLORENCE,Italy—Svetlana Cojochru feels hurt. The Moldovan has lived here seven years as a caregiver to Italian kids and the elderly,but in order to stay she's had to prove her language skills by taking a test which requires her to write a postcard to an imaginary friend and answer a fictional job ad. Italy is the latest Western European country trying to control a growing immigrant(移民) population by demanding language skills in exchange for work permits,or in some cases,citizenship. Some immigrant advocates worry that as hard financial times make it more difficult for natives to keep jobs,such measures will become more a vehicle for intolerance than integration(融合).Others say it's only natural that newcomers learn the language of their host nation,seeing it as a condition to ensure they can contribute to society. Other European countries laid down a similar requirement for immigrants,and some terms are even tougher. The governments argue that this will help foreigners better join the society and promote understanding across cultures. Italy,which has a much weaker tradition of immigration,has witnessed a sharp increase in immigration in recent years. In 1990,immigrants numbered some 1.14 million out of Italy's then 56.7 million people,or about 2 percent. At the start of this year,foreigners living in Italy amounted to 4.56 million of a total population of 60.6 million,or 7.5 percent,with immigrants' children accounting for an even larger percentage of births in Italy. Cojochru,the Moldovan caregiver,hoped obtaining permanent residence(居住权)would help her bring her two children to Italy;they live with her sister in Moldova,where salaries are among the lowest in Europe.She was skeptical that the language requirement would encourage integration. Italians always “see me as a foreigner,”an outsider,even though she's stayed in the country for years and can speak the local language fluently,she said. 1.Why does Cojochru have to take a language test? A.To continue to stay in Italy. B.To teach her children Italian. C.To find a better job in Italy. D.To better mix with the Italians. 2.Some people worry that the new language requirement may . A.reduce Italy's population quickly B.cause conflicts among people C.lead to financial difficulties D.put pressure on schools 3.What do we know about Cojochru? A.She lives with her sister now in Italy. B.She enjoys learning the Italian language. C.She speaks Italian well enough for her job. D.She wishes to go back to her home country.  【答案】1. A 2. B 3. C 【解析】 本文是一篇新闻报道。主要介绍了意大利刚出台的对日益增长的移民所采取的语言测试项目以及人们对该项目的不同看法。 1.A考查细节理解,命题点为事件的起因。根据文章第一段第二句话中的“but in order to stay she's had to prove her language skills by taking a test...”可知,为了能够继续留在意大利,她将不得不参加语言测试来证明自己的语言技能,故选A项。 2.B考查细节理解,命题点为事件的结果。根据文章第三段第一句话中的“such measures will become more a vehicle for intolerance than integration(融合)”可以看出,有的移民担心对移民的语言测试和要求可能会导致更多的不宽容,而不是更多的融合,从而也可能导致更多的冲突,故选B项。 3.C考查细节理解。由最后一段中的“even though she's stayed in the country for years and can speak the local language fluently”可以看出,科约卡鲁的意大利语说得足够流利,这让她能够胜任她的工作,故选C项。 【长难句解读】 The Moldovan has lived here seven years as a caregiver to Italian kids and the elderly, but in order to stay she's had to prove her language skills by taking a test which requires her to write a postcard to an imaginary friend and answer a fictional job ad.这个摩尔多瓦妇女已经在这里(意大利)7年了,她的工作是照顾意大利的小孩和老人,但为了能够继续留在意大利,她将不得不参加一个语言测试,以此来证明自己的语言能力,这个测试要求她给一个虚构的朋友写一张明信片,同时回复一则虚构的招聘广告。 [分析] 本句是并列复合句。根据but可知,本句是表示转折关系的并列句,但but前后又都包含较复杂的成分。前一部分的主要成分是The Moldovan has lived here seven years;后一部分主要成分是she's had to prove her language skills。同时第二部分中又包含定语从句which requires her to write a postcard to an imaginary friend and answer a fictional job ad,修饰先行词a test。 【2018·天津高考·D篇】I read somewhere that we spend a full third of our lives waiting. But where are we doing all of this waiting,and what does it mean to an impatient society like ours?To understand the issue,let's take a look at three types of “waits”. The very purest form of waiting is the Watched?Pot Wait.It is without doubt the most annoying of all. Take filling up the kitchen sink (洗碗池) as an example. There is absolutely nothing you can do while this is going on but keep both eyes fixed on the sink until it's full. During these waits,the brain slips away from the body and wanders about until the water runs over the edge of the counter and onto your socks. This kind of wait makes the waiter helpless and mindless. A cousin to the Watched?Pot Wait is the Forced Wait. This one requires a bit of discipline. Properly preparing packaged noodle soup requires a Forced Wait. Directions are very specific. “Bring three cups of water to boil,add mix,simmer three minutes,remove from heat,let stand five minutes.”I have my doubts that anyone has actually followed the procedures strictly. After all,Forced Waiting requires patience. Perhaps the most powerful type of waiting is the Lucky?Break Wait. This type of wait is unusual in that it is for the most part voluntary. Unlike the Forced Wait,which is also voluntary,waiting for your lucky break does not necessarily mean that it will happen. Turning one's life into a waiting game requires faith and hope,and is strictly for the optimists among us. On the surface it seems as ridiculous as following the directions on soup mixes,but the Lucky?Break Wait well serves those who are willing to do it. As long as one doesn't come to rely on it,wishing for a few good things to happen never hurts anybody. We certainly do spend a good deal of our time waiting. The next time you're standing at the sink waiting for it to fill while cooking noodle soup that you'll have to eat until a large bag of cash falls out of the sky,don't be desperate. You're probably just as busy as the next guy. 1.While doing a Watched?Pot Wait,we tend to . A.keep ourselves busy B.get absent?minded C.grow anxious D.stay focused 2.What is the difference between the Forced Wait and the Watched?Pot Wait? A.The Forced Wait requires some self?control. B.The Forced Wait makes people passive. C.The Watched?Pot Wait needs directions. D.The Watched?Pot Wait engages body and brain. 3.What can we learn about the Lucky?Break Wait? A.It is less voluntary than the Forced Wait. B.It doesn't always bring the desired result. C.It is more fruitful than the Forced Wait. D.It doesn't give people faith and hope. 4.What does the author advise us to do the next time we are waiting? A.Take it seriously. B.Don't rely on others. C.Do something else. D.Don't lose heart. 5.The author supports his view by . A.exploring various causes of “waits” B.describing detailed processes of “waits” C.analyzing different categories of “waits” D.revealing frustrating consequences of “waits” 【答案】1.B 2.A 3.B 4. D 5.C 【解析】 本文是一篇议论文。文章通过介绍三种类型的“等待”来论证在“在生活中,人们有三分之一的时间用来等待”这个观点。 1.B考查细节理解。根据第二段中的“...the brain slips away from the body and wanders about... This kind of wait makes the waiter helpless and mindless.”可知,Watched?Pot Wait可以让人变得心不在焉,故选B项。 2.A考查细节理解。根据第三段中的“This one requires a bit of discipline.”可知,Forced Wait与Watched?Pot Wait的区别就是,前者需要自制力,故选A项。 3.B考查细节理解。根据第四段中的“... waiting for your lucky break does not necessarily mean that it will happen.”可知,等待幸运之事,但未必意味着它一定会发生,故选B项。 4.D考查细节理解。根据最后一段中的“The next time... don't be desperate.”可知,下次等待的时候,不要绝望,即不要丧失信心( Don't lose heart),故选D项。] 5. C 考查细节理解。从文章内容看,作者首先说明“等待”在我们生活中的重要性,然后通过分析三种类型的“等待”来帮助理解这个问题,故选C项。 【长难句解读】 There is absolutely nothing you can do while this is going on but keep both eyes fixed on the sink until it's full.在这件事情进行时你绝对没有什么事情可做,只是双眼盯着洗碗池直到它充满水。  本句是并列复合句。but连接两个并列分句,前面的并列分句中,you can do为that引导的定语从句修饰nothing,that可以省略,while引导时间状语从句;第二个分句中包含until引导的时间状语从句。  二、阅读话题词汇夯实 阅读单词识记:英汉互译 【日常生活、新闻报道类】 1.achieve v. → n.完成;成就 2. vt.任命;委派;指定;约定(时间、地点)→appointment n. 3. n.结论;结束→ vt.结束;推断 4. vt.赢得;挣得;赚得 5. v.雇用→ n.雇用→unemployment n. →employer n. → n.雇员 6. vt.雇用;租用 7. n.& vt.采访,会见,面试→ n.采访者;主持面试者→ n.接受面试者;被采访者 8. vt.经营;管理;设法对付→ n.经营;管理→manager n. 9. vt.停止;离开 10. vt.& vi.辞职 11. vt.& vi.退休 12. vt.承担;从事 13 v.调整;(使)适应;调节 14. n.津贴;零用钱 15. n.外貌→ vi.出现 16. n.申请人 17. n.申请 18. n.建筑师 19. n.助手,助理→ vt.帮助;协助→assistance n. 20. n.津贴;奖金;红利 21. n.候选人;应试者 22. n.执照;证(明)书 23. n.机会;机遇 24.consideration n. → adj.想得周到的;体贴的→ vt.思考,考虑;认为→ prep.考虑到;鉴于 25. vt.让……离开;开除;解散;解雇 26. adj.受过教育的;有教养的 27. n.期待,期望 28. v.失败;(考试)不及格 29. v.担任;拥有;保持;抓住 30. n.职业 31. n.机会 32. n.可能性;可能 33. n.物理学家 34. adj.潜在的;可能的;n.潜力 35. n.职位 36. n.职业,专业 37. vt.& vi.(使)具有资格;(使)具备合格条件 38. adj.有资格的 39. vt.& n.回答;回复 40 n.代表,典型(人物) 41. n.要求 42. n.秘书;书记 43. n.专科医生;专家 44. v.成功 45. n.幸福;福利 重点短语 1. 申请 2. 适合 3. 主管 4. 在某人的掌管之下 5. 忙于做;专心于 6. 失业 7. 感觉能胜任 8. 移交;交出 9. 搜寻;寻找 10. 符合;遇到;遭受 11. 展望未来;为将来设想 12. 负责;接管 【答案速递】 1.achieve v.完成;实现;达到→achievement n.完成;成就 2.appoint vt.任命;委派;指定;约定(时间、地点)→appointment n.约定,约会;任命,委派 3.conclusion n.结论;结束→conclude vt.结束;推断 4.earn vt.赢得;挣得;赚得 5.employ v.雇用→employment n.雇用→unemployment n.失业→employer n.雇主→employee n.雇员 6.hire vt.雇用;租用 7.interview n.& vt.采访,会见,面试→interviewer n.采访者;主持面试者→interviewee n.接受面试者;被采访者 8.manage vt.经营;管理;设法对付→management n.经营;管理→manager n.经理;管理人 9.quit vt.停止;离开 10.resign vt.& vi.辞职 11.retire vt.& vi.退休 12.undertake vt.承担;从事 13.adjust v.调整;(使)适应;调节 14.allowance n.津贴;零用钱 15.appearance n.外貌→appear vi.出现 16.applicant n.申请人 17.application n.申请 18.architect n.建筑师 19.assistant n.助手,助理→assist vt.帮助;协助→assistance n.帮助;协助 20.bonus n.津贴;奖金;红利 21.candidate n.候选人;应试者 22.certificate n.执照;证(明)书 23.chance n.机会;机遇 24.consideration n.考虑;要考虑的事;体贴→considerate adj.想得周到的;体贴的→consider vt.思考,考虑;认为→considering prep.考虑到;鉴于 25.dismiss vt.让……离开;开除;解散;解雇 26.educated adj.受过教育的;有教养的 27.expectation n.期待,期望 28.fail v.失败;(考试)不及格 29.hold v.担任;拥有;保持;抓住 30.occupation n.职业 31.opportunity n.机会 32.possibility n.可能性;可能 33.physicist n.物理学家 34.potential adj.潜在的;可能的;n.潜力 35.position n.职位 36.profession n.职业,专业 37.qualify vt.& vi.(使)具有资格;(使)具备合格条件 38.qualified adj.有资格的 39.reply vt.& n.回答;回复 40.representative n.代表,典型(人物) 41.requirement n.要求 42.secretary n.秘书;书记 43.specialist n.专科医生;专家 44.succeed v.成功 45.welfare n.幸福;福利 重点短语 1.apply for申请 2.be fit for适合 3.in charge of主管 4.be in the charge of sb./be in one’s charge在某人的掌管之下 5.be occupied with忙于做;专心于 6.be out of employment/be out of work/lose one’s job失业 7.feel equal to感觉能胜任 8.hand over移交;交出 9.hunt for搜寻;寻找 10.meet with符合;遇到;遭受 11.look ahead展望未来;为将来设想 12.take charge of负责;接管 ★【即学即练】 【2018·安徽省安师大附中马鞍山二中阶段性测试】 When Marco Polo travelled to Hangzhou, China about 700 years ago, he had never thought he'd be creating a job of social media ambassador in the 21st century in China. On May 20, one lucky foreigner would be selected to become the modern?day Marco Polo, getting a free 15?day trip to the scenic city of Hangzhou in China, and rewarded with $ 55,000 in the next year for working part?time to promote the city to the global audience. Five finalists from Australia, Romama, the U.S., Switzerland and France were in the final race. They came from a pool of 700 applicants from around the world, carefully selected by the Hangzhou Tourism Commission on their familiarity with China, social media presence and adventurous spirit. Located about 100 miles southwest to Shanghai, Hangzhou is home to 8.44 million population and among China's richest cities as measured by per capita GDP. Traditionally, Hangzhou is known for its charming West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage Site with traditional Chinese stories and tales, and the Grand Canal, which travels from Hangzhou to Beijing and was a key route of transportation in ancient China. The city's mild climate and charming environment drew 9.7 million tourists last year, contributing to 6.5% of the city's GDP. The lucky winner would start an all?expense?paid trip to Hangzhou, which, in addition to visits to tourist sites and tastings of delicious food, also would include a four?day ride along the Grand Canal and three evenings spent at a local resident's home. “It is in fact a part?time job. How you work that out efficiently is your problem,” Liam Bates, perhaps the strongest competitor because of his fluent Chinese, said.“We will see how hard it is to meet these numbers.” 1.The purpose of Hangzhou choosing a social media ambassador is to . A.keep Marco Polo in people's memories B.attract more foreign tourists to China C.encourage more foreigners to speak Chinese D.explore a new route of transportation 2.From Paragraph 3, we know that . A.Hangzhou is 100 miles northwest to Shanghai B.8.44 million visitors came to Hangzhou last year C.tourism plays an important role in the GDP of Hangzhou D.the Grand Canal travels from Hangzhou to Shanghai 3. Liam Bates was most likely to get the job mainly due to his . A.travel experience  B.fluent Chinese C.adventurous spirit D.excellent videos 4.Which of the following might be the best title for this passage? A. Hangzhou rewards international visitors to China B.Liam Bates creates a dream job of social media ambassador C.A dream job in China — $ 55,000 to the contemporary Marco Polo D. Hangzhou, a famous city for West Lake and the Grand Canal 【答案】1.B 2.C 3.B 4.C  【解析】 本文主要介绍了一项杭州旅游推广大使选拔活动。 1.B 考查细节理解。根据第二段的“On May 20,one lucky foreigner would be selected to become the modern?day Marco Polo,getting a free 15?day trip to the scenic city of Hangzhou in China,and rewarded with $ 55,000 in the next year for working part?time to promote the city to the global audience.”可知,社交大使选拔的目的是向世界推广杭州,以吸引更多的游客来中国参观。 2.C 考查推理判断。根据第三段的最后一句“The city's mild climate and charming environment drew 9.7 million tourists last year, contributing to 6.5% of the city's GDP.”可推知,旅游业对杭州的GDP增长具有重要的作用。 3.B 考查细节理解。根据最后一段中的“perhaps the strongest competitor because of his fluent Chinese”可知,Liam Bates最可能得到这份工作是因为他能说流利的汉语。 4.C 考查标题判断。根据第二段的第一句“On May 20,one lucky foreigner would be selected to...to the global audience.”并结合全文的整体内容可知,本文是一篇新闻报道,主要报道了一个有趣的工作,即:做杭州旅游推广大使。 阅读理解的三大方法 通过长时间的高考阅读的研究和整理,我大体将目前学生的阅读流程分为三类: 第一类:读文章——做题目——回头再读文章 此为传统方法,命中率高,但速度稍慢。优点是能够迅速理解全文的主题脉络,连贯地进行信息的排查,缺点是由于人的记忆力有限,很多细节在做题时已经忘却,有不确定的地方仍需回到原文细细查找,寻找依据,耗时费力。这种方法的使用,需要较好的英文基础外加优秀的强记能力,一般使用于高分段的学生。 不过,这种阅读流程的效果不单纯作用于考试,还可以切实提高英文阅读水平,对同学们大学以后的学习大有帮助。所以这种阅读顺序,我推荐给高一高二的学生在平时的阅读解题中大可以培养这种习惯,一方面确保准确率,第二稳步提升自己的英文阅读实力,但对于高三的同学,这种方法有些欠妥。由于复习时间的紧张,我们最好摒弃掉此类阅读习惯。 第二类:读题目(题干+选项)—— 读文章 —— 做题目 其实此类方法分两种,一种是只看题不看选项,即大致看看问题,然后带着问题再看文章;另一种是将题干和所有选择项看完,再看文章。第一种的优点是节约时间,缺点是由于不看选项,对于细节缺乏必要的把握,同样要返回文章找寻关键点,而且定位的时候没有精确的坐标;第二个就相对而言科学很多,优点是明了要重点注意的目标信息,有很好阅读的针对性,缺点是相对读文章的时间少了,难免断章取义缺少宏观的把握,容易陷入干扰选项设置的陷阱之中。 【典例1】 【2017·高考全国卷Ⅰ·A片段】 Pacific Science Center Guide ◆Visit Pacific Science Center's Store Don't forget to stop by Pacific Science Center's Store while you are here to pick up a wonderful science activity or souvenir to remember your visit. The store is located (位于) upstairs in Building 3 right next to the Laser Dome. 21.Where can you buy a souvenir at Pacific Science Center? A.In Building 1. B.In Building 3. C.At the Laser Dome. D.At the Denny Way entrance. 第一步 确定题干中的关键词 本题题干的关键词是:Where;souvenir;Pacific Science Center 第二步 根据关键词定位信息句 本题信息句是:to pick up a wonderful science activity or souvenir to remember your visit.The store is located (位于)upstairs in Building 3 第三步 比对选项确定答案 B 【典例2】 【2017·高考全国卷Ⅱ·B片段】I first met Paul Newman in 1968, when George Roy Hill, the director of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid,introduced us in New York City. When the studio didn't want me for the film—it wanted somebody as well?known as Paul—he stood up for me. I don't know how many people would have done that; they would have listened to their agents or the studio powers. 24.Why was the studio unwilling to give the role to the author at first? A.Paul Newman wanted it. B.The studio powers didn't like his agent. C.He wasn't famous enough. D.The director recommended someone else. 第一步 确定题干中的关键词 题干关键词是:the studio与the role 第二步 根据关键词定位信息句 用the studio和the role寻读,在文中找到“When the studio didn't want me for the film-it wanted somebody as well?known as Paul-he stood up for me.” 第三步 比对选项确定答案 根据信息句可知,电影公司不想让作者演这部电影,是因为他们想要一位像Paul一样出名的人来演,这说明我不出名。故选C。 【典例3】【高考全国卷Ⅲ·A片段】Chamber Orchestra:The Orchestra plays at Memorial Hall at 1406 Elm Street,which offers several concerts from March through June.Call 723?1182 for more information. http://www.chamberorch,com. 22.When can you go to a concert by Chamber Orchestra? A.February.      B.May. C.August. D.November. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 When;go to a concert by Chamber Orchestra 第二步 定位到原文信息句 Chamber Orchestra:The Orchestra plays at Memorial Hall at 1406 Elm Street,which offers several concerts from March through June. 第三步 整合推算得出答案 B 对于高三的同学们,还是建议多使用这种方法,方法虽有利弊,但对于时间紧张的你们,往往事半功倍。 第三类:读主题——读题目—— 读全文——做题目 先看懂各段首尾句或短文的第一段,大致明了文章的主题。此后细细地阅读题干推敲选项的大致设置,思考作者的行文规律和命题者的出题陷阱,然后带着已经在首尾句获得的信息和在题目中假设的思路回头进行有目的性的查找工作,准确率高且耗时相对较少。而我们现在的高考阅读文章均取自国内外的英文刊物,少有命题组自行行文的类型,此类文章逻辑严谨,结构清晰,所以气定神闲地先读完各段的首句再耐心的推敲考题选项的设置,往往会直接将四个选支排除掉一个或两个,这无疑对我们的解题帮助极大,减少了我们判断的压力轻松地将文章读完。 高考阅读虽错综复杂,但是只要你养成很好的阅读习惯,加上一些必要的解题技巧是一定能征服它的。 二、阅读理解的七大要求 在考试中,阅读理解是限时阅读。它主要考查考生两个方面的阅读理解能力:一是快速阅读能力;二是准确的理解能力。下面大家整理了英语阅读理解高分必备能力,希望对大家有帮助。 1文章体裁辨析能力 英语中,由于不同文体的英语文章有不同的写作方法。如果考生具备了识别英文文体的能力,能根据文体特征迅速抓住文章的要点,就会大大缩短阅读时间,提高理解效率。 2文章结构辨析能力 英语文章有一个共同的特点,一般说来,首先确定文章的主题句,即文章的中心,然后,后面的内容都是围绕这一中心来展开论述的。中心句一般位于文章最前面,也有的位于文章末尾,还有的位于文章的中间。有了文章结构的辨析能力,考生就能快速对文章进行全面、系统的掌握。从而根据试题的不同内容或要求在不同的部位准确找到答案的依据。 3归纳总结能力 虽然绝大多数英语文章有中心句,但也还有些文章根本没有中心句。如有些描述性的记叙就要求考生根据文章内容来归纳、总结出中心句。目前高考中的英语试题总有 3~4 题考查考生对文章中心的理解,这就要求考生一定要具有对文章的归纳、总结能力。 4生词猜测能力 掌握一定量的词汇是进行阅读的前提,但运用各种英语知识猜测生词的能力是考查考生阅读理解能力的一个重要方面。倘若单词都不认识,也就无法阅读下去。然而,并不是说,一定要把所有的单词都认识才能进行阅读。事实上,阅读当中出现一些生词,是一件非常正常的事情。不仅英语阅读如此,就连本族语也是这样。正因为如此,有些语言专家把阅读戏称为猜词游戏。因此,考生在英语阅读理解过程中碰到不认识的单词时,要根据各种知识大胆地猜测生词的意义,培养猜测生词意义的能力。 5长句分析能力 句子长而复杂是现代英语的一个显着特点,特别在现代科技英语中更是这样。作者为了把叙述说得准确、逻辑严密,往往是一个主句接一个或几个状语从句、宾语从句、定语从句、同位语从句、并列句,中间还来几个非谓语动词短语或插入语。这样不但使句子长,而且句子结构支离破碎,令读者不知从何处下手。因此,为了夺得高考英语阅读理解的高分,考生必须具备长句分析能力。 6综合推断能力 近年来,英语阅读理解中的推理判断题逐年增多,单从文章的字面找不出答案,而要根据文章中的某些词、短语或句子来推断出它内在的深层意义,或将几个事实综合起来对文章进行深层理解。因此,考生必须在平时的训练中提高综合推断能力。 7.陷阱识别能力 在英语阅读理解题所给选项中,常出现部分真实的情况,但往往以偏概全、过于笼统,增添枝叶,让选项中的确含有原文中的事实、细节,或原文中已有的情况,却并不与原文事实完全一致,故意扰乱考生的视觉,让考生信以为真,这就是英语阅读理解中的陷阱。因此,考生要具有对陷阱的识别能力,才能绕过陷阱,从而作出正确的选择。 三、易错总结 易错点一:粗心大意, 忽视题干 【典例1】 Once upon a time, a man punished his 5- year-old daughter for using up the family’s only roll of expensive gold wrapping paper. Money was tight, and he became even more upset when on Christmas Eve, he saw that the child had pasted the gold so as to decorate a shoebox to put under the Christmas tree. The man was upset on Christmas Eve because ______. A. his daughter used up the only roll of expensive gold wrapper paper. B. his daughter presented him an empty box. C. he thought his daughter was wasting the expensive gold paper. D. he was poor and couldn’t afford a gift for his daughter. 【答案】C 【点拨】读准题意, 正确判断 易错点二: 偏离原文,断章取意 【典例2】 What can we learn from the story? A.The unconditional love from others is most valuable. B. parents shouldn’t always be angry with children when they are wrong. C. We should value the golden box that others gave us. D. As children, don’t forget to give parents a box full of kisses on Christmas. 【答案】A 同样题型设题: ①Which one can be inferred from the passage? ②Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage? 【点拨】 忠于原文,各个排除 易错点三:主观臆断, 天马行空 【典例3】 Why did the father keep the empty box for many years? A.He missed his dead daughter much. B. He represents his daughter’s love and encouraged him to overcome difficulty. C. He really likes the golden box his daughter gave him. D. He is poor. 【答案】B 【点拨】 锁定目标, 仔细推敲 易错点四: 似是而非, 词义不明 【典例4】 The underlined word “ harshly” (paragraph4) can be replaced by ________. A. angrily B. excitedly C. immediately D. directly 【答案】A 【点拨】 辨别词义, 还原文意 例1.【2018·湖南省部分重点中学考前演练】 I'm sometimes told, “You have to make your own luck. If you don't try something, how can you succeed?” This is very true for competitions. There are people who regularly take part in all sorts of competitions with great enthusiasm. These people are nicknamed compers. The motivation for being a comper is obvious: it's about being a winner and being rewarded with a prize. These prizes can be small or large: from a box of chocolates to a new car, a trip of a lifetime around the world, or even a new house. Isn't that worth competing for? Of course competitions that offer money prizes attract entry from millions of people, making the odds of winning very unlikely. But one man who has been lucky is a retired lecturer from the UK called Martin Dove. He is a serial comper and has managed to bag prizes such as a yacht and a racehorse. Martin says: “ I've been a comper for 40 years. It's like admitting some addiction, isn't it?” He gets respect from other compers and also admits, “ Some people have called me the Master of Comping, the King of Comping, the Guru of Comping. But it's just a word, just a phrase. It's just because I frequently appeared in the media.” For many, winning remains a dream, but they continue to try their luck as there's always a small chance that they might succeed. But what if you do win? Then you have to ask: how am I going to spend all that money? Some people say that “money can't buy you happiness”.What do you think? 1.What does the author mean by“This is very true for competitions”? A.Competitions bring people luck. B.One must be in a competition to win it. C.Trying gets people to succeed. D.People naturally compete with each other. 2.Who are compers? A.Those always standing out in competitions. B.Those addicted to entering competitions. C.Those often entering competitions for prizes. D.Those competing for others' recognition. 3.What does the underlined word “odds” probably mean? A.Possibility.     B.Investment. C.Importance. D.Advantage. 4.What do Martin's words suggest? A.Any job can offer opportunities. B.He has attracted considerable attention. C.Persistence is the key to his success. D.He has set a good example to others. 【答案】1.B 2.C 3.A 4.B 【解析】 本文是一篇说明文,阐述了一种社会现象:有些人总是热衷于参加各种形式的比赛活动,目的就是获奖。你是否有过类似的经历呢? 1.B 考查推理判断。This指的应是前面的“If you don't try something,how can you succeed?”,再结合第二段提到的人们参加比赛赢奖可知,此处指的是对于比赛来说,一个人必须先参与进去然后才有可能赢得比赛,故选B。 2.C 考查推理判断。根据第二段中的“There are people who regularly take part in all sorts of competitions...it's about being a winner and being rewarded with a prize.”可知,compers指

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  • ID:4-5373209 [精]第34讲 科学技术、教育创新类文章(解析版+原卷版)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    第34讲 科学技术、教育创新类文章(原卷版) "科学技术、教育创新类"是高中英语新课标重要考查的阅读话题之一,也是英语核心素养的体现。高考对科学技术、教育创新类的考查多为科普说明文,它是阅读理解重要内容,也是高考考查难点。科学技术、教育创新类“阅读理解”题愈来愈受到命题者的青睐?而科学技术、教育创新类文章往往具有跨学科?行文逻辑性强等特点,要求考生能从文章的整体逻辑以及重要细节上全面把握? 【试题特点】   ① 注重学科渗透,行文逻辑性强,内容抽象?   ② 贴近学生的学习?生活实际,有利于激发学生的思维,对选拔优秀考生有一定的作用? ③ 能全面地考查学生的综合阅读能力和运用所学知识去分析?解决实际问题的能力? 科学技术、教育创新类文章往往具有跨学科、行文逻辑性强等特点:要求考生能从文章的整体逻辑以及重要细节上全面把握。 一、真题链接 【2018·全国I 卷D篇】 We may think we're a culture that gets rid of our worn technology at the first sight of something shiny and new, but a new study shows that we keep using our old devices(装置) well after they go out of style. That’s bad news for the environment — and our wallets — as these outdated devices consume much more energy than the newer ones that do the same things. To figure out how much power these devices are using, Callie Babbitt and her colleagues at the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York tracked the environmental costs for each product throughout its life — from when its minerals are mined to when we stop using the device. This method provided a readout for how home energy use has evolved since the early 1990s. Devices were grouped by generation — Desktop computers, basic mobile phones, and box-set TVs defined 1992. Digital cameras arrived on the scene in 1997. And MP3 players, smart phones, and LCD TVs entered homes in 2002, before tablets and e-readers showed up in 2007. As we accumulated more devices, however, we didn't throw out our old ones. "The living-room television is replaced and gets planted in the kids' room, and suddenly one day, you have a TV in every room of the house," said one researcher. The average number of electronic devices rose from four per household in 1992 to 13 in 2007. We're not just keeping these old devices — we continue to use them. According to the analysis of Babbitt's team, old desktop monitors and box TVs with cathode ray tubes are the worst devices with their energy consumption and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions(排放)more than doubling during the 1992 to 2007 window. So what's the solution(解决方案)? The team's data only went up to 2007, but the researchers also explored what would happen if consumers replaced old products with new electronics that serve more than one function, such as a tablet for word processing and TV viewing. They found that more on-demand entertainment viewing on tablets instead of TVs and desktop computers could cut energy consumption by 44%. 32. What does the author think of new devices? A. They are environment-friendly. B. They are no better than the old. C. They cost more to use at home. D. They go out of style quickly. 33. Why did Babbitt's team conduct the research? A. To reduce the cost of minerals. B. To test the life cycle of a product. C. To update consumers on new technology. D. To find out electricity consumption of the devices. 34. Which of the following uses the least energy? A. The box-set TV. B. The tablet. C. The LCD TV. D. The desktop computer. 35. What does the text suggest people do about old electronic devices? A. Stop using them. B. Take them apart. C. Upgrade them. D. Recycle them. 【2018·天津卷C篇】 There’s a new frontier in 3D printing that’s beginning to come into focus: food. Recent development has made possible machines that print, cook, and serve foods on a mass scale. And the industry isn’t stopping there. Food production With a 3D printer, a cook can print complicated chocolate sculptures and beautiful pieces for decoration on a wedding cake. Not everybody can do that — it takes years of experience, but a printer makes it easy. A restaurant in Spain uses a Foodini to “re-create forms and pieces” of food that are “exactly the same,” freeing cooks to complete other tasks. In another restaurant, all of the dishes and desserts it serves are 3D-printed,rather than farm to table. Sustainability(可持续性) The global population is expected to grow to 9.6 billion by 2050, and some analysts estimate that food production will need to be raised by 50 percent to maintain current levels. Sustainability is becoming a necessity. 3D food printing could probably contribute to the solution. Some experts believe printers could use hydrocolloids (水解胶体) from plentiful renewables like algae(藻类) and grass to replace the familiar ingredients(烹饪原料). 3D printing can reduce fuel use and emissions. Grocery stores of the future might stock "food" that lasts years on end, freeing up shelf space and reducing transportation and storage requirements. Nutrition Future 3D food printers could make processed food healthier. Hod Lipson, a professor at Columbia University, said, “Food printing could allow consumers to print food with customized nutritional content, like vitamins. So instead of eating a piece of yesterday’s bread from the supermarket, you’d eat something baked just for you on demand.” Challenges Despite recent advancements in 3D food printing, the industry has many challenges to overcome. Currently, most ingredients must be changed to a paste(糊状物) before a printer can use them, and the printing process is quite time-consuming, because ingredients interact with each other in very complex ways. On top of that, most of the 3D food printers now are restricted to dry ingredients, because meat and milk products may easily go bad. Some experts are skeptical about 3D food printers, believing they are better suited for fast food restaurants than homes and high-end restaurants. 46. What benefit does 3D printing bring to food production? A. It helps cooks to create new dishes. B. It saves time and effort in cooking. C. It improves the cooking conditions. D. It contributes to restaurant decorations. 47. What can we learn about 3D food printing from Paragraphs 3? A. It solves food shortages easily. B. It quickens the transportation of food. C. It needs no space for the storage of food. D. It uses renewable materials as sources of food. 48. According to Paragraph 4, 3D-printed food ________. A. is more available to consumers B. can meet individual nutritional needs C. is more tasty than food in supermarkets D. can keep all the nutrition in raw materials 49. What is the main factor that prevents 3D food printing from spreading widely? A. The printing process is complicated. B. 3D food printers are too expensive. C. Food materials have to be dry. D. Some experts doubt 3D food printing. 50. What could be the best title of the passage? A. 3D Food Printing: Delicious New Technology B. A New Way to Improve 3D Food Printing C. The Challenges for 3D Food Production D. 3D Food Printing: From Farm to Table 二、阅读话题词汇夯实 阅读单词识记:英汉互译 【科学技术类】 1.liquid n. 2.solid?n. 3.matter?n. 4.object?n. 5.intelligence n 6.rate?n 7.system 8.chip?n 9.atom?n 10.data n 11.device?n. 12.document n 13.keyboard?n. 14.laptop n. 15.memory n. 16.modern?n. 17.monitor?n. 18.mouse?n. 19.crash v. 20.operate?vt. 21.information?n. 22.technology?n. 23.explore?v. 24.astronaut?n. 25.gravity?n. 【教育创新类】 n.委员会 2. adj.现代的,当代的;同一时代的 3. n.奖牌,奖章,勋章 4. n.& vt.尝试,努力,试图 5. adv.否则,不然 6. n.&vi.& vt.预算;编制预算 7. n.协会,社团;关联;联想 8. n.球门;目标 9. n推荐人 10. n.& vi. 哨子,口哨; 11. adj.愤愤不平的;令人不快的;味苦的;严寒的 12. adv.与此同时;在此期间 13. vt.打成平局;(用绳、线)系,绑,捆 14. adj.宝贵的,珍贵的 15. vt.去除,移开;开除;免除,解除(职务) 16. n.力量;能量;影响力;权力;统治 vt.驱动,提供动力 → adj.强有力的;有权势的;有影响力的→ adv.强有力地;强大地;强烈地 adj.愉快的,高兴的→ n.& vt.快乐,高兴;使高兴 → adj.令人愉快的,可喜的 18. n.重要性,意义→ adj.重要的,有意义的 19. vi.比赛;竞争→ n.竞争,竞赛 → adj.竞争的;竞赛的→ n.竞争者;对手 20. vt.使激动,使兴奋→ adj.兴奋的,激动的 → adj.令人激动的,使人兴奋的 21. n.&vt. 尊敬;荣幸;尊重(某人)→ adj.光荣的,可敬的 22. n.缺席,不在场;不存在→ adj.缺席的,不在场的 23. 为向……表示敬意 24. 一起,共同;肩并肩,并排 25. (在逆境中)坚持 26. 被提出 27. 领先 28. keep...under control 29. make way for 30. hope for 31. every four years 32. be related to ★【即学即练】 【2018·南宁两校联考】 Researchers have created a backpack that has a computer and medicines in it that can help even untrained soldiers save the lives of wounded troops. Wounded soldiers have a better chance of survival if they get help soon after being hurt and are quickly taken to a hospital or clinic. But soldiers who do not have medical training may not know how to help their injured friends. Doctors and engineers have developed what they call an “intelligent backpack”. It has a computer and electronic measuring devices. The backpack also has robotic instruments and medicines ready to be given to injured troops. About 16 doctors and engineers from the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University and several other places are working on the project. The U.S. Department of Defense has given money to the project. Ron Poropatich leads the project. He is a retired Army surgeon. He says the backpack will help soldiers care for those who are injured. The devices included in the backpack can monitor a person’s heart rate and blood pressure. The robotic instruments can even tell whether the soldier has a collapsed lung. The intelligent backpack’s computer can compare information gathered about the injured soldier with thousands of similar cases, and quickly tell the best methods to save the soldier’s life. Sometimes, it is not always possible to quickly remove the injured soldier from the battlefield. So, Dr. Poropatich says, the researchers hope to create a backpack that will have devices that can keep a soldier alive for a long time. Dr. Poropatich hopes the backpack and its instruments will be ready for testing on animals in about three years. 1.What can we learn from the first paragraph? A.Soldiers should have taken medical training. B.Most of the soldiers can’t use the backpack correctly. C.The backpack can play a big part in the battlefield. D.Wars or battles have brought harm to the world. 2.How many kinds of items are mentioned in the backpack? A.2.          B.3. C.4. D.5. 3.What can we know according to Ron Poropatich? A.The project got support from the whole world. B.The robotic instruments can monitor lungs. C.The injurer’s heart disease can be cured. D.The devices can adjust soldiers’ blood pressure. 4.Which of the following is the best title for the passage? A.Researchers and Their Wonderful Discovery B.Medical Care Tested on the Wounded Soldiers C.Robotic Devices Used in the Battlefield D.Emergency Medical Care in a Backpack 阅读理解文章具有英语语言独有的文化特征,试题信息量大,对考生阅读速度和快速处理信息的能力要求更高。阅读理解的体裁以说明文、记叙文、应用文为主,议论文偶有考查,题型设置以细节理解题和推理判断题为主,兼顾词义猜测题和主旨大意题。细节理解题相对简单,而其他三种题型相对较难,且在题型设置上,推理判断题的难度会适当加大。下面是近三年高考阅读题全国卷分析: 文体·题型卷别年份 文体 题型 记叙文 议论文 应用文 说明文 细节理解题 推理判断题 主旨大意题 词义猜测题 2018 全国卷Ⅰ 0 0 1 3 7 5 2 1 全国卷Ⅱ 0 1 1 2 9 3 2 1 全国卷Ⅲ 0 1 2 1 9 3 2 1 2017 全国卷Ⅰ 2 0 1 1 7 6 1 1 全国卷Ⅱ 1 0 1 2 5 6 2 2 全国卷Ⅲ 1 0 1 2 6 6 2 1 2016 全国卷Ⅰ 1 1 0 2 10 3 1 1 全国卷Ⅱ 2 0 1 1 8 4 1 2 全国卷Ⅲ 1 0 1 2 8 4 1 2 细节理解题高考怎么考 1.特殊疑问句形式。以when,where,what,which,who,how much/many等疑问词引出的问题。 2.判断是非形式。含有TRUE/FALSE,NOT true或EXCEPT等的判断是非的问题。此时要注意题干中是否含有否定词,如not,never等。 3.以“According to...”开头的提问形式。 4.填空形式。如The biggest challenge for most mothers is from ________. 1.同义替换:对原文句子中的关键词进行同义替换。 2.语言简化:把原文中的复杂语言现象进行简化。 3.正话反说:把原文中的意思反过来表达而成为正确选项。 1.扩缩范围:与文章细节部分吻合,部分相悖。 2.无中生有:明显与文章内容不符或没有提及。 3.偷梁换柱:符合常识,但不是文章内容。 4.张冠李戴:是文章细节,但不符合题干要求或不是要点。 5.正误参半:部分正确,部分错误。 ■技巧1 定位比对判细节 【典例1】(2018·全国卷Ⅱ·A片段) Activity Description Member of staff Cost Outdoor Adventure (OUT) Take yourself out of your comfort zone for a week, discover new personal qualities, and learn new skills. You will be able to take part in a number of activities from canoeing to wild camping on Dartmoor. Learn rock climbing and work as a team, and enjoy the great outdoor environment. Mr. Clemens £140 WW Ⅰ Battlefields and Paris (WBP) On Monday we travel to London. After staying overnight in London, we travel on Day 2 to northern France to visit the World War Ⅰ battlefields. On Day 3 we cross into Belgium. Thursday sees us make the short journey to Paris where we will visit Disneyland Paris park, staying until late to see the parade and the fireworks. Our final day, Friday, sees us visit central Paris and tour the main sights. Mrs. Wilson £425 22.What will the students do on Tuesday with Mrs.Wilson? A.Travel to London. B.See a parade and fireworks. C.Tour central Paris. D.Visit the WWⅠ battlefields. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 Mrs. Wilson; on Tuesday 第二步 定位到原文信息句 由WWⅠ Battlefields and Paris(WBP) 这一栏,然后根据After staying overnight in London,we travel on Day 2 to northern France to visit the World War Ⅰ battlefields.可知,这里的Day 2就是题干中的Tuesday。 第三步 比对选项得出答案D ■技巧2 同义互释定选项 【典例2】(2018·全国卷Ⅰ·A片段) Washington, D.C.Bicycle Tours Cherry Blossom Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. Duration: 3 hours This small group bike tour is a fantastic way to see the world?famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C.Your guide will provide a history lesson about the trees and the famous monuments where they blossom. Reserve your spot before availability—and the cherry blossoms—disappear! 21. Which tour do you need to book in advance? A.Cherry Blossom Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. B.Washington Capital Monuments Bicycle Tour. C.Capital City Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. D.Washington Capital Sites at Night Bicycle Tour. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 book in advance 第二步 定位到原文信息句 Reserve your spot before availability—and the cherry blossoms—disappear!可知,选择第一条旅行路线需要提前预订,此题考查reserve与book in advance同义词互释。 第三步 加工信息得出答案A ■技巧3 整合推算得答案 【典例3】(2018·全国卷Ⅰ·C片段) At present, the world has about 6,800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages, often spoken by many people, while hot, wet zones have lots, often spoken by small numbers. Europe has only around 200 languages; the Americas about 1,000; Africa 2,400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3,200, of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number (中位数) of speakers is a mere 6,000, which means that half the world’s languages are spoken by fewer people than that. 30. How many languages are spoken by less than 6,000 people at present? A.About 6,800.      B.About 3,400. C.About 2,400. D.About 1,200. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 less than 6,000 people at present 第二步 定位到原文信息句 The median number(中位数) of speakers is a mere 6,000,which means that half the world’s languages are spoken by fewer people than that.可知,目前全球不同语言使用人数的中位数仅是6 000,这就意味着世界上有一半的语言的使用人数不到6 000;结合At present,the world has about 6,800 languages.可知,目前大约3 400种语言的使用人数不到6 000。 第三步 加工信息得出答案B ■技巧4 去伪存真辨是非 【典例4】(2016·四川卷·D片段) Researchers have discovered that “night milk” contains more melatonin (褪黑激素), which has been proven to help people feel sleepy and reduce anxiety. The study, by researchers from Seoul, South Korea, involved mice being fed with dried milk powder made from cows milked both during the day and at night. Those given night milk, which contained 10 times the amount of melatonin, were less active and less anxious than those fed with the milk collected during daytime, according to the study published in The Journal of Medicinal Food. Night milk quickened the start of sleep and caused the mice to sleep longer. While the effect of cows milk harvested at different time has not been tested on humans up to now, taking melatonin drugs has been suggested to those who are struggling to fall asleep at night. 33.Which of the following is true of melatonin according to the text? A.It’s been tested on mice for ten times. B.It can make people more energetic. C.It exists in milk in great amount. D.It’s used in sleeping drugs. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 true of melatonin 第二步 定位四个选项到原文信息句 A:Those given night milk, which contained 10 times the amount of melatonin, were less active and less anxious than those fed with the milk collected during daytime...; B:more melatonin(褪黑激素), which has been proven to help people feel sleepy and reduce anxiety; C:文中未提及; D:...taking melatonin drugs has been suggested to those who are struggling to fall asleep at night. 第三步 对比选项与信息句得出答案D 二、推理判断题怎么考 1.细节推理判断题 细节推理判断题要求考生根据语篇内容,推断具体细节,如时间、地点、人物关系、人物身份、事件等。一般可根据短文提供的信息,或者借助生活常识进行推理判断。 该类型的命题方式常常以下列形式呈现: ·It can be inferred from the text that ________. ·It can be concluded from the passage that ________. ·The writer/author indicates/suggests/implies that ________. 2.观点、态度推理判断题 该类型的命题方式常常以下列形式呈现: ·The attitude of the author towards somebody/something is ________. ·The author’s attitude towards...can be best described as ________. ·The tone of this passage is best described as ________. 3.写作意图推理判断题 该类型的命题方式常常以下列形式呈现: ·The main purpose of this text is ________. ·What’s the author’s purpose in writing this article? ·It can be concluded that the passage is mainly written for ________. ·The author writes this passage to ________. ·The author in this passage intends to ________. 4.文章出处推理判断题 该类型的命题方式常常以下列形式呈现: ·This passage most likely comes from ________. ·In which part of a newspaper can you most probably read the text? ·Where does the text most probably come from? ·From which is the text probably taken? 1.不是文中直接或明确说明的内容,是间接表达出来的,除符合文章主旨外,还符合逻辑,让考生有推敲的余地。 2.正确选项大多含义深刻,不是常识选项。 1.夸大事实:对于原文中的细节或诊断的某方面进行了夸大处理。 2.无中生有:捏造原文并不存在的信息,并以此作为依据进行推理。 3.掺入常识:考生已有的常识是正确的,但不是基于文章。 4.推理过度:引申过度,使结论过于绝对化。 5.以细节代替推断:只是原文简单的复述,而非推断出来的结论。 ■技巧1 逻辑关联得结论 【典例5】(2018·全国卷Ⅰ·C片段) Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the world was still populated by hunter?gatherers, small, tightly knit(联系) groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other. Some language experts believe that 10,000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them. 28.What can we infer about languages in hunter?gatherer times? A.They developed very fast. B.They were large in number. C.They had similar patterns. D.They were closely connected. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 infer about languages in hunter?gatherer times 第二步 定位到原文信息句,并标出进行推断的关键词 Some language experts believe that 10,000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them.可知,语言种类繁多。 第三步 进行合理推断得出答案B ■技巧2 忠于措辞定态度 【典例6】(2018·浙江卷6月·C片段) The problems of excessive (过度的) energy consumption, climate change and population growth have been described in a book by the American writer Thomas L. Friedman. He fears the worst, but hopes for the best. Friedman points out that the green economy (经济) is a chance to keep American strength. “The ability to design, build and export green technologies for producing clean water, clean air and healthy and abundant food is going to be the currency of power in the new century.” 30.What is Friedman’s attitude towards America’s future? A.Ambiguous.        B.Doubtful. C.Hopeful. D.Tolerant. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 America’s future 第二步 定位到原文信息句,并标出体现观点态度的关键词 He fears the worst, but hopes for the best. Friedman points out that the green economy (经济) is a chance to keep American strength.可推知对美国的未来充满希望。 第三步 进行合理推断得出答案C ■技巧3 文体特点看意图 【典例7】(2018·浙江卷6月·A片段) How did Dickens get to the top? For all the feelings readers attach to stories, literature is a numbers game, and the test of time is extremely difficult to pass. Some 60,000 novels were published during the Victorian age, from 1837 to 1901; today a casual reader might be able to name a half?dozen of them. It’s partly true that Dickens’ style of writing attracted audiences from all walks of life. It’s partly that his writings rode a wave of social, political and scientific progress. But it’s also that he rewrote the culture of literature and put himself at the center. No one will ever know what mix of talent, ambition, energy and luck made Dickens such a distinguished writer. But as the 200th anniversary of his birth approaches, it is possible—and important for our own culture—to understand how he made himself a lasting one. 23.What is the author’s purpose in writing the text? A.To remember a great writer. B.To introduce an English novel. C.To encourage studies on culture. D.To promote values of the Victorian age. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 the author’s purpose in writing the text 第二步 定位到原文信息句,并标出关键句 “No one will ever know what mix of talent, ambition, energy and luck made Dickens such a distinguished writer. But as the 200th anniversary of his birth approaches, it is possible—and important for our own culture—to understand how he made himself a lasting one.”可推知,作者写作本文主要是为了纪念狄更斯200周年诞辰。 第三步 归纳概括得出答案A  ■技巧4 语言特色推出处 【典例8】(2018·全国卷Ⅱ·B) Many of us love July because it’s the month when nature’s berries and stone fruits are in abundance. These colourful and sweet jewels from British Columbia’s fields are little powerhouses of nutritional protection. Of the common berries, strawberries are highest in vitamin C, although, because of their seeds,raspberries contain a little more protein(蛋白质),iron and zinc (not that fruits have much protein). Blueberries are particularly high in antioxidants(抗氧化物质). The yellow and orange stone fruits such as peaches are high in the carotenoids we turn into vitamin A and which are antioxidants. As for cherries(樱桃), they are so delicious who cares?However,they are rich in vitamin C. When combined with berries or slices of other fruits, frozen bananas make an excellent base for thick, cooling fruit shakes and low fat “ice cream”. For this purpose, select ripe bananas for freezing as they are much sweeter. Remove the skin and place them in plastic bags or containers and freeze. If you like, a squeeze of fresh lemon juice on the bananas will prevent them turning brown. Frozen bananas will last several weeks, depending on their ripeness and the temperature of the freezer. If you have a__juicer,__you can simply feed in frozen bananas and some berries or sliced fruit. Out comes a “soft?serve” creamy dessert, to be eaten right away. This makes a fun activity for a children’s party; they love feeding the fruit and frozen bananas into the top of the machine and watching the ice cream come out below. 27.From which is the text probably taken? A.A biology textbook. B.A health magazine. C.A research paper. D.A travel brochure. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 probably taken 第二步 定位到原文信息句,并标出关键词 第一段: Many of us love July because it’s the month when nature’s berries and stone fruits are in abundance. These colourful and sweet jewels from British Columbia’s fields are little powerhouses of nutritional protection.提到丰收的七月带来的果实,说这些水果好比储存营养的小“动力室”。 第二段: Of the common berries, strawberries are highest in vitamin C...; Blueberries are particularly high in antioxidants(抗氧化物质).提到蓝莓等各种水果含有的维生素等营养成分。 第三、四段: When combined with berries or slices of other fruits, frozen bananas make an excellent base for thick, cooling fruit shakes and low fat “ice cream”...提到利用这些水果制作各种美食,因此本文应该摘选自健康类的杂志。 第三步 进行合理推断得出答案B  ■技巧5 写作思路辨结构 【典例9】(2016·四川卷·D片段) A warm drink of milk before bed has long been the best choice for those wanting a good night’s sleep. But now a study has found it really does help people nod off—if it is milked from a cow at night. Researchers have discovered that “night milk” contains more melatonin(褪黑激素), which has been proven to help people feel sleepy and reduce anxiety. The study, by researchers from Seoul, South Korea, involved mice being fed with dried milk powder made from cows milked both during the day and at night. ... Previous studies have also indicated that milk can be excellent for helping sleep because of the calcium content, which helps people to relax. 35.How does the author support the theme of the text? A.By giving examples. B.By stating arguments. C.By explaining statistical data. D.By providing research results. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 support the theme of the text 第二步 定位到原文信息句,并标出关键词 But now a study has found it really does help people nod off...Researchers have discovered that “night milk” contains more melatonin... The study... involved mice being fed with dried milk powder made from cows milked both during the day and at night.和Previous studies have also indicated that milk can be excellent for helping sleep because of the calcium content... 第三步 归纳概括得出答案D 主旨大意题怎么考 1.涵盖性强,覆盖全文或全段的中心思想。 2.确定的范围恰当,既不太大,也不太小。 3.精确性强,不会改变语言表意的程度及色彩。 1.以偏概全:答案只阐述了局部信息或主旨的一部分。 2.主题过大:归纳概括过于宽泛,超出了文章要讨论的范围。 3.断章取义:以次要的事实、细节替代全文的主要观点。 4.无中生有:与文章内容毫不相干或与文章内容相悖。 ■题型一 标题归纳题 ·The best title of the passage is ________. ·Which of the following is the best title of the passage? ·What would be the best title for the passage? ·The most appropriate title of the passage is ________. 【典例10】(2018·全国卷Ⅱ·D) We’ve all been there: in a lift, in line at the bank or on an airplane, surrounded by people who are, like us, deeply focused on their smartphones or, worse, struggling with the uncomfortable silence. What’s the problem? It’s possible that we all have compromised conversational intelligence. It’s more likely that none of us start a conversation because it’s awkward and challenging, or we think it’s annoying and unnecessary. But the next time you find yourself among strangers, consider that small talk is worth the trouble. Experts say it’s an invaluable social practice that results in big benefits. Dismissing small talk as unimportant is easy, but we can’t forget that deep relationships wouldn’t even exist if it weren’t for casual conversation. Small talk is the grease(润滑剂) for social communication, says Bernardo Carducci, director of the Shyness Research Institute at Indiana University Southeast.“Almost every great love story and each big business deal begins with small talk,” he explains. “The key to successful small talk is learning how to connect with others, not just communicate with them.” In a 2014 study, Elizabeth Dunn, associate professor of psychology at UBC, invited people on their way into a coffee shop. One group was asked to seek out an interaction(互动) with its waiter; the other, to speak only when necessary. The results showed that those who chatted with their server reported significantly higher positive feelings and a better coffee shop experience. “It’s not that talking to the waiter is better than talking to your husband,” says Dunn. “But interactions with peripheral(边缘的) members of our social network matter for our well?being also.” Dunn believes that people who reach out to strangers feel a significantly greater sense of belonging, a bond with others. Carducci believes developing such a sense of belonging starts with small talk. “Small talk is the basis of good manners,” he says. 35.What is the best title for the text? A.Conversation Counts B.Ways of Making Small Talk C.Benefits of Small Talk D.Uncomfortable Silence 第一步 读文章,概括文意 在智能手机时代,人们似乎都不愿意打破沉默与他人交流。作者在文中指出,我们应该从闲聊开始,学会与人交流,闲聊对于人际交往起着重要的作用。 第二步 析选项,斟酌判断 A 交谈重要,有价值 虽然文中提到交谈,但不能概括全文的内容 主题过大, 范围太广 B 闲谈的方法 本文没有探讨如何展开闲聊 无中生有, 曲解文意 C 闲谈的好处 此标题全面、精炼地概括了文章内容 涵盖性强, 覆盖全文 D 不舒服的沉默 本文探讨的是用闲聊来打破沉默这种尴尬的情况,但这不是文章主要介绍的内容 以偏概全, 主次不分 第三步 对比选项得出答案C ■题型二 文章大意题 ·What’s the main idea/point of the passage? ·The passage is mainly about ________. ·What is the text mainly about? ·The general/main idea of the passage is about ________. 【典例11】(2018·全国卷Ⅲ·B) Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River. Over 300 years its population grew gradually from 800 people to 8 million.But not all cities develop slowly over a long period of time. Boom towns grow from nothing almost overnight. In 1896, Dawson, Canada, was unmapped wilderness(荒野).But gold was discovered there in 1897, and two years later, it was one of the largest cities in the West, with a population of 30,000. Dawson did not have any of the natural conveniences of cities like London or Paris. People went there for gold. They travelled over snow?covered mountains and sailed hundreds of miles up icy rivers. The path to Dawson was covered with thirty feet of wet snow that could fall without warning. An avalanche(雪崩) once closed the path, killing 63 people. For many who made it to Dawson, however, the rewards were worth the difficult trip. Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives. But no matter how rich they were, Dawson was never comfortable. Necessities like food and wood were very expensive. But soon, the gold that Dawson depended on had all been found. The city was crowded with disappointed people with no interest in settling down, and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come. Today, people still come and go—to see where the Canadian gold rush happened. Tourism is now the chief industry of Dawson City—its present population is 762. 27.What is the text mainly about? A.The rise and fall of a city. B.The gold rush in Canada. C.Journeys into the wilderness. D.Tourism in Dawson. 第一步 读文章,概括文意 本文主要介绍了加拿大道森的历史、发展与现状。 第二步 析选项,斟酌判断 A 一个城市的兴衰 本文主要以道森为例,讲述了城市的兴衰 涵盖性强, 覆盖全文 B 加拿大淘金热 本文只在第二段提到淘金热 以偏概全, 主次不分 C 荒野之旅 本文没提到荒野之旅 无中生有, 曲解文意 D 道森的旅游业 范围太小,不能涵盖道森的过去 以偏概全, 主次不分 第三步 对比选项得出答案A ■题型三 段落大意题 ·What does the author tell us in Paragraph...? ·The main idea of the second paragraph probably is ________. ·The first paragraph is mainly about ________. ·Which of the following can best summarize Para.1? 【典例12】(2016·浙江卷6月·C片段) Viewing childhood development as a scientific investigation throws light on how children learn,but it also offers an inspiring look at science and scientists. Why do young children and scientists seem to be so much alike? Psychologists have suggested that science as an effort—the desire to explore, explain, and understand our world—is simply something that comes from our babyhood. Perhaps evolution(进化) provided human babies with curiosity and a natural drive to explain their worlds, and adult scientists simply make use of the same drive that served them as children. The same cognitive(认知的) systems that make young children feel good about figuring something out may have been adopted by adult scientists. As some psychologists put it,“It is not that children are little scientists but that scientists are big children.” 53.What is the main idea of the last paragraph? A.The world may be more clearly explained through children’s play. B.Studying babies’ play may lead to a better understanding of science. C.Children may have greater ability to figure out things than scientists. D.One’s drive for scientific research may become stronger as he grows. 第一步 读文章,概括段意 最后一段谈到要从科学研究的角度看待儿童的发展,说我们追求科学的态度其实源于我们的儿童时代。由此推断,该段主旨是“研究婴儿的游戏或许有助于更好地理解科学”。 第二步 析选项,斟酌判断 A 通过儿童的游戏解释世界或许更清晰; 本段虽提到了儿童的游戏,但并未谈及此内容,选项概括的内容范围过大 过于笼统, 不知所云 B 研究婴儿的游戏或许有助于更好地理解科学; B项是对本段内容的精炼总结和概括 涵盖性强, 覆盖全段 C 儿童或许拥有比科学家更强的理解事物的能力; 本段提及了儿童与科学家一样都有理解事物的能力,但并未做出比较 无中生有, 生搬硬套 D 一个人对科学研究的动力可能会随着他的成长变得更强; 本段提到了人类的进化给婴儿提供了好奇心和天生的解释世界的动力,但并未提及其与个人成长的关系 无中生有, 生搬硬套 猜测词义题怎么考 1.词意类:①The underlined word/phrase... probably means/can be replaced by ________.②Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word/phrase...? 2.指代类:①What does the underlined word “this/that/it/they...” refer to?②The underlined word “this/that/it/they...” refers to ________. 3.句意类:①The underlined sentence in the... paragraph probably means ________.②What can we infer from the underlined sentence in Paragraph...? 1.含义和其字面意思一般没有关系。 2.上下文逻辑通顺。 3.与原句意思最接近。 1.与所考词汇形似。 2.如果考的是熟词,含有常规词义的往往是错误选项。 3.句子解释中含有过多原句中已有的词和短语的选项一般是错误选项。 ■技巧1 语境分析猜词义 【典例13】(2018·全国卷Ⅰ·C片段) Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nation?state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. 29.Which of the following best explains “dominant” underlined in paragraph 2? A.Complex.        B.Advanced. C.Powerful. D.Modern. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 “dominant” underlined in paragraph 2 第二步 定位到原文信息句 such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over 例如英语、西班牙语、汉语逐渐占主导地位,猜测dominant为“有影响力的”。 第三步 对比选项得出答案C 【典例14】(2018·全国卷Ⅲ·D片段) Adults understand what it feels like to be flooded with objects. Why do we often assume that more__is__more when it comes to kids and their belongings? The good news is that I can help my own kids learn earlier than I did how to live more with less. 32.What do the words “more is more” in paragraph 1 probably mean? A.The more, the better. B.Enough is enough. C.More money, more worries. D.Earn more and spend more. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 the words “more is more” in paragraph 1 probably mean 第二步 定位到原文信息句 由Adults understand what it feels like to be flooded with objects. Why do we often assume that more__is__more when it comes to kids and their belongings?内容可知,成年人明白到处堆满物品是什么感觉,但当提及孩子和他们的物品时,为什么我们总是认为越多越好呢? 第三步 对比选项得出答案A ■技巧2 就近原则判指代 【典例15】(2017·全国卷Ⅰ·C片段) Despite the celebrations, though, in the U.S. the jazz audience continues to shrink and grow older, and the music has failed to connect with younger generations. It’s Jason Moran’s job to help change that. As the Kennedy Center’s artistic adviser for jazz, Moran hopes to widen the audience for jazz, make the music more accessible, and preserve its history and culture. 29.What does the underlined word “that” in paragraph 3 refer to? A.Jazz becoming more accessible. B.The production of jazz growing faster. C.Jazz being less popular with the young. D.The jazz audience becoming larger. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 the underlined word “that” in paragraph 3 第二步 定位到原句,并找出该词所代替的内容 the jazz audience continues to shrink and grow older, and the music has failed to connect with younger generations 第三步 综合判断得出答案C ■技巧3 意义吻合定句意 【典例16】(2017·全国卷Ⅱ·D片段) Scientists have found that all kinds of plants give out VOCs when being attacked. It’s a plant’s way of crying out.But is anyone listening?Apparently.Because we can watch the neighbors react. Some plants pump out smelly chemicals to keep insects away.But others do double duty. They pump out perfumes designed to attract different insects who are natural enemies to the attackers.Once they arrive, the__tables__are__turned. The attacker who was lunching now becomes lunch. 33.What does the author mean by “the tables are turned” in paragraph 3? A.The attackers get attacked. B.The insects gather under the table. C.The plants get ready to fight back. D.The perfumes attract natural enemies. 第一步 确定题干中的关键信息 mean by “the tables are turned” in paragraph 3 第二步 定位到原句,并找出与该句相关的信息句 The attacker who was lunching now becomes lunch. 第三步 综合判断得出答案A 例1.【2018·辽宁五校联考】 A study has shown that nearly 90 percent of traffic accidents are caused by human errors.So our aim is a fully autonomous car that gets rid of the cause of most accidents:the driver.Researcher Hodgson points out, “For safety, the faster you can remove humans, the better, even if there are unfortunately a few accidents from new causes.It’s a question of balancing the number injured or killed by autonomous vehicles with the people whose lives are potentially saved.” It’s an idea that Elon Musk, CEO of electric car company Tesla Motors, has long believed.His company is determined to be the first to deliver a fully autonomous vehicle to consumers.Last year, Musk announced that Tesla’s 2017 goal was “to do an example drive of full autonomy all the way from LA to New York...and have the car park itself”. However, even Tesla admits that there are problems to overcome—the software needs further validation and the appropriate regulatory approval needs to be in place.Indeed, recent crashes of Tesla vehicles and Google cars confirm that the software isn’t ready yet. The U.K. government appears committed to encouraging the development of autonomous vehicles.It’s supporting four city trials, publishing the Modern Transport Bill to reduce red tape around their introduction and adapting the legal system to take into account problems such as insurance liability when a human isn’t in control of a vehicle. The insurance industry is similarly eager to help increase autonomy in cars.As the Association of British Insurers(ABI) points out, “More than 90 percent of road accidents are caused by human errors.” This costs motor insurers a shocking £20 m per day in claims. 1.What difficulty does the company Tesla Motors have? A.New inventions may cause more injuries and deaths. B.The company lacks confidence to make new creations. C.The software should be made officially acceptable. D.The traffic regulation has proved unreasonable. 2.What is the U.K. government’s attitude to autonomous cars? A.Ambiguous. B.Positive. C.Cautious. D.Disapproving. 3.What is the main idea of the last paragraph? A.Insurance companies would like to support autonomous cars. B.Human mistakes may be the key cause of traffic accidents. C.Traffic accidents cost insurance companies quite a lot. D.Motorists are surprised to hear about autonomous cars. 4.What is the author’s purpose in writing the text? A.To show his deep love for autonomous cars. B.To introduce a new development in technology. C.To amuse readers with funny examples. D.To provide a persuasive argument against autonomy. 【答案】1. C 2. B 3. A 4.B 【解析】 本文介绍了一种无人驾驶汽车。由于交通事故主要是由驾驶员的失误引发的, 这种无人驾驶汽车在某种程度上可以解决交通事故问题。这种想法虽然还需进一步完善,但已经得到了英国政府及保险公司的支持。 1.C 细节理解题。题干中的关键词是difficulty, 据此定位到第三段的第一句“However, even Tesla admits that there are problems to overcome—the software needs further validation and the appropriate regulatory approval needs to be in place.” 由此可知, 特斯拉公司还需要解决的问题是相关软件需要进一步的验证以及监管机构的批准。 2.B 推理判断题。题干中的关键词是the U.K. government, 据此定位到第四段第一句“The U.K. government appears committed to encouraging the development of autonomous vehicles.”即英国政府似乎是在鼓励无人驾驶汽车的研发。由此可知, 英国政府的态度是支持的, 所以答案是B。 3.A 段落大意题。段落主题通常会出现在段首, 由最后一段的首句“The insurance industry is similarly eager to help increase autonomy in cars.”可知, 保险公司同样渴望去帮助提高汽车的自动性能。 4.B 写作意图题。本文重点介绍了一项新技术——研发无人驾驶汽车, 并介绍了尚待解决的相关问题, 以及英国政府、 保险公司对此项新技术的态度。 变式训练 【2018海南五校一模】 As missing children age, they outgrow their last known photographs, which makes finding them tough. Now AI (Artificial Intelligence) could make it quicker to match any found children to those old photos. Police can use software to age photos of people who have been missing for a while, but these tend to work best in adults, as age-related changes of adult faces are more predictable and so easier to make. With children, these aged images(图像) don’t tend to resemble the older children, and matching photos of found children to old images in a database of missing children is difficult. “Given a recent face image of a child, it is extremely hard for a human to recognize, visually, who the child is from a large data set of child face images,” says Debayan Deb at Michigan State University. Now Deb and his colleagues have created an algorithm (算法) to do this for them. They created a face-recognition algorithm on data sets, which contain images of nearly 1,000 children between 2 and 18 years old. Each was photographed at least four times over a period of six years. AI learned to match recent photographs of children with images taken 2.5 years earlier 80 percent of the time. With one year between the two photographs, the method was 90 percent accurate at recognizing faces. This dropped to 73 percent after three years. The approach beats comparing children with photos taken when they were aged 0 to 4 that have been aged by software, which stays at 50 percent recognition after six months. The new AI might help to improve accuracy of this kind of software as well. Deb’s next goal is to make the age gap wider. His team also hopes to develop an app that could be used to fight child trafficking. 1.What is suggested in Para. 1? A.The old photos are hard to read. B.Found children change greatly. C.Children’s faces are unpredictable. D.Photos of children are easy to match. 2.Why do Deb’s team do the research? A.To prove the advantages of AI function. B.To help the police change their software. C.To build a data base to find the missing children. D.To improve the accuracy of children’s face-recognition. 3.What does the underlined word “trafficking” in the last paragraph mean? A.Image matching.       B.Comparing. C.Recognizing. D.Illegal trade. 4.What is the main idea of the text? A.AI could match missing kids to old photos. B.Age-related changes of faces are predictable. C.A face-recognition algorithm has been created. D.A new software is improved to find missing kids. 【2018?北京卷C篇】 Plastic-Eating Worms Humans produce more than 300 million tons of plastic every year. Almost half of that winds up in landfills(垃圾填埋场), and up to 12 million tons pollute the oceans. So far there is no effective way to get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms. Researchers in Spain and England recently found that the worms of the greater wax moth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40% of plastics. The team left 100 wax worms on a commercial polyethylene shopping bag for 12 hours, and the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, or almost 3% of it. To confirm that the worms’ chewing alone was not responsible for the polyethylene breakdown, the researchers made some worms into paste(糊状物) and applied it to plastic films. 14 hours later the films had lost 13% of their mass — apparently broken down by enzymes (酶) from the worms’ stomachs. Their findings were published in Current Biology in 2017. Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms’ ability to break down their everyday food — beeswax — also allows them to break down plastic. "Wax is a complex mixture, but the basic bond in polyethylene, the carbon-carbon bond, is there as well, "she explains, "The wax worm evolved a method or system to break this bond. " Jennifer DeBruyn, a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, who was not involved in the study, says it is not surprising that such worms can break down polyethylene. But compared with previous studies, she finds the speed of breaking down in this one exciting. The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)? Bertocchini agrees and hopes her team’s findings might one day help employ the enzyme to break down plastics in landfills. But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply "millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic." 1. What can we learn about the worms in the study? A. They take plastics as their everyday food. B. They are newly evolved creatures. C. They can consume plastics. D. They wind up in landfills. 2. According to Jennifer DeBruyn, the next step of the study is to . A. identify other means of the breakdown B. find out the source of the enzyme C. confirm the research findings D. increase the breakdown speed 3. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the chemical might . A. help to raise worms B. help make plastic bags C. be used to clean the oceans D. be produced in factories in future 4. What is the main purpose of the passage? A. To explain a study method on worms. B. To introduce the diet of a special worm. C. To present a way to break down plastics. D. To propose new means to keep eco-balance. 【2018·惠州第二次调研】In many ways,Providence Mount St.Vincent in Seattle is a typical senior living community.It is home to about 400 elderly residents and provides them with different types of assistance.However,it is also the Intergenerational Learning Center—a preschool where children and seniors have the chance to bond. Established in 1991,the ILC’s purpose is to allow kids to learn about acceptance while they are also being nurtured.It also aims to help seniors develop a greater sense of self?worth and strengthen social interactions.Babies to prekindergarten?aged children are placed into six different classes at the ILC.The kids attend art and music classes,as well as story time and exercise time with the seniors.Marie Hoover,ILC director,said that interacting with the seniors has proven beneficial for the young ones,making them more open?minded. “For the ILC children,interacting with the residents is simply part of their day?to?day life here and the way aging is ‘normalized’,which may be the most important benefit they receive,” Hoover said. “I’ve had parents call me years after their children have graduated from our program to let me know about some incidents when their child was the first to warmly greet someone who happened to be in a wheelchair.” As for the seniors,they’re delighted by the companionship the children provide.The children bring so much energy and joy to our residents.Many of the residents are widows or widowers and can become lonely.Their adult children may still be working,so they may not get to see them as often as they would like.Having the children stay with the old makes our residents feel they are still part of a community.The young and the old connect and learn from one another at this__unique__facility. 5.ILC is intended to________. A.build a typical senior living community B.take good care of the children C.benefit both the children and the seniors D.rid the seniors of loneliness 6.From what Hoover said in Para.3,we can learn that the ILC children________. A.keep in touch with the seniors even if they have left the ILC B.come to realize that aging is a normal part of life C.take different attitudes to the elderly after graduation D.think it easy to interact with the elderly residents in the ILC 7.The last paragraph mainly tells us________. A.the benefits the seniors receive B.the situation of the seniors C.children’s company D.the interaction between the children and the seniors 8.The underlined words “this unique facility” may refer to________. A.a special building B.a typical family C.a typical teaching program D.a special learning center 【2018·长春监测二】Next time you go shopping, keep in mind that there may be hidden cameras analyzing your habits. According to a 2015 survey of 150 managers from Computer Services Corporation, a quarter of British shops use facial recognition software to collect data on shopper behavior. With concerns that face?recognition cameras “are kind of invasive(侵犯的)”, British analysis firm Hoxton Analytics has come up with a new way of measuring footfall(客流量)—by filming people’s shoes. The technology can collect a large amount of personal information. “We have cameras at 50 cm off the ground and they point down so they are less invasive than facial recognition,” Duncan Mann, Hoxton’s officer said. As modern cities get fuller—70 percent of the population will live in urban areas by 2050—cameras and other technologies are taking over public spaces and collecting our data. Their purpose is to keep people safe, provide efficient services and prevent disasters and crimes. But some are not happy with the cameras as far as their privacy(隐私) is concerned. “Very few of us have any real concept of what data smart cities are gathering,” said Renate Samson. We begin giving away data as soon as we wake up. When we enter the transport system, we are giving away even more details about ourselves through smart cards, mobile phones or credit cards. Nick Millman, director at a consulting firm thinks statistics are the key to the privacy concern. He used the example of Google Maps, which is to monitor the flow of traffic in Stockholm. He explained, “It is basically adding privacy controls to statistics so that you only see the data you need to know about.” In this case, Google gets enough data to improve traffic but not so much that it shows individual journey patterns. 9.What is the article mainly about? A.An introduction to collecting shoppers’ data. B.The concerns about giving away personal data. C.The problems caused by imbalanced distribution of population. D.An invention recording and collecting customers’ information. 10.The new technology invented by Hoxton Analytics ________. A.can gather a lot of people’s personal data from their shoes B.uses cameras fitted on the ground to collect customers’ data C.has improved the accuracy of facial recognition software D.offers a perfect solution to customers’ privacy concerns 11.According to the author, cameras in modern cities ________. A.cause a huge waste of public spaces B.help reduce the size of population in urban areas C.are likely to help improve traffic conditions D.are to avoid crimes and disasters and provide efficient services  12.What is Renate Samson’s attitude toward the rise of smart cities? A.Worried.B.Optimistic. C.Confused. D.Uninterested. 【2018·石家庄一模】Experts believe that the best time to teach kids language skills is when they are babies. Most time the task is easily accomplished with parents reading or talking to their babies. However, in some cases that is not possible due to busy work schedules or when kids are born deaf. Now, an adorable blue?eyed robot, a human avatar, and some high?tech neuroscience may be able to assist parents with this important developmental task. The Robot AVatar thermal?Enhanced system, or RAVE, is the brainchild of a team of researchers led by Laura?Ann Petitto, an educational neuroscientist, at Washington, D.C.’s Gallaudet University. The learning process begins when the robot’s camera, which is focused on the baby’s face, detects tiny changes in his/her body temperature. This, combined with the baby’s facial expression, causes the robot to turn its head and guide the baby’s attention to a computer screen, on which a human avatar starts to communicate with the baby, much like a parent would. For example, if the baby points towards the screen, the avatar might respond, “Are you pointing to me?” and follow that up with a nursery rhyme, fairy tale, or some essential social communication, all in American Sign Language(ASL). The “conversation” continues until the kid loses interest. The researchers, who have been testing the system for three years, found that babies as young as 6 to 8 months old began to move their hands in a rhythm similar to ASL after interacting with RAVE for just a few minutes. Petitto says natural language, whether communicated through speech or sign, activates the same parts of the brain and believes the rhythmic motions prove the babies are learning the essential elements of communication. What sets this technique apart from other methods, such as showing educational videos or television shows, is its interactive nature and real?time response to the baby’s actions. The researchers say that while it is too early to determine the system’s long?term influence on baby communication, the initial response has been very encouraging. Next, they plan to introduce an avatar that can both sign and speak to babies. 13.What can the RAVE system help parents do? A.Improve babies’ health condition. B.Take good care of babies. C.Develop babies’ language skills. D.Keep babies company. 14.What does Paragraph 2 mainly talk about? A.How babies learn ASL effectively. B.How parents educate their babies. C.How robots talk and read to babies. D.How the RAVE system works. 15.What indicates babies are learning with the help of the RAVE system? A.Interest in videos and TV shows. B.Changes in their body temperature. C.Improvement in their natural language. D.Hand movements in a rhythm like ASL. 16.What do the researchers think of the RAVE system? A.Promising. B.Impractical.C.Satisfactory. D.Disappointing. 20 第34讲 科学技术、教育创新类文章(解析版) "科学技术、教育创新类"是高中英语新课标重要考查的阅读话题之一,也是英语核心素养的体现。高考对科学技术、教育创新类的考查多为科普说明文,它是阅读理解重要内容,也是高考考查难点。科学技术、教育创新类“阅读理解”题愈来愈受到命题者的青睐?而科学技术、教育创新类文章往往具有跨学科?行文逻辑性强等特点,要求考生能从文章的整体逻辑以及重要细节上全面把握? 【试题特点】   ① 注重学科渗透,行文逻辑性强,内容抽象?   ② 贴近学生的学习?生活实际,有利于激发学生的思维,对选拔优秀考生有一定的作用? ③ 能全面地考查学生的综合阅读能力和运用所学知识去分析?解决实际问题的能力? 科学技术、教育创新类文章往往具有跨学科、行文逻辑性强等特点:要求考生能从文章的整体逻辑以及重要细节上全面把握。 一、真题链接 【2018·全国I 卷D篇】 We may think we're a culture that gets rid of our worn technology at the first sight of something shiny and new, but a new study shows that we keep using our old devices(装置) well after they go out of style. That’s bad news for the environment — and our wallets — as these outdated devices consume much more energy than the newer ones that do the same things. To figure out how much power these devices are using, Callie Babbitt and her colleagues at the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York tracked the environmental costs for each product throughout its life — from when its minerals are mined to when we stop using the device. This method provided a readout for how home energy use has evolved since the early 1990s. Devices were grouped by generation — Desktop computers, basic mobile phones, and box-set TVs defined 1992. Digital cameras arrived on the scene in 1997. And MP3 players, smart phones, and LCD TVs entered homes in 2002, before tablets and e-readers showed up in 2007. As we accumulated more devices, however, we didn't throw out our old ones. "The living-room television is replaced and gets planted in the kids' room, and suddenly one day, you have a TV in every room of the house," said one researcher. The average number of electronic devices rose from four per household in 1992 to 13 in 2007. We're not just keeping these old devices — we continue to use them. According to the analysis of Babbitt's team, old desktop monitors and box TVs with cathode ray tubes are the worst devices with their energy consumption and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions(排放)more than doubling during the 1992 to 2007 window. So what's the solution(解决方案)? The team's data only went up to 2007, but the researchers also explored what would happen if consumers replaced old products with new electronics that serve more than one function, such as a tablet for word processing and TV viewing. They found that more on-demand entertainment viewing on tablets instead of TVs and desktop computers could cut energy consumption by 44%. 32. What does the author think of new devices? A. They are environment-friendly. B. They are no better than the old. C. They cost more to use at home. D. They go out of style quickly. 33. Why did Babbitt's team conduct the research? A. To reduce the cost of minerals. B. To test the life cycle of a product. C. To update consumers on new technology. D. To find out electricity consumption of the devices. 34. Which of the following uses the least energy? A. The box-set TV. B. The tablet. C. The LCD TV. D. The desktop computer. 35. What does the text suggest people do about old electronic devices? A. Stop using them. B. Take them apart. C. Upgrade them. D. Recycle them. 【答案】32. A 33. D 34. B 35. A 【解析】本文是一篇科普说明文。文章讲述了新旧电子设备的差别,旧电子设备耗能高,不环保。所以作者主张使用新电子设备。 32. 观点态度题。根据文章第一段中的That’s bad news for the environment – and our wallets – as these outdated devices consume much more energy than the newer ones that do the same things.可知,使用旧的电子设备对环境和我们的钱包都是坏消息。这些过时的设备做相同的事情要消耗比新设备更多的能量。由此推知作者认为新电子设备环保、节能。故选A。 细节理解题。根据文章第二段中的To figure out how much power these devices are using, Callie Babbitt and her colleagues at the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York tracked the environmental costs for each product throughout its life .可知,Babbitt’s team研究的目的是弄清楚这些设备用了多少电。故选D。 34. 细节理解题。根据文章最后一段中的They found that more on-demand entertainment viewing on tablets instead of TVs and desktop computers could cut energy consumption by 44%.可知,平板电脑是耗能最少的电子设备,可以降低44%的耗能。故选B。 35. 推理判断题。根据文章的整体内容可知,因为旧的电子设备耗能高,不环保。所以作者建议停止使用旧的电子设备。故选A。 点睛:熟悉比较句型是彻底理解本文的关键,也是解题的关键。本文中的比较句型: 1. That’s bad news for the environment – and our wallets – as these outdated devices consume much more energy than the news ones that do the same things 做同样的事,旧的过时的装置比新装置消耗更多能源,对环境有害,浪费钱财。 2. According to the analysis of Babbitt’s team, old desktop monitors and box TVs with cathode ray tubes are the worst devices with their energy consumption and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions (排放) more than doubling during the 1992 to 2007 window. 根据Babbitt团队的分析,旧的桌面监视器和阴极射线管箱式电视机是最差的电子设备,它们的耗能和温室气体的排放是1992到2007window的两倍还多。 3. They found that more on-demand entertainment viewing on tablets instead of TVs and desktop computers could cut energy consumption by 44%.他们发现在平板电脑上看的随需变化的娱乐节目比在电视和电脑上看耗能减少了44%。 【2018·天津卷C篇】 There’s a new frontier in 3D printing that’s beginning to come into focus: food. Recent development has made possible machines that print, cook, and serve foods on a mass scale. And the industry isn’t stopping there. Food production With a 3D printer, a cook can print complicated chocolate sculptures and beautiful pieces for decoration on a wedding cake. Not everybody can do that — it takes years of experience, but a printer makes it easy. A restaurant in Spain uses a Foodini to “re-create forms and pieces” of food that are “exactly the same,” freeing cooks to complete other tasks. In another restaurant, all of the dishes and desserts it serves are 3D-printed,rather than farm to table. Sustainability(可持续性) The global population is expected to grow to 9.6 billion by 2050, and some analysts estimate that food production will need to be raised by 50 percent to maintain current levels. Sustainability is becoming a necessity. 3D food printing could probably contribute to the solution. Some experts believe printers could use hydrocolloids (水解胶体) from plentiful renewables like algae(藻类) and grass to replace the familiar ingredients(烹饪原料). 3D printing can reduce fuel use and emissions. Grocery stores of the future might stock "food" that lasts years on end, freeing up shelf space and reducing transportation and storage requirements. Nutrition Future 3D food printers could make processed food healthier. Hod Lipson, a professor at Columbia University, said, “Food printing could allow consumers to print food with customized nutritional content, like vitamins. So instead of eating a piece of yesterday’s bread from the supermarket, you’d eat something baked just for you on demand.” Challenges Despite recent advancements in 3D food printing, the industry has many challenges to overcome. Currently, most ingredients must be changed to a paste(糊状物) before a printer can use them, and the printing process is quite time-consuming, because ingredients interact with each other in very complex ways. On top of that, most of the 3D food printers now are restricted to dry ingredients, because meat and milk products may easily go bad. Some experts are skeptical about 3D food printers, believing they are better suited for fast food restaurants than homes and high-end restaurants. 46. What benefit does 3D printing bring to food production? A. It helps cooks to create new dishes. B. It saves time and effort in cooking. C. It improves the cooking conditions. D. It contributes to restaurant decorations. 47. What can we learn about 3D food printing from Paragraphs 3? A. It solves food shortages easily. B. It quickens the transportation of food. C. It needs no space for the storage of food. D. It uses renewable materials as sour

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  • ID:4-5349514 [精]第33讲 医学、教育类文章(解析版+原卷版)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    第33讲 医学、教育类文章(原卷版) 医学、教育类文章属于高考阅读理解常选材料之一。这类文章常涉及医学、医药、教育、法制、宗教等方面的文学艺术、发明创造、文化遗产保护、宗教与文化、风俗与习惯、道德与法制、中外文学名著节选、各国医学发展、医疗探究、学校教育和家庭教育等。这类材料的命题点往往落在主旨大意题和细节理解题上。 这些话题贴近生活,贴近时代,渗透不同文化教育间的异同、优点及缺点,充分体现了高考命题的思想性和前瞻性。选题注重学科素养的考核融入对语言能力的考核,同时要求考生备考时注意思维品质、学习能力和文化品格结合,有助于青少年正确价值观、道德观、风俗习惯的形成。 一、真题链接 【2018·全国卷Ⅱ】 Teens and younger children are reading a lot less for fun, according to a Common Sense Media report published Monday. While the decline over the past decade is steep for teen readers, some data in the report shows that reading remains a big part of many children’s lives, and indicates how parents might help encourage more reading. According to the report’s key findings, “the proportion (比例) who say they ‘hardly ever’ read for fun has gone from 8 percent of 13-year-olds and 9 percent of 17-year-olds in 1984 to 22 percent and 27 percent respectively today.” The report data shows that pleasure reading levels for younger children, ages 2-8, remain largely the same. But the amount of time spent in reading each session had declined, from closer to an hour or more to closer to a half hour per session. When it comes to technology and reading, the report does little to counsel (建议) parents looking for data about the effect of e-readers and tablets on reading. It does point out that many parents still limit electronic reading mainly due to concerns about increased screen time. The most hopeful data shared in the report shows clear evidence of parents serving as examples and important guides for their kids when it comes to reading. Data shows that kids and teens who do read frequently, compared to infrequent readers, have more books in the home, more books purchased for them, parents who read more often, and parents who set aside time for them to read. At the end of school approaches, and school vacation reading lists loom(逼近) ahead, parents might take the chance to step in and make their own summer reading list and plan a family trip to the library or bookstore. What is the Common Sense Media report probably about? Children’s reading habits. Quality of children’s books. Children’s after-class activities. Parent-child relationships. Where can you find the data that best supports “children are reading a lot less for fun”? In paragraph 2 B. In paragraph 3 C. In paragraph 4 D. In paragraph 5 Why do many parents limit electronic reading? E-books are of poor quality. It could be a waste of time. It may harm children’s health. E-readers are expensive. How should parents encourage their children to read more? Act as role models for them. B. Ask them to write book reports. C. Set up reading groups for them. D. Talk with their reading class teachers. 【2018·江苏高考·B】 Before birth, babies can tell the difference between loud sounds and voices. They can even distinguish their mother's voice from that of a female stranger. But when it comes to embryonic learning(胎教),birds could rule the roost.As recently reported in The Auk:Ornithological Advances, some mother birds may teach their young to sing even before they hatch(孵化).New?born chicks can then imitate their mom's call within a few days of entering the world. This educational method was first observed in 2012 by Sonia Kleindorfer, a biologist at Flinders University in South Australia,and her colleagues. Female Australian superb fairy wrens were found to repeat one sound over and over again while hatching their eggs. When the eggs were hatched,the baby birds made the similar chirp to their mothers—a sound that served as their regular “feed me!”call. To find out if the special quality was more widespread in birds, the researchers sought the red?backed fairy wren,another species of Australian songbird. First they collected sound data from 67 nests in four sites in Queensland before and after hatching. Then they identified begging calls by analyzing the order and number of notes. A computer analysis blindly compared calls produced by mothers and chicks,ranking them by similarity. It turns out that baby red?backed fairy wrens also emerge chirping like their moms. And the more frequently mothers had called to their eggs, the more similar were the babies' begging calls. In addition, the team set up a separate experiment that suggested that the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom's voice were rewarded with the most food. This observation hints that effective embryonic learning could signal neurological(神经系统的) strengths of children to parents. An evolutionary inference can then be drawn. “As a parent, do you invest in quality children, or do you invest in children that are in need?”Kleindorfer asks. “Our results suggest that they might be going for quality.” 1.The underlined phrase in Paragraph 1 means “ ”. A.be the worst    B.be the best C.be just as bad D.be just as good 2.What are Kleindorfer's findings based on? A.Similarities between the calls of moms and chicks. B.The observation of fairy wrens across Australia. C.The data collected from Queensland's locals. D.Controlled experiments on wrens and other birds. 3.Embryonic learning helps mother birds to identify the baby birds which . A.can receive quality signals B.are in need of training C.fit the environment better D.make the loudest call 【长难句解读】 In addition, the team set up a separate experiment that suggested that the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom's voice were rewarded with the most food. 分析 本句是复合句。experiment后的that引导定语从句,suggest后面的that引导宾语从句,birds后面的that引导定语从句。 译文 另外,研究团队做了一个单独的实验,实验表明,模仿鸟妈妈的声音最接近的幼鸟被给予的食物最多。 二、阅读话题词汇夯实 阅读单词识记:英汉互译 【教育类】 1.achieve v. → n.完成;成就 2.appoint vt. → n.约定,约会;任命,委派 3.conclusion n. → vt.结束;推断 4.earn vt. 5.employ v. → n.雇用→unemployment n. →employer n. → n.雇员 6.hire vt. 7.interview n.& vt. → n.采访者;主持面试者→ n.接受面试者;被采访者 8.manage vt. → n.经营;管理→manager n. 9.quit vt. 10.resign vt.& vi. 11.retire vt.& vi. 12.undertake vt. 13.adjust v. 14.allowance n. 15.appearance n. → vi.出现 16.applicant n. 17.application n. 18.architect n. 19.assistant n. → vt.帮助;协助 →assistance n. 20.bonus n. 21.candidate n. 22.certificate n. 23.chance n. 24.consideration n. → adj.想得周到的;体贴的→consider vt. → prep.考虑到;鉴于 25.dismiss vt. 26.educated adj. 27.expectation n. 28.fail v. 29.hold v. 30.occupation n. 31.opportunity n. 32.possibility n. 33.physicist n. 34.potential adj. 35.position n. 36.profession n. 37.qualify vt.& vi. 38.qualified adj. 39.reply vt.& n. 40.representative n. 41.requirement n. 42.secretary n. 43.specialist n. 44.succeed v. 45.welfare n. 【医学类】 1.energetic. 2.health 3.keep fit/healthy. 4.AIDS 5.blind 6. cancer 7.deaf 8.disabled 9.disease 10.fever 11.flu 12.headache 13.illness 14.overweight 15.sick 16.heart attack 17.allergic 18.choke 19.lame 20.suicide 21.toothache 22.arm 23..hurt 24.injure 25.wound 26. blood 27.burn 28.injury 29.pain 30.serious 31.sharp 32.suffer 33.weak 34.severe 35.suffering 36.symptom 37.upset 38.abnormal 39.acute 40.dizzy 41.faint 42.sneeze 43.swell 44.unconscious 45.pressure 46.risk 47.stress 48.in high / low spirits 49.wear out 50.carrier 51.cigarette 52.diet 53.emotion 54.harmful 55.factor 56.mental 56.physical 57.Psychological 58.tired 59.tobacco 60.virus 61.Weight 62. health 63.care 64.life style 65.sleeping pattern 66.immune system 67.cure, 68.recover 69.rescue 70. treat 71.die of/ from 72.get over 73.have an operation on/operate on 74.ambulance 75.emergency 76.examine 77.medical 78.recovery 79.relief 80.surgery 81.treatment 82.care for 83.first aid 84.take care of 85.bandage 86.chemist 87.bandage 88.clinic 89.heal 90.injection 91.prescription 92.transplant 93.ward 94.X-ray 95.medical guidance 96.Rug 97.medicine 98.pill 100.poison 101.herb 102.poisonous 103.tablet 二、高频短语 英汉互译: 重点短语 申请 适合 3 主管 在某人的掌管之下 忙于做;专心于 失业 感觉能胜任 移交;交出 搜寻;寻找 符合;遇到;遭受 展望未来;为将来设想 负责;接管 ★【即学即练】 【2019届湖南省雅礼中学高三上学期第三次月考】 1.According to the comments of the Physical Education teacher,Wally______. A. is too talkative in the class B. 1ikes to work with his classmates C. doesn’t exercise his body at the right time D. becomes weak because he doesn’t exercise at all 2.Which of Wally’s subjects will attract the headmaster’s attention in future? A. Biology and Maths. B. History and French. C. English and Chemistry. D. Physics and Physical Education. 3.Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the report? A. Wally didn’t bother his teacher to revise French. B. Wally’s potential has been fully reflected in his exam work. C. Wally’s grade in maths makes him a born scientist. D. Wally needs to improve his attitude on certain subjects. 一、读文的两种方式,应注意据情而选 方式(一) 文章——问题——文章 即先粗读文章,然后看问题,最后再通过精读文章来解答问题。这是考生常用的按部就班的阅读方式,其特点是有利于考生把握文章的主旨和作者的态度。但采用这种阅读方式的考生往往阅读速度较慢,因此难以在阅读时积极主动地预测文章内容。 方式(二) 问题——文章——问题 即先将问题看一遍,然后带着问题去阅读文章,最后答题。其特点是针对性强,节省答题时间,比较适用于解答事实性和细节性的问题,但是解答主旨性和推断性问题的效果不明显。 上面这两种读文方式的采用因人而异,无优劣之分。当然,题型不同,读文的方式也应有所不同。但无论采用哪种方式,一旦选定适合自身的方式,应持之以恒,形成读文做题的习惯。 二、破解生僻词的两大技法,应注意灵活使用 阅读理解涉及词汇、句子、段落、语篇四个层次的理解问题,而其中最根本的是词汇。词汇是构成语言的基本元素。如果考生掌握的词汇量不够,在阅读过程中处处都是生词,则会处处碰壁,就难以顺利地读懂文章。因此,积累足够的词汇是提高阅读技能的第一步。 一般来说,在阅读文章时,总会碰到一些自己不认识的词。高考文章中允许出现3%的超纲词。《考试大纲》要求考生能“根据上下文推测生词的词义”,因此词义猜测题也是高考题型之一。正确处理阅读中遇到的生词,掌握一定的猜测生词词义的技巧,对于理解文章及答题都非常重要。对于生词一般有如下两种处理方式: (一)无关紧要的词汇——“跳过去” 在阅读理解设题时,并不是所有的生词都是出题点。在阅读中,当遇到一个生词时,不妨先问自己一个问题:这些生词有没有进行精确猜测的必要。高考试题中经常会出现没必要去精确猜测的生词,不知道它的精确含义也不会影响对基本句意的理解。在考试中,有百分之十的生词都不会干扰你做题。所以,平时考生要练习对生词的容忍度和处理生词的技巧,否则,临场时你会因焦虑而影响做题速度和准度。对于这类词,不要过多纠缠,尽管放心大胆地“跳过去”。 在一起出现的几个首字母大写的单词 它可能是个专有名词,你不需要知道其意思,只需要知道它是某个事物的名称即可 斜体的单词 它可能是某本书、杂志、电影的名称或某个专业术语,你也不用了解它的意思,只需要知道它代表什么事物即可 (二)影响阅读的词汇——“猜出来” 有时候,一些生词对阅读来说存在很大的障碍,对上下文的理解至关重要,我们必须知道这些词的精确含义。那么,如何排除这些障碍呢?具体方法将在后面“第四讲词义猜测题”中详细阐述。 例1.【2018·成都摸底测试】 “Hungary?”I looked at my school headmaster in confusion.“I never mentioned wanting to go to Hungary.” And with that, my adventure started. My name is Jonathan Diamond and I just finished an amazing school exchange year in Hungary. Going on an exchange had always been my dream.When my high school offered an all?year program, I jumped at the opportunity.It would pay for almost everything and all I had to do was buy a plane ticket.I knew where I wanted to go:Spain, the country of dancers wearing flowing red dresses.So when I heard that I was going to Hungary, I was pretty shocked.But I decided to make the best of it, since it was, after all, a once?in?a?lifetime opportunity.Before I knew it, I was on the airplane, leaving for Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport, Hungary. I had difficult times when I almost gave up.Hungarian is the hardest language on the planet.Cultural differences occasionally embarrassed both my peers and me.I had to give up eating carrots, my beautiful favorite, for Hungarians think carrots are rubbish in their country.The change in the landscape was amazing, looking nothing like skyscrapers, bullet trains, cars, and people in tiny houses that I had been accustomed to.Gradually, I fell in love with the relaxing lifestyle, the warm?hearted people, and getting home at 2:30 p.m. at the latest from school.And I was sad to leave on my very last day. Having the host family who took me as one of their own members was the best thing I’ve ever experienced.From my little sisters, I learned how to embrace life to its fullest.From my brothers I learned that it’s OK for a boy to run around the house.From my host parents I learned to stay positive, to smile and that when you pick the right people and take their hands, suddenly, you become friends. 1.How did Jonathan feel when he was told to go to Hungary? A.Excited and satisfied. B.Confused and shocked. C.Amazed and embarrassed. D.Delighted and interested. 2.Why did Jonathan still decide to go to Hungary instead of Spain? A.He didn’t like Spain. B.He wanted to learn Hungarian. C.It was a rare chance. D.Going to Hungary was much cheaper. 3.What can we learn about Jonathan during his stay in Hungary? A.He fell in love with eating carrots. B.He couldn’t wait to leave. C.He was surprised by the landscape. D.He quickly got used to the life there. 4.According to Jonathan, the host family ________. A.changed him completely B.taught him how to dance well C.treated him as equally as a student D.showed him the good things of life 【答案】1.B 2.C 3.C 4.D 【解析】 本文是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了作者作为一个交换生在国外学习的经历和感受。 1.B 解析:细节理解题。根据第一段中的“I looked at my school headmaster in confusion.”可知, 作者听到这个消息很迷惑, 再结合第三段中的“So when I heard that I was going to Hungary, I was pretty shocked.”可知, 选项B正确。 2.C 解析:细节理解题。根据第三段中的“But I decided to make the best of it, since it was, after all, a once?in?a?lifetime opportunity.”可知, 作者决定充分利用这次机会, 因为毕竟这是一次千载难逢的机会,所以选项C正确。a rare chance“一次罕见的机会”。 3.C 解析:推理判断题。根据第四段中的“The change in the landscape was amazing”可知,选项C正确。 4.D 解析:推理判断题。根据最后一段内容可知,作者从寄宿家庭那里学到了很多人生哲学,他们向作者展现了生活中美好的事情,故选项D正确。 变式训练 【2018·武汉4月调研A】 100?Word?Story Competition 2018 Our annual short story competition is back.As ever, we look forward to reading yours! The Rules Please make sure that stories are new, not previously published and exactly 100 words long (not including the title).We may use entries in all print and electronic media. Entry is open only to people living in the U.K.It is not open to employees of Reader’s Digest and all others associated with this competition, their immediate families and relatives living in an employee’s household. Terms and Conditions There are three categories—one for adults and two for young people: one for children aged 12-18 and one for children under 12. In the adult category, the winner will receive £ 1,000 and two runners?up will each receive £ 250.In the children aged 12-18 and children under 12 categories, the winners will each receive a Fire HD 8 and a selection of STAEDTLER products worth £ 50, plus two STAEDTLER class packs of pencils for their school.The two runners?up in both categories will each receive a Kindle. Please submit your stories by 5 p.m. on February 19. The editorial team will pick a shortlist of entries, which this year will be published by our partner nicereading.com.Winners of the categories will have an opportunity to write a longer version of their stories for inclusion in the book. The three best stories in each category will be posted online at readersdigest.co.uk on February 27.You can vote for your favourite, and the one with the most votes wins the top prize.Voting will close at 5 p.m. on March 19 and the winning entry will be published in our June issue(期). 1.Who is forbidden to take part in the story competition? A.A British man of 20. B.A staff member of Reader’s Digest. C.A net friend of the organizer. D.An employee of the government. 2.Which of the following will be awarded to the youth winners? A.A Fire HD 8.       B.A Kindle. C.£50. D.£250. 3.When are the stories due? A.By 5 p.m. on February 19. B.On February 27. C.At 5 p.m. on March 19. D.In June. 4.Where will the winning entry come out? A.On TV. B.In a magazine. C.On a website. D.In a book. 【2018·郑州市第二次质量预测】 There were many famous poets from different periods of time in Chinese history, and thousands of their poems are still read and appreciated today. To arouse people's interest in those classic Chinese poems and promote cultural heritage, China Central Television (CCTV) produced a TV show —Chinese Poetry Conference. The finale (终场) of the hit show's second season was shown on Feb.7 this year. Wu Yishu, 16, who studies at the High School Affiliated to Fudan University in Shanghai, came out on top. In an earlier episode(一集), Wu wowed the audience when performing in a section entitled“ Feihualing”. The game's theme was“yue”, meaning“moon” or“month” in Chinese. She recited the lines from the Classic of Poetry,the earliest collection of poems in China:“In July, the crickets (蟋蟀) are in the field. In August, they are in the yard. In September they are at the door. In October, they enter and crawl under our beds.” “I really admire her knowledge of poems,” said Huang Zijin, 16, a Senior 2 student from Ningbo High School in Zhejiang Province. “The first time I saw her wearing traditional Han clothing on TV, I was very impressed by her classical looks. She fulfills all my fantasies about classic Chinese women's talents. What's more, she always appears so calm throughout the show, which is very unusual for her age.” As the old saying goes, “One who is filled with knowledge always behaves with elegance.” “Learning poems isn't about winning or losing. The power of poetry lies in shaping one's view of life and developing one's inner world,” said Li Bo, an expert guest at the Chinese Poetry Conference's second season. When it comes to teaching people about poetry, Li Dingguang, the show's academic advisor, suggested that teachers should explain more about the beauty of the poetry from both the aesthetic(美学的) and emotional sides, and guide the students to lose themselves in the poems' rhythmic(有节奏的) and rhyming lines. “Although the amount of ancient Chinese poetry in the textbooks of primary and secondary schools has increased, many students still learn them for exams,”Li Dingguang told China.org.cn.“Therefore, it's important to help students truly appreciate the artistry and fun of poetry.” 1. What's one of the purposes of the TV show Chinese Poetry Conference? A. To entertain people by enjoying Chinese poems. B.To see who can recite the most classic Chinese poems. C.To fulfill people's fantasies about Chinese women's talents. D.To make more people interested in classic Chinese poetry. 2.From Paragraphs 3 and 4, what can we infer about Wu Yishu? A. She is a talented and elegant Chinese teenager. B.She has learned a large amount of poetry from textbooks. C.She is always calm in the show like other competitors of her age. D.She amazed the audience with the lines from the Classic of Poetry in the finale. 3.According to Li Bo, why do people learn poetry? A.To get good marks in examinations. B.To help build up their inner world. C.To win the Chinese Poetry Conference. D.To appreciate the beauty of rhythm and rhyme. 4.What is Li Dingguang's attitude to poetry teaching? A.Doubtful.     B.Supportive. C.Critical. D.Casual. 【2018·郑州第二次质量预测】 ? Though not as much as in the past, grandparents are the teachers of the Navajo(纳瓦霍人) youth. They make young people aware of life at an early age. The parents allow them the privilege of teaching the children, and the grandparents take great pride in raising them. Young children often stay with their grandparents for years at a time, developing a close and trusting relationship. The grandparents teach them Navajo legends and the principle of life, emphasizing both new culture trends and the preservation of traditions. The grandparents are also the leading figures in teaching the youth the arts of weaving, caring for the livestock, using herbal medicine, and other arts and crafts. The children are taught to respect their elders, care for them, help them and learn from them. Young people are urged to listen with care to the words of their elders and keep as much wisdom as possible. Grandparents often go to social gatherings and traditional events, and young people have opportunities to learn more about their culture and traditions. I lived with my grandmother for thirteen years, and she raised me in the old ways of our people. Although I was going to school, she taught me as much as she could about our traditions. If I had a chance, I would listen again to her wise teachings, expressed with kindness in a soft voice that touched my heart. We used to plant corn and pumpkin every summer. They never grew big enough to feed us, but we planted them anyway. I asked my grandmother why. She said, “Grandson, our plants will be far more beautiful than the flowers outside the fence.” I didn’t understand until one day I saw their beauty as I was coming over the hill with her. She said, “Anything that is a part of you is always far more beautiful than the things which you pass by.” We had some beautiful years together. I’m glad she is a part of me and I’m a part of her. Children used to be well disciplined, possessing more respect for culture, traditions and beliefs than they do now. The world of the Navajo has been influenced by the western world, and the grandparents have less control and influence than they used to. But the young people who have been touched by their teachings have glimpsed a way of life beyond what most people know today. 1.What can be inferred from the first paragraph? A.Grandparents are the source of traditional culture. B.Parents hate to take the trouble to raise their children. C.Early schooling isn’t very popular with the young Navajo. D.Children learn about the meaning of life from their grandparents. 2.The underlined word “figures” in Paragraph 3 probably means “________”. A.persons B.pioneers C.examples D.representatives 3.Why did the author’s grandmother plant corn and pumpkin? A.She had to feed her family members. B.She tried to make full use of her garden. C.She wanted her grandson to learn a life lesson. D.She expected her grandson to learn about farming. 4.What is the author’s purpose in writing this passage? A.To honor his beloved grandmother. B.To stress the greatness of the Navajo. C.To share with readers a kind of Navajo culture. D.To show the influence of Navajo traditions. 【2018·四川重点中学第二次评估】 Watching what you eat can be easier said than done, but a recent study shows it might not just be about what’s on your plate—it could be about how quickly it disappears. Japanese researchers followed 1,083 adults for five years, splitting them into three categories based on how quickly they ate: slow, normal, and fast. They also answered a questionnaire at the beginning of the study, sharing their diet, physical activity, and medical history. In the beginning, none of the volunteers had metabolic syndrome(新陈代谢综合征)—meaning at least three risk factors—which can lead to health problems like heart conditions and diabetes. When the participants reported back five years later, 84 had been diagnosed(诊断) with metabolic syndrome—and their eating speed was a major predictor, according to the results in the journal Circulation. The fast eaters were 89 percent more likely to have metabolic syndrome than slow and normal eaters. Just 2.3 percent of slow eaters received the diagnosis, compared to 11.6 percent of fast eaters. But that’s not all. Fast eaters also saw more weight gain, larger waistlines, and higher blood sugar levels than slow eaters. The researchers say gobbling makes it easier not to take notice of fullness before your body has a chance to signal you to stop. “So when people eat fast they are more likely to overeat,” said Takayuki Yamaji, MD, study author and cardiologist at Hiroshima University in Japan in a statement. Previous research backs up the weight benefits of slow eating, too. One study of New Zealand women found fast eaters have higher body-mass indexes(指数),and a Chinese study found that both healthy and fat men ate less when told to chew 40 times instead of 15 times before swallowing. Initial research even suggests chewing your food longer could burn more calories—up to about 1,000 extra every month. 1.What are the participants divided by? A.Medical history. B.Health condition. C.Physical activity. D.Eating speed. 2.Which may be the result of the study? A.Fast eaters are 4 times more likely to have metabolic syndrome. B.Normal and slow eaters don’t have metabolic illness. C.89% of fast eaters have higher blood pressure. D.Slow eaters are healthier than fast eaters. 3.What does the underlined word “gobbling” in Paragraph 4 best mean? A.Tasting slowly. B.Digesting quickly. C.Eating greedily. D.Cooking carefully. 4.What does the last paragraph tell us? A.The importance of eating speed. B.The advantage of eating slowly. C.The result of a Chinese study. D.Fast eating and overeating. 【2018·贵阳检测】 A new library in Tianjin—Tianjin Binhai Public Library—recently bacame an online hit.The Daily Mail described it as the “world’s ultimate(终极的) library”, while the word “breathtaking” was the choice of Newsweek magazine.One look at the library and you’ll see why.With its futuristic(未来派的) design and walls loaded with books, it’s the dream library of every book lover. But as the surprise continues, there’s a burning question lying in the back of our minds:When physical bookstores are closing down one by one, what makes libraries safe from the wave of digitization(数字化)? And do we really still need libraries now that we’ve got the Internet in our hands? Reporter Ian Clark has the answer.“Libraries are not declining in importance—people are simply changing the way they use them,” he wrote on The Guardian website. What Clark means is that libraries have shifted from simply being storehouses of books to a medium to help“bridge the gap between the haves and the have?nots”, according to website Libraries Are Essential.Since not everyone can afford a smartphone, a tablet or an Internet connection, and not everyone has the know—how to search the Internet correctly and efficiently, it’s public libraries that make sure that these resources and technologies are available to a larger group of people. “Nobody is trying to sell you anything in the library.There is no pressure to buy and there is no judgment of your choices,” Anne Goulding, a professor at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand, wrote on the Newsroom website.“There are few other spaces that you can just‘be’in without somebody questioning your presence or your motivation.” 1.What cause book lovers to like Tianjin Binhai Public Library? A.Breathtaking magazines. B.World’s ultimate buildings. C.Design and book walls. D.Digitization. 2.Where does the text most probably come from? A.A fiction.         B.A tour guide. C.A newspaper. D.A book. 3.Why are physical libraries necessary to exist? A.Everyone has a phone with them. B.Some people are still used to the old ways. C.More and more people use computers. D.People can buy what they want there. 4.What does the text mainly talk about? A.Libraries living on in the digital age. B.Internet libraries nowadays. C.Physical libraries in the past. D.People’s dream libraries. 【2018·惠州第二次调研】 In many ways,Providence Mount St.Vincent in Seattle is a typical senior living community.It is home to about 400 elderly residents and provides them with different types of assistance.However,it is also the Intergenerational Learning Center—a preschool where children and seniors have the chance to bond. Established in 1991,the ILC’s purpose is to allow kids to learn about acceptance while they are also being nurtured.It also aims to help seniors develop a greater sense of self?worth and strengthen social interactions.Babies to prekindergarten?aged children are placed into six different classes at the ILC.The kids attend art and music classes,as well as story time and exercise time with the seniors.Marie Hoover,ILC director,said that interacting with the seniors has proven beneficial for the young ones,making them more open?minded. “For the ILC children,interacting with the residents is simply part of their day?to?day life here and the way aging is ‘normalized’,which may be the most important benefit they receive,” Hoover said. “I’ve had parents call me years after their children have graduated from our program to let me know about some incidents when their child was the first to warmly greet someone who happened to be in a wheelchair.” As for the seniors,they’re delighted by the companionship the children provide.The children bring so much energy and joy to our residents.Many of the residents are widows or widowers and can become lonely.Their adult children may still be working,so they may not get to see them as often as they would like.Having the children stay with the old makes our residents feel they are still part of a community.The young and the old connect and learn from one another at this__unique__facility. 1.ILC is intended to________. A.build a typical senior living community B.take good care of the children C.benefit both the children and the seniors D.rid the seniors of loneliness 2.From what Hoover said in Para.3,we can learn that the ILC children________. A.keep in touch with the seniors even if they have left the ILC B.come to realize that aging is a normal part of life C.take different attitudes to the elderly after graduation D.think it easy to interact with the elderly residents in the ILC 3.The last paragraph mainly tells us________. A.the benefits the seniors receive B.the situation of the seniors C.children’s company D.the interaction between the children and the seniors 4.The underlined words “this unique facility” may refer to________. A.a special building B.a typical family C.a typical teaching program D.a special learning center 20 第33讲 医学、教育类文章(解析版) 医学、教育类文章属于高考阅读理解常选材料之一。这类文章常涉及医学、医药、教育、法制、宗教等方面的文学艺术、发明创造、文化遗产保护、宗教与文化、风俗与习惯、道德与法制、中外文学名著节选、各国医学发展、医疗探究、学校教育和家庭教育等。这类材料的命题点往往落在主旨大意题和细节理解题上。 这些话题贴近生活,贴近时代,渗透不同文化教育间的异同、优点及缺点,充分体现了高考命题的思想性和前瞻性。选题注重学科素养的考核融入对语言能力的考核,同时要求考生备考时注意思维品质、学习能力和文化品格结合,有助于青少年正确价值观、道德观、风俗习惯的形成。 一、真题链接 【2018·全国卷Ⅱ】 Teens and younger children are reading a lot less for fun, according to a Common Sense Media report published Monday. While the decline over the past decade is steep for teen readers, some data in the report shows that reading remains a big part of many children’s lives, and indicates how parents might help encourage more reading. According to the report’s key findings, “the proportion (比例) who say they ‘hardly ever’ read for fun has gone from 8 percent of 13-year-olds and 9 percent of 17-year-olds in 1984 to 22 percent and 27 percent respectively today.” The report data shows that pleasure reading levels for younger children, ages 2-8, remain largely the same. But the amount of time spent in reading each session had declined, from closer to an hour or more to closer to a half hour per session. When it comes to technology and reading, the report does little to counsel (建议) parents looking for data about the effect of e-readers and tablets on reading. It does point out that many parents still limit electronic reading mainly due to concerns about increased screen time. The most hopeful data shared in the report shows clear evidence of parents serving as examples and important guides for their kids when it comes to reading. Data shows that kids and teens who do read frequently, compared to infrequent readers, have more books in the home, more books purchased for them, parents who read more often, and parents who set aside time for them to read. At the end of school approaches, and school vacation reading lists loom(逼近) ahead, parents might take the chance to step in and make their own summer reading list and plan a family trip to the library or bookstore. What is the Common Sense Media report probably about? Children’s reading habits. Quality of children’s books. Children’s after-class activities. Parent-child relationships. Where can you find the data that best supports “children are reading a lot less for fun”? In paragraph 2 B. In paragraph 3 C. In paragraph 4 D. In paragraph 5 Why do many parents limit electronic reading? E-books are of poor quality. It could be a waste of time. It may harm children’s health. E-readers are expensive. How should parents encourage their children to read more? Act as role models for them. B. Ask them to write book reports. C. Set up reading groups for them. D. Talk with their reading class teachers. 【答案】ABCA 【解析】 据本周一公布的a Common Sense Media report报告显示,青少年和年幼的孩子们读书的乐趣大大减少。文中从阅读的乐趣,阅读的时间,阅读方式和父母对孩子阅读的影响等角度展示了该报告的内容。 28. 推理判断题。题干问的是这篇报道可能是关于什么内容。根据整篇文章,我们可以看出这篇报道讲述了孩子们阅读的乐趣,孩子们阅读的时间,孩子们阅读方式和父母对孩子阅读的影响。A项意为:孩子们的阅读习惯;B项意为:孩子们所读书籍的质量;C项意为:孩子们的课后活动;D项意为:父母与孩子的关系。故选A。 29. 推理判断题。根据第三段中的the proportion (比例) who say they ‘hardly ever’ read for fun has gone from 8 percent of 13-year-olds and 9 percent of 17-year-olds in 1984 to 22 percent and 27 percent respectively today.可知,很少为乐趣而阅读的人的比例已经分别从1984年的13岁的8%和17岁的9%上升到现在的22%和27%。也就是说,为乐趣而读书的人越来越少了。故选B。 30. 推理判断题。根据倒数第三段最后一句many parents still limit electronic reading, mainly due to concerns about increased screen time可知,许多家长仍然限制电子阅读,主要是由于担心看一些电子屏幕的时间越来越多,也即是担心会伤害孩子们的健康。故选C。 31. 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段The most hopeful data shared in the report shows clear evidence of parents serving as examples and important guides for their kids when it comes to reading.可知,有明显的证据表明,父母为孩子们做榜样并为孩子们作重要指导能培养孩子的阅读习惯。也即是说,父母可以通过给孩子们作榜样来鼓励孩子们阅读的。故选A。 点睛:作此类型的题时,一定要读懂第一段。第一段读懂了,整篇文章大意也就迎刃而解了。明白了大意,第28题我们也不难看出答案,本文讲的肯定不是质量,不是活动也不是关系。而是习惯,即孩子们的阅读习惯。 【2018·江苏高考·B】 Before birth, babies can tell the difference between loud sounds and voices. They can even distinguish their mother's voice from that of a female stranger. But when it comes to embryonic learning(胎教),birds could rule the roost.As recently reported in The Auk:Ornithological Advances, some mother birds may teach their young to sing even before they hatch(孵化).New?born chicks can then imitate their mom's call within a few days of entering the world. This educational method was first observed in 2012 by Sonia Kleindorfer, a biologist at Flinders University in South Australia,and her colleagues. Female Australian superb fairy wrens were found to repeat one sound over and over again while hatching their eggs. When the eggs were hatched,the baby birds made the similar chirp to their mothers—a sound that served as their regular “feed me!”call. To find out if the special quality was more widespread in birds, the researchers sought the red?backed fairy wren,another species of Australian songbird. First they collected sound data from 67 nests in four sites in Queensland before and after hatching. Then they identified begging calls by analyzing the order and number of notes. A computer analysis blindly compared calls produced by mothers and chicks,ranking them by similarity. It turns out that baby red?backed fairy wrens also emerge chirping like their moms. And the more frequently mothers had called to their eggs, the more similar were the babies' begging calls. In addition, the team set up a separate experiment that suggested that the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom's voice were rewarded with the most food. This observation hints that effective embryonic learning could signal neurological(神经系统的) strengths of children to parents. An evolutionary inference can then be drawn. “As a parent, do you invest in quality children, or do you invest in children that are in need?”Kleindorfer asks. “Our results suggest that they might be going for quality.” 1.The underlined phrase in Paragraph 1 means “ ”. A.be the worst    B.be the best C.be just as bad D.be just as good 2.What are Kleindorfer's findings based on? A.Similarities between the calls of moms and chicks. B.The observation of fairy wrens across Australia. C.The data collected from Queensland's locals. D.Controlled experiments on wrens and other birds. 3.Embryonic learning helps mother birds to identify the baby birds which . A.can receive quality signals B.are in need of training C.fit the environment better D.make the loudest call 【答案】BAC 【解析】 研究发现胎教并非人类独有,一些鸟儿在这方面做得甚至更出色。 1.考查词义猜测。画线部分前面的语境说,婴儿在出生之前就能分辨很大的声响与人的嗓音;画线部分后面的语境说,有些鸟妈妈在鸟儿被孵化出来之前,就可能教它们啼叫。通过对比可知,与人类相比,鸟妈妈在胎教方面表现得最出色,故选B项。 2.考查细节理解。根据第二、三、四段的内容,尤其是第二段中的“the baby birds made the similar chirp to their mothers”,第三段的最后一句及第四段的第二句可知,Kleindorfer的发现是基于母鸟与幼鸟发出的叫声的相似性,故选A项。 3.考查推理判断。文章最后两段说,叫声与鸟妈妈的声音最接近的幼鸟得到的食物最多,这符合进化论的理论:适者生存,故选C项。 【长难句解读】 In addition, the team set up a separate experiment that suggested that the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom's voice were rewarded with the most food. 分析 本句是复合句。experiment后的that引导定语从句,suggest后面的that引导宾语从句,birds后面的that引导定语从句。 译文 另外,研究团队做了一个单独的实验,实验表明,模仿鸟妈妈的声音最接近的幼鸟被给予的食物最多。 二、阅读话题词汇夯实 阅读单词识记:英汉互译 【教育类】 1.achieve v. → n.完成;成就 2.appoint vt. → n.约定,约会;任命,委派 3.conclusion n. → vt.结束;推断 4.earn vt. 5.employ v. → n.雇用→unemployment n. →employer n. → n.雇员 6.hire vt. 7.interview n.& vt. → n.采访者;主持面试者→ n.接受面试者;被采访者 8.manage vt. → n.经营;管理→manager n. 9.quit vt. 10.resign vt.& vi. 11.retire vt.& vi. 12.undertake vt. 13.adjust v. 14.allowance n. 15.appearance n. → vi.出现 16.applicant n. 17.application n. 18.architect n. 19.assistant n. → vt.帮助;协助 →assistance n. 20.bonus n. 21.candidate n. 22.certificate n. 23.chance n. 24.consideration n. → adj.想得周到的;体贴的→consider vt. → prep.考虑到;鉴于 25.dismiss vt. 26.educated adj. 27.expectation n. 28.fail v. 29.hold v. 30.occupation n. 31.opportunity n. 32.possibility n. 33.physicist n. 34.potential adj. 35.position n. 36.profession n. 37.qualify vt.& vi. 38.qualified adj. 39.reply vt.& n. 40.representative n. 41.requirement n. 42.secretary n. 43.specialist n. 44.succeed v. 45.welfare n. 【答案速递】 1.achieve v.完成;实现;达到→achievement n.完成;成就 2.appoint vt.任命;委派;指定;约定(时间、地点)→appointment n.约定,约会;任命,委派 3.conclusion n.结论;结束→conclude vt.结束;推断 4.earn vt.赢得;挣得;赚得 5.employ v.雇用→employment n.雇用→unemployment n.失业→employer n.雇主→employee n.雇员 6.hire vt.雇用;租用 7.interview n.& vt.采访,会见,面试→interviewer n.采访者;主持面试者→interviewee n.接受面试者;被采访者 8.manage vt.经营;管理;设法对付→management n.经营;管理→manager n.经理;管理人 9.quit vt.停止;离开 10.resign vt.& vi.辞职 11.retire vt.& vi.退休 12.undertake vt.承担;从事 13.adjust v.调整;(使)适应;调节 14.allowance n.津贴;零用钱 15.appearance n.外貌→appear vi.出现 16.applicant n.申请人 17.application n.申请 18.architect n.建筑师 19.assistant n.助手,助理→assist vt.帮助;协助→assistance n.帮助;协助 20.bonus n.津贴;奖金;红利 21.candidate n.候选人;应试者 22.certificate n.执照;证(明)书 23.chance n.机会;机遇 24.consideration n.考虑;要考虑的事;体贴→considerate adj.想得周到的;体贴的→consider vt.思考,考虑;认为→considering prep.考虑到;鉴于 25.dismiss vt.让……离开;开除;解散;解雇 26.educated adj.受过教育的;有教养的 27.expectation n.期待,期望 28.fail v.失败;(考试)不及格 29.hold v.担任;拥有;保持;抓住 30.occupation n.职业 31.opportunity n.机会 32.possibility n.可能性;可能 33.physicist n.物理学家 34.potential adj.潜在的;可能的;n.潜力 35.position n.职位 36.profession n.职业,专业 37.qualify vt.& vi.(使)具有资格;(使)具备合格条件 38.qualified adj.有资格的 39.reply vt.& n.回答;回复 40.representative n.代表,典型(人物) 41.requirement n.要求 42.secretary n.秘书;书记 43.specialist n.专科医生;专家 44.succeed v.成功 45.welfare n.幸福;福利 【医学类】 1.energetic. 2.health 3.keep fit/healthy. 4.AIDS 5.blind 6. cancer 7.deaf 8.disabled 9.disease 10.fever 11.flu 12.headache 13.illness 14.overweight 15.sick 16.heart attack 17.allergic 18.choke 19.lame 20.suicide 21.toothache 22.arm 23..hurt 24.injure 25.wound 26. blood 27.burn 28.injury 29.pain 30.serious 31.sharp 32.suffer 33.weak 34.severe 35.suffering 36.symptom 37.upset 38.abnormal 39.acute 40.dizzy 41.faint 42.sneeze 43.swell 44.unconscious 45.pressure 46.risk 47.stress 48.in high / low spirits 49.wear out 50.carrier 51.cigarette 52.diet 53.emotion 54.harmful 55.factor 56.mental 56.physical 57.Psychological 58.tired 59.tobacco 60.virus 61.Weight 62. health 63.care 64.life style 65.sleeping pattern 66.immune system 67.cure, 68.recover 69.rescue 70. treat 71.die of/ from 72.get over 73.have an operation on/operate on 74.ambulance 75.emergency 76.examine 77.medical 78.recovery 79.relief 80.surgery 81.treatment 82.care for 83.first aid 84.take care of 85.bandage 86.chemist 87.bandage 88.clinic 89.heal 90.injection 91.prescription 92.transplant 93.ward 94.X-ray 95.medical guidance 96.Rug 97.medicine 98.pill 100.poison 101.herb 102.poisonous 103.tablet 【答案速递】 1.energetic.精力充沛 2.health.健康 3.keep fit/healthy.保持健康/健康 4.AID艾滋病 5.blind 盲的,瞎的 6. cancer癌症 7.deaf充耳不闻的,聋的 8.disabled 残疾人 9.disease 疾病 10.fever 热 11.flu流感 12.headache头痛 13.illness 疾病 14.overweight 超重 15.sick 生病 16.heart attack心脏病 17.allergic 过敏 18.choke 窒息 19.lame 的 20.suicide 自杀 21.toothache 牙痛的 22.arm.手臂 23..hurt 伤害 24.injure 使...受伤 25.wound 伤口 26.blood 他的血液 27.burn 燃烧 28.injury 受伤 29.pain疼痛 30.serious严重的 31.sharp 大幅的 32.suffer 遭受 33.weak 弱的 34.severe 严重的 35.suffering 痛苦 36.symptom 症状 37.upset 心烦意乱的 38.abnormal 异常的 39.acute 急性的 40.dizzy 头晕的 41.faint 模糊 42.sneeze 打喷嚏 43.swell 膨胀,肿胀 44.unconscious 无意识的 45.pressure 压力 46.risk 风险 47.stress 压力 48.in high / low spirits 情绪高涨/低落. 49.wear out 磨损 50.carrier 载体 51.cigarette 香烟 52.diet 饮食 53.emotion 情绪 54.harmful 有害 55.factor 因素,要素 56.mental心理 56.physical物理 57.psychological心理的 58.tired累的 59.tobacco烟草 60.virus病毒 61.weight体重,重量 62. health 健康 63.care 护理 64.life style 生活方式 65.sleeping pattern . 睡眠模式 66.immune system 免疫系统 67.cure.治疗 68.recover 恢复 69. rescue 救援 70.treat 治疗 71.die of/ from 死于.. 72.get over克服 73.have an operation on/operate on 动过手术 74.ambulance 一辆救护车 75.emergency 紧急 76.examine检查 77. medical 医疗的 78. recovery复苏 79.relief 救援 80.surgery 手术 81.treatment 治疗 82.care for 照顾 83. first aid急救 84.take care of 照顾 85.bandage 绷带 86.chemist 药剂师 87.symptom 症状 88.clinic诊所 89.heal 治疗 90.injection 注射 91.prescription 处方 92.transplant 移植 93.ward病房 94.X-ray x射线 95.medical guidance 医学指导 96.rug 地毯 97.medical 药物 98.pill 药 99.poison 毒药 100.capsule .胶囊 101.herb 草 102.poisonous 有毒 103.tablet 平板电脑 二、高频短语 英汉互译: 重点短语 申请 适合 3 主管 在某人的掌管之下 忙于做;专心于 失业 感觉能胜任 移交;交出 搜寻;寻找 符合;遇到;遭受 展望未来;为将来设想 负责;接管 【答案速递】 1.apply for申请 2.be fit for适合 3.in charge of主管 4.be in the charge of sb./be in one’s charge在某人的掌管之下 5.be occupied with忙于做;专心于 6.be out of employment/be out of work/lose one’s job失业 7.feel equal to感觉能胜任 8.hand over移交;交出 9.hunt for搜寻;寻找 10.meet with符合;遇到;遭受 11.look ahead展望未来;为将来设想 12.take charge of负责;接管 ★【即学即练】 【2019届湖南省雅礼中学高三上学期第三次月考】 1.According to the comments of the Physical Education teacher,Wally______. A. is too talkative in the class B. 1ikes to work with his classmates C. doesn’t exercise his body at the right time D. becomes weak because he doesn’t exercise at all 2.Which of Wally’s subjects will attract the headmaster’s attention in future? A. Biology and Maths. B. History and French. C. English and Chemistry. D. Physics and Physical Education. 3.Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the report? A. Wally didn’t bother his teacher to revise French. B. Wally’s potential has been fully reflected in his exam work. C. Wally’s grade in maths makes him a born scientist. D. Wally needs to improve his attitude on certain subjects. 【文章大意】本文是Philips High School的School Report。表格中介绍了学生Wally在学校的基本情况。从表格中可以看出Wally的History和French将来会引起校长的注意。Wally在某些科目上需要改进他的态度。 1.A【解析】推理判断题。根据表格中Wally has reached a satisfactory standard but now needs to apply himself with more determination.可知,根据体育老师的评论,Wally在班上太健谈了。故选A。 2.B【解析】推理判断题。根据History一栏中的分数和A disappointing exam result;再根据French一栏中的分数和His general attitude is far too casual.可推知Wally的History和French将来会引起校长的注意。故选B。 3.D【解析】推理判断题。根据文中His general attitude is far too casual.可知,Wally在某些科目上需要改进他的态度。故选D。 一、读文的两种方式,应注意据情而选 方式(一) 文章——问题——文章 即先粗读文章,然后看问题,最后再通过精读文章来解答问题。这是考生常用的按部就班的阅读方式,其特点是有利于考生把握文章的主旨和作者的态度。但采用这种阅读方式的考生往往阅读速度较慢,因此难以在阅读时积极主动地预测文章内容。 方式(二) 问题——文章——问题 即先将问题看一遍,然后带着问题去阅读文章,最后答题。其特点是针对性强,节省答题时间,比较适用于解答事实性和细节性的问题,但是解答主旨性和推断性问题的效果不明显。 上面这两种读文方式的采用因人而异,无优劣之分。当然,题型不同,读文的方式也应有所不同。但无论采用哪种方式,一旦选定适合自身的方式,应持之以恒,形成读文做题的习惯。 二、破解生僻词的两大技法,应注意灵活使用 阅读理解涉及词汇、句子、段落、语篇四个层次的理解问题,而其中最根本的是词汇。词汇是构成语言的基本元素。如果考生掌握的词汇量不够,在阅读过程中处处都是生词,则会处处碰壁,就难以顺利地读懂文章。因此,积累足够的词汇是提高阅读技能的第一步。 一般来说,在阅读文章时,总会碰到一些自己不认识的词。高考文章中允许出现3%的超纲词。《考试大纲》要求考生能“根据上下文推测生词的词义”,因此词义猜测题也是高考题型之一。正确处理阅读中遇到的生词,掌握一定的猜测生词词义的技巧,对于理解文章及答题都非常重要。对于生词一般有如下两种处理方式: (一)无关紧要的词汇——“跳过去” 在阅读理解设题时,并不是所有的生词都是出题点。在阅读中,当遇到一个生词时,不妨先问自己一个问题:这些生词有没有进行精确猜测的必要。高考试题中经常会出现没必要去精确猜测的生词,不知道它的精确含义也不会影响对基本句意的理解。在考试中,有百分之十的生词都不会干扰你做题。所以,平时考生要练习对生词的容忍度和处理生词的技巧,否则,临场时你会因焦虑而影响做题速度和准度。对于这类词,不要过多纠缠,尽管放心大胆地“跳过去”。 在一起出现的几个首字母大写的单词 它可能是个专有名词,你不需要知道其意思,只需要知道它是某个事物的名称即可 斜体的单词 它可能是某本书、杂志、电影的名称或某个专业术语,你也不用了解它的意思,只需要知道它代表什么事物即可 (二)影响阅读的词汇——“猜出来” 有时候,一些生词对阅读来说存在很大的障碍,对上下文的理解至关重要,我们必须知道这些词的精确含义。那么,如何排除这些障碍呢?具体方法将在后面“第四讲词义猜测题”中详细阐述。 例1.【2018·成都摸底测试】 “Hungary?”I looked at my school headmaster in confusion.“I never mentioned wanting to go to Hungary.” And with that, my adventure started. My name is Jonathan Diamond and I just finished an amazing school exchange year in Hungary. Going on an exchange had always been my dream.When my high school offered an all?year program, I jumped at the opportunity.It would pay for almost everything and all I had to do was buy a plane ticket.I knew where I wanted to go:Spain, the country of dancers wearing flowing red dresses.So when I heard that I was going to Hungary, I was pretty shocked.But I decided to make the best of it, since it was, after all, a once?in?a?lifetime opportunity.Before I knew it, I was on the airplane, leaving for Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport, Hungary. I had difficult times when I almost gave up.Hungarian is the hardest language on the planet.Cultural differences occasionally embarrassed both my peers and me.I had to give up eating carrots, my beautiful favorite, for Hungarians think carrots are rubbish in their country.The change in the landscape was amazing, looking nothing like skyscrapers, bullet trains, cars, and people in tiny houses that I had been accustomed to.Gradually, I fell in love with the relaxing lifestyle, the warm?hearted people, and getting home at 2:30 p.m. at the latest from school.And I was sad to leave on my very last day. Having the host family who took me as one of their own members was the best thing I’ve ever experienced.From my little sisters, I learned how to embrace life to its fullest.From my brothers I learned that it’s OK for a boy to run around the house.From my host parents I learned to stay positive, to smile and that when you pick the right people and take their hands, suddenly, you become friends. 1.How did Jonathan feel when he was told to go to Hungary? A.Excited and satisfied. B.Confused and shocked. C.Amazed and embarrassed. D.Delighted and interested. 2.Why did Jonathan still decide to go to Hungary instead of Spain? A.He didn’t like Spain. B.He wanted to learn Hungarian. C.It was a rare chance. D.Going to Hungary was much cheaper. 3.What can we learn about Jonathan during his stay in Hungary? A.He fell in love with eating carrots. B.He couldn’t wait to leave. C.He was surprised by the landscape. D.He quickly got used to the life there. 4.According to Jonathan, the host family ________. A.changed him completely B.taught him how to dance well C.treated him as equally as a student D.showed him the good things of life 【答案】1.B 2.C 3.C 4.D 【解析】 本文是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了作者作为一个交换生在国外学习的经历和感受。 1.B 解析:细节理解题。根据第一段中的“I looked at my school headmaster in confusion.”可知, 作者听到这个消息很迷惑, 再结合第三段中的“So when I heard that I was going to Hungary, I was pretty shocked.”可知, 选项B正确。 2.C 解析:细节理解题。根据第三段中的“But I decided to make the best of it, since it was, after all, a once?in?a?lifetime opportunity.”可知, 作者决定充分利用这次机会, 因为毕竟这是一次千载难逢的机会,所以选项C正确。a rare chance“一次罕见的机会”。 3.C 解析:推理判断题。根据第四段中的“The change in the landscape was amazing”可知,选项C正确。 4.D 解析:推理判断题。根据最后一段内容可知,作者从寄宿家庭那里学到了很多人生哲学,他们向作者展现了生活中美好的事情,故选项D正确。 变式训练 【2018·武汉4月调研A】 100?Word?Story Competition 2018 Our annual short story competition is back.As ever, we look forward to reading yours! The Rules Please make sure that stories are new, not previously published and exactly 100 words long (not including the title).We may use entries in all print and electronic media. Entry is open only to people living in the U.K.It is not open to employees of Reader’s Digest and all others associated with this competition, their immediate families and relatives living in an employee’s household. Terms and Conditions There are three categories—one for adults and two for young people: one for children aged 12-18 and one for children under 12. In the adult category, the winner will receive £ 1,000 and two runners?up will each receive £ 250.In the children aged 12-18 and children under 12 categories, the winners will each receive a Fire HD 8 and a selection of STAEDTLER products worth £ 50, plus two STAEDTLER class packs of pencils for their school.The two runners?up in both categories will each receive a Kindle. Please submit your stories by 5 p.m. on February 19. The editorial team will pick a shortlist of entries, which this year will be published by our partner nicereading.com.Winners of the categories will have an opportunity to write a longer version of their stories for inclusion in the book. The three best stories in each category will be posted online at readersdigest.co.uk on February 27.You can vote for your favourite, and the one with the most votes wins the top prize.Voting will close at 5 p.m. on March 19 and the winning entry will be published in our June issue(期). 1.Who is forbidden to take part in the story competition? A.A British man of 20. B.A staff member of Reader’s Digest. C.A net friend of the organizer. D.An employee of the government. 2.Which of the following will be awarded to the youth winners? A.A Fire HD 8.       B.A Kindle. C.£50. D.£250. 3.When are the stories due? A.By 5 p.m. on February 19. B.On February 27. C.At 5 p.m. on March 19. D.In June. 4.Where will the winning entry come out? A.On TV. B.In a magazine. C.On a website. D.In a book. 【答案】1.B 2.A 3.A 4.B 【解析】 本文是一篇应用文。文章主要介绍了2018年百字故事竞赛的相关事宜,包括竞赛规则、参赛条件、作品截止时间以及奖励等。 1.B 解析:细节理解题。根据题干中的关键词forbidden定位到关于竞赛的The Rules部分。根据这一部分中的“It is not open to employees of Reader’s Digest and all others associated with this competition...household.”可知,Reader’s Digest的工作人员、与竞赛有关的人员及工作人员的家人和住在一起的亲戚都不能参赛,故答案是B。 2. A 解析:细节理解题。根据题干中的关键词youth winners定位到文章的Terms and Conditions部分。根据这一部分中的“In the children aged 12-18 and children under 12 categories, the winners will each receive a Fire HD 8 and a selection of STAEDTLER products”可知,答案是A。 3.A 解析:细节理解题。根据题干中的关键词due定位到文章的Terms and Conditions部分。根据这一部分中的“Please submit your stories by 5 p.m. on February 19.”可知,截止时间是2月19号的下午5点,故答案是A。 4.B 解析:细节理解题。根据题干中的关键词“winning entry come out”定位到文章的最后一段。根据最后一段的最后一句“and the winning entry will be published in our June issue(期)”可知,获奖作品将在Reader’s Digest的六月期刑上发表,故答案是B。 【2018·郑州市第二次质量预测】 There were many famous poets from different periods of time in Chinese history, and thousands of their poems are still read and appreciated today. To arouse people's interest in those classic Chinese poems and promote cultural heritage, China Central Television (CCTV) produced a TV show —Chinese Poetry Conference. The finale (终场) of the hit show's second season was shown on Feb.7 this year. Wu Yishu, 16, who studies at the High School Affiliated to Fudan University in Shanghai, came out on top. In an earlier episode(一集), Wu wowed the audience when performing in a section entitled“ Feihualing”. The game's theme was“yue”, meaning“moon” or“month” in Chinese. She recited the lines from the Classic of Poetry,the earliest collection of poems in China:“In July, the crickets (蟋蟀) are in the field. In August, they are in the yard. In September they are at the door. In October, they enter and crawl under our beds.” “I really admire her knowledge of poems,” said Huang Zijin, 16, a Senior 2 student from Ningbo High School in Zhejiang Province. “The first time I saw her wearing traditional Han clothing on TV, I was very impressed by her classical looks. She fulfills all my fantasies about classic Chinese women's talents. What's more, she always appears so calm throughout the show, which is very unusual for her age.” As the old saying goes, “One who is filled with knowledge always behaves with elegance.” “Learning poems isn't about winning or losing. The power of poetry lies in shaping one's view of life and developing one's inner world,” said Li Bo, an expert guest at the Chinese Poetry Conference's second season. When it comes to teaching people about poetry, Li Dingguang, the show's academic advisor, suggested that teachers should explain more about the beauty of the poetry from both the aesthetic(美学的) and emotional sides, and guide the students to lose themselves in the poems' rhythmic(有节奏的) and rhyming lines. “Although the amount of ancient Chinese poetry in the textbooks of primary and secondary schools has increased, many students still learn them for exams,”Li Dingguang told China.org.cn.“Therefore, it's important to help students truly appreciate the artistry and fun of poetry.” 1. What's one of the purposes of the TV show Chinese Poetry Conference? A. To entertain people by enjoying Chinese poems. B.To see who can recite the most classic Chinese poems. C.To fulfill people's fantasies about Chinese women's talents. D.To make more people interested in classic Chinese poetry. 2.From Paragraphs 3 and 4, what can we infer about Wu Yishu? A. She is a talented and elegant Chinese teenager. B.She has learned a large amount of poetry from textbooks. C.She is always calm in the show like other competitors of her age. D.She amazed the audience with the lines from the Classic of Poetry in the finale. 3.According to Li Bo, why do people learn poetry? A.To get good marks in examinations. B.To help build up their inner world. C.To win the Chinese Poetry Conference. D.To appreciate the beauty of rhythm and rhyme. 4.What is Li Dingguang's attitude to poetry teaching? A.Doubtful.     B.Supportive. C.Critical. D.Casual. 【答案】1.D 2.A 3.B 4.C 【解析】  本文是一篇夹叙夹议文。中国诗词源远流长,至今仍为世人传诵。为发扬中国文化,提高人们对中国古诗的兴趣,中央电视台制作并播出了《中国诗词大会》节目,中学生武亦姝以其特有的魅力征服了观众。 1.D 考查细节理解。根据第二段第一句中的“To arouse people's interest in those classic Chinese poems and promote cultural heritage”可知,中央电视台制作并播出《中国诗词大会》的目的是提高人们对中国古诗的兴趣、发扬中国文化,故D项正确。 2.A 考查推理判断。通读第三段可知,该段介绍了武亦姝以背诵含“月”字的诗词征服了观众;第四段介绍了人们对武亦姝气质和形象的评价:她穿着汉服,文静内秀,给人们留下了深刻的印象。据此可以推断,武亦姝是一个有天赋的、优雅的人,故A项正确。 [干扰项分析] B项在第三、四段中没有提及;根据第四段最后一句中的“she always appears so calm throughout the show,which is very unusual for her age”可知,她的平静在同龄人中是不常见的,故C项错误;根据第三段第二句“In an earlier episode(一集)...a section entitled‘Feihualing’”可知,她背诵《诗经》中的诗词不是在决赛中,故D项错误。 3.B 考查细节理解。根据第六段的“The power of poetry lies in shaping one's view of life and developing one's inner world”可知,郦波认为学习诗歌的目的在于塑造人的人生观和发展人的内心世界,故B项正确。 4.C 考查观点态度。根据最后一段的“Although the amount of ancient Chinese poetry in the textbooks of primary and secondary schools has increased,many students still learn them for exams”可知,李定广对学校诗歌教学的评价是:尽管教材中诗歌的数量增多了,但是许多学生学习诗歌仅是为了考试。据此可以判断,他对诗歌教学持批评态度,故C项正确。 【2018·郑州第二次质量预测】 ? Though not as much as in the past, grandparents are the teachers of the Navajo(纳瓦霍人) yout

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  • ID:4-5067256 [精]高考一轮复习学案 第36讲 应用文写作(解析版+原卷版)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    第36讲 应用文写作(原卷版) 近五年全国卷的书面表达,基本都是提纲形式的书信体。此类书面表达在涉外交流或需要使用英语的具体语境中,能够体现岀邀请、咨询、求助、道歉、宣传等交际功能,联系考生日常生活,反映中外文化特色。此类题目一般会给出特定的情境,要求考生据此写一封书信,来解决一件涉外交流的事件。题目要求中往往会提供二至三条具体的写作要点并给出一些注意事项,允许考生适当发挥。因此此类题目有一定的局限性,但也有相对的开放性。文章话题贴近考生生活,旨在解决具体问题,令考生有话可说,也有机会把话说好。这既考查了考生的基础写作能力,又拓展了考生的能力空间。特别需要指出的是,这两年高考书面表达变过去高考命题的”介绍与英语学习有关的英美文化习俗及风土人情"为"全方位、大纵深介绍中国优秀传统文化习俗”,这是高考命题的方向性变化,其目的显而易见:凸显中国元素,唤起中华民族的民族自信,让中国走向世界,让世界全方位地了解中国。这也与“民族情怀,国际视野,跨文化交流”的核心素养紧紧相连。 一、真题透析: ★【2018·全国I】假定你是李华,你的新西兰朋友Terry将去中国朋友家做客,发邮件向你询问有关习俗。请你回复邮件。内容包括: (1).到达时间; (2).合适的礼物; (3).餐桌礼仪 注意: 1.词数100 左右 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 【审题指导】 这是一篇介绍中国传统风俗习惯的提纲式回复询问信。 注意写作时应用第一、第二人称,时态以一般现在时为主。 可分三部分来写: 第一段(点题):表明已收到对方来信+写信目的; 第二段(主体):重点回复对方来信当中涉及的到中国家庭做客要注意的几个问题,注意按照题干要点逐一解释,不要遗漏; 第三段(结尾):期待自己的解答能让对方满意。 【参考范文】 Dear?Terry, I’m?more?than?delighted?to?know?you?were?invited?to?a Chinese?dinner?party.?It's?really?a?good? opportunity that?can't?bemissed?to?experience?Chinese?culture.??Here?comes?some? relevant on?that?you?are?deeply?concerned?about. First?of?all,?you're?expected?to?arrive?on?time?because?it's polite?to?be?punctual?in?China.?In? addition,it’s a good idea to bring?a?small?gift,?such?as?a?bunch?of?flowers?or?a?box?of? chocolates if?they?have?young?children.?Most?importantly,?the?elderly?are usually?the?first?to taste?the?food?served?on?the?table?because?they are?well?respected?in?China.?Last?but?not? least,?enjoying?eve dish?means?you?really?appreciate?what?your?friend?has?done?and don't?forget?to?praise?your?friend?for?the?delicious?food?he?offers. ?I?hope?my?suggestions?will?be?of?benefit?to?you.?May?you?have a great?time. Yours Li?Hua 【文采拾贝】 文中高级词汇和地道表达层出不穷,长短句交错使用,从句和非谓语动词频现,语言丰富,表情达意到位,情感真切。 具体亮点如下 1脉络清晰的逻辑表达:?first?of?all,?in?addition,?most?importantly,?last?but?not?least。 2.可圈可点的从句:①①为定语从句;②中包含定语从句;③3为主语从句;⑥为宾语从句。 3.独具特色的特殊句式:②为倒装句;③中it为形式主语。 4.点石成金的非谓语:④为非谓语动词短语作后置定语;⑤为动名词短语作主语。 ★【2018·石家庄市高三教学质检】假如你是李华,获悉你校英语学习社团准备创办一份中学生英文校刊以促进大家的英语学习,请你用英语给社团负责人Sith先生写一封信,一来表达你得知此事的喜悦心情,二来提出你喜欢的栏目( column)并简要说明理由。 注意:1.词数100左右 2.信的开头和结尾已为你写好,不计入总词数 【审题指导】 这是一篇介绍中国传统风俗习惯的提纲式回复询问信。 注意写作时应用第一、第二人称,时态以一般现在时为主。 可分三部分来写: 第一段(点题):表明已收到对方来信+写信目的; 第二段(主体):重点回复对方来信当中涉及的到中国家庭做客要注意的几个问题,注意按照题干要点逐一解释,不要遗漏; 第三段(结尾):期待自己的解答能让对方满意。 【参考范文】 Dear Mr. Smith, I am very excited to learn that our English learning club is going to start an English magazine. It is indeed a wonderful idea and I'm sure it will make a success.I think it should be best if the school magazine would have 3 columns, such as School News, Teachers' Advice and Students' Voice. From the School News Column we can learn bout what is going on in our school. In Teachers' Adviceour teachers can give us advice on how to learn English more efficiently. Students' Voice will offer us a space to freely express our thoughts and feelings about our lives and studies. I believe this magazine will surely benefit us, and I am looking forward to reading it. Yours sincerely Li Hua 【文采拾贝】 文中高级词汇并没有过多应用,但语言准确,过渡自然,表达到位,情感真切,符合应用文传情达意的初衷,也不失为一篇好文章。 二、审题定点,运筹帷幄 高考书面表达的审题谋篇是取得高分的第一步,不管是提纲信息类作文,图表类作文,还是(半)开放作文,都要做到定体,定人称,定时态,定要点及定结构。做好以上内容的整体布局和策划是一篇优秀习作的必经之路。 技能1 写作思路要顺畅 (1) 认真审题,分析提纲或者图画(图表)内容,明确文聱的写作主题,并确定文章的体裁、人称、时态、结构及要点等五大基本要素。 (2)根据提纲或图画(图表)内容,确定文章的段落层次。 (3)收集与主题相符,能支持主题的具体内容材料。 (4)理清段落与段落,层次与层次之间的过渡、衔接关系和方式。 (5)确定能体现主题、简单明了、发人深思的结尾方式。 技能2 篇章结构需谋划 (1) 注意篇章结构,合理布局。 开始部分一说出文中的要点、核心问题; 正文部分一围绕主题开展叙述或讨论; 结尾部分一对全文的总结和概括。 (2) 确定主题句 主题句是对全文的概括,是文章的主旨。它能在文章中起到“画龙点睛”的作用。通常主题句出现在一篇文章的开头,然后,全文对主题句所提出的内容进行解释,扩展。 技能3写作要点巧表述 (1) 提纲要点化 根据信息的提示,列全需要写作的内容要点,确保无遗漏,这是考生能够拿到基本分的关键。 (2) 要点句式化 将要点扩展成精确的句子,这是体现写作水平的关键一环,同时也是最重要的“增分点”。坚决避免英语汉语化和句式的单一化,在保证正确的前提下,尽可能使用高级词汇、层次感比较丰富的复杂句式。 3) 连句成文 在“要点齐全、较高级词汇的使用以及句式丰富”都做好的前提下,加人引入话题的开篇句、承上启下的过渡句以及紧扣主题的结束句写作任务基本完成。 (3) 整理誉写 写作过程中,确保书写工整、态度认真,保证卷面的整洁,避免出现由于书写问题而造成的失分现象。 三、增加细节的高分技巧 微技能1列举具体的实例进行补充说明 1.(2018·全国1书面表达)此外,你最好带一些小礼物。 Besides,?you?'d?better?bring?some?little?gifts. →Besides,?you'd?better?bring?some?little?gifts,?such?as?a special?food?or?drink?from?your country. 2.(2018·广州综合检测二书面米选)我想大体上介绍一下中国的传统文化。I'd?like?to?talk?briefly?about?Chinese?traditional?culture. →I'?d?like?to?talk?briefly?about?Chinese?traditional culture,?especially?Chinese?painting. 3.我要花一些时间和父母在一起。 I'lI?spend?some?time?staying?with?my?parents. →I'll?spend?some?time?staying?with?my?parents,?chatting with?them?and?doing?some?housework.. 4.我想找一个像我一样喜欢旅行的笔友。 I'd?like?to?seek?a?pen?pal?who?is?interested?in?traveling just?like?me. →I'd?like?to?seek?a?pen?pal?who?is?interested?in?travelingjust?like?me.?If?possible,?we?can?travel? together?or?share traveling?experiences. 5.我是一个充满活力的健康男孩,我非常喜欢体育运动。 I?am?a?healthy?boy?full?of?energy?so?I?like?sports?very much. →I?am?a?healthy?boy?full?of?energy?so?I?like?sports?verymuch,?especially?outdoor?activities. ?Whenever?I?have?time I'll?go?hiking?or?mountain?climbing?with?my?classmates. 6.(2018·郑州第一次质量预测) 现在,我想与你分享春节的一些传统风俗习惯。 Now,?I'd?like?to?share?with?you?some?traditional?customsof?the?Spring?Festival. →Now,?I'd?like?to?share?with?you?some?traditiocustoms?of?the?Spring?Festival,?the?most?important festival in?China. 【题组过关1】根据括号内提示完成句子. 1. The?Internet?is?playing?a?more?and?more?important?part?in our?daily?life. (我们不仅能阅读国内外的新闻),?but?also get?information,?send?emails?and?attend?on-line?schools. 2.?Laura?is?a?standard?American?style. (她说一口完美的美式英语),?and?that’s why?I?am?crazy?about?her. 3.However,?it?seems?people?are?unaware?of?the?negative effects?of?mobile?phones?on ?communication. (比如,很多人越来越不重视面对面的交流)。 4.?However,every?coin?has?two?sides,?so?does?the?Internet. (比如,沉溺于网络也许会影响我们的学习和工作). 微技能2增添与所写信息相关的神态、动作、结果、心理描写以及背景渲染等内容。 1.(2018·日照检测书面表达)当我们爬山时所有人都捡些垃圾。 All?of?us?picked?up?the?rubbish?as?we?climbed?up. →All?of?us?picked?up?the?rubbish?as?we?climbed?up helping?to?beautify?the?scenery.(结果描写) 2.我有时去村西的小河游泳。 I?went?swimming?in?the?river?of?the?west?of?the?village now?and?then. →I?went?swimming?in?the?river?of?the?west?of?the?village?now and?then.?The?water?in?the?river?is ?very?clear.(背景渲染) →Weather?permitting,?I?went?swimming?in?the?river?of?the west?of?the?village?now?and?then.(相关背景) 3.旅行了一周后,他回到了家。 After?a?week's?trip,?he?returned?home. →After?a?week's?trip,?he?returned?home,?tired?but?very happy.(心理描写) 【题组过关2】根据括号内提示完成句子 1. (考虑到这项活动很有意义).we?intend?to?design?a?uniform?suited?to?our?own class. 2. I'II?try?my?best?to?make your uncle happy here. (我热切地期盼看他来我们城市参观)。 3.At?that?moment,?I?became?the?focus?of?the?whole?class and (充满了自豪和自信). 4.?Finally,?I?would?like?to?ask?a?few?questions?about?his personal?life, (这一定很有趣). 5.(2018·河北五个一名校联盟) (从你的信中得知你已被剑桥大学录取),I’m more than?glad?to?write?to?offer?my?warmest?congratulations. 微技能3增加相关信息的时间、地点等内容。 1.(2018·东北三省四市教研二模)作为一个传统,中国学生总是向老师表达感激之情。 Chinese?students?always?like?to?express?gratitude?to?their teachers?as?a?tradition. →With?Teacher's?Day?approaching,?Chinese?students always?like?to?express?gratitude?to?their? teachers?as?a tradition.(增加时间) 2. 我要和父母一起去超市购物。 I'm?going?to?do?some?shopping?with?my?parents?in?the supermarket. →I'm?going?to?do?some?shopping?with?my?parents?in?the supermarket?and?won't?be?back?until about?5:?00?in?the afternoon.(增加时间) 3.我已经带来了你让我归还的两本书。 I?have?taken?with?me?the?two?books?you?asked?me?to return. →I?have?taken?with?me?the?two?books?you?asked?me?to return?to?the?City?Library.(增加地点) 【题组过关3】根据括号内提示完成句子。 1. (几分钟过去了)?but?the whole?class?was?in?complete?silence. 2. The?Chinese?Silk?Road (起源于今天的西安, 最后到达的东海岸)?the?Mediterranean,is well-known?to?the?world. 3.?I?was?attracted?by?the?beauty?of?the?city (……就……)?I?arrived?here?at 6 o'?clock?in the?morning?by?plane. 4.(2018·东北三省四市二模书面表达)I’?d?like?to?invite you?to?attend?our?class?meeting?next? week (如果你有空). 微技能4 适当增加与所给信息相关的原因、条件、让步、手段、目的等内容。 1.(2018·昆明质检)不久我将成为成年人。 It?won't?be?long?before?I?become?an?adult. →It?won't?be?long?before?I?become?an?adult,?so?I?feel?very excited?as?well?as?a?bit?nervous. 2.(2018·兰州模拟)我们城市将在下个月15至30号举办丝绸之路国际艺术节(?Silk?Road International?Arts?Festival)。 The?Silk?Road?International?Arts?Festival?will?be?held?in our?city?from?15th?to?30th?next?month →Aimed?to?promote?international?cultural?exchange?andcooperation?among?countries?along ?the?Silk?Road,the Silk Road?International?Arts?Festival?will?be?held?in?our?city from15th to30 th? next?month.(分词作状语) 3. 假设你是李华,你的英国笔友?Henry最近来信询问你高考后的暑假安排。请根据下面要点写一封回信,说明你的计划,并简述理由。①休息;读书;②参加社会活动 I?need?a?good?rest.?I'Il?do?some?reading. →I?need?a?good?rest?because?I?do?feel?tired?after?the?hardwork?of?all?these?years.?Of?course,?I'll? do?some?reading?for fun,?and?for?knowledge?as?well.(因果关系) I'll?take?part?in?some?social?activities. →If?I?have?free?time,?I'lI?take?part?in?some?social activities.(条件状语) →?If?possible,I’ll take?part?in?some?social?activities.(条件状语) →If?possible,?I'lI?take?part?in?some?social?activities?so that/in?order?that?I?can?know?more ?about? the?society.?(目的状语) 4.Tacy来电话说和你在咖啡屋(?Bolton?Coffee)的见面取消。 →Tracy?called,?saying?that?she?couldn't?meet?you?at?Bolton Coffee. →Tracy?called,?saying?that?she?couldn't?meet?you?at?BoltonCoffee?as?she?has?something?important? to?do.(原因状语) 5.我也帮助邻里的孩子补习英语。 I?also?helped?children?in?the?neighborhood?with?their English?lessons. →I?also?helped?children?in?the?neighborhood?with?their English?lessons.?To?my?joy,?they?made? rapid progress?and their?parents?thought?highly?of?me.(增添结果) 【题组过关4】根据括号内提示完成句子 1.We?were?happy?and?returned?home (我们捡完所有的垃圾之后). 2.I?often?join?in?many?activities (来和其他同学交流开拓我的视野). 3. (众所周知),?Earth Hour?is?an?activity?which?aims?at?saving?energy. 4.(2018·新疆第一次适应性考试) (为了帮助人们了解更多的中国传统文化),?our?school?is?intended?to hold?a?series?of?activities. 微技能5 结尾适当发挥,写出个人感受、评价、希望、倡议等。 1.?Although?I?was?very?tired?this?summer?holiday,?I?felt?very happy?for?what?I?did.(个人感受) 2.?I?think?such?activities?are?necessary?and?meaningful.?(评价) 3.(2018·新疆第一次适应性测试)?We?hold?the?firm belief?that?the?visitors?will?know?more?about ?Chinese?traditional culture?and?at?the?same?time?enjoy?the?beauty?of?it.?(希望) 4.As?a?student,?it's?our?duty?to?protect?our?school?environment and?make?it?clean.(倡议) 【题组过关5】根据括号内提示完成句子 1. (作为一个专业的篮球运动员),?he?is?one?of?China'?s?best- known?athletes. 2.I?think?Beijing (非常值得再次参观). 3.?In?my?view, (不管互联网多么吸引人),?it?shouldn'?t?separate?us?from our loved?ones. 4. (通过这个实验我们得出一个结论):?the?temperature?doesn’t change?when?ice?is?melting?into?water. 5.Let's?develop?good?habits?of?saving?energy?in?our?daily life?and (尽力为我们的环境做出更多贡献). 应用文包含邀请信、建议信、口头通知、申请信、投诉信和道歉信等,考生应主要注意这些文体的篇章布局和首段、中段、尾段涉及到的重要句型,减少不必要的失分。从书面表达的评分标准中可以看出:恰当选用贴切、地道的高级词汇对提高书面表达的得分非常重要。写作时恰当使用一些大多数考生有可能想不到的词汇,恰当地求新求异或使用较为高级的短语习语等来代替普通词汇,可以提高文章的得分档次。为写作增添色彩。请考生牢记并熟练运用下面的句式: 一. 邀请信 【篇首句】介绍自己,简要说明活动,并邀请对方。 1. I’m Wang Ming from YuWen School,the president of the Student Union. 我是来自育文学校的王明,学生会主席。 2. An English speaking contest of our school will be held on August 6. 我们学校有一场英语演讲比赛将在8月6号举行。 3. There will be a party in my garden on Sunday. 周日,在我的花园里会举行一场聚会。 4. I’d like to invite you to judge it.我想邀请你做它的裁判。 5. I’m writing to invite you to...我写信是邀请你...... 6. I wonder if you can come to...我想知道你是否能来...... 7. We sincerely hope you can attend it.我们真诚希望你能够参加。 8. It’s my pleasure/a great honour for me to invite you to...我很荣幸的邀请你...... 9. It’s a pity that you have to go back to America soon. So a farewell party for you will be held in the Sun Club this Saturday evening. Could you come at 6:00 pm? 很遗憾你不久就要回美国了。所以,这周六,在阳光俱乐部我们会为你举行一个欢送会。下午六点你能来吗? 【篇中句】介绍活动具体内容,并说明受邀人参加理由。 1.It will begin at 2:00 pm and last two hours, during which time 15 well-prepared contestants will deliver their speeches.它将于下午两点钟开始,四点钟结束,在此期间将会有十五位准备充分的参赛者发表演讲。 2. We will start at 8:00 am and arrive there at 9:00.我们将会在上午八点出发,九点到达那里。 3. During the afternoon, we’ll...together.下午,我们会一起...... 4. Remember to take water and lunch with you.记得带上水和午餐。 5. By the way, you may take Bus No. 322 in front of your apartment and it will take you directly to the club.顺便说一下,你可以乘坐你家公寓前的322路公交车,它会直接把你带到俱乐部。 6. I know you are a native speaker of English and an English teacher, and I, on behalf of our school, sincerely invite you to be part of the contest.我知道你的母语是英语,还是一个英语老师。我,代表我们学校,真诚的邀请你来比赛现场。 7. Since you are so eager to improve your English, it will prove to be a great chance. 既然你如此渴望提高英语,这会是一个很好的机会。 8. I’m sure that you will enjoy yourself there.我保证你在那里会过得很愉快。 【篇尾句】期待对方接受邀请,并期待对方尽快回复。 1. Will you be available during that time? Please contact me at 1234567 at your earliest convenience.那期间你有空吗?请方便时尽快给我打电话1234567。 2. Would you please let me know as soon as possible if you can accept my invitation? 请尽快告诉我你能否接受我的邀请好吗? 3. We will feel much honored if you could come.如果你能来,我们会非常荣幸。 4. We are looking forward to your coming.我们期待着你的到来。 5. I am longing to see you soon.我期待着尽早见到你。 二. 建议信 【篇首句】说明写信目的。 1. I'm sorry to hear that you are having trouble fitting in your new school. Such problems are quite normal. Perhaps the following suggestions are helpful.很遗憾听说你在适应新学校方面有困难。这样的问题是很正常的。可能下面的建议会有一些帮助。 2. I have received your letter saying you plan to play a visit to China for ten days next month. Perhaps the following suggestions are helpful to you.我已经收到了你的来信。信上说你打算下个月来参观中国十天。可能下面的建议对你是有帮助的。 3. I'm writing to you to present what I think on the further improvement of our hotel so as to attract more clients(顾客).我给你写信是想说明一下我对于进一步改善我们旅馆的一些想法,以吸引更多顾客。 4. You have asked me for my advice with regard to how to learn Chinese , and I will try to make some suggestions here.你关于如何学习汉语询问我的建议,那么我就在这里给出一些建议。 5. I'm very glad to receive your letter asking for my advice on how to fit in the new school life. Here are a few suggestions.很高兴收到你的来信,信上询问我关于如何适应新的学校生活。下面是我的一些建议。 6. I'm very glad to have received your e-mail. Now I'm writing to give you some advice on how to learn English well in high school.很高兴收到你的电子邮件。现在,关于如何在高中学好英语,我写信给你一些建议。 【篇中句】介绍详情、提出具体建议。 1. I'd like to suggest that...我想要建议...... 2. In my opinion,...在我看来,...... 3. If I were you, I would...如果我是你,我会...... 4. You'd better do.../not do...你最好/最好不...... 5. It's necessary for you to read some books about these places before you come to see them with your own eyes. With more knowledge about these places, you will have a better understanding of Chinese history and culture.在你来亲眼看到这些地方之前,你 有必要读一些关于这些地方的书。有了关于这些地方更多的知识,你将会更好的理解中国的历史和文化。 6. First of all, you should listen to the teacher carefully and take notes in class so that you can go over your lessons as soon as you can after class.首先,你应该认真听老师讲课。上课做好笔记,以便下课后可以及时复习。 7. As is known to all,vocabulary is of great importance. You should spend half an hour in the morning reciting words and reading texts aloud.众所周知,词汇是非常重要的。你应该早上花半个小时的时间背单词和朗读课文。 8. What’s more, try to communicate with your classmates in English out of class. Only in this way can you improve your listening and spoken English quickly. 还有,试着在课外用英语和同学交流。只有这样,你才能够很快的提高英语听力和口语。 9. Last but not least, you should develop the habit of keeping a diary, which helps improve your written English and helps you go over/review the words and expressions that you have learnt. 最后但也是很重要的一点是,你应该养成记日记的习惯,这会帮助你提高英语写作,也会帮助你复习学过的单词和短语。 【篇尾句】提出希望采纳建议,并祝福。 1. I hope these suggestions will be of use to you. Remember: where there is a will, there is a way(有志者事竟成).我希望这些建议会对你有用。记住:有志者事竟成。 2. I hope these suggestions will be of use to you. Remember: The man who has made up his mind to win will never say “impossible”(一个决心要成功的人从来不说“不可能”).我希望这些建议会对你有用。记住:一个决心要成功的人从来不说“不可能”。 3. Best wishes!(给你)最美好的祝愿! 4. I hope that my suggestions are helpful for you anyway. I would be more than happy to see improvement.无论如何,我希望这些建议对你有所帮助。我会非常高兴看到情况改善。 5. I believe that you will take my suggestions into serious account. Whatever you decide to do, good luck with your studies/work!我相信你会认真考虑我的建议。无论你决定做什么,祝你学习/工作好运。 6. I sincerely hope my advice will be some help for you. If there is more I can do to help, please let me know.我真诚的希望我的建议对你有一些帮助。如果有更多我可以帮忙的,请告诉我。 7. I hope you can take good consideration of my advice. I would be ready to discuss about this matter with you to further details.我希望你可以好好考虑我的建议。我准备好和你进一步讨论这件事情。 8. I sincerely hope my advice will be some help for you. I'm eager to see you soon in Beijing. Wish you in advance a pleasant trip to Beijing.我真诚的希望我的建议对你有一些帮助。很希望早点在北京见到你。提前祝你来北京之行愉快。 三. 口头通知 【篇首句】引起注意。 1. Hello, everybody/everyone. 2. Ladies and gentlemen. 3. May I have your attention, please? I have an announcement to make. 请注意,好吗?我要通知一件事情。 4. Attention, please! I have something important to tell you. 请注意!我有重要的事情要告诉你们。 (此步句型虽少,但都是精华哦!) 【篇中句】主要内容。 1. There will be a party/speech/contest held by the English Department in the hall of the library on Saturday evening.周六晚上,在图书馆大厅,英语系将会举行一场聚会/演讲/比赛。 2. In order to welcome our friends from the United States, the Student Union will organize a party in the school hall on Saturday evening, August 15.为了欢迎我们来自美国的朋友,学生会将会在8月15号星期六晚上组织一场聚会。 3. Our school has decided to hold an activity to climb Xiangshan Hill this Sunday.我们学校决定这周六组织去爬香山。 4. It will begin at 5 pm and last about two hours.它将在下午5点开始,持续大约2个小时。 5. The school will arrange several buses to take us there. 学校会安排几辆公交车带我们去那。 6. There will colourful activities then, such as singing, dancing, exchanging gifts with one another and so on.到时会有丰富多彩的活动,比如唱歌、跳舞、互换礼物等等。 7. All the teachers and students are required to attend it. Please take your notebooks and make notes. Please listen carefully and we’ll have a discussion in groups. 所有的老师和学生都被要求参加。请带上笔记本做笔记。请认真聆听,之后我们会有分组讨论。 【篇尾句】要求/邀请参加+注意事项。 1. Those who are interested in the activity are welcom.欢迎对此活动感兴趣的人参加。 2. Those who want to take part in it please sign up at the Student Union.想要参加的人请在学生会报名。 3. Please come and join in it. Everyone is welcom to attend it. 请来参加。每个人都是受欢迎的。 4. Remember to take your hats and gloves.记得带上你的帽子和手套。 5. Remember that we are required hats and water.记得我们被要求带帽子和水。 6. Please come on time and don’t be late. 请准时到来,不要迟到。 7. You might as well take a camera in case you want to take some photos of the beautiful scenery. 你不妨带个相机以防你想要给美丽的风景拍照。 8. Please pass on this message to those who are not here today.请把这个消息告诉不在场的人。 9. I hope that you will have a nice time there.我希望你在那里过得愉快。 10. I am sure you will have a good time there/then.我保证你在那里/到时会过得愉快。 11. I believe you will have a wonderful time then.我相信到时你会过得非常愉快。 12. I think you will enjoy it very much. 我想你会非常喜欢它的。 13. There's sure to be a lot of fun. Everyone is welcome.一定会有很多乐趣。大家都是受欢迎的。 14. Good luck.祝好运。 15. That's all. Thank you. 我说完了。谢谢! 四. 申请信 【篇首句】介绍自己,简要说明信息来源,并提出申请。 1. I'm Li Hua, from Class One, Senior Two.我是李华,来自高二一班。 2. I have read in the newspaper that a secretary is wanted in your company.我在报纸上看到你们公司在招聘一名秘书。 3. I read the announcement of the Experience Life that you have posted on the Internet and I am interested in it.我在网上看到你们发布的体验生活的消息,我对此很感兴趣。 4. I am extremly pleased to see your advertisement for an English tutor(家庭教师/助教)in the newspaper.我很高兴在报纸上看到你们招聘家庭教师/助教的广告。 5. I am writing to apply for the summer camp in your school. 我写信是想申请加入你们学校的夏令营。 6. I am writing to tell you that I'm suitable for the job you are advertising. 我写信是想告诉你,我适合做你们在广告上刊登的这份工作。 7. I am writing to inquire about the possibility of the job. 我写信是询问(我得到)这份工作的可能性。 8. I am writing to join the program.我写信是想加入这个项目。 9. I would like to apply for it during the summer vacation.我想要暑假申请它。 【篇中句】突出自己特点,具体说明胜任理由。 1. I think I'm qualified for the position. 我认为对于这个职位我是有资格的。 2. In the first place, I have strong written and spoken communication skills. 首先,我有很好的写作和交流技巧。 3. What's more, I am well acquainted with the western culture.(be acquainted with 熟悉) 而且,我非常熟悉西方文化。 4. Last but not the least, I have good personality, and I am independent in life. 最后但也是很重要的一点是,我有很好的性格,并且在生活中很独立。 5. I think it's of great use to me. For one thing, I can gain some experience for my future job; for another, I can make more friends.我认为它对我是有好处的。一则,我能够为未来的工作获得经验;二则,我可以交到更多的朋友。 6. I am sure I can do my best in the job.我保证在工作中会尽最大努力。 7. That's why I am applying for the position.那就是我申请这个职位的原因。 8. I hope I can join you. 我希望我能够加入你们。 【篇尾句】请求给予机会,期望尽快回复。 1. I will be much grateful if you can give me the opportunity. 如果你能给我这个机会,我会非常感激。 2. I hope you can offer me the opportunity.我希望你能提供给我这个机会。 3. I hope I can be accepted as a member of your summer camp. 我希望我能够成为你们夏令营的一员。 4. If you need to know more about me, please contact me at 189...... 如果你需要了解我更多,请给我打电话189...... 5. I am looking forward to your early reply.期待你的早日恢复。 6. I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.期待早日收到你的来信。 五. 投诉信 【篇首句】介绍自己,说明写作目的:投诉。 1. I’m Li Hua. I feel bad to trouble you but I’m afraid that I have to make a complaint about your restaurant.我是李华。很不想给你添麻烦。但是,恐怕我不得不对你们餐馆进行投诉。 2. I’m writing to you to complain about...我写信是投诉...... 3. I want to express my dissatisfaction about the woolen scarf I bought from your company. 我想要表达我对从你们公司买的羊毛围巾的不满。 【篇中句】说明投诉问题、后果,并提出合理建议。 1. In the first place, the food is too salty and the water isn't served in time. In addition, the music you broadcast is too noisy. Under these circumstances, I find it hard to sit here having dinner quietly.首先,食物太咸,水没有及时端上来。而且,你们播放的音乐太吵了。在这样的环境下,我很难安静的坐在这里吃饭。 2. While I was on holiday in Hong Kong about a week ago, I bought a green shirt for 300 HK dollars in your shop, but there seems to be something wrong with it. When it's washed, it fades in colour. Now I can't wear it.大概一周前我在香港度假的时候,我在你们店里花300港元买了一件绿色衬衫,但是看上去似乎有一些状况。当被洗的时候,它会掉色。现在,我不能穿了。 3. It arrived on time the day before yesterday. But when I checked it, I found a hole in the middle. I was astonished because the hole was obvious and I didn't think you should neglect this deficiency(缺陷).它是前天按时到的。但是当我检查时,我发现中间有个洞。我很震惊,因为这个洞和明显,我认为你们不应该忽略这个缺陷。 4. I have dialed your service number for several times but it was always busy. 我多次拨打你们的服务电话,但它总是占线。 5. Now this problem keeps worrying me.现在这个问题一直在困扰我。 6. To improve the situation, you can take the following measures. 为了改善状况,你们可以采取下面的措施。 7. Can you change a new one for me as soon as possible?你们可以尽快给我换件新的吗? 8. I insist you change a new one for me or give me a refund(退款). 我坚持你们给我换件新的或者给我退款。 9. How shall I send this scarf back to you?我怎么把这条围巾寄还给你? 【篇尾句】希望给予考虑,并期待对方尽快回复。 1. Thanks for your consideration.感谢你的考虑。 2. I hope you will give due attention to this matter.我希望你给予此事应有的重视。 3. I believe you will take my complaint seriously.我相信你会认真考虑我的投诉。 4. I’ll appreciate it if my demand is met. 如果我的要求被满足,我会非常感激。 5. I’m looking forward to your early reply.期待着你早日答复。 六. 道歉信 1. 道歉信结构 道歉信通常包括三部分内容: 1.表示歉意,道歉的原由; 2.出现差错的原因,提出弥补措施; 3.请求原谅。语言要诚挚,解释的理由要真实。好的道歉信不仅会取得对方的谅解,还会增进彼此的感情。 2. 道歉信模板 Dear ______, ①I am truly sorry that ______(道歉的原因). ②The reason is that ______(介绍原因). ③Once again, I am sorry for any inconvenience caused. ④Hope you can accept my appologies and understand my situation. Yours sincerely, Li Ming 3. 道歉信中开头段常用句式和套话 I am writing this letter to express my regret…我写这封信是想表达我的遗憾...... I am writing to apologize for…我写信是为......道歉。 I would like to give you my apology for…我想为......向你道歉。 I am very sorry to say that…我很抱歉...... I must apologize about (not) doing sth…对于做了/没做......,我必须道歉。 Please accept my sincere apology for…请接受我对于......的真诚道歉。 I am writing to say sorry for…我写信是想对......说抱歉。 I am terribly sorry, but…我很抱歉,但是...... 4. 道歉信中结尾段常用句式和套话 Once again, I am sorry for any inconvenience caused.我对于所造成的任何不便再次道歉。 Please allow me to say sorry again.请允许我再一次说抱歉。 Hope you can accept my apologies and understand my situation. 希望你们能够接受我的道歉,理解我的处境。 I sincerely hope that you will be able to think in my position and accept my apologies. 我真诚的希望你能够站在我的位置想一想,并且接受我的道歉。 I want to let you know how regretful I am feeling now. 我想让你知道我现在感觉多么的遗憾。 I am sorry that I can’t… but trust that you will be able to understand. 很抱歉我不能......,但我相信,你会理解的。 类型一 考查用词的精准 英语中有些单词容易混淆。有的发音相似,意义却截然不同;有的拼写相近,意思却相去甚远;有的貌似是反义词,实为同义词。如:?invaluable与?valuable同义,?principle与principal意思不同。书面表达中注意用词的精准。 例1.请在下面书面表达句子中选出合适的用词。 My?new?house?is?very for?the?office?as?I?can?get?there?in?five?minutes. A.?comfortable B.?suitable C.?available D.?convenient 【答案】D 【解析】comfortable 舒适的suitable 合适的?available可使用的,空闲的;convenient方便的。句意:我的新房子对上班来说很方便,因为我五分钟就能到。convenient方便的,为最精准用词。 变式训练 1:请在下面书面表达句子中选出合适的用词。 ?Nobody?is?able?to?explain?the of?this?commonly?used?expression. A.?reason B.?cause C. origin D.?beginning 变式训练 2: The?bus?company?ignores?the about?the?overcrowding?of?buses. A.?claims B.?complaints C.?objections D.?requests 变式训练 3: The?accused that?he?had?robbed?the?bank.. A.?refused B.?rejected C.?denied D.?declined 变式训练 4: ?I?shall the?loss?of?my?wallet?in?the?newspaper,?with?a?reward?for?the?finder. A. advertise B.?publish C.?announce D.?inform 变式训练 5: ?The?manager?went?ahead?with?his?unpopular?scheme, to?sharp?criticism。 A.?opposed B.?indifferent C.?sensitive D.?unaware 类型二 考查词组搭配恰当 动词与介词或副词的搭配是英语学习的一个难点,也一直是高考考查的重点。如:由?break构成的动词短语有20多个,意义千差万别。正确地理解高频动词的词义用法,并且掌握其搭配,能够提升考生的语言功底。恰当的动词及动词短语的使用,能使作文的表达生动活泼,准确地道,作文水平自然也会得到提升。 例2.Mr?Wilson?said?that?he?did?not?want?to any?further?responsibilities. A.?put?on B. get on C.?take on D.?look on 【答案】C 【解析】put?on穿上;get on上车,上马;进展,使前进; take on 呈现;?look on观看,旁观;看待。句意:威尔逊先生说他不想承担任何进一步的责任。take on 呈现,为最恰当的词组搭配。 变式训练6:The?destruction?of?these?treasures?was?a?loss?for?mankind?which?money?could?not . A.stand up to B. make up for C.come up with ?D.?put?up?with 变式训练7:The?student?was?just?about?to the?question?when?suddenly?he?found?the answer. A.arrive at B.?submit?to C.?work?out D. give?up 变式训练8:Young?children?soon words?they?hear?from?their?parents. A.put up B.?pick?up C.?turn?up D.?use?up 变式训练9:?If?you?suspect?the?illness?might?be?serious,?you?should?not going to the doctor. A.?set?about B.?break?down C.?call?for D.?put?off 变式训练10:Obviously,?the?lazy?girl?would?never her?teacher's expectation. A.?live?up?to B.?face?up?to C.?come?up?to D. stand up to 类型三 考查句式的简洁 中文经常通过重复表示强调或表达情感,而英文则比较简练。比如中文的“应该向老年人学习,老年人也应该向年轻人学习”,英语则是:"?The?young?should from?the?old?and?vice?versa."一篇优秀作文一定是语言精练,表达准确的文章。 例3.请修改下面句子成简练准确地表达。 In?the?book?it?tells?about?a?spring?when no birds sings . 变式训练11: 请修改下面句子成简练准确地表达。 I?offered?the?tickets?of?the?concert?to?the?students?to?use?on?Saturday. 变式训练12: 请修改下面句子成简练准确地表达。 Speech?is?silver,?and?silence?is?gold。 类型四 考查句式的表意清晰 作文中经常出现表意模糊的情况。这种情况,或者是由于某个单词有多个义项,在语境中有多种理解;或者是由于语法概念或者修饰关系的混乱造成理解上的偏差;或者由于上下文的语意缺失造成逻辑的不连贯。相反,优秀的作文一定语意精准,逻辑清晰,读起来酣畅流离。 例4.请找出句子中均有模糊不清的情况:The?monkeys?amused?the?people?in?cages?at?the?zoo. 【答案提示】谁在笼子里?猴子还是人们? 变式训练13: 请找出句子中均有模糊不清的情况: 1.?A?shark?may?attack?a?man?that?is?hungry. 2.?People?should?not?sit?near?electrical?appliance?in?the?bathtub. 3.The?police?were?ordered?to?stop?drinking?in?the?park. 4.?Flying?planes?can?be?very?dangerous. 5.?Cathy?did?not?marry?Frank?because?he?was?rich. (2018·石家庄市一模)假定你是李华,你所在的校运动俱采部将面向外国朋友开设太极(?Tai?Chi)课,请写一封邮件,邀请你校的英国交换生?Ieter参加,要点如下: 1、 上课时间与地点 2、报名的截止日期 注意:1、词数100 2、可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯 Dear?Peter, Yours Li?Hua (2018·桂林市、百色市、崇左市联考)假如你是李华,下个月8号是你的加拿大笔友?Smith的生日,你给他寄了200克中国绿茶作为礼物。请你给他写一封信,要点如下 1.向他表达生日祝福; 2.介绍中国的茶文化(4000多年历史、种类繁多、好处等); 3.希望他将来有机会来中国体验茶文化;请他介绍加拿大咖啡文化. 注意 1.词数100左右(开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数); 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Dear?Smith How?time?flies! Yours. Li?Hua (2018·合肥市第二次教学质量检测)假定你是李华,你的英国网友?Peter来信说他对中国家族文化很感兴趣,想进步了解。请你给他回信,内容包括 1.家族文化的重要性; 2.传统观念(光宗耀祖、尊祖敬宗等); 3.新时代价值(不少于两点); 4.好书推荐:?Customs?and?Traditions?of?China 注意: 1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 (2018.福建省莆田第六中学高三月考英语)假定你是你校学生会主席李华,上周你校组织一个文化交流团到英国某高中进行文化交流;现已回国,请你代表你校交流团给英国活动负责人David写一封信,内容包括: 1. 感谢对方的招待; 2. 此行的体验和收获; 3. 邀请对方暑假来中国体验中国文化。 注意:1. 词数100左右;2. 可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Dear David, ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Yours, Li Hua 1 第36讲 应用文写作(解析版) 近五年全国卷的书面表达,基本都是提纲形式的书信体。此类书面表达在涉外交流或需要使用英语的具体语境中,能够体现岀邀请、咨询、求助、道歉、宣传等交际功能,联系考生日常生活,反映中外文化特色。此类题目一般会给出特定的情境,要求考生据此写一封书信,来解决一件涉外交流的事件。题目要求中往往会提供二至三条具体的写作要点并给出一些注意事项,允许考生适当发挥。因此此类题目有一定的局限性,但也有相对的开放性。文章话题贴近考生生活,旨在解决具体问题,令考生有话可说,也有机会把话说好。这既考查了考生的基础写作能力,又拓展了考生的能力空间。特别需要指出的是,这两年高考书面表达变过去高考命题的”介绍与英语学习有关的英美文化习俗及风土人情"为"全方位、大纵深介绍中国优秀传统文化习俗”,这是高考命题的方向性变化,其目的显而易见:凸显中国元素,唤起中华民族的民族自信,让中国走向世界,让世界全方位地了解中国。这也与“民族情怀,国际视野,跨文化交流”的核心素养紧紧相连。 一、真题透析: ★【2018·全国I】假定你是李华,你的新西兰朋友Terry将去中国朋友家做客,发邮件向你询问有关习俗。请你回复邮件。内容包括: (1).到达时间; (2).合适的礼物; (3).餐桌礼仪 注意: 1.词数100 左右 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 【审题指导】 这是一篇介绍中国传统风俗习惯的提纲式回复询问信。 注意写作时应用第一、第二人称,时态以一般现在时为主。 可分三部分来写: 第一段(点题):表明已收到对方来信+写信目的; 第二段(主体):重点回复对方来信当中涉及的到中国家庭做客要注意的几个问题,注意按照题干要点逐一解释,不要遗漏; 第三段(结尾):期待自己的解答能让对方满意。 【参考范文】 Dear?Terry, I’m?more?than?delighted?to?know?you?were?invited?to?a Chinese?dinner?party.?It's?really?a?good? opportunity that?can't?bemissed?to?experience?Chinese?culture.??Here?comes?some? relevant on?that?you?are?deeply?concerned?about. First?of?all,?you're?expected?to?arrive?on?time?because?it's polite?to?be?punctual?in?China.?In? addition,it’s a good idea to bring?a?small?gift,?such?as?a?bunch?of?flowers?or?a?box?of? chocolates if?they?have?young?children.?Most?importantly,?the?elderly?are usually?the?first?to taste?the?food?served?on?the?table?because?they are?well?respected?in?China.?Last?but?not? least,?enjoying?eve dish?means?you?really?appreciate?what?your?friend?has?done?and don't?forget?to?praise?your?friend?for?the?delicious?food?he?offers. ?I?hope?my?suggestions?will?be?of?benefit?to?you.?May?you?have a great?time. Yours Li?Hua 【文采拾贝】 文中高级词汇和地道表达层出不穷,长短句交错使用,从句和非谓语动词频现,语言丰富,表情达意到位,情感真切。 具体亮点如下 1脉络清晰的逻辑表达:?first?of?all,?in?addition,?most?importantly,?last?but?not?least。 2.可圈可点的从句:①①为定语从句;②中包含定语从句;③3为主语从句;⑥为宾语从句。 3.独具特色的特殊句式:②为倒装句;③中it为形式主语。 4.点石成金的非谓语:④为非谓语动词短语作后置定语;⑤为动名词短语作主语。 ★【2018·石家庄市高三教学质检】假如你是李华,获悉你校英语学习社团准备创办一份中学生英文校刊以促进大家的英语学习,请你用英语给社团负责人Sith先生写一封信,一来表达你得知此事的喜悦心情,二来提出你喜欢的栏目( column)并简要说明理由。 注意:1.词数100左右 2.信的开头和结尾已为你写好,不计入总词数 【审题指导】 这是一篇介绍中国传统风俗习惯的提纲式回复询问信。 注意写作时应用第一、第二人称,时态以一般现在时为主。 可分三部分来写: 第一段(点题):表明已收到对方来信+写信目的; 第二段(主体):重点回复对方来信当中涉及的到中国家庭做客要注意的几个问题,注意按照题干要点逐一解释,不要遗漏; 第三段(结尾):期待自己的解答能让对方满意。 【参考范文】 Dear Mr. Smith, I am very excited to learn that our English learning club is going to start an English magazine. It is indeed a wonderful idea and I'm sure it will make a success.I think it should be best if the school magazine would have 3 columns, such as School News, Teachers' Advice and Students' Voice. From the School News Column we can learn bout what is going on in our school. In Teachers' Adviceour teachers can give us advice on how to learn English more efficiently. Students' Voice will offer us a space to freely express our thoughts and feelings about our lives and studies. I believe this magazine will surely benefit us, and I am looking forward to reading it. Yours sincerely Li Hua 【文采拾贝】 文中高级词汇并没有过多应用,但语言准确,过渡自然,表达到位,情感真切,符合应用文传情达意的初衷,也不失为一篇好文章。 二、审题定点,运筹帷幄 高考书面表达的审题谋篇是取得高分的第一步,不管是提纲信息类作文,图表类作文,还是(半)开放作文,都要做到定体,定人称,定时态,定要点及定结构。做好以上内容的整体布局和策划是一篇优秀习作的必经之路。 技能1 写作思路要顺畅 (1) 认真审题,分析提纲或者图画(图表)内容,明确文聱的写作主题,并确定文章的体裁、人称、时态、结构及要点等五大基本要素。 (2)根据提纲或图画(图表)内容,确定文章的段落层次。 (3)收集与主题相符,能支持主题的具体内容材料。 (4)理清段落与段落,层次与层次之间的过渡、衔接关系和方式。 (5)确定能体现主题、简单明了、发人深思的结尾方式。 技能2 篇章结构需谋划 (1) 注意篇章结构,合理布局。 开始部分一说出文中的要点、核心问题; 正文部分一围绕主题开展叙述或讨论; 结尾部分一对全文的总结和概括。 (2) 确定主题句 主题句是对全文的概括,是文章的主旨。它能在文章中起到“画龙点睛”的作用。通常主题句出现在一篇文章的开头,然后,全文对主题句所提出的内容进行解释,扩展。 技能3写作要点巧表述 (1) 提纲要点化 根据信息的提示,列全需要写作的内容要点,确保无遗漏,这是考生能够拿到基本分的关键。 (2) 要点句式化 将要点扩展成精确的句子,这是体现写作水平的关键一环,同时也是最重要的“增分点”。坚决避免英语汉语化和句式的单一化,在保证正确的前提下,尽可能使用高级词汇、层次感比较丰富的复杂句式。 3) 连句成文 在“要点齐全、较高级词汇的使用以及句式丰富”都做好的前提下,加人引入话题的开篇句、承上启下的过渡句以及紧扣主题的结束句写作任务基本完成。 (3) 整理誉写 写作过程中,确保书写工整、态度认真,保证卷面的整洁,避免出现由于书写问题而造成的失分现象。 三、增加细节的高分技巧 微技能1列举具体的实例进行补充说明 1.(2018·全国1书面表达)此外,你最好带一些小礼物。 Besides,?you?'d?better?bring?some?little?gifts. →Besides,?you'd?better?bring?some?little?gifts,?such?as?a special?food?or?drink?from?your country. 2.(2018·广州综合检测二书面米选)我想大体上介绍一下中国的传统文化。I'd?like?to?talk?briefly?about?Chinese?traditional?culture. →I'?d?like?to?talk?briefly?about?Chinese?traditional culture,?especially?Chinese?painting. 3.我要花一些时间和父母在一起。 I'lI?spend?some?time?staying?with?my?parents. →I'll?spend?some?time?staying?with?my?parents,?chatting with?them?and?doing?some?housework.. 4.我想找一个像我一样喜欢旅行的笔友。 I'd?like?to?seek?a?pen?pal?who?is?interested?in?traveling just?like?me. →I'd?like?to?seek?a?pen?pal?who?is?interested?in?travelingjust?like?me.?If?possible,?we?can?travel? together?or?share traveling?experiences. 5.我是一个充满活力的健康男孩,我非常喜欢体育运动。 I?am?a?healthy?boy?full?of?energy?so?I?like?sports?very much. →I?am?a?healthy?boy?full?of?energy?so?I?like?sports?verymuch,?especially?outdoor?activities. ?Whenever?I?have?time I'll?go?hiking?or?mountain?climbing?with?my?classmates. 6.(2018·郑州第一次质量预测) 现在,我想与你分享春节的一些传统风俗习惯。 Now,?I'd?like?to?share?with?you?some?traditional?customsof?the?Spring?Festival. →Now,?I'd?like?to?share?with?you?some?traditiocustoms?of?the?Spring?Festival,?the?most?important festival in?China. 【题组过关1】根据括号内提示完成句子. 1. The?Internet?is?playing?a?more?and?more?important?part?in our?daily?life. (我们不仅能阅读国内外的新闻),?but?also get?information,?send?emails?and?attend?on-line?schools. 2.?Laura?is?a?standard?American?style. (她说一口完美的美式英语),?and?that’s why?I?am?crazy?about?her. 3.However,?it?seems?people?are?unaware?of?the?negative effects?of?mobile?phones?on ?communication. (比如,很多人越来越不重视面对面的交流)。 4.?However,every?coin?has?two?sides,?so?does?the?Internet. (比如,沉溺于网络也许会影响我们的学习和工作). 【答案】1.We can not only read news from home and abroad. 2.She speaks perfect American English. 3. For example,many people begin to pay less attention to face-to-face communication. 4. For example, being lost in the Internet may affect our study and work. 微技能2增添与所写信息相关的神态、动作、结果、心理描写以及背景渲染等内容。 1.(2018·日照检测书面表达)当我们爬山时所有人都捡些垃圾。 All?of?us?picked?up?the?rubbish?as?we?climbed?up. →All?of?us?picked?up?the?rubbish?as?we?climbed?up helping?to?beautify?the?scenery.(结果描写) 2.我有时去村西的小河游泳。 I?went?swimming?in?the?river?of?the?west?of?the?village now?and?then. →I?went?swimming?in?the?river?of?the?west?of?the?village?now and?then.?The?water?in?the?river?is ?very?clear.(背景渲染) →Weather?permitting,?I?went?swimming?in?the?river?of?the west?of?the?village?now?and?then.(相关背景) 3.旅行了一周后,他回到了家。 After?a?week's?trip,?he?returned?home. →After?a?week's?trip,?he?returned?home,?tired?but?very happy.(心理描写) 【题组过关2】根据括号内提示完成句子 1. (考虑到这项活动很有意义).we?intend?to?design?a?uniform?suited?to?our?own class. 2. I'II?try?my?best?to?make your uncle happy here. (我热切地期盼看他来我们城市参观)。 3.At?that?moment,?I?became?the?focus?of?the?whole?class and (充满了自豪和自信). 4.?Finally,?I?would?like?to?ask?a?few?questions?about?his personal?life, (这一定很有趣). 5.(2018·河北五个一名校联盟) (从你的信中得知你已被剑桥大学录取),I’m more than?glad?to?write?to?offer?my?warmest?congratulations. 【答案】 1. Considering the activity is of grear value / is meaningful 2. I am engerly looking forward to his visit to our city 3. was full of great pride and confidence 4. which must be very interesting 5. Knowing you have been admitted to the University of Cambridge from your letter 微技能3增加相关信息的时间、地点等内容。 1.(2018·东北三省四市教研二模)作为一个传统,中国学生总是向老师表达感激之情。 Chinese?students?always?like?to?express?gratitude?to?their teachers?as?a?tradition. →With?Teacher's?Day?approaching,?Chinese?students always?like?to?express?gratitude?to?their? teachers?as?a tradition.(增加时间) 2. 我要和父母一起去超市购物。 I'm?going?to?do?some?shopping?with?my?parents?in?the supermarket. →I'm?going?to?do?some?shopping?with?my?parents?in?the supermarket?and?won't?be?back?until about?5:?00?in?the afternoon.(增加时间) 3.我已经带来了你让我归还的两本书。 I?have?taken?with?me?the?two?books?you?asked?me?to return. →I?have?taken?with?me?the?two?books?you?asked?me?to return?to?the?City?Library.(增加地点) 【题组过关3】根据括号内提示完成句子。 1. (几分钟过去了)?but?the whole?class?was?in?complete?silence. 2. The?Chinese?Silk?Road (起源于今天的西安, 最后到达的东海岸)?the?Mediterranean,is well-known?to?the?world. 3.?I?was?attracted?by?the?beauty?of?the?city (……就……)?I?arrived?here?at 6 o'?clock?in the?morning?by?plane. 4.(2018·东北三省四市二模书面表达)I’?d?like?to?invite you?to?attend?our?class?meeting?next? week (如果你有空). 【答案】 1.Several minutes passed 2. which starts from today 's Xi’ an and finally finishes at the east coast of 3. the moment/immediately/as soon as/ directly 4. if you are available 微技能4 适当增加与所给信息相关的原因、条件、让步、手段、目的等内容。 1.(2018·昆明质检)不久我将成为成年人。 It?won't?be?long?before?I?become?an?adult. →It?won't?be?long?before?I?become?an?adult,?so?I?feel?very excited?as?well?as?a?bit?nervous. 2.(2018·兰州模拟)我们城市将在下个月15至30号举办丝绸之路国际艺术节(?Silk?Road International?Arts?Festival)。 The?Silk?Road?International?Arts?Festival?will?be?held?in our?city?from?15th?to?30th?next?month →Aimed?to?promote?international?cultural?exchange?andcooperation?among?countries?along ?the?Silk?Road,the Silk Road?International?Arts?Festival?will?be?held?in?our?city from15th to30 th? next?month.(分词作状语) 3. 假设你是李华,你的英国笔友?Henry最近来信询问你高考后的暑假安排。请根据下面要点写一封回信,说明你的计划,并简述理由。①休息;读书;②参加社会活动 I?need?a?good?rest.?I'Il?do?some?reading. →I?need?a?good?rest?because?I?do?feel?tired?after?the?hardwork?of?all?these?years.?Of?course,?I'll? do?some?reading?for fun,?and?for?knowledge?as?well.(因果关系) I'll?take?part?in?some?social?activities. →If?I?have?free?time,?I'lI?take?part?in?some?social activities.(条件状语) →?If?possible,I’ll take?part?in?some?social?activities.(条件状语) →If?possible,?I'lI?take?part?in?some?social?activities?so that/in?order?that?I?can?know?more ?about? the?society.?(目的状语) 4.Tacy来电话说和你在咖啡屋(?Bolton?Coffee)的见面取消。 →Tracy?called,?saying?that?she?couldn't?meet?you?at?Bolton Coffee. →Tracy?called,?saying?that?she?couldn't?meet?you?at?BoltonCoffee?as?she?has?something?important? to?do.(原因状语) 5.我也帮助邻里的孩子补习英语。 I?also?helped?children?in?the?neighborhood?with?their English?lessons. →I?also?helped?children?in?the?neighborhood?with?their English?lessons.?To?my?joy,?they?made? rapid progress?and their?parents?thought?highly?of?me.(增添结果) 【题组过关4】根据括号内提示完成句子 1.We?were?happy?and?returned?home (我们捡完所有的垃圾之后). 2.I?often?join?in?many?activities (来和其他同学交流开拓我的视野). 3. (众所周知),?Earth Hour?is?an?activity?which?aims?at?saving?energy. 4.(2018·新疆第一次适应性考试) (为了帮助人们了解更多的中国传统文化),?our?school?is?intended?to hold?a?series?of?activities. 【答案】 1. after we had finished collecting all the rubbish 2. in order to communicate with other students and broaden my eye 3. As is known to all of us 4.To help people learn more about Chinese traditional culture 微技能5 结尾适当发挥,写出个人感受、评价、希望、倡议等。 1.?Although?I?was?very?tired?this?summer?holiday,?I?felt?very happy?for?what?I?did.(个人感受) 2.?I?think?such?activities?are?necessary?and?meaningful.?(评价) 3.(2018·新疆第一次适应性测试)?We?hold?the?firm belief?that?the?visitors?will?know?more?about ?Chinese?traditional culture?and?at?the?same?time?enjoy?the?beauty?of?it.?(希望) 4.As?a?student,?it's?our?duty?to?protect?our?school?environment and?make?it?clean.(倡议) 【题组过关5】根据括号内提示完成句子 1. (作为一个专业的篮球运动员),?he?is?one?of?China'?s?best- known?athletes. 2.I?think?Beijing (非常值得再次参观). 3.?In?my?view, (不管互联网多么吸引人),?it?shouldn'?t?separate?us?from our loved?ones. 4. (通过这个实验我们得出一个结论):?the?temperature?doesn’t change?when?ice?is?melting?into?water. 5.Let's?develop?good?habits?of?saving?energy?in?our?daily life?and (尽力为我们的环境做出更多贡献). 【答案】 1. As a professional basketball player 2. is well worth a second visit 3. no matter how attractive the Internet is 4. We drew a conclusion through the experiment 5. try to make more contributions to our environment 应用文包含邀请信、建议信、口头通知、申请信、投诉信和道歉信等,考生应主要注意这些文体的篇章布局和首段、中段、尾段涉及到的重要句型,减少不必要的失分。从书面表达的评分标准中可以看出:恰当选用贴切、地道的高级词汇对提高书面表达的得分非常重要。写作时恰当使用一些大多数考生有可能想不到的词汇,恰当地求新求异或使用较为高级的短语习语等来代替普通词汇,可以提高文章的得分档次。为写作增添色彩。请考生牢记并熟练运用下面的句式: 一. 邀请信 【篇首句】介绍自己,简要说明活动,并邀请对方。 1. I’m Wang Ming from YuWen School,the president of the Student Union. 我是来自育文学校的王明,学生会主席。 2. An English speaking contest of our school will be held on August 6. 我们学校有一场英语演讲比赛将在8月6号举行。 3. There will be a party in my garden on Sunday. 周日,在我的花园里会举行一场聚会。 4. I’d like to invite you to judge it.我想邀请你做它的裁判。 5. I’m writing to invite you to...我写信是邀请你...... 6. I wonder if you can come to...我想知道你是否能来...... 7. We sincerely hope you can attend it.我们真诚希望你能够参加。 8. It’s my pleasure/a great honour for me to invite you to...我很荣幸的邀请你...... 9. It’s a pity that you have to go back to America soon. So a farewell party for you will be held in the Sun Club this Saturday evening. Could you come at 6:00 pm? 很遗憾你不久就要回美国了。所以,这周六,在阳光俱乐部我们会为你举行一个欢送会。下午六点你能来吗? 【篇中句】介绍活动具体内容,并说明受邀人参加理由。 1.It will begin at 2:00 pm and last two hours, during which time 15 well-prepared contestants will deliver their speeches.它将于下午两点钟开始,四点钟结束,在此期间将会有十五位准备充分的参赛者发表演讲。 2. We will start at 8:00 am and arrive there at 9:00.我们将会在上午八点出发,九点到达那里。 3. During the afternoon, we’ll...together.下午,我们会一起...... 4. Remember to take water and lunch with you.记得带上水和午餐。 5. By the way, you may take Bus No. 322 in front of your apartment and it will take you directly to the club.顺便说一下,你可以乘坐你家公寓前的322路公交车,它会直接把你带到俱乐部。 6. I know you are a native speaker of English and an English teacher, and I, on behalf of our school, sincerely invite you to be part of the contest.我知道你的母语是英语,还是一个英语老师。我,代表我们学校,真诚的邀请你来比赛现场。 7. Since you are so eager to improve your English, it will prove to be a great chance. 既然你如此渴望提高英语,这会是一个很好的机会。 8. I’m sure that you will enjoy yourself there.我保证你在那里会过得很愉快。 【篇尾句】期待对方接受邀请,并期待对方尽快回复。 1. Will you be available during that time? Please contact me at 1234567 at your earliest convenience.那期间你有空吗?请方便时尽快给我打电话1234567。 2. Would you please let me know as soon as possible if you can accept my invitation? 请尽快告诉我你能否接受我的邀请好吗? 3. We will feel much honored if you could come.如果你能来,我们会非常荣幸。 4. We are looking forward to your coming.我们期待着你的到来。 5. I am longing to see you soon.我期待着尽早见到你。 二. 建议信 【篇首句】说明写信目的。 1. I'm sorry to hear that you are having trouble fitting in your new school. Such problems are quite normal. Perhaps the following suggestions are helpful.很遗憾听说你在适应新学校方面有困难。这样的问题是很正常的。可能下面的建议会有一些帮助。 2. I have received your letter saying you plan to play a visit to China for ten days next month. Perhaps the following suggestions are helpful to you.我已经收到了你的来信。信上说你打算下个月来参观中国十天。可能下面的建议对你是有帮助的。 3. I'm writing to you to present what I think on the further improvement of our hotel so as to attract more clients(顾客).我给你写信是想说明一下我对于进一步改善我们旅馆的一些想法,以吸引更多顾客。 4. You have asked me for my advice with regard to how to learn Chinese , and I will try to make some suggestions here.你关于如何学习汉语询问我的建议,那么我就在这里给出一些建议。 5. I'm very glad to receive your letter asking for my advice on how to fit in the new school life. Here are a few suggestions.很高兴收到你的来信,信上询问我关于如何适应新的学校生活。下面是我的一些建议。 6. I'm very glad to have received your e-mail. Now I'm writing to give you some advice on how to learn English well in high school.很高兴收到你的电子邮件。现在,关于如何在高中学好英语,我写信给你一些建议。 【篇中句】介绍详情、提出具体建议。 1. I'd like to suggest that...我想要建议...... 2. In my opinion,...在我看来,...... 3. If I were you, I would...如果我是你,我会...... 4. You'd better do.../not do...你最好/最好不...... 5. It's necessary for you to read some books about these places before you come to see them with your own eyes. With more knowledge about these places, you will have a better understanding of Chinese history and culture.在你来亲眼看到这些地方之前,你 有必要读一些关于这些地方的书。有了关于这些地方更多的知识,你将会更好的理解中国的历史和文化。 6. First of all, you should listen to the teacher carefully and take notes in class so that you can go over your lessons as soon as you can after class.首先,你应该认真听老师讲课。上课做好笔记,以便下课后可以及时复习。 7. As is known to all,vocabulary is of great importance. You should spend half an hour in the morning reciting words and reading texts aloud.众所周知,词汇是非常重要的。你应该早上花半个小时的时间背单词和朗读课文。 8. What’s more, try to communicate with your classmates in English out of class. Only in this way can you improve your listening and spoken English quickly. 还有,试着在课外用英语和同学交流。只有这样,你才能够很快的提高英语听力和口语。 9. Last but not least, you should develop the habit of keeping a diary, which helps improve your written English and helps you go over/review the words and expressions that you have learnt. 最后但也是很重要的一点是,你应该养成记日记的习惯,这会帮助你提高英语写作,也会帮助你复习学过的单词和短语。 【篇尾句】提出希望采纳建议,并祝福。 1. I hope these suggestions will be of use to you. Remember: where there is a will, there is a way(有志者事竟成).我希望这些建议会对你有用。记住:有志者事竟成。 2. I hope these suggestions will be of use to you. Remember: The man who has made up his mind to win will never say “impossible”(一个决心要成功的人从来不说“不可能”).我希望这些建议会对你有用。记住:一个决心要成功的人从来不说“不可能”。 3. Best wishes!(给你)最美好的祝愿! 4. I hope that my suggestions are helpful for you anyway. I would be more than happy to see improvement.无论如何,我希望这些建议对你有所帮助。我会非常高兴看到情况改善。 5. I believe that you will take my suggestions into serious account. Whatever you decide to do, good luck with your studies/work!我相信你会认真考虑我的建议。无论你决定做什么,祝你学习/工作好运。 6. I sincerely hope my advice will be some help for you. If there is more I can do to help, please let me know.我真诚的希望我的建议对你有一些帮助。如果有更多我可以帮忙的,请告诉我。 7. I hope you can take good consideration of my advice. I would be ready to discuss about this matter with you to further details.我希望你可以好好考虑我的建议。我准备好和你进一步讨论这件事情。 8. I sincerely hope my advice will be some help for you. I'm eager to see you soon in Beijing. Wish you in advance a pleasant trip to Beijing.我真诚的希望我的建议对你有一些帮助。很希望早点在北京见到你。提前祝你来北京之行愉快。 三. 口头通知 【篇首句】引起注意。 1. Hello, everybody/everyone. 2. Ladies and gentlemen. 3. May I have your attention, please? I have an announcement to make. 请注意,好吗?我要通知一件事情。 4. Attention, please! I have something important to tell you. 请注意!我有重要的事情要告诉你们。 (此步句型虽少,但都是精华哦!) 【篇中句】主要内容。 1. There will be a party/speech/contest held by the English Department in the hall of the library on Saturday evening.周六晚上,在图书馆大厅,英语系将会举行一场聚会/演讲/比赛。 2. In order to welcome our friends from the United States, the Student Union will organize a party in the school hall on Saturday evening, August 15.为了欢迎我们来自美国的朋友,学生会将会在8月15号星期六晚上组织一场聚会。 3. Our school has decided to hold an activity to climb Xiangshan Hill this Sunday.我们学校决定这周六组织去爬香山。 4. It will begin at 5 pm and last about two hours.它将在下午5点开始,持续大约2个小时。 5. The school will arrange several buses to take us there. 学校会安排几辆公交车带我们去那。 6. There will colourful activities then, such as singing, dancing, exchanging gifts with one another and so on.到时会有丰富多彩的活动,比如唱歌、跳舞、互换礼物等等。 7. All the teachers and students are required to attend it. Please take your notebooks and make notes. Please listen carefully and we’ll have a discussion in groups. 所有的老师和学生都被要求参加。请带上笔记本做笔记。请认真聆听,之后我们会有分组讨论。 【篇尾句】要求/邀请参加+注意事项。 1. Those who are interested in the activity are welcom.欢迎对此活动感兴趣的人参加。 2. Those who want to take part in it please sign up at the Student Union.想要参加的人请在学生会报名。 3. Please come and join in it. Everyone is welcom to attend it. 请来参加。每个人都是受欢迎的。 4. Remember to take your hats and gloves.记得带上你的帽子和手套。 5. Remember that we are required hats and water.记得我们被要求带帽子和水。 6. Please come on time and don’t be late. 请准时到来,不要迟到。 7. You might as well take a camera in case you want to take some photos of the beautiful scenery. 你不妨带个相机以防你想要给美丽的风景拍照。 8. Please pass on this message to those who are not here today.请把这个消息告诉不在场的人。 9. I hope that you will have a nice time there.我希望你在那里过得愉快。 10. I am sure you will have a good time there/then.我保证你在那里/到时会过得愉快。 11. I believe you will have a wonderful time then.我相信到时你会过得非常愉快。 12. I think you will enjoy it very much. 我想你会非常喜欢它的。 13. There's sure to be a lot of fun. Everyone is welcome.一定会有很多乐趣。大家都是受欢迎的。 14. Good luck.祝好运。 15. That's all. Thank you. 我说完了。谢谢! 四. 申请信 【篇首句】介绍自己,简要说明信息来源,并提出申请。 1. I'm Li Hua, from Class One, Senior Two.我是李华,来自高二一班。 2. I have read in the newspaper that a secretary is wanted in your company.我在报纸上看到你们公司在招聘一名秘书。 3. I read the announcement of the Experience Life that you have posted on the Internet and I am interested in it.我在网上看到你们发布的体验生活的消息,我对此很感兴趣。 4. I am extremly pleased to see your advertisement for an English tutor(家庭教师/助教)in the newspaper.我很高兴在报纸上看到你们招聘家庭教师/助教的广告。 5. I am writing to apply for the summer camp in your school. 我写信是想申请加入你们学校的夏令营。 6. I am writing to tell you that I'm suitable for the job you are advertising. 我写信是想告诉你,我适合做你们在广告上刊登的这份工作。 7. I am writing to inquire about the possibility of the job. 我写信是询问(我得到)这份工作的可能性。 8. I am writing to join the program.我写信是想加入这个项目。 9. I would like to apply for it during the summer vacation.我想要暑假申请它。 【篇中句】突出自己特点,具体说明胜任理由。 1. I think I'm qualified for the position. 我认为对于这个职位我是有资格的。 2. In the first place, I have strong written and spoken communication skills. 首先,我有很好的写作和交流技巧。 3. What's more, I am well acquainted with the western culture.(be acquainted with 熟悉) 而且,我非常熟悉西方文化。 4. Last but not the least, I have good personality, and I am independent in life. 最后但也是很重要的一点是,我有很好的性格,并且在生活中很独立。 5. I think it's of great use to me. For one thing, I can gain some experience for my future job; for another, I can make more friends.我认为它对我是有好处的。一则,我能够为未来的工作获得经验;二则,我可以交到更多的朋友。 6. I am sure I can do my best in the job.我保证在工作中会尽最大努力。 7. That's why I am applying for the position.那就是我申请这个职位的原因。 8. I hope I can join you. 我希望我能够加入你们。 【篇尾句】请求给予机会,期望尽快回复。 1. I will be much grateful if you can give me the opportunity. 如果你能给我这个机会,我会非常感激。 2. I hope you can offer me the opportunity.我希望你能提供给我这个机会。 3. I hope I can be accepted as a member of your summer camp. 我希望我能够成为你们夏令营的一员。 4. If you need to know more about me, please contact me at 189...... 如果你需要了解我更多,请给我打电话189...... 5. I am looking forward to your early reply.期待你的早日恢复。 6. I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.期待早日收到你的来信。 五. 投诉信 【篇首句】介绍自己,说明写作目的:投诉。 1. I’m Li Hua. I feel bad to trouble you but I’m afraid that I have to make a complaint about your restaurant.我是李华。很不想给你添麻烦。但是,恐怕我不得不对你们餐馆进行投诉。 2. I’m writing to you to complain about...我写信是投诉...... 3. I want to express my dissatisfaction about the woolen scarf I bought from your company. 我想要表达我对从你们公司买的羊毛围巾的不满。 【篇中句】说明投诉问题、后果?

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  • ID:4-5067248 [精]高考一轮复习学案 第32讲 风俗习惯语言文化类文章(解析版+原卷版)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    第32讲 风俗习惯、语言文化类文章(原卷版) "风俗习惯、语言文化类"是高中英语新课标重要考查的阅读话题之一,也是英语核心素养的体现。本话题包括社会生活、社会风情、政治经济、人文历史、自然资源、文化习俗、文化遗产等方面的情况; 文章选材来源于各个国家的主要名胜或历史事件;命题以细节题为主,有一定主观推断题;涉及一定的地理常识、历史知识和风俗习惯。语言文化类主要包含英美英语的差异、英语和文化、语言学习的困难和策略、语言和交际的态度、学习方法和学习策略等方面。这些话题与学生的日常学习密切相关,通过这些话题的学习和考查,可以让学生了解中西方的风俗文化及其语言背后的文化差异,研究学习方法和策略,激发学生学习外语的热情,促进他们的身心健康。 一、真题链接 【2018-2019学年辽宁省瓦房店市重点中学联考B篇】 Everglades National Park (大沼泽地国家公园) is located in the state of Florida. It is the largest wilderness in the entire country and makes up 25% of the wetlands in the state. The park is home to several rare and endangered species. It is also the third largest national park in the US, after Death Valley and Yellowstone. Each year, about 1 million tourists visit the park. On a global level, it has been announced as a World Heritage Site. Unlike most other national parks, Everglades National Park was created to protect an ecosystem (生态系统) from damage. In 1947, President Harry Truman spoke at the official opening of Everglades National Park, saying the goal of creating the park was to protect forever a wild area that could never be replaced. 10,000 different islands make up Everglades National Park. Each of these islands is lived by natural wildlife. The Everglades is home to about 15 species that are endangered. In addition, more than 350 bird species and 300 species of fresh and saltwater fish live within the park. The Everglades is also home to 40 species of mammals and 50 reptile species. There are many ways to explore the Everglades. Visitors can see alligators (短吻鳄) while hiking the Anhinga Trail. The Everglades is one of the only places on Earth where freshwater alligators and saltwater crocodiles live in the same area. Visitors using airboats are likely to see large groups of birds. Some visitors might enjoy riding bicycles through Shark Valley. Others may want to move slowly through waters where they can see insects and wildlife closely. According to experts, changes to the Everglades are becoming a danger to several different kinds of wildlife. They say it is a result of actions the US government began more than 50 years ago, and settlers began even earlier. 1.In the first paragraph, we’re mainly told that ________. A.Florida is famous for its wetlands B.the US has three important national parks C.Everglades National Park is of great value D.Everglades National Park is popular with visitors 2.How does the author describe the richness of wildlife in the park? A.By listing figures. B.By personally experiencing. C.By making a comparison. D.By carrying on a study. 3.From the passage, we know that ________. A.in fact Everglades National Park is a big island B.visitors are not allowed to stay in the water in the park C.President Harry Truman first suggested setting up the park D.the park is among the few places where alligators and crocodiles live together 4.What would be further discussed if the passage is continued? A.What the government has done to protect the park. B.How the park’s environment was badly changed. C.What readers can do to help to save the wetlands. D.How important endangered wildlife is to the world. 【2018全国卷Ⅰ阅读C (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=axzHA69d1tG5d1R8cOWs%2Bet21xi1qWRkFiOCOXhyiXXHrJ%2FdKLb64n7%2F62xcJDX6%2BSEHAcDW0PzWUyxGqZzMaFa9goDIouMXyH4K8JQhwDk%2BMhvpq3ULKVNJfw%2FTvcI7yVI76YaVcfxxgj3JGGlbizUj2HuKm9z%2FpFGTxV%2BbBB1qpc%2FFeF08vOP3cs5UAzVXF4IpfJonwPIoFdNwcSK7WOiyKf3%2FZU9fTr6Sd1Y8US8McF1O9" \t "_blank?)】 Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers,small, tightly knit (联系)groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other.Some language experts believe that 10,000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them. Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centres, trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education. Especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades,all have caused many Languages to disappear,and dominant languages such as English.Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. At present, the world has about 6 800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages. Often spoken by many people while hot. wet zones have lots, often spoken by small numbers.Europe has only around 200 Languages: the Americas about 1,000. Africa 2 400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3,200, of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number (中位数)of speakers is a mere 6.000, which means that half the worlds languages are spoken by fewer people than that. Already well over 400 of the total of, 6,800 languages are close to extinction(消亡), with only a few elderly speakers left. Pick, at random, Busuu in Cameroon (eight remaining speakers),Chiapaneco in Mexico(150). Lipan Apache in the United States(two or three)or Wadjigu in Australia (one, with a question-mark): none of these seems to have much chance of survival. 1. What can we infer about languages in huntergatherer times? A.They developed very fast. B. They were large in number. C. They had similar patters. D. They were closely connected 2. Which of the following best explains"dominant " underlined in paragraph 2? A.Complex. B. Advanced. C.Powerful. D.Modem. 3. How many languages are spoken by less than 6, 000 people at present? A.About 6 800 B.About 3 400 C.About 2.400 D.About 1-200 4. What is the min idea of the text? A. New languages will be created. B Peoples lifestyles are reflected in languages C. Human development results in fewer languages D. Geography determines language evolution. 点睛:长难句解读 In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. 分析:and连接两个并列句,前面的介词短语in. . .作时间状语,all和前面的名词短语是同位语。 句意:在最近的几个世纪,贸易、工业化、民族国家的发展和全球义务教育的蔓延,尤其是过去几十年来,全球化和更好的交流,这些都是导致许多语言消失的原因。而且像英语、西班牙语和汉语这些强大的语言正在不断地占据统治地位。 二、阅读话题词汇夯实 阅读单词识记:英汉互译 【风俗习惯类】 1.ancient? adj. 2.anniversary?n. 3.awkward?adj. 4.belief?adj. 5.casual adj 6.cause?n 7.caution?adj 8.ceremony?n 9.chief?adj 10.concern?v 11.cooperation?n. 12.cultural? 13.custom?n. 14.decorate?vt. 15.fascinating?adj. 16.monument?n. 17.moral?adj. 18.pray?v. 19.remind?vt. 20.remove?vt. 21.sacred?adj. 22.sacrifice?n.&v. 23.separate?v. 24.temple?n. 25.history?n. 【语言学习类】 1.accent n. 2.accumulate vt.& vi. → n.积累,积聚 3.accurate adj. → adv.精确地,准确地→ n.精确,准确 4.classify vt. 5.consult v. 6.correction n. 7.effective adj. → n.效果,作用 8.dialect n. 9.enlarge vt. 10.enrich vt. 11.excellent adj. → adv.极好地;优秀地 12.expression n. 13.grasp vt. 14.fluently adv. 15.frequently adj. → adj.频繁的 16.memorize v. 17.pronunciation n. → vt.& vi.发音 18.recognize v. 19.scan vt.& vi. 20.sentence n. 21.shortcoming n. 22.shortly adv. 23.skim vt.& vi. 24.spelling n. 25.standard n.& adj. 26.straight adj. 27.stress n. 28.term n. 29.usage n. 30.vocabulary n. 31.wonderful adj. 二、高频短语 英汉互译: 【风俗习惯类】 1.Chinese traditional culture 2.arouse one’s enthusiasm for 3.put forward 4.attend a ceremony 5.come into being 6.culture shock 7.date back to/date from 8.follow a custom 9.get together 10.in memory of 11.in honour of 12.pass down from generation to generation 13.have a great effect on 14.contribute to the economic and culture?development 15.have a better understanding of 16.Beijing Opera 17.spread Chinese culture 18.fit in 19.make a brief introduction to 20.experience diverse Chinese culture 【语言学习类】 1.at present 2.attach importance to 3.because of 4.come up 5.form the habit of 6.have a good command of 7.have a good knowledge of 8.insist on 9.keep/bear...in mind 10.look up 11.make progress 12.make full use of 13.pick up 14.put...to use 15.such as ★【即学即练】 【2018江苏省徐州市第三中学高三 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=axzHA69d1tG5d1R8cOWs%2Bet21xi1qWRkFiOCOXhyiXXHrJ%2FdKLb64n7%2F62xcJDX6%2BSEHAcDW0PzWUyxGqZzMaFa9goDIouMXyH4K8JQhwDk%2BMhvpq3ULKVNJfw%2FTvcI7yVI76YaVcfxxgj3JGGlbizUj2HuKm9z%2FpFGTxV%2BbBB1qpc%2FFeF08vOP3cs5UAzVXF4IpfJonwPIoFdNwcSK7WOiyKf3%2FZU9fTr6Sd1Y8US8McF1O9" \t "_blank?)联考】 If you are like most English learners, you may be familiar with this: You think you understand a topic. Yet when asked to use what you have learned, you are not able to remember the information. Not being able to retrieve new ideas could happen on a test or even in a conversation. Sarah Lynn, an educational consultant and teacher, thinks English learners can improve their ability to remember and use new words by testing themselves. She adds that self-testing improves retrieval — the ability to use and remember new words. Lynn is not the only expert who recommends self-testing. A paper in Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition says one benefit of testing practice is that it improves retrieval. Retrieving information once makes retrieving that information easier in the future. In addition, the paper says, when students test themselves as part of studying, they learn what they do not know. When students know what they do not understand, they can pay attention to overcoming their weaknesses. Lynn recommends that learners test themselves by getting away from what they are studying. Then, they should test themselves by thinking about what they have learned. She recommends that learners make themselves write or speak something. Lynn suggests reading something or watching a video on the topic, then getting rid of the reading or video material and summarizing it. This will allow learners to test what they know. Next time you are studying English, try to test yourself. But do not just assume that you can read something once or twice and fully understand it. Even if you highlight important points or take notes in a class, you probably do not fully understand what you learned. After all, Olympic athletes cannot learn how to swim or run just from reading a book. They have to practice swimming or running every day for years. They often compete in races to test their skills. 1.What’s the common situation faced by English learners? A. They fail to come up with new ideas. B. They are not familiar with a certain topic. C. They don’t learn as well as they think. D. They don’t know how to improve their test-taking skills. 2.Which is the advice given by Lynn about self-testing? A. Recall what’s learned with the book closed. B. Remember what’s learned by repetitive reciting. C. Question your teachers on what you doubt bravely. D. Challenge yourself to learn from videos. 3.Why are Olympic athletes mentioned? A. To show how to be successful athletes. B. To make people confident of learning. C. To warn English learners not to be proud. D. To stress the significance of practice. 阅读理解的命题点有一定规律可寻,掌握命题规律,能帮助考生明确阅读时应该重点关注的内容,抓阅读的“敏感点”,提高阅读的针对性,快速、准确锁定信息区间,为准确解题圈定信息源。 1.段首、段尾处常考 无论是议论文还是说明文,一篇文章往往分成几个部分或层次进行说明和论证,每个段落一般都是一个部分或者一个层次。英美作者写文章的逻辑性非常强,文章结构都非常规范,因此每个段落的首句和尾句也经常是该段落的主旨句,也是出题的重点区域。 【2018全国卷Ⅲ阅读B】 Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River. Over 300 years its population grew gradually from 800 people to 8 million. But not all cities develop slowly over a long period of time. Boom towns grow from nothing almost overnight. In 1896, Dawson, Canada, was unmapped wilderness(荒野). But gold was discovered there in 1897, and two years later, it was one of the largest cities in the West, with a population of 30,000. Dawson did not have any of the natural conveniences of cities like London or Paris. People went there for gold. They travelled over snow-covered mountains and sailed hundreds of miles up icy rivers. The path to Dawson was covered with thirty feet of wet snow that could fall without warming. An avalanche(雪崩) once closed the path, killing 63 people. For many who made it to Dawson, however, the rewards were worth the difficult trip. Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives. But no matter how rich they were, Dawson was never comfortable. Necessities like food and wood were very expensive. But soon, the gold that Dawson depended on had all been found. The city was crowded with disappointed people with no interest in settling down, and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come. Today, people still come and go — to see where the Canadian gold rush happened. Tourism is now the chief industry of Dawson City — its present population is 762. 24. What attracted the early settlers to New York City? A. Its business culture. B. Its small population. C. Its geographical position. D. Its favourable climate. 【答案】24. C 【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了Dawson这座城市的发展原因、过程与现状。 24. 细节理解题。根据文章首段首句Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River.可知,人们选择在河边或港口设城是因为交通方便,便于做生意。而纽约就是在哈德森河口附近的一个大港口,故纽约吸引早期移民的原因是它的地理位置,故C正确。 2.转折处常考 文章的转折处也是体现作者观点和文章主题的地方,作者经常会通过先抑后扬的方法在转折词之后才明确提出自己的观点。转折词前后的意思一般来说都是相反的,而作者会偏重其中的某一方。因此,在阅读过程中看到转折词,考生最好能作上标记以方便做题时查找。一些明显的转折词包括but, however, on the contrary,yet(句首)(句首), as a matter of fact, in fact等。 3.对比、比较处常考 另外,作者也经常把两个事物、两件事实、两种观点进行对比,从而论证自己观点的正确性。表示对比的一些标志性词语有 unlike, by contrast, In comparison, be comparedwith等。命题者常对对比的双方属性进行考查。比如文章中说“甲具有Ⅹ属性,但乙与甲不同,那乙有何属性?”答:非X属性。此类考点常出现在逻辑推理型题中,少数出现于其他考点中。 4.因果处常考 因果逻辑关系也很受高考英语命题者的青睐,因为因果关系阐述了两个事件或者事实之间的内在联系,是作者进行分析或者得出结论的地方,出题者为了考查考生的阅读能力和逻辑分析能力,经常会将因果倒,考生需要注意辨别实际的因果关系,防止受到迷惑,表示因果关系的词有:because,?because?of,?for,?since,due?to,?thanks?to,?as?aresult?of,?as,?so,?thus,therefore, consequently,?in?consequence. as?a?result,result?from,?result?in,?cause,?lead?to,?attribute to等,有时候文章中虽然没有出现表示因果关系的标志性词语,但是在逻辑上也存在着因果关系,这个时候考生就需要自己进行判断和推理。 【2018全国卷Ⅲ阅读C】 While famous foreign architects are invited to lead the designs of landmark buildings in China such as the new CCTV tower and the National Center for the Performing Arts, many excellent Chinese architects are making great efforts to take the center stage. Their efforts have been proven fruitful. Wang Shu, a 49-year-old Chinese architect, won the 2012 Pritzker Architecture Prize — which is often referred to as the Nobel Prize in architecture — on February 28. He is the first Chinese citizen to win this award. Wang serves as head of the Architecture Department at the China Academy of Art (CAA). His office is located at the Xiangshan campus(校园) of the university in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Many buildings on the campus are his original creations. The style of the campus is quite different from that of most Chinese universities. Many visitors were amazed by the complex architectural space and abundant building types. The curves(曲线) of the buildings perfectly match the rise and fall of hills, forming a unique view. Wang collected more than 7 million abandoned bricks of different ages. He asked the workers to use traditional techniques to make the bricks into walls, roofs and corridors. This creation attracted a lot of attention thanks to its mixture of modern and traditional Chinese elements(元素). Wang’s works show a deep understanding of modern architecture and a good knowledge of traditions. Through such a balance, he had created a new type of Chinese architecture, said Tadao Ando, the winner of the 1995 Pritzker Prize. Wang believes traditions should not be sealed in glass boxes at museums. "That is only evidence that traditions once existed," he said. "Many Chinese people have a misunderstanding of traditions. They think tradition means old things from the past. In fact, tradition also refers to the things that have been developing and that are still being created, " he said. "Today, many Chinese people are learning Western styles and theories rather than focusing on Chinese traditions. Many people tend to talk about traditions without knowing what they really are, " said Wang. The study of traditions should be combined with practice. Otherwise, the recreation of traditions would be artificial and empty, he said. 30. What made Wang’s architectural design a success? A. The mixture of different shapes. B. The balance of East and West. C. The use of popular techniques. D. The harmony of old and new. 【答案】30.D 【解析】文章主要报道了中国建筑设计师王澍在其作品中融合中国传统建筑文化,获得了建筑界的诺贝尔奖——普利策奖,这让中国建筑现在得到了国际认可。 30. 细节理解题。根据第五段最后一句:This creation attracted a lot of attention thanks to its mixture of modern and traditional Chinese elements(元素).译文:由于融合了现代与传统的中国元素,这一创作吸引了很多人的注意,故D正确。 5.举例说明处常考 一般的议论文和说明文都需要一些例子来支持作者的论证和说明,这些例子往往与作者的论述和说明有很大的关联,考纲中明确提出考生需要掌握区分论点与论据的能力,因此这也成了考题出处的热点,这种题日在文章中的线索非常明显,一般都带有如下的标志性词汇:for example,?for?instance,?take?..?as?an?example,?such? as,?like等,考生要牢记一般文章举例处的前后句就是与该例子相关的作者论点,所以在做此类题目的时候就需要追本测源,寻找论点,才能保证所选答案的正确性。 6.特殊标点处常考 英文中主要使用逗号和句号,文中一且出现一些特殊的标点符号,通常都会表达作者的特殊意图,因此特殊的标点符号处也经常成为出题的对象,因此考生应该对以下标点符号的用法较为熟悉: 冒号的出现有两大作用一后面内容或者用来解冒号|释说明前面抽象的内容,或者是对前面内容的总结。不管是解释还是总结,出现冒号通常要重点选读冒号后面的内容 括号内的内容通常用来解释或强调括号前面的内容,我们在平时的学习过程中见到括号一般都跳括号过,但是在英语中通常会把要强调的内容放在括号中,因此不但不可以跳过,反而要认真仔细分析 破折号后面的内容通常表示对前面内容的解释说破折号明或补充,说明此处信息至关重要。但要注意,两个破折号的作用通常为插入语,就不再是重点信息了 7.结论建议处常考 一般情况下出现?the?research?indicates,?the?report suggests等类似的结论建议性表达方式时,表明此处为文中:提及的实验和研究的结果或作者要阐明论证的结果。出题者通常不会考查实验和研究的过程,而将注意力放在结论和结果上,因此阅读过程中要格外注意这些表达的出现。 8.观点态度处常考 文章中作者对于某人或某事物的观点或态度,以及文口章中涉及的其他人或组织机构的观点或态度也常受出题人的青睐。解题时要留意文章中出现doubt,?appreciate,?hate, against等表达观点态度的词语的地方,以及一些带有感情色彩的特殊句式(祈使句、感叹句、反问句等)。 例1.【2018·浙江卷阅读C】 As cultural symbols go, the American car is quite young. The Model T Ford was built at the Piquette Plant in Michigan a century ago, with the first rolling off the assembly line(装配线) on September 27, 1908. Only eleven cars were produced the next month. But eventually Henry Ford would build fifteen million of them. Modern America was born on the road, behind a wheel. The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of American culture: the roadside diner, the billboard, the motel, even the hamburger. For most of the last century, the car represented what it meant to be American—going forward at high speed to find new worlds. The road novel, the road movie, these are the most typical American ideas, born of abundant petrol, cheap cars and a never-ending interstate highway system, the largest public works project in history. In 1928 Herbert Hoover imagined an America with “a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage.” Since then, this society has moved onward, never looking back, as the car transformed America from a farm-based society into an industrial power.zxx.k The cars that drove the American Dream have helped to create a global ecological disaster. In America the demand for oil has grown by 22 percent since 1990. The problems of excessive(过度的)energy consumption, climate change and population growth have been described in a book by the American writer Thomas L. Friedman. He fears the worst, but hopes for the best. Friedman points out that the green economy(经济)is a chance to keep American strength. “The ability to design, build and export green technologies for producing clean water, clean air and healthy and abundant food is going to be the currency of power in the new century.” 1. Why is hamburger mentioned in paragraph 2? A. To explain Americans’ love for travelling by car. B. To show the influence of cars on American culture. C. To stress the popularity of fast food with Americans. D. To praise the effectiveness of America’s road system. 2. What has the use of cars in America led to? A. Decline of economy. B. Environmental problems. C. A shortage of oil supply. D. A farm-based society. 3. What is Friedman’s attitude towards America’s future? A. Ambiguous. B. Doubtful. C. Hopeful. D. Tolerant. 【答案】1. B 2. B 3. C 【解析】文章讲述了汽车在美国经济和文化上的重要作用,也指出了汽车带来的环境问题。 1. 推理判断题。根据第二段Modern America was born on the road, behind a wheel. The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of American culture: the roadside diner, the billboard, the motel, even the hamburger.可知,现代美国诞生于公路和汽车,汽车塑造了美国文化最持久的一些方面。Hamburger就是汽车塑造的美国文化的一个方面。用这个例子是在说明汽车对美国文化的影响,故选B。 2. 细节理解题。根据第四段The cars that drove the American Dream have helped to create a global ecological disaster.可知,美国汽车的迅速发展,导致全球生态灾难,也就是造成环境问题。故选B。 3. 推理判断题。根据倒数第二段中的He fears the worst, but hopes for the best.和最后一段中的Friedman points out that the green economy(经济) is a chance to keep American strength.可见,Friedman虽然对未来担心,但抱有最好的希望,他指出了发展绿色经济是保持美国实力的一个机会的想法。可见Friedman对未来是充满希望的,故选C。 点睛:阅读理解题的具体方法: 1. 略读材料,大概了解原文,掌握中心或主旨。 2. 按文章的体裁,作者写作的组织模式及有关的信息词。如for example, first, second…等预测应该到何处寻找自己所需要的事实。 3.将精力放在你所需要的细节上,快速通篇跳读,全文扫视,找出细节之处,待找到含细节句子时,放慢速度,仔细核对比较内容,直至找到答案。如小题1要求分析第二段提到hambueger的作用,根据第二段Mordern America was born on the road, behind a wheel. The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of American cultural: the roadside diner, the billboard, the motel, even the hamburger,可知,现代美国诞生于公路和汽车,汽车塑造了美国文化最持久的一些方面。 Hamburger就是汽车塑造的美国文化的一个方面。用这个例子是在说明汽车对美国文化的影响。 变式训练 【2018山西省太原市高三模拟阅读B】 Today we talk about a time when half the world is waking from the dark, cold winter months. Spring! We often describe “spring” as a time of rebirth, renewal and awakening. Many trees are blossoming and early flowers are pushing through the earth. Things are coming to life! But the word “spring” is not just a season. It is also a verb that means something going on or coming out quickly. When you put “spring” and “life” together, you will get “spring to life”. This expression means something suddenly becomes very active or perhaps seems more alive! You may “spring to life” after hearing that a distant friend will be visiting you. Or maybe your favorite soccer team finally “sprang to life” in the second half, played well and won the match. Now, besides being a season and a verb the noun “spring” refers to a metal coil (线圈) that is wound tightly. When the coil unwinds, it often jumps. So, we often say a person “has a spring in his step” if he is lively and active. He might even appear to jump, or bounce a little when he walks. There is another way we use “spring” as a description. In the case of a “spring chicken”, “spring” means young. However, “spring chicken” is also an informal, humorous way to refer to someone who isn’t young at all. So, we use this expression in the negative form, as in “no spring chicken”. For example, let’s say you know an 85-year-old man who decides to run a marathon, even though he has never exercised before. You could say, “That’s amazing! After all, he’s no spring chicken.” But be careful when using this expression. It could be a little disrespectful. Let’s say your boss shows you a picture of his wife, and you say, “Wow, she’s no spring chicken.” That response would be disrespectful and a bad career move. 1. What does “spring” mean in the expression “spring to life”? A. The season after winter. B. Being young and healthy. C. A tightly wound metal coil. D. To occur or appear quickly. 2. What is the passage mainly about? A、The origin of the word “spring” B. The meaning of the season “spring”. C. Some expressions with the word “spring”. D. Some characteristics of the season “spring”. 3. How does someone feel when he “has a spring in his step”? A. Angry B. Surprised C. Happy D. Frightened 4. What can be inferred from the last paragraph? A. Being young is a great advantage in career development. B. Women may feel offended when described as “no spring chicken”. C. Using “spring-related” expressions in conversations seems impolite. D. Expressions with the word “spring” are always disrespectful to others. 【2018河北衡水中学高三第八次模拟A】 Sydney Trains is one of the most economical, reliable and convenient ways to travel throughout Sydney and its surrounds. Our network, the NSW Trains Intercity, covers suburban Sydney and extends to the Hunter, Central Coast, Blue Mountains, Southern Highlands and South Coast regions. The network is made up of several color-coded lines. Trains from different lines can share the same platform, so check display screen and listen to announcements. Ticket prices are generally based on the distance traveled. You can visit transportnsw. Info for details. Getting to the City. In Sydney, if you’re near a train station, you’re on your way to the city. Every rail line leads directly or indirectly to the City Circle. It’s the loop around the central business district of Sydney. Most City stations are underground so look out for the sign on street level. Automatic ticket gates Large stations have automatic gates for entry to, and exit from, the station. If you have an Opal card or a ticket which has a magnetic stripe you must use the automatic gates. You may use the wide gate for wheelchair, pram or luggage access. Station staff will assist you. Night Ride buses Most trains do not operate between midnight and 4:00 a.m. For your convenience a special Night Ride bus service is available between these hours on most Sydney suburban lines. Track work In order for the tracks to the maintained, we sometimes have to replace train with buses, particularly at weekends, Please check the track work section for the latest service alterations on your line. 1. To get more information about ticket pries, travelers had better________. A. go to the City Circle B. visit a website C. check display screen D. listen to announcements 2. What service is offered to travelers in need at most big stations? A. A free Opal card. B. Earlier entry to the station. C. Help from station workers. D. A ticket with a magnetic stripe. 3. Which is the best convenient time to travel by Sydney Trains? A. At midnight. B. On Sunday afternoon. C. Between midnight and 4:00 a.m. D. At 6:00 p.m. on Wednesday. 【2018陕西宝鸡市高三教学质量检测二】 ? Mid- February of 2018 brings us two key events: Valentine’s Day and the start of the Year of the Dog. Happiness and romance are in the air. Both at home and abroad various celebrations are held for the two western and Chinese festivals. Here are some activities recommended to you, which few people will miss the chance to participate in them. ????Dog themed exhibition held in Beijing to greet the Spring Festival ??? The Chinese Lunar New Year will start on Feb 16, making start of the Year of the Dog. To celebrate it, an exhibition entitled “Best Wishes from the Auspicious Dog” will be opened. ??? The place: At the Capital Museum in Beijing. ??? The exhibition time: From Feb.14, 2018 till March 18, 9:00 am — 6:00 pm per day. ??? The main theme: The relationship between dogs and humans, the exhibition has collected cultural relics, pictures, historical facts to show that dogs have accompanied us throughout history. ??? A large celebration held by Boston Chinese community to celebrate the Year of the Dog ??? Date: From February 14 to February 16, 2018. 9:30 — 5pm. ??? Place: In Copley Square Hotel, Boston. ??? Programs: Dragon dance, lion dance, magic show, Beijing opera and ballet. ??? Food: Many traditional Chinese foods such as hotpots, dumplings, rice cakes. ??? Fare: Sponsored by a large Chinese Cooperation, all the fees are free. ??? Highlights: Anyone whose birthday is in the Year of the dog will receive a mascot of the dog. ??? Attention: Participants need to register in advance by visiting the website http://www.chsb.com. ??? The 2018 Dingsheng Royal Lantern Fair to welcome the coming Chinese lunar new year. ??? With the theme of embracing the Year of the Dog, the 2018 Dingsheng Royal Lantern Fair kicks off in Chengde city, North China’s Hebei province. More than 50 groups of lanterns in various shapes and sizes are illuminated during the festival to promote the Chinese Spring Festival culture. In addition to the carved ice exhibition, visitors can also watch folk performances. ??? Opening time: From February 14, Valentine’s Day till March 2 ??? Highlights: An dating area will be set aside for the singles to find the other half of theirs. ??? Admission: 1. 100 yuan for each adult, children under 15 free. ???????????????????????? 2. Anyone who married in the year of the dog will enjoy the half price. 1.Which celebrate will last longest according to the text? A.The dog themed exhibition in Beijing. B.The large celebration in Boston. C.Dingsheng Royal Lantern Fair in Chengde. D.The celebration in Copley Square Hotel 2.In Boston celebration, a mascot of the dog will be received by anyone born in ________. A.2004 B.1996 C.2012 D.1994 3.How much will a couple married in the year of the dog pay for Dingsheng Lantern Fair admission? A.50 yuan B.100 yuan C.200 yuan D.150 yuan 【2018安徽省皖江名校联盟高三12月联考】 Tea is obviously a big deal in Britain, but have you ever wondered how it became a thing? Tomato sauce is not Italian; the tomato is native to South America and was not introduced to Europe until the 16th century. Tea isn’t British, it wasn’t even all that popular for Britons until the 17th century. But now it is as British as dull weather and red phone booths. Tea is of such great importance that it was featured in the Evening Standard written by George Orwell back in 1946. The famous author describes the beverage(饮品) thusly "tea is one of the main stays of civilization in this country." But when, exactly, did this practice become in fashion? The year was 1662, a mere 111 years before insurgents(茶党) from the soon-to-be ruling champions of the Revolutionary War dumped a whole bunch of tea into Boston Harbor. Catherine of Braganza of Portuguese royalty married King Charles II of England, and then went on to make teatime a thing.But the thirst for tea fell at one time—the costs to transport it from the Far East were far more than Britons could afford. However, when Catherine started to make tea consumption a daily practice, it passed on to the other nobles. Not long after the practice was initially adopted by the upper class,the East India company began to import more tea to meet the demand. With the prices lowered,everybody could afford to have a good taste, and suddenly tea was the drink of the every man. After centuries of ritual(习惯), it has become entirely rooted in the British identity itself. Turkey may consume the most tea annually, but the British still hold the title of association. 1. The best tile for the passage is probably . A. Why the British drink so much tea B. Why tea is so popular across the world C. How tea was introduced into Europe D. Which kind of tea is the most favored 2. The underlined word "it" in Paragraph 2 refers to . A. tomato B. tomato sauce C. tea D. a thing 3. According to Paragraph 4, Britons' interest in tea once dropped because . A. it was not drinkable B. they were not used to it C. it was not affordable D. they refused anything foreign 4. What can we know from the passage? A. George Orwell promoted tea sales across England. B. King Charles II of England drank tea on a daily basis. C. The Turkish produce the most tea every year. D. People may associate tea with Britons a lot. 【2018豫南九校高三下学期第一次联考】 China has been the birthplace of many of the world's greatest inventions. It was, for example, the first country to produce paper money. Before the invention of paper money and coins, people used many different kinds of things for buying and selling.___16___This exchange of goods and services for other goods and services is called bartering. ___17___ In 1200 BC, people in China began to use shells(贝壳) as money. Usually the shells used as money were very small. This made it easier for people to carry money over long distances, and allowed for trade to develop between different parts of the country. In the years which followed this invention, many other countries around the world began to do the same,___18___The next development was in 1000 BC, when China started making bronze and copper shells. It wasn't long before the Chinese made round coins out of metal.___19___By 500 BC, metal coins had begun to appear in countries like Persia and Greece, and later in the Roman Empire. About 1000 years later, leather was used as money in China, and in 806 AD, the first paper banknotes were produced by the Chinese people.___20___ A. People also began collecting foreign coins as souvenirs. B. However, as economies developed, such exchanges became impractical. C. It was still many years before paper currency appeared in Europe. D. They also used tiny shells as money for buying and selling. E. As time went by, trade between countries increased. F. During that time, for example, buying a chicken might cost several potatoes. G. The very first coins often had holes in them so that people could string them together. 【2018安徽六校教育研究会高三二模】 Americans use many expressions with the word dog. People in the United States love their dogsand treat them well. They take their dogs for walks, let them play outside and give them good foodand medical care. 1 The expression, to lead a dog’s life, describes a person who has an unhappy existence. Some people say we live in a dog-eat-dog world. 2 They say that to be successful, aperson has to work like a dog. This means they have to work very, very hard. Such hard work can make people dog-tired. And, the situation would be even worse if they became sick as a dog. Still, people say every dog has its day. This means that every person enjoys a successful periodduring his or her life. To be successful, people often have to learn new skills. Yet, some people saythat you can never teach an old dog new tricks. 3 Some people are compared to dogs in bad ways. People who are unkind or uncaring can be described as meaner than a junkyard dog. Husbands and wives use this doghouse term when they are angry at each other. For example, a woman might get angry at her husband for coming home late orforgetting their wedding anniversary. She might tell him that he is in the doghouse. 4 However, the husband may decide that it is best to leave things alone and not create more problems. He might decide to let sleeping dogs lie. 5 The dog days of summer are the hottest days of the year. A rainstorm may cool the weather. But we do not want it to rain too hard. We do not want it to rain cats and dogs. A. She may not treat him nicely until he apologizes. B. Dog expressions also are used to describe the weather. C. They firmly belief that dogs are the best friends of human beings. D. She will drop a line to remind him of it or ring him back at once. E. However, dogs without owners to care for them lead a different kind of life. F. That means many people are competing for the same things, like good jobs. G. They believe that older people do not like to learn new things and will not change the way they do things. 20 第32讲 风俗习惯、语言文化类文章(解析版) "风俗习惯、语言文化类"是高中英语新课标重要考查的阅读话题之一,也是英语核心素养的体现。本话题包括社会生活、社会风情、政治经济、人文历史、自然资源、文化习俗、文化遗产等方面的情况; 文章选材来源于各个国家的主要名胜或历史事件;命题以细节题为主,有一定主观推断题;涉及一定的地理常识、历史知识和风俗习惯。语言文化类主要包含英美英语的差异、英语和文化、语言学习的困难和策略、语言和交际的态度、学习方法和学习策略等方面。这些话题与学生的日常学习密切相关,通过这些话题的学习和考查,可以让学生了解中西方的风俗文化及其语言背后的文化差异,研究学习方法和策略,激发学生学习外语的热情,促进他们的身心健康。 一、真题链接 【2018-2019学年辽宁省瓦房店市重点中学联考B篇】 Everglades National Park (大沼泽地国家公园) is located in the state of Florida. It is the largest wilderness in the entire country and makes up 25% of the wetlands in the state. The park is home to several rare and endangered species. It is also the third largest national park in the US, after Death Valley and Yellowstone. Each year, about 1 million tourists visit the park. On a global level, it has been announced as a World Heritage Site. Unlike most other national parks, Everglades National Park was created to protect an ecosystem (生态系统) from damage. In 1947, President Harry Truman spoke at the official opening of Everglades National Park, saying the goal of creating the park was to protect forever a wild area that could never be replaced. 10,000 different islands make up Everglades National Park. Each of these islands is lived by natural wildlife. The Everglades is home to about 15 species that are endangered. In addition, more than 350 bird species and 300 species of fresh and saltwater fish live within the park. The Everglades is also home to 40 species of mammals and 50 reptile species. There are many ways to explore the Everglades. Visitors can see alligators (短吻鳄) while hiking the Anhinga Trail. The Everglades is one of the only places on Earth where freshwater alligators and saltwater crocodiles live in the same area. Visitors using airboats are likely to see large groups of birds. Some visitors might enjoy riding bicycles through Shark Valley. Others may want to move slowly through waters where they can see insects and wildlife closely. According to experts, changes to the Everglades are becoming a danger to several different kinds of wildlife. They say it is a result of actions the US government began more than 50 years ago, and settlers began even earlier. 1.In the first paragraph, we’re mainly told that ________. A.Florida is famous for its wetlands B.the US has three important national parks C.Everglades National Park is of great value D.Everglades National Park is popular with visitors 2.How does the author describe the richness of wildlife in the park? A.By listing figures. B.By personally experiencing. C.By making a comparison. D.By carrying on a study. 3.From the passage, we know that ________. A.in fact Everglades National Park is a big island B.visitors are not allowed to stay in the water in the park C.President Harry Truman first suggested setting up the park D.the park is among the few places where alligators and crocodiles live together 4.What would be further discussed if the passage is continued? A.What the government has done to protect the park. B.How the park’s environment was badly changed. C.What readers can do to help to save the wetlands. D.How important endangered wildlife is to the world. 【答案】CADB 【解析】 语篇解读:本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了作为世界文化遗产之一,位于美国佛罗里达州的大沼泽地国家公园。 1.选C 段落大意题。在第一段中,作者从多个角度来突出大沼泽地国家公园的重要性,即强调它的价值所在。 2.选A 细节理解题。根据第三段中提到的“more than 350 bird species” “300 species of fresh and saltwater fish” “40 species of mammals”和“50 reptile species”可知,作者是通过列举数据来描述大沼泽地国家公园野生动物的丰富性的。 3.选D 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段第三句可知,大沼泽地国家公园是为数不多的短吻鳄和鳄鱼居住在一起的一个地方。 4.选B 推理判断题。最后一段谈到“the US government”和“settlers”的行为对大沼泽地国家公园造成了破坏, 而至于如何破坏的没有具体展开。由此可推断, 接下来文章最有可能谈大沼泽地国家公园的环境是如何被破坏的。 【2018全国卷Ⅰ阅读C (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=axzHA69d1tG5d1R8cOWs%2Bet21xi1qWRkFiOCOXhyiXXHrJ%2FdKLb64n7%2F62xcJDX6%2BSEHAcDW0PzWUyxGqZzMaFa9goDIouMXyH4K8JQhwDk%2BMhvpq3ULKVNJfw%2FTvcI7yVI76YaVcfxxgj3JGGlbizUj2HuKm9z%2FpFGTxV%2BbBB1qpc%2FFeF08vOP3cs5UAzVXF4IpfJonwPIoFdNwcSK7WOiyKf3%2FZU9fTr6Sd1Y8US8McF1O9" \t "_blank?)】 Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers,small, tightly knit (联系)groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other.Some language experts believe that 10,000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them. Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centres, trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education. Especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades,all have caused many Languages to disappear,and dominant languages such as English.Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. At present, the world has about 6 800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages. Often spoken by many people while hot. wet zones have lots, often spoken by small numbers.Europe has only around 200 Languages: the Americas about 1,000. Africa 2 400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3,200, of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number (中位数)of speakers is a mere 6.000, which means that half the worlds languages are spoken by fewer people than that. Already well over 400 of the total of, 6,800 languages are close to extinction(消亡), with only a few elderly speakers left. Pick, at random, Busuu in Cameroon (eight remaining speakers),Chiapaneco in Mexico(150). Lipan Apache in the United States(two or three)or Wadjigu in Australia (one, with a question-mark): none of these seems to have much chance of survival. 1. What can we infer about languages in huntergatherer times? A.They developed very fast. B. They were large in number. C. They had similar patters. D. They were closely connected 2. Which of the following best explains"dominant " underlined in paragraph 2? A.Complex. B. Advanced. C.Powerful. D.Modem. 3. How many languages are spoken by less than 6, 000 people at present? A.About 6 800 B.About 3 400 C.About 2.400 D.About 1-200 4. What is the min idea of the text? A. New languages will be created. B Peoples lifestyles are reflected in languages C. Human development results in fewer languages D. Geography determines language evolution. 【答案】B CBC 【解析】本文是一篇议论文。文章讲述了随着社会的发展人类语言越来越少及其原因。 1. 推理判断题。根据文章第一段中的When the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers, small, tightly knit (联系) groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other... when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them.可知,当世界以依靠狩猎为生的人居住的时候,小而联系紧密的群落形成了他们彼此之间独立的讲话模式。当世界上的人口数量不到一千万时,语言种类达到了12000种。由此推知,当时的语言种类很多。故选B。 2. 猜测词义题。根据文章第二段中的dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.可知,英语、西班牙语和汉语正在替代其他语言。由此推知dominant languages意为:强有力的语言。故选C。 3. 细节理解题。根据文章第三段中的At present, the world has about 6,800 languages.和The median number (中位数) of speakers is a mere 6,000, which means that half the world’s languages are spoken by fewer people than that. 可知,目前世界上大约有6800种语言,但是讲的人数少于6000人的占一半即3400.故选B。 4. 主旨要义题。根据文章第一段中的主题句Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going.可知,语言的产生和消失进行了几千年,但最近时代语言产生的少,消失的太多。故选C。 点睛:长难句解读 In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. 分析:and连接两个并列句,前面的介词短语in. . .作时间状语,all和前面的名词短语是同位语。 句意:在最近的几个世纪,贸易、工业化、民族国家的发展和全球义务教育的蔓延,尤其是过去几十年来,全球化和更好的交流,这些都是导致许多语言消失的原因。而且像英语、西班牙语和汉语这些强大的语言正在不断地占据统治地位。 二、阅读话题词汇夯实 阅读单词识记:英汉互译 【风俗习惯类】 1.ancient? adj. 2.anniversary?n. 3.awkward?adj. 4.belief?adj. 5.casual adj 6.cause?n 7.caution?adj 8.ceremony?n 9.chief?adj 10.concern?v 11.cooperation?n. 12.cultural? 13.custom?n. 14.decorate?vt. 15.fascinating?adj. 16.monument?n. 17.moral?adj. 18.pray?v. 19.remind?vt. 20.remove?vt. 21.sacred?adj. 22.sacrifice?n.&v. 23.separate?v. 24.temple?n. 25.history?n. 【答案速递】 1.ancient?adj.古代的 2.anniversary?n.周年纪念日 3.awkward?adj.令人尴尬的,使人难堪的 4.belief?n.信条,信念 5.casual?adj.漫不经心的,不经意的,非正式的 6.cause?n.原因,起因 ?vt.促使,引起,使发生 7.caution?n.谨慎,小心;警告 8.ceremony?n.典礼,仪式;礼节 9.chief?adj.主要的,首要的 10.concern?v.&n.涉及;关心 11.cooperation?n.合作 12.cultural?adj.文化的 13.custom?n.习惯;习俗,风俗 14.decorate?vt.装饰,装潢,修饰 15.fascinating?adj.魅力无穷的 16.monument?n.纪念碑,纪念馆 17.moral?adj.道德的 18.pray?v.祈祷 19.remind?vt.提醒,使记起 20.remove?vt.移动;拿走;脱掉(衣服等) 21.sacred?adj.神圣的,上帝的 22.sacrifice?n.&v.牺牲;供奉 23.separate?v.使分开,使分离 ?adj.单独的,分开的 24.temple?n.庙宇,寺庙 25.history?n.历史 【语言学习类】 1.accent n. 2.accumulate vt.& vi. → n.积累,积聚 3.accurate adj. → adv.精确地,准确地→ n.精确,准确 4.classify vt. 5.consult v. 6.correction n. 7.effective adj. → n.效果,作用 8.dialect n. 9.enlarge vt. 10.enrich vt. 11.excellent adj. → adv.极好地;优秀地 12.expression n. 13.grasp vt. 14.fluently adv. 15.frequently adj. → adj.频繁的 16.memorize v. 17.pronunciation n. → vt.& vi.发音 18.recognize v. 19.scan vt.& vi. 20.sentence n. 21.shortcoming n. 22.shortly adv. 23.skim vt.& vi. 24.spelling n. 25.standard n.& adj. 26.straight adj. 27.stress n. 28.term n. 29.usage n. 30.vocabulary n. 31.wonderful adj. 【答案速递】 1.accent n.口音;腔调;重音 2.accumulate vt.& vi.积累;积聚→accumulation n.积累,积聚 3.accurate adj.准确的,精确的→accurately adv.精确地,准确地→accuracy n.精确,准确 4.classify vt.分类 5.consult v.咨询 6.correction n.改正 7.effective adj.有效的→effect n.效果,作用 8.dialect n.方言,土语 9.enlarge vt.扩大 21.enrich vt.丰富 22.excellent adj.极好的,优秀的→excellently adv.极好地;优秀地 23.expression n.表达;表示;表情;词语,措辞 24.grasp vt.领会;掌握 25.fluently adv.流利地 26.frequently adj.频繁地→frequent adj.频繁的 27.memorize v.记忆 28.pronunciation n.发音→pronounce vt.& vi.发音 29.recognize v.辨认出;承认;识别 30.scan vt.& vi.扫读;浏览 31.sentence n.句子 32.shortcoming n.缺点,短处 33.shortly adv.不久;简单地,扼要地 34.skim vt.& vi.跳读;略读 35.spelling n.拼写;拼法 36.standard n.& adj.标准(的) 37.straight adj.笔直的;正直的;adv.直接地;坦率地 38.stress n.重音 39.term n.术语;条目 40.usage n.使用;用法 41.vocabulary n.词汇 42.wonderful adj.精彩的;了不起的 二、高频短语 英汉互译: 【风俗习惯类】 1.Chinese traditional culture 2.arouse one’s enthusiasm for 3.put forward 4.attend a ceremony 5.come into being 6.culture shock 7.date back to/date from 8.follow a custom 9.get together 10.in memory of 11.in honour of 12.pass down from generation to generation 13.have a great effect on 14.contribute to the economic and culture?development 15.have a better understanding of 16.Beijing Opera 17.spread Chinese culture 18.fit in 19.make a brief introduction to 20.experience diverse Chinese culture 【答案速递】 1.Chinese traditional culture中国传统文化 2.arouse one’s enthusiasm for激发某人对……的热情 3.put forward提出 4.attend a ceremony出席仪式 5.come into being形成;产生;出现 6.culture shock文化冲击 7.date back to/date from追溯到 8.follow a custom遵循习俗 9.get together聚集 10.in memory of为了纪念 11.in honour of为了纪念;为向……表示敬意 12.pass down from generation to generation一代一代传下来 13.have a great effect on?对……有很大的影响 14.contribute to the economic and culture?development促进经济文化的发展 15.have a better understanding of对……有更好的理解 16.Beijing Opera京剧 17.spread Chinese culture传播中国文化 18.fit in融入,适应 19.make a brief introduction to对……作简单介绍 20.experience diverse Chinese culture体验多元的中国文化 【语言学习类】 1.at present 2.attach importance to 3.because of 4.come up 5.form the habit of 6.have a good command of 7.have a good knowledge of 8.insist on 9.keep/bear...in mind 10.look up 11.make progress 12.make full use of 13.pick up 14.put...to use 15.such as 【答案速递】 1.at present目前;现在 2.attach importance to重视 3.because of因为;由于 4.come up提出;走近 5.form the habit of养成……的习惯 6.have a good command of精通 7.have a good knowledge of通晓 8.insist on坚持 9.keep/bear...in mind记住…… 10.look up查阅;向上看 11.make progress取得进步 12.make full use of充分利用 13.pick up(偶然)学得;拾起,捡起;接收 14.put...to use使用…… 15.such as例如;像 ★【即学即练】 【2018江苏省徐州市第三中学高三 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?link?m=axzHA69d1tG5d1R8cOWs%2Bet21xi1qWRkFiOCOXhyiXXHrJ%2FdKLb64n7%2F62xcJDX6%2BSEHAcDW0PzWUyxGqZzMaFa9goDIouMXyH4K8JQhwDk%2BMhvpq3ULKVNJfw%2FTvcI7yVI76YaVcfxxgj3JGGlbizUj2HuKm9z%2FpFGTxV%2BbBB1qpc%2FFeF08vOP3cs5UAzVXF4IpfJonwPIoFdNwcSK7WOiyKf3%2FZU9fTr6Sd1Y8US8McF1O9" \t "_blank?)联考】 If you are like most English learners, you may be familiar with this: You think you understand a topic. Yet when asked to use what you have learned, you are not able to remember the information. Not being able to retrieve new ideas could happen on a test or even in a conversation. Sarah Lynn, an educational consultant and teacher, thinks English learners can improve their ability to remember and use new words by testing themselves. She adds that self-testing improves retrieval — the ability to use and remember new words. Lynn is not the only expert who recommends self-testing. A paper in Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition says one benefit of testing practice is that it improves retrieval. Retrieving information once makes retrieving that information easier in the future. In addition, the paper says, when students test themselves as part of studying, they learn what they do not know. When students know what they do not understand, they can pay attention to overcoming their weaknesses. Lynn recommends that learners test themselves by getting away from what they are studying. Then, they should test themselves by thinking about what they have learned. She recommends that learners make themselves write or speak something. Lynn suggests reading something or watching a video on the topic, then getting rid of the reading or video material and summarizing it. This will allow learners to test what they know. Next time you are studying English, try to test yourself. But do not just assume that you can read something once or twice and fully understand it. Even if you highlight important points or take notes in a class, you probably do not fully understand what you learned. After all, Olympic athletes cannot learn how to swim or run just from reading a book. They have to practice swimming or running every day for years. They often compete in races to test their skills. 1.What’s the common situation faced by English learners? A. They fail to come up with new ideas. B. They are not familiar with a certain topic. C. They don’t learn as well as they think. D. They don’t know how to improve their test-taking skills. 2.Which is the advice given by Lynn about self-testing? A. Recall what’s learned with the book closed. B. Remember what’s learned by repetitive reciting. C. Question your teachers on what you doubt bravely. D. Challenge yourself to learn from videos. 3.Why are Olympic athletes mentioned? A. To show how to be successful athletes. B. To make people confident of learning. C. To warn English learners not to be proud. D. To stress the significance of practice. 【文章大意】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了Sarah Lynn提出的自我测试可以提高英语学习者记忆和使用新单词的能力的观点。 1.C 【解析】考察细节理解。根据第一段中的“If you are like most English learners, you may be familiar with this: You think you understand a topic. Yet when asked to use what you have learned, you are not able to remember the information. Not being able to retrieve new ideas could happen on a test or even in a conversation.”可知:如果你像大多数英语学习者一样,你可能熟悉这个:你认为你理解了一个主题。然而,当要求你运用所学知识时,你却不能记住这些信息。在考试中,甚至在对话中,都有可能出现无法获得新想法的情况。 2.A 【解析】考查推理判断。根据第三段中的"Lynn recommends that learners test themselves by getting away from what they are studying"和"Lynn suggests reading something or watching a video on the topic, then getting rid of the reading or video material and summarizing it"可知, Lynn建议人们脱离阅读材料或视频材料进行自我检测,故A项正确。 3.D 【解析】考查推理判断。根据最后一段的内容,尤其是"Olympic athletes cannot learn how to swim or run just from reading a book. They have to practice swimming or running every day for years"可知,作者提及奥运选手是为了说明英语学习也需要练习,即强调(在英语学习 中)练习的重要性,故D项正确。 阅读理解的命题点有一定规律可寻,掌握命题规律,能帮助考生明确阅读时应该重点关注的内容,抓阅读的“敏感点”,提高阅读的针对性,快速、准确锁定信息区间,为准确解题圈定信息源。 1.段首、段尾处常考 无论是议论文还是说明文,一篇文章往往分成几个部分或层次进行说明和论证,每个段落一般都是一个部分或者一个层次。英美作者写文章的逻辑性非常强,文章结构都非常规范,因此每个段落的首句和尾句也经常是该段落的主旨句,也是出题的重点区域。 【2018全国卷Ⅲ阅读B】 Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River. Over 300 years its population grew gradually from 800 people to 8 million. But not all cities develop slowly over a long period of time. Boom towns grow from nothing almost overnight. In 1896, Dawson, Canada, was unmapped wilderness(荒野). But gold was discovered there in 1897, and two years later, it was one of the largest cities in the West, with a population of 30,000. Dawson did not have any of the natural conveniences of cities like London or Paris. People went there for gold. They travelled over snow-covered mountains and sailed hundreds of miles up icy rivers. The path to Dawson was covered with thirty feet of wet snow that could fall without warming. An avalanche(雪崩) once closed the path, killing 63 people. For many who made it to Dawson, however, the rewards were worth the difficult trip. Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives. But no matter how rich they were, Dawson was never comfortable. Necessities like food and wood were very expensive. But soon, the gold that Dawson depended on had all been found. The city was crowded with disappointed people with no interest in settling down, and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come. Today, people still come and go — to see where the Canadian gold rush happened. Tourism is now the chief industry of Dawson City — its present population is 762. 24. What attracted the early settlers to New York City? A. Its business culture. B. Its small population. C. Its geographical position. D. Its favourable climate. 【答案】24. C 【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了Dawson这座城市的发展原因、过程与现状。 24. 细节理解题。根据文章首段首句Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River.可知,人们选择在河边或港口设城是因为交通方便,便于做生意。而纽约就是在哈德森河口附近的一个大港口,故纽约吸引早期移民的原因是它的地理位置,故C正确。 2.转折处常考 文章的转折处也是体现作者观点和文章主题的地方,作者经常会通过先抑后扬的方法在转折词之后才明确提出自己的观点。转折词前后的意思一般来说都是相反的,而作者会偏重其中的某一方。因此,在阅读过程中看到转折词,考生最好能作上标记以方便做题时查找。一些明显的转折词包括but, however, on the contrary,yet(句首)(句首), as a matter of fact, in fact等。 3.对比、比较处常考 另外,作者也经常把两个事物、两件事实、两种观点进行对比,从而论证自己观点的正确性。表示对比的一些标志性词语有 unlike, by contrast, In comparison, be comparedwith等。命题者常对对比的双方属性进行考查。比如文章中说“甲具有Ⅹ属性,但乙与甲不同,那乙有何属性?”答:非X属性。此类考点常出现在逻辑推理型题中,少数出现于其他考点中。 4.因果处常考 因果逻辑关系也很受高考英语命题者的青睐,因为因果关系阐述了两个事件或者事实之间的内在联系,是作者进行分析或者得出结论的地方,出题者为了考查考生的阅读能力和逻辑分析能力,经常会将因果倒,考生需要注意辨别实际的因果关系,防止受到迷惑,表示因果关系的词有:because,?because?of,?for,?since,due?to,?thanks?to,?as?aresult?of,?as,?so,?thus,therefore, consequently,?in?consequence. as?a?result,result?from,?result?in,?cause,?lead?to,?attribute to等,有时候文章中虽然没有出现表示因果关系的标志性词语,但是在逻辑上也存在着因果关系,这个时候考生就需要自己进行判断和推理。 【2018全国卷Ⅲ阅读C】 While famous foreign architects are invited to lead the designs of landmark buildings in China such as the new CCTV tower and the National Center for the Performing Arts, many excellent Chinese architects are making great efforts to take the center stage. Their efforts have been proven fruitful. Wang Shu, a 49-year-old Chinese architect, won the 2012 Pritzker Architecture Prize — which is often referred to as the Nobel Prize in architecture — on February 28. He is the first Chinese citizen to win this award. Wang serves as head of the Architecture Department at the China Academy of Art (CAA). His office is located at the Xiangshan campus(校园) of the university in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Many buildings on the campus are his original creations. The style of the campus is quite different from that of most Chinese universities. Many visitors were amazed by the complex architectural space and abundant building types. The curves(曲线) of the buildings perfectly match the rise and fall of hills, forming a unique view. Wang collected more than 7 million abandoned bricks of different ages. He asked the workers to use traditional techniques to make the bricks into walls, roofs and corridors. This creation attracted a lot of attention thanks to its mixture of modern and traditional Chinese elements(元素). Wang’s works show a deep understanding of modern architecture and a good knowledge of traditions. Through such a balance, he had created a new type of Chinese architecture, said Tadao Ando, the winner of the 1995 Pritzker Prize. Wang believes traditions should not be sealed in glass boxes at museums. "That is only evidence that traditions once existed," he said. "Many Chinese people have a misunderstanding of traditions. They think tradition means old things from the past. In fact, tradition also refers to the things that have been developing and that are still being created, " he said. "Today, many Chinese people are learning Western styles and theories rather than focusing on Chinese traditions. Many people tend to talk about traditions without knowing what they really are, " said Wang. The study of traditions should be combined with practice. Otherwise, the recreation of traditions would be artificial and empty, he said. 30. What made Wang’s architectural design a success? A. The mixture of different shapes. B. The balance of East and West. C. The use of popular techniques. D. The harmony of old and new. 【答案】30.D 【解析】文章主要报道了中国建筑设计师王澍在其作品中融合中国传统建筑文化,获得了建筑界的诺贝尔奖——普利策奖,这让中国建筑现在得到了国际认可。 30. 细节理解题。根据第五段最后一句:This creation attracted a lot of attention thanks to its mixture of modern and traditional Chinese elements(元素).译文:由于融合了现代与传统的中国元素,这一创作

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  • ID:4-5034199 [精]高考一轮复习学案 第20讲 宾语从句(解析版+原卷版)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    第20讲 宾语从句(原卷版) 近几年语法填空与短文改错题中对名词性从句的考查多集中在宾语从句上,这也与高考重基础知识的考查这一主题思路相符;通过近五年语法填空和短文改错试题分析可以发现,名词性从句是考查的重点。语法填空考查形式为无提示词型填空,重点考查名词性从句的引导词,尤其是对what,that,who的考查。短文改错主要考查引导词的误用和多余。这一部分是英语语法中一个重要组成部分,也是英语语言中运用最为广泛的知识点之一,对其涉及的所有知识都应重点掌握。 考生在解答这类题目时,要根据连接词在宾语从句中所作的句子成分来确定选用什么连接词。若在从句中作主语或宾语用连接代词,若作状语就用连接副词;如果不作成分则要考虑从句意思是否完整,是否需要用whether/if;如果不作成分且从句意思完整则用that. 1、 宾语从句定义 在复合句中充当宾语的句子叫做宾语从句(?Objective?Clause)。引导宾语从句的有连词 that.if,?whether等,连接代词what,?which,who,?whose,?whatever,?whichever,?whoever等,还有 连接副词when,?where,why,how等 二、连接词that,if,?whether引导 We?also?realise?that?hiking?can?be?hard?work?and?believe?that?hikers?need?all?our?help。我们还意识到长途跋涉很艰苦,也相信跋涉者需要我们的帮助。(北师大U8) I?asked?her?whether?she?had?looked?at?a?map?yet.我问她是否看过地图。(人教U3) ★【即学即练】(1)?【北京卷】I?truly?believe beauty?comes?from?within。 (2)?【山东卷改】We've?offered?her?the?job,?but?I?don't?know she'll?accept?it. (3)【江苏卷改】?We?haven't?settled?the?question?of it?is?necessary?for?him?to?study?abroad. 三、连接代词引导 I'Il?just?say?whatever?comes?into?my mind.我想到什么就说什么。 She?asked?me?whose?handwriting?was?the?best?in?the?class.她问我班上谁的书法最好 ★ 【即学即练】【北京卷】It?is?difficult?for?us?to?imagine life?was?like?for?slaves?in?the? ancient?world. 四、连接副词引导 Do?you?know?when?the?ancient?games?began?你们知道古代奥运会是何时开始的吗?(译林U2) I've?been?thinking?about?how?we?can?make?the?newspaper?more?interesting.我一直在考虑如何 使我们的报纸更加有趣。(外研M2) ★【即学即练】--I?wonder Mary?has?kept?her?figure?after?all?these?years。 --By?working?out?every day. (2015面 五、在复合宾语结构中,有时用it作形式宾语,而将宾语从句放在宾语补足语之后,如: I thought?it strange?that?my?teacher?could?not?show?me?love.我感到奇怪的是老师不告诉我什么是爱。(北师大U16) The?report?did?not?make?it?clear?how?the?conclusion?was?arrived?at.这份报告没有讲清楚这个结论是如何得出的。 六、否定的转移 在动词?think,?believe,?guess,?suppose,?expect,?Imagine,?fancy,?assume等引起的宾语从句中, 往往将谓语动词的否定含义转移到主句谓语上,即将think等动词变为否定形式,如: I?don’t believe?it is a fact. 我相信这不是真的。 I don’tt?think?I?can?ever?forgive?her. 我觉得我永远都不会原谅她。(译林⑤U1) 1.that连接宾语从句时通常可以省略(但多个并列的宾语从句中只能省略第一个that),没有具体的意思,不充当句子成分,只是起连接作用。what引导时,在从句中充当成分,且有意义。 ◆(全国卷Ⅰ)I’m writing to tell you that my uncle Li Ming is going to your city for a conference. 我写信是想告诉你我叔叔李明要去你的城市开会。 2.在whether/if连接的宾语从句中,whether/if意为“是否”,但在whether...or not结构中,或者whether引导的宾语从句作介词的宾语时,以及whether+to do结构中和whether引导的从句作少数动词(如leave,put,discuss,doubt,know等)的宾语时,只能用whether,不能用if来替换。 ◆We’ve offered her the job,but I don’t know whether she’ll accept it. 我们已经为她提供了这份工作,但我不知道她是否会接受。 ◆I don’t know whether to leave or not. 我不知道是否要离开。 3.连接代词、连接副词引导宾语从句时不能省略,并在从句中充当句子成分。 ◆Our teachers always tell us to believe in what we do and who we are if we want to succeed. 老师总是告诉我们,如果想要成功,就要相信我们所做的事情以及我们是谁。 4.有些动词或动词短语,如like,hate,appreciate,depend on,see to等,一般不直接跟从句,需要借助it。 ◆You may depend on it that she will go with you. 你可以相信她会与你一起去。 5.当主句的主语是第一人称时,在think,believe,suppose,expect等动词后的宾语从句若是否定的,就运用否定转移,将否定词转移到主句谓语动词上。 ◆I don’t believe she will attend the meeting. 我认为她不会来参加该会议。 6.it作形式宾语,真正的宾语后置,常用此种结构的及物动词有find,make,think,feel,consider等。 ◆I find it important that we should keep calm in danger. 我发现我们在危险中保持镇静是很重要的。 7.不论主句为何种句型,宾语从句都用陈述语序。 ★【即学即练】 【全国卷短文改错】My classmates and I are talking about how to do during the holiday. 知识点一 连接副词的考查 例1.【2018·天津】The gold medal will be awarded to ___________ wins the first place in the bicycle race. A. whomever B. wherever C. whoever D. whatever 【答案】C 【解析】考查宾语从句连接词。句意:无论谁获得自行车比赛第一名,金牌将授予他。分析句子可知,宾语从句中缺少主语,故用whoever,表示“任何人,无论谁”。故选C。 变式训练 1: 【2017·江苏】We choose this hotel because the price for a night here is down to $20, half of _______ it used to charge. A. that B. which C. what D. how 知识点二 连接副词的考查 例2.【2018·安徽黄山二模】?While?visiting?Hangzhou’?s?West Lake?and?its?surrounding? Beautiful hills,?you'?ll?understand it's?been?a?great?source?of?inspiration?for artists, poems?and?philosophers?throughout?Chinese?history. 【答案】why 【解析】考查宾语从句。句意:当你游览杭州西湖及周围美丽的群山时,你就会懂得为什么在中国历史中,那个地方一直是画家、诗人和哲学家的灵感之源。宾语从句中缺少原因状语,故 填why。 变式训练2: 【2017·天津】She asked me _______ I had returned the books to the library, and I admitted that I hadn’t. A. when B. where C. whether D. what 变式训练3: 【2017·北京】26. Jane moved aimlessly down the tree-lined street, not knowing ______she was heading. A. why B. where C. how D. when 知识点三 it做形式主语或形式宾语的考查 例3.【2018北京东城二模】Since there is only one laboratory in the school ,it is important to check the students can use it. 【答案】when 【解析】it 是形式主语,真正主语为to do sth .而check 动词之后少宾语,故应为补全宾语从句,根据句意少连接副词when. 变式训练4: The teacher made it clear ice cream is junk food. 知识点四 短文改错中宾语从句that,what,which的误用 例4.【2018·柳州模拟】We should make full use of time to do that should be done. 【答案】that改为what 【解析】that should be done在do之后做动词的宾语从句,但是shuold be done之前应用what 作主语,故that改为what。 变式训练6: 【2018·湖南师大附中模拟】 When I went to the kitchen to get my breakfast,I was astonished at which I saw. 知识点五短文改错中宾语从句that,what与连接副词的误用 例5.【2016全国卷Ⅰ改错】My Uncle is the owner of a restaurant close to that I live. 【答案】that 改为where 【解析】?that I live 是介词to的宾语从句,live后少地点状语,故that 改为where。 变式训练7: 【2016全国卷Ⅱ改错】My classmates and I are talking about how to do during the holiday. 语法填空模拟真题练习 1.(全国卷)As?natural?architects,?the?Pueblo?Indians figured out exactly thick the adobe?walls needed to be to?make?the?evele?work?on?most?days 2. (2018·广四桂林百色模拟)?People?are?able?to?see?the Chinese?technologies?of?the?time, ?which?helps?them?a great?deal?in?understanding? the?Chinese lived. 3.(2017·贵州贵阳联考)To our astonishment, we saw a light and some people in a cabin. Jim was too frightened to go on but I felt curious, wondering ____________was happening. 4.(2017·石家庄一模)Finally, keep in mind____________there are many things that can’t be learnt immediately, and never be frustrated when you fail in one or two exams. 5.(2017·福建安溪模拟)Success partially depends on ____________you have the patience to do simple things perfectly. 6..(2018·湖北襄阳1月调研)?The?WHO?has?stated?that?of?the?56.?5?million?deaths?per?year? around?the?world,over?50?percent?are?caused?by?diseases?closely?associated with?unhealthy?diet? and?lack?of?exercise?and? many?of?these?deaths?could?be?prevented 7.(2018·南昌第一次模拟)?These?days,?modern?buildings are everywhere.?But?if?you?want?to?see life was?back?in?the?old?days,?China?still?has?many?beautifuI water?towns?to?visit. 8.(2018·湖北七市联考)?Over?time?flowers?have?come?to symbolize?the?most?powerful?human? Experiences,beauty,?love,?hope,?and?rebirth.?Sweet?flowers?alone?cansay ?one?fears?expressing. 1 第20讲 宾语从句(解析版) 近几年语法填空与短文改错题中对名词性从句的考查多集中在宾语从句上,这也与高考重基础知识的考查这一主题思路相符;通过近五年语法填空和短文改错试题分析可以发现,名词性从句是考查的重点。语法填空考查形式为无提示词型填空,重点考查名词性从句的引导词,尤其是对what,that,who的考查。短文改错主要考查引导词的误用和多余。这一部分是英语语法中一个重要组成部分,也是英语语言中运用最为广泛的知识点之一,对其涉及的所有知识都应重点掌握。 考生在解答这类题目时,要根据连接词在宾语从句中所作的句子成分来确定选用什么连接词。若在从句中作主语或宾语用连接代词,若作状语就用连接副词;如果不作成分则要考虑从句意思是否完整,是否需要用whether/if;如果不作成分且从句意思完整则用that. 1、 宾语从句定义 在复合句中充当宾语的句子叫做宾语从句(?Objective?Clause)。引导宾语从句的有连词 that.if,?whether等,连接代词what,?which,who,?whose,?whatever,?whichever,?whoever等,还有 连接副词when,?where,why,how等 二、连接词that,if,?whether引导 We?also?realise?that?hiking?can?be?hard?work?and?believe?that?hikers?need?all?our?help。我们还意识到长途跋涉很艰苦,也相信跋涉者需要我们的帮助。(北师大U8) I?asked?her?whether?she?had?looked?at?a?map?yet.我问她是否看过地图。(人教U3) ★【即学即练】(1)?【北京卷】I?truly?believe beauty?comes?from?within。 (2)?【山东卷改】We've?offered?her?the?job,?but?I?don't?know she'll?accept?it. (3)【江苏卷改】?We?haven't?settled?the?question?of it?is?necessary?for?him?to?study?abroad. 【答案】①that ②whether/if ③?whether 三、连接代词引导 I'Il?just?say?whatever?comes?into?my mind.我想到什么就说什么。 She?asked?me?whose?handwriting?was?the?best?in?the?class.她问我班上谁的书法最好 ★ 【即学即练】【北京卷】It?is?difficult?for?us?to?imagine life?was?like?for?slaves?in?the? ancient?world. 【答案】?what? 【解析】what引导宾语从句,并在从句中作介词lke的宾语。 四、连接副词引导 Do?you?know?when?the?ancient?games?began?你们知道古代奥运会是何时开始的吗?(译林U2) I've?been?thinking?about?how?we?can?make?the?newspaper?more?interesting.我一直在考虑如何 使我们的报纸更加有趣。(外研M2) ★【即学即练】--I?wonder Mary?has?kept?her?figure?after?all?these?years。 --By?working?out?every day. (2015面 【答案】?how 【解析】根据答语?By?working?out?every?day可知,应用how引导宾语从句,在从句中作方式状语。 五、在复合宾语结构中,有时用it作形式宾语,而将宾语从句放在宾语补足语之后,如: I thought?it strange?that?my?teacher?could?not?show?me?love.我感到奇怪的是老师不告诉我什么是爱。(北师大U16) The?report?did?not?make?it?clear?how?the?conclusion?was?arrived?at.这份报告没有讲清楚这个结论是如何得出的。 六、否定的转移 在动词?think,?believe,?guess,?suppose,?expect,?Imagine,?fancy,?assume等引起的宾语从句中, 往往将谓语动词的否定含义转移到主句谓语上,即将think等动词变为否定形式,如: I?don’t believe?it is a fact. 我相信这不是真的。 I don’tt?think?I?can?ever?forgive?her. 我觉得我永远都不会原谅她。(译林⑤U1) 1.that连接宾语从句时通常可以省略(但多个并列的宾语从句中只能省略第一个that),没有具体的意思,不充当句子成分,只是起连接作用。what引导时,在从句中充当成分,且有意义。 ◆(全国卷Ⅰ)I’m writing to tell you that my uncle Li Ming is going to your city for a conference. 我写信是想告诉你我叔叔李明要去你的城市开会。 2.在whether/if连接的宾语从句中,whether/if意为“是否”,但在whether...or not结构中,或者whether引导的宾语从句作介词的宾语时,以及whether+to do结构中和whether引导的从句作少数动词(如leave,put,discuss,doubt,know等)的宾语时,只能用whether,不能用if来替换。 ◆We’ve offered her the job,but I don’t know whether she’ll accept it. 我们已经为她提供了这份工作,但我不知道她是否会接受。 ◆I don’t know whether to leave or not. 我不知道是否要离开。 3.连接代词、连接副词引导宾语从句时不能省略,并在从句中充当句子成分。 ◆Our teachers always tell us to believe in what we do and who we are if we want to succeed. 老师总是告诉我们,如果想要成功,就要相信我们所做的事情以及我们是谁。 4.有些动词或动词短语,如like,hate,appreciate,depend on,see to等,一般不直接跟从句,需要借助it。 ◆You may depend on it that she will go with you. 你可以相信她会与你一起去。 5.当主句的主语是第一人称时,在think,believe,suppose,expect等动词后的宾语从句若是否定的,就运用否定转移,将否定词转移到主句谓语动词上。 ◆I don’t believe she will attend the meeting. 我认为她不会来参加该会议。 6.it作形式宾语,真正的宾语后置,常用此种结构的及物动词有find,make,think,feel,consider等。 ◆I find it important that we should keep calm in danger. 我发现我们在危险中保持镇静是很重要的。 7.不论主句为何种句型,宾语从句都用陈述语序。 ★【即学即练】 【全国卷短文改错】My classmates and I are talking about how to do during the holiday. 【答案】?how→what 【解析】句意:我和我的同学正在谈论假期做什么。根据句意可知,about后的宾语从句表达的意思为“做什么”,而不是“怎么做”,故用what。 知识点一 连接副词的考查 例1.【2018·天津】The gold medal will be awarded to ___________ wins the first place in the bicycle race. A. whomever B. wherever C. whoever D. whatever 【答案】C 【解析】考查宾语从句连接词。句意:无论谁获得自行车比赛第一名,金牌将授予他。分析句子可知,宾语从句中缺少主语,故用whoever,表示“任何人,无论谁”。故选C。 变式训练 1: 【2017·江苏】We choose this hotel because the price for a night here is down to $20, half of _______ it used to charge. A. that B. which C. what D. how 【答案】C 【解析】考查宾语从句连接词。句意:我们选择这家旅馆是因为这里的房价降到了20美元,是过去的一半。分析句子可知,of之后少宾语,且从句中缺少动词charge的宾语,故用what,表示“索要的价钱”。故选C。 知识点二 连接副词的考查 例2.【2018·安徽黄山二模】?While?visiting?Hangzhou’?s?West Lake?and?its?surrounding? Beautiful hills,?you'?ll?understand it's?been?a?great?source?of?inspiration?for artists, poems?and?philosophers?throughout?Chinese?history. 【答案】why 【解析】考查宾语从句。句意:当你游览杭州西湖及周围美丽的群山时,你就会懂得为什么在中国历史中,那个地方一直是画家、诗人和哲学家的灵感之源。宾语从句中缺少原因状语,故 填why。 变式训练2: 【2017·天津】She asked me _______ I had returned the books to the library, and I admitted that I hadn’t. A. when B. where C. whether D. what 【答案】C 【解析】考查宾语从句。句意:他问我是否已经把书还给图书馆了,我承认。我还没有还。A.什么时候;B.在哪里;C是否;D.什么。根据句意,故选C 变式训练3: 【2017·北京】26. Jane moved aimlessly down the tree-lined street, not knowing ______she was heading. A. why B. where C. how D. when 【答案】B 【解析】A. why 为什么 B. where 在哪 C. how 如何 D. when什么时候。句意:Jane漫无目的地走在两旁栽树的街道上,不知道她将去往何方,根据语境可知此处是表地点的,很容易就可选出答案B。 知识点三 it做形式主语或形式宾语的考查 例3.【2018北京东城二模】Since there is only one laboratory in the school ,it is important to check the students can use it. 【答案】when 【解析】it 是形式主语,真正主语为to do sth .而check 动词之后少宾语,故应为补全宾语从句,根据句意少连接副词when. 变式训练4: The teacher made it clear ice cream is junk food. 【答案】that 【解析】it 是形式宾语,真正宾语为 ice cream is junk food.而此句子为完整宾语从句,不少成分,故应为that. 知识点四 短文改错中宾语从句that,what,which的误用 例4.【2018·柳州模拟】We should make full use of time to do that should be done. 【答案】that改为what 【解析】that should be done在do之后做动词的宾语从句,但是shuold be done之前应用what 作主语,故that改为what。 变式训练6: 【2018·湖南师大附中模拟】 When I went to the kitchen to get my breakfast,I was astonished at which I saw. 【答案】which改为 what 【解析】?which I saw应该做介词at的宾语从句,saw的宾语应用what,故which改为 what. 知识点五短文改错中宾语从句that,what与连接副词的误用 例5.【2016全国卷Ⅰ改错】My Uncle is the owner of a restaurant close to that I live. 【答案】that 改为where 【解析】?that I live 是介词to的宾语从句,live后少地点状语,故that 改为where。 变式训练7: 【2016全国卷Ⅱ改错】My classmates and I are talking about how to do during the holiday. 【答案】what改为how 【解析】to do 少宾语,故应用what与其连用。 语法填空模拟真题练习 1.(全国卷)As?natural?architects,?the?Pueblo?Indians figured out exactly thick the adobe?walls needed to be to?make?the?evele?work?on?most?days 【答案】how 【解析】根据语境和空后的形容词thick可知应用how引导宾语从句,表示程度。此处表示要弄清楚到底土坯房的墙需要“多”厚。故答案为how。 2. (2018·广四桂林百色模拟)?People?are?able?to?see?the Chinese?technologies?of?the?time, ?which?helps?them?a great?deal?in?understanding? the?Chinese lived. 【答案】how 【解析】考查宾语从句。句意:人们能够看到当时的中国技术,这对人们了解当时的中国人是如何生活的很有帮助。分析该句结构可知,空处引导宾语从句,作understanding的宾语;结合语境可知,该处表示“如何”,故用how引导宾语从句, 3.(2017·贵州贵阳联考)To our astonishment, we saw a light and some people in a cabin. Jim was too frightened to go on but I felt curious, wondering ____________was happening. 【答案】what  【解析】句意:令我们惊讶的是,我们看到在小屋内有一束光和一些人。吉姆太害怕了,不敢继续往前,但是我觉得很好奇,想知道发生了什么事。设空处引导宾语从句,并在从句中作主语,表示事物,故用what引导。 4.(2017·石家庄一模)Finally, keep in mind____________there are many things that can’t be learnt immediately, and never be frustrated when you fail in one or two exams. 【答案】that  【解析】考查宾语从句。动词短语keep in mind后是一个宾语从句,且从句中不缺少成分,因此用that引导。 5.(2017·福建安溪模拟)Success partially depends on ____________you have the patience to do simple things perfectly. 【答案】whether  【解析】句意:成功部分取决于你是否有耐心把简单的事情做得完美。设空处引导宾语从句,作介词on的宾语,意为“是否”,故填whether。 6..(2018·湖北襄阳1月调研)?The?WHO?has?stated?that?of?the?56.?5?million?deaths?per?year? around?the?world,over?50?percent?are?caused?by?diseases?closely?associated with?unhealthy?diet? and?lack?of?exercise?and? many?of?these?deaths?could?be?prevented 【答案】that  【解析】句意:世界卫生组织公布全世界每年有5650万人死亡,其中有50%以上是由与不健康的饮食有关的疾病和缺乏锻炼造成的,这些死亡许多是可以避免的。 many?of?these deaths could?be?prevented"与“?that?of?the 565?million...?lack?of exercise”并列,都作stated的宾语,设空处所在的宾语从句不缺任何成分,故填that,由于与前面that引导的宾语从句并列,故设空处所填的that不可省略。 7.(2018·南昌第一次模拟)?These?days,?modern?buildings are everywhere.?But?if?you?want?to?see life was?back?in?the?old?days,?China?still?has?many?beautifuI water?towns?to?visit. 【答案】how  【解析】考查宾语从句的引导词。分析该句结构可知,空处引导宾语从句,作及物动词see的宾语;根据该句中的“life was?back?in?the?old?days”可知,从句中缺表语,结合语境可知,该句意为“但如果你想看看古代的生活是怎样的,中国还有许多美丽的水乡。”故用how引导该宾语从句。 15.(2018·湖北七市联考)?Over?time?flowers?have?come?to symbolize?the?most?powerful?human? Experiences,beauty,?love,?hope,?and?rebirth.?Sweet?flowers?alone?cansay ?one?fears?expressing. 【答案】what  【解析】考查宾语从句。分析句子√结构可知,空处引导宾语从句,同时结合语境“一个人害怕表达什么”,所以填what。 7

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  • ID:4-5000065 [精]高考一轮复习学案 第19讲 动词-ing形式和-ed形式(解析版)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    第19讲 动词-ing形式和-ed形式(解析版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第12个条目是非谓语动词,其中包含对动词-ing形式和-ed形式的考查。高考主要以语法填空和短文改错形式,结合上下文语境,主要考查动词-ing形式和-ed形式的作用。其中在作用方面,主要考查作宾语时用不定式还是动名词;作定语、状语、补语时用不定式还是分词;以及它们作某一成分时的特殊结构。在形式方面,主要考查用是完成式、主动式还是被动式等。这一部分是学生的易错点和薄弱点,汉语中没有非谓语动词形式,所以教师在一轮复习时要注意加强引导,精讲精练,有的放失,直击高考重点。 1-6观察v-ing在句中所作成分;7-10观察v-ed在句中所作成分。 1.Spending money on himself or leading a comfortable life means very little to YuanLongping . 2.Yuan really loves working the land .He doesn’t care about being famous. 3. Charlie Chaplin was born in a poor family.You may find it astonishing that Charlie was taught to sing as soon as he could speak and dance as soon as he could walk. 4.His acting of eating shoes is so convincing that it makes you believe that it is one of the best meals he has ever tasted. 5. Yesterday, another student and I, representing our universirv's student association,went to the Capital Intemational Airport to meet this year's international students. 6 .After half an hour of waiting, I saw several young people enter the waiting area looking around Curiosity. 7. John Snow became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. 8. Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well. 9. Exhausted, I slid into bed and fell fast asleep 10. Ladies and gentlemen, please remain seated until the plane has come to a complete stop. V-ing在句子中所做成分 V-ed在句子中所做成分 【深思熟虑】 V-ing在句子中所做成分 1.作主语 2. 作宾语 3. 作宾补 4. 作表语 5. 6.作状语 V-ed在句子中所做成分 7. 作定语 8. 作宾补 9. 作状语 10. 作表语 从以上句子中含义可以看出,v-ing和v-ed可以充当各种句子成分,在句中有不同的功能和作用;从句子中形式可以看出,根据语境和表达的需要,它们也有不同的形式。本节会分类讲解,总结规律,抓住特征,参透语法,从而提升学生使用v-ing和v-ed的能力。 1、 动词-ing形式 (一)、动词-ing形式的分类 动词-ing形式可以分为动名词形式和现在分词形式 1.现在分词的构成与特征 现在分词(?The?Present?Participle)由“动词原形+ing”构成,现在分词亦有双重性,它具有动词的特征,可以有自己的宾语和状语;同时具有形容词和副词的特征,可以充当表语、补足语、定语、状语,表示主动或正在进行的动作。如: My?mother?is?in?the?kitchen?making?coffee。 我母亲在厨房里煮咖啡。(现在分词起副词的作用,在句中作状语,有宾语) 2.动名词的构成与特征 动名词由“动词原形+-ing”构成,与现在分词的构成完全相同。动名词既具有动词的特征,又具有名词的特征。所谓的动词特征是说动名词可以有自己的宾语和状语,名词特征是指动名词可以像名词一样充当主语、表语、宾语和定语。如: Drinking enough water will improve your skin and give you healthy hair.饮用足量的水可改善你的肌肤,保持头发健康。(动名词起名词的作用,在句中作主语,有宾语)(译林①U3) (二)、动词-ing形式的功能与用法 1. 作主语 Travelling?in?space?by?ordinary?citizens?will?be common.普通市民去太空旅行将会很普遍。(外研④M1) ★【即学即练】【全国改】 felt?funny?watching?myself?on?TV. 【答案】it 【解析】动名词短语watching myself on TV作主语后置,it 为形式主语。 2.作表语 现在分词作表语表示主语所具有的特征。如: Body?language?is?fascinating?for?anyone?to?study.身势语对于任何学习者来说都具有吸引力。(外研M3) ★【即学即练】【上海改】It?is?believed?that?if?a?book?is (interest),?it?will?surely (interest) the reader. 【答案】?interesting;?interest 【解析】第一个空是表语,说明主语(book)的特征,与主语为主动关系,用现在分词;第二个空是 谓语动词。 3.作宾语 (1)作动词的宾语 常是的只能动名词作宾语的动词有: admit, allow,avoid, consider,delay,deny,dislike, enjoy,escape,fancy, finish, imagine, include, keep, mention, mind, miss, practise, resist,risk,stop, suggest等,短语动词有: give up, insist on, feel like, get down to, look forward to等,如: He will keep trying out now ideas so he can help farmers around China.他(袁隆平)将不断试验新想法,以帮助全中国的农民。(人教U2) Every time you feel like smoking a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non-smoker. 每当你想要吸烟的时候,就提醒自己,你不再是吸烟的人了。(人教U3) ★【即学即练】【上海改】Bill suggested (hold)a meeting on what to do for the Shanghai Expo during the vacation。 【答案】holding 【解析】suggest后只能接动名词作宾语,不能接不定式。 ★【即学即练】【陕西改】Now I really enjoy study because I'm growing old and know what I want. 【答案】study→ studying 【解析】动词enjoy后只能接动名词作宾语,故应将 study改为 studying (2)作介词的宾语 They developed new methods of growing food, hunting and moving around.他们掌握了种植、狩猎和迁徙的新方法。 After eating breakfast at the cafeteria I go by minibus to the university lecture halls or the library.在食堂吃过早饭后,我坐小公共汽车去大学的报告厅或图书馆。(人教U5) 4.作补足语 现在分词可以在see,watch,notice,hear,keep,find,feel,have,get等动词后作补足语。如: She could feel her heart beating with fear.她能感觉到她的心因害怕而跳动。(译林U1) I looked down into the water and could see Old Tom swimming by the boat,showing us the way.我低头看了看水面,可看见老汤姆在船旁边游着,正在给我们指路呢。(人教U3) ★【即学即练】【四川改】I looked up and noticed a snake (wind) its way up the tree to catch its breakfast. 【答案】winding 【解析】snake与wind之间为主动关系,且wind这个动作正在进行,故用wind的现在分词形式。 ★【即学即练】【全国改】They use computers to keep the traffic (run) smoothly. 【答案】running 【解析】分词作宾语补足语。 the traffic与run之间是主动关系,故用现在分词。 5.作定语 单个分词作定语一般放在所修饰的名词的前面,分词短语作定语放在所修饰名词的后面。如:I?travel to?unusual?places?and?meet?interesting?people?from?all?over the world我到不寻常的地方旅游,见到世界各地有趣的人。 If you?see?soldiers?wearing?sky-blue?helmets,?they?are?United?Nations?Peacekeepers.如果你看见戴着天蓝色头盔的士兵,他们就是联合国维和人员。(外研M6) ★【即学即练】【全国改】Today there are more airplanes (carry) more peop le than ever before in the sky. 【答案】carrying 【解析】句意:如今天空中有更多的飞机,其所运载的乘客比以往任何时候都要多。carry与其逻辑主语 airplanes为主动关系,故用现在分词作定语。 ★【即学即练】【山东改】The room is empty except for a bookshelf (stand)in one corner. 【答案】standing 【解析】a bookshelf和sand之间是主动关系,且谓语表示的状态与stand同时存在,故用现在分词作定语。 6.作状语 现在分词作状语多表示时间、原因、结果、伴随等。如: Having realized that I could use a kite to attract lightning, I decided to do an experiment.我意识到可以用风筝来吸引闪电,于是决定做个试验。(时间或原因) Wang Peng sat in his empty restaurant feel very frustrated.王鹏坐在他那空荡荡的餐馆里,感觉沮丧极了。(伴随) (人教U2) ★【即学即练】【重庆改】Like ancient sailors,birds can find their way (use) the sun and the stras. 【答案】using 【解析】birds是逻辑主语,与use之间是主动关系,故用现在分词作状语。 ★【即学即练】【全国改】The?sunlight?is?white?and?blinding, (throw)?hard-edged? shadows?on?the?ground. 【答案】throwing 【解析】逻辑主语?the?sunlight与throw之间为主动关系,故同现在分词作从伴随状语。 ★ 【即学即练】【福建改】Pressed?from?his?parents,?and (realize)?that?he?has?wasted?too ?much?time,the boy is?determined?to?stop?playing?video?games. 【答案】?realizng 【解析】逻辑主语?the?boy与?realize为主动关系,故用现在分词短语做原因状语。 ★ 【即学即练】【上海改】A?small?plane?crashed?into?a?hillside?five?miles?east?of?the?city, (kill)all for people on board. 【答案】killing 【解析】分词作结果状语。逻辑主语与kill之间是主动关系,故用现在分词:表示一种顺其自然的结果。 ★【即学即练】【北京改】 (see)that?she?was?going?off?to?sleep,I?asked?if?she'd ?like?that?little?doll?on?her?bed. 【答案】Seeing 【解析】分词作时间状语。逻样主语I与see是主动关系,故用现在分词。 注意:不定式和现在分词可做原因状语和结果状语。不定式常在作表语的形容词后面作原因状语,在句首作原固状语只能用现在分词;不定式作结果状语表示意想不到的结果,现在分词则表示自然的结果 (三)、动词-ing的否定式: 由“not+doing”构成,如:The?king?takes?the?woman?to?his?palace?and?marries?her,?not?knowing?that?she?is?a?wicked?witch.国王不知道这个女人是个巫婆,他把她带到宫殿,娶他为妻。 (外研M2) I am sorry for not handing in my homework on time. 很抱歉我没有按时完成作业。 ★ 【即学即练】【广东改】 (not,?complete)?the?programme,?they?have?to?stay?there? for?another?two?weeks。 【答案】Not having?completed 【解析】非谓语动词的否完式是在其前加not,逻辑主语与?complete之间是主动关系,且谓语动词的动作发生在句子谓语动词的动作之前,故用现在分词的完成式。 ★【即学即练】【上海改】Victor apologized for his (not,be)able to inform me of the change in the plan. 【答案】not being 【解析】for是介词,后跟动名词,his not being是动名词的复合结构。 (四)、现在分词的时态与语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 doing being dong 完成式 having done having been done 1.现在分词的时态 现在分词的一般式表示其动作正在进行或与谓语的动作同时发生,现在分词的完成式表示其动作发生在语动词的动作之前。如: Having worked hard all day,I went to bed.(现在分词having worked 表示work这一动作发生在谓语went之前)(人教U5) ★【即学即练】【湖南改】The?sun?began?to?rise?in?the?sky, (bathe)?the?mountain?in?golden ?light. 【答案】bathing 【解析】主语the sun与动词bahe之间为主动关系,且rise和bathe两个动作同时发生,故用现在分词的一般式。 ★ 【即学即练】【全国改】I?got?to?the?office?earlier?that?day, ?(catch)the 7:30?train? from?Paddington. 【答案】having?caught 【解析】?逻辑主语I与?catch为主动关系,且“赶上火车”这一动作发生在“到办公室”之前,因此用现在分词的完成式。 2.现在分词的语态 现在分词的主动式表示其逻辑主语是现在分词动作的执行者;现在分词的被动式表示其逻辑主语是在分词动作的承受者,如: Being taught by?the?gentlemen,?Eliza?made?great?progress.由两位绅士辅导,伊丽莎进步很快。(现在分词的逻辑主语是?Eliza,与teach是被动关系)(人教U4) ★【即学即练】【陕西改】 (show)?around?the?Water?Cube,?we?were?then?taken?to?see? the?Bird's?Nest for?the2008 Olympics Games. 【答案】having?been shown 【解析】分词做时间状语。逻辑主语we与show是被动关系,且分词的动作发生在句子谓语动词动作之前,故用现在分词的完成被动式。 (五)现在分词与动名词的区别 现在分词与动名词在形式上没有任何区别,但在功能和意义上有较大差异,现在不能作主语和宾语,动名词不能作状语和补足语。 1.作定语的比较 现在分词与所修饰的名词有逻辑上的主谓关系,而动名词则没有这种主谓关系,动名词其所修饰的名词的性质、用途等,试比较: 现在分词 动名词 a?sleeping?beauy睡美人 a?living language活的语言the?waiting?audience等候的观众running?water自来水 a walking?dictionary活词典 a sleeping car 卧铺车 living conditions 生活条件 the waiting room 候车室 running track 跑道 a walking stick 拐杖 A virus is a very small living thing that causes disease.病毒是一种引起疾病的微生物。(现在分词)(人教U3) 2.作表语的比较 做表语时,现在分词说明主语的特证,动名词则说明主语的内容,试比较: His job is interesting.他的工作很有趣。(现在分词) His job is teaching他的工作是教书。(动名词) 二、动词-ed形式 (一)、动词-ed形式的定义 动词-ed形式也叫做过去分词,过去分词(?The?Past?Participle)的形式有规则和不规则之分。规则动词的过去分词由“动词原型+ed”构成,不规则动词的过去分词形式要逐一记忆(参见后面的不规则动词表)。过去分词有双重性,既具有动词的特征,可以有自己的宾语和状语,又具有形容词和副词的特征,可以充当表语,补足语,定语和状语。过去分词表示已完成的动作或被动的含义,如: Built in 1910,the museum is almost 100 years old.(过去分词起副词作用,在句中作状语,有自己的状语,表示被动) (人教U3) (二)、动词-ed形式在句中的作用 1、作表语 过去分词作表语多表示主语所处的状态,如: Father,don'?t?be?upset.?Everything'?s?all?right?now. 爸爸,别难过。现在一切都好啦!(人教U3) ★【即学即练】【安徽改】While?waiting?for?the?opportunity?to?get (promote),?Henry?did ?his?best?to?perform his?duty. 【答案】?promoted 【解析】句意:在等待晋升机会的同时,亨利尽自己最大努力去履行其职责。promote与其逻辑主语Henry为被动关系,故用过去分词。 2、作补足语 过去分词可以在?see,hear,notice,?watch,keep.find.feel.have,make,get等动词后作补足语。 To?their?surprise,?the?three?countries?found?themselves?tired?peacefully?instead?of?by?war.?这三个国家惊奇地发现他们和平统一了,而不是通过战争。(人教U2) have?sth?done常表示“叫某人做某事”,在口语中可以用?get?sth?done代替?have?sth done.有时?have?sth?done表示“意外或不幸遭遇”,如: When?are?you?going?to?get?the?roof?repaired?你什么时候叫人把屋顶修好? We?had?the?car?delivered?to?the?airport.我们让人把车开到了机场。George?had?his?nose?broken?in?a?fight.乔治在打斗中弄伤了鼻于。Have?you?ever?had?your?passport?stolen?你曾经把护照弄去了吗? ★ 【即学即练】【北京改】When?we?saw?the?road block)?with?snow,?we?decided?to ?spend?the holiday?at home. 【答案】?blocked 【解析】road与bock为被动关系,故用过去分词作宾语补足语。 ★【即学即练】【四川改】Before?driving?into?the?city,?you?are?required?to?get?your?car (wash).? 【答案】?washed 【解析】car与wash之间是动宾关系,故用过去分词作宾语补足语。 (3)作定语 Paper cuts used for religious purposes are often found in temples.用于宗教目的的剪纸常常在寺庙里可以见到。(北师大U6) ★【即学即练】【陕西改】The witnesses (question) by the police just now gave very different descriptions of the flight. 【答案】questioned 【解析】逻辑主语 the witness与 question为被动关系,且由 just now可知,目击者被询问问是发生在过去的事,此用过去分词作后置定语。 (4)作状语 过去分词作状语多表示时间、原因、条件、伴随等。如: Seen from above, the old town is a maze of canals, little bridges and tiny cobbled streets that tourists get lost in.从上面俯看,古城就是一座由沟渠、小桥和鹅卵石铺成的街巷构成的迷宫, 游人极易迷失其中。(时间) (外研M5) Frightened by the noise outside, Sue dared not sleep in her bedroom.由于受到外面噪音的吓,Sue不敢在卧室里睡觉了。(原因) (人教U3) The lady retumed home, followed by the famous detective Holmes.女士回到家,身后跟着著名的侦探福尔摩斯。(伴随) 1.动名词的语态:在一些动词后主动表被动: (1)want,need,?require等动词后面的动名词常用主动式表示被动意义。如: The?library?needs?repairing,?but?it?will?have?to?wait?until Sunday.图书馆需要修缮,但要等到礼拜天。 (2)worth后接动名词,用主动式表示被动意义。如: The?book?is?worth?reading?a?second?time.这本书值得再读一遍。 2.动名词的复合结构 动名词有时带有自已的逻辑主语,这样就构成了动名词的复合结构,即:“名词所有格/物主代词+动名词”。这种结构可作主语、表语或宾语,如: Mary's coming late made the teacher very angry.玛丽的迟到让老师很生气。(在口语中可用名词通格:Mary coming late made the teacher very angry.) Do you still remember my first meeting with you?你还记得我第一次与你见面的情景吗?(在口语中可用代词宾格: Do you still remember me first meeting with you?) ★【即学即练】【全国改】At the beginning of class, the noise of desks (open and close) could be heard outside the classroom. 【答案】being opened and closed 【解析】动名词与其逻辑主语desks构成复合结构作介词of的宾语desks与open是被动关系,故用动名词的被动式。 3.不定式和动名词比较不同之处在于:在一些动词后用动名词与不定式会产生意思的差异 动名问的逻辑主语可能泛指人们,不定式的逻辑主语是句子本身的主语。比较: I hate smoking.我讨厌吸烟。(相当于说:?I?hate?peoplesmoking.) I hate to smoke.我不爱吸烟。(相当于说:?I don't?smoke?as?I?dislike?it.) 动名词表示一般的或抽象的多次性的动作,而不定式则表示具体的一次性动作。比较: I?like seeing English films.我喜欢看英语电影。 Would?you?like?to?see?the?English?film?tonight?今晚你想看英语电影吗? 有些动词后面只能接动名词作宾语,而有些动词只能接不定式,这些动词我们已有归纳,这里不再赘述,比较: I like living in a big house.?我喜欢住在大房子里。(不可用?to?live) I cannot?afford?to?buy a?villa.我买不起别墅。(不可用?buying)? 有不少动词后面既可接动名词作宾语,也可接不定式作宾语或状语。这类动词常见的有:?attempt,?begin.?continue,?fear,?forget,?hate,?help,?intend,?learn,?like,?love,?mean,?need,?neglect,prefer,?propose,?regret,?remember,start,?stop,?try,want等,有些动词后接动名词与不定式,含义会有所不同,常见的有: try doing试着做…. /try to do 努力做… stop doing停止做…/stop to do 停下来去做… mean doing..意味着做…/mean to do…打算做… regret doing…后悔做过…/regret to do…很遗憾要做…. forget doing …忘记做过…/forget to do…忘记要做…. remember doing…记得做过…/remember to do...记得要做…. can’t help doing…禁不住做…/can’t help to do…对做…无能为力 go on doing….继续做同一件事/go on to do…继续做另外一件事 ★ 【即学即练】【湖南改】Susan?wanted?to?be?independent?of?her?parents.?She?tried ?(live)alone,?but?she didn't?like?it?and?moved?back?home . 【答案】living 【解析】try后接动名词表示“试着做”,后接不定式表示“尽力做”,根据上句可知本句应为“她试着独立生活”,故用动名词。 need,?want,,?require等动词后面接非谓语动词表示被动意义时,接动名词用主动式,而接不定式则要用被动式。比较: The?car?needs?repairing.汽车需要修理。 The?car?needs?to?be?repaired.汽车需要修理。 The?shoes?want?mending,鞋子需要修补。 The?shoes?want?to?be?mended.鞋子需要修补。 4. 动词-ing形式应该注意悬垂分词: 看下面两个句子: Entering the house, the window was found broken.这句话是错误表达,因为现在分词的逻辑主语是句子的主语,所以“谁走进屋子”?显然不是 the window;应将其更正为:Entering the house, I found the window broken. Judging from her action,she must be an American.(从她的口音判断,她肯定是美国人)这句话被看作是正确的,这类现在分词被称为“悬垂分词”。 常见的悬垂分词还有: strictly speaking(严格地的),generally speaking(-般说来), personally speaking (就我个人而言)等。 5、动词过去分词与动词现在分词完成被动式的区别 过去分词可作表语、定语、状语和补足语,现在分词的完成被动式一般只做状语。 作定语的区别 过去分词常作定语,表示其动作发生在句子谓语动词动作之前或没有明确的时间性;现在分词的完成被动式极少作定语,有时可作非限制性定语,表示其动作发生在句子谓语动词动作之前。如: The?number?of?people?killed?in?Mumbai?Terror?Attacks?has?reached125.在孟买连环恐布袭击中丧生的人数已达125人。 (kill发生在?reach之前) Scientific?experiments?carried?out?by?students?without?the?teacher's?instructions?can be dangerous.学生在没有老师指导的情况下进行的科学实验可能是危险的。(没有明确的时间性)The?poor,?having?been?oppressed?and?exploited?for?so?long,?took?up?their?guns?and?knives to kill?rich?nobles.长期受到剥削和压迫的穷人拿起刀枪杀贵族。(?oppress和?exploit发生在take之前) 、作状语的区别 过去分词作状语时,多表示其动作与句子谓语动词的动作或状态同时发生或存在,现在 分词的完成被动式则表示其动作发生在句子谓语动词动作之前。如: Hit?by?the?lack?of?fresh?air,?he?got?a?bad?headache.由于缺乏新鲜空气,他头疼得厉害。(hit与get同时发生) (人教⑤U3) Having?been?warned?of?typhoon,?the?fishermen?sailed?for?the?nearest?harbour.听到台风警报,渔民们驾船驶向最近的港口。(wam发生在sail之前) ★ 【即学即练】【天津改】Clearly?and?thoughtfully (write),?the?book?inspires? confidence?in?students?who wish?to?seek?their?own?answers. 【答案】written 【解析】?本题考查非谓语动词作状语,逻辑主语book与write为被动关系,故用过去分 词。 ★【即学即练】【四川改】 (tell)?many?times,?he?finally?understood?it. 【答案】Having?been?told 【解析】分词表示的动作发生在句子谓语动词动作之前,且逻辑主语he与tell是被动关系,故用现在分词的完成被动式。 知识点一 现在分词和过去分词作状语的考查 例1.【2018·福州八中质检】 (realize)it was our last high school sports meeting ,we decided to make it?an?unforgettable?experience?for?all?of?us. 【答案】Realizing 【解析】分析句子结构可知,空格所处的部分为非谓语动词作状语,?realize与主语we之间为逻辑上的主谓关系,故填Realizing。 变式训练 1: 【2018·蚌埠二中模拟】?Greatly (encourage),?the?team?conducted?another?experiment, this?time?with?water?that?contained?bacteria. 【答案】encouraged 【解析】分析句子结构可知,空格所处的部分为非谓语动词作状语,?encourage与语?the?team 之间为逻辑的动宾关系,故填encouraged。 知识点二 现在分词和过去分词作前置定语和表语的考查 例2.【全国卷2】There were many people waiting at the bus stop ,42.and some of them looked very anxious and 43. (disappoint). 【答案】disappointed 【解析】?looked后面为表语部分,此处指一些人看起来很焦急、很失望。故填?disappointed. 变式训练2: 【2018·山西省实验中学质检】Dennis?Williams,the?new?owner?of?the?phone?number,? responded?to?the (excite)baby news. 【答案】exciting 【解析】此处为非谓语动词作前置定语,表示“令人兴奋的有关孩子的消息”。故填?exciting。 变式训练3: 【2018·山西省长治二中五中一联】With (puzzle) look on my face, I pointed to myself and said,“Me?” 【答案】puzzled 【解析】句意:脸上带着疑感的表情,我指着自己说:“我吗?”a puzzled look疑惑的表情; a puzzling look令人疑惑的表情。 知识点三 不定式、现在分词和过去分词作后置定语的考查 例3.【四川卷】For 25 days, she never left her baby, not even to find something 64. (eat)! 【答案】to eat 【解析】此处表示找到要吃的东西,表示动作尚未进行,故填to eat。 变式训练4: 【全国卷I】Abercrombie&.Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it 69. regularly( regular) arranges quick getaways here for people 70. (live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong. 【答案】living 【解析】此处表示“居住”在上海和香港的人们,应用非谓语动词作定语, people与live之间为主动关系,故填living。 变式训练5: 【全国卷Ⅱ】The adobe dwellings(土坯房)41. (build) by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even 42.the most modern of architects and engineers. 【答案】built 【解析】由谓语动词?are?admired可知空格处填非谓语动词,?adobe?dwellings与?build之间是被动关系,应用过去分词短语作后置定语。故填?built。 知识点四 不定式与动名词作宾语的考查 例4.【2018·全国卷Ⅲ】I?quickly?lower?myself,?ducking my?head?to?avoid?64 (look)?directl y?into his?eyes?so?he?doesn't?feel?65.?challenged(?challenge). 【答案】looking 【解析】动词?avoid后需要接动名词作宾语,表示“避免做某事”。 变式训练6: 【2018·菏泽模拟】 Next?keep?in mind?that forgiveness?does?not?necessarily?mean?69 (accept?)the?action?of?the?person?who?upsets?yot. 【答案】accepting 【解析】?mean?to?do?sth.意为“想要做某事”, mean?doing?sth.意为“意味着做某事”,故填?accepting。 知识点五 不定式符号to的多余与缺失的考查 例5.【2018·全国卷Ⅰ改错】Some?of?us?were?confident?and?eager take?part?in?the?class?activity:? others?were?nervous?and anxious. 【答案】take前加to 【解析】?be?eager?to?do?sth.意为“渴望做某事”。 变式训练7: 【2017·全国卷Ⅱ改错】When?summer?comes,?they?will?invite their?students?pick?the?fresh? vegetables! 【答案】pick前加to 【解析】invite?sh.?to?do?sth意为“邀请某人做某事”。 知识点六 介词to与不定式符号to的辨析考查 例6.【2018·重庆西北狼联盟第一次联考改错】)?So?I?would?like to?advise?you?not?to?hurt ?yourself?to?trying?to?make money. 【答案】?trying→try 【解析】考查动词不定式,此处是动词不定式表目的,故to后应用动词原形try。 变式训练8: 【2018·福州三月质检改错】In the?beginning,I wasn’t used?to?talk?to?strangers. 【答案】?talk→?talking 【解析】句意:开始时我不习惯和陌生人讲话。?be?used?to?doing?sth.为固定句型,意为“习惯做某事”。 知识点七 谓语动词与非调语动词混用的考查 例7.【2018·全国卷Ⅲ改错】Everyone?was?silent,?wait?to?see?who would?be?called?upon?to?read? his?or?her?paragraph?aloud. 【答案】?wait→?waiting 【解析】主语?Everyone与wait为主动关系,故用现在分词作状语,因此将wait改为?waiting。 变式训练9: 【2018·广州调研改错】?They?send?letters?to?businesses,?going to?job?interviews,?and?ask?their? friends?and?relatives?for help. 【答案】going→go 【解析】考查动词。根据语境可知,该句陈述的是当前的行为,且此处与send,ask并列,故应用动词原形。 知识点八 现在分词与过去分词的错用的考查 例8.【2018·江西五校第一次联考改错】?Locating?in?a?beautiful?and quiet?neighborhood,? The house?is?big?enough?to?enable?you to have a room of your?own. 【答案】?Locating→?Located 【解析】考查非谓语动词。?be?located?in意为“坐落于”为固定短语,在句中作状语,故把?Locating改为?Located。 变式训练10: 【2018·惠州第二次调研改错】??Not?long?ago,?I?was?touched?by the?reply?from?Tsinghua? University?to Wei?Xiang,?which aroused?a?heating?discussion. 【答案】?heating→?heated 【解析】考查形容词,从句句意:那引起了一场激烈的讨论,故heated“激烈的”符合语境。 一、语法填空模拟真题练习 1. 【2018·2018·南昌一模】Hongcun, (fill)?with lakes?and?beautiful?Anhuistyle?buildings, ?is?900?years?old.?It was?built?to?look?like?a?big?ox.?Huangshan?Mountain?is the?head:?the?town?is? the?body?and?the?bridges?are?legs. 【答案】fed 【解析】考查固定短语,?be?filled with为固定短语,故填ed,句意,布满了湖泊和美丽的安微建筑的宏村,有九百年的历史。 2. 【2018·安徽名校模拟】As?the?researchers?expected, 30%?of?the?chefs (survey)?said ?that?their best?meal?as?a?kid?was?still?what?they?liked?the?most?as an?adult. 【答案】surveyed 【解析】考查过去分词,?chefs和动词survey之间是逻辑上的动宾关系,表示“被调查的厨师”,故用过去分词作后置定语。 3. 【2018·广州调研】He?was?amazed (see) a whole?community?of?creatures?swimming?in? this?one drop--tiny?beings?no?one?had?ever?seen?before. 【答案】?to?see 【解析】考查不定式,句意:他吃惊地看见一整个生物群落正在这一滴水中游动,这是以前没有人见过的微生物。be?amazed?to?do?sth.为固定用法,意为“吃惊地做某事”。 4. 【2018·湖北八校第一次联考】?A?famous?19?th?century Russian?writer,?Anton?Chekhov,?once ?invited?a?Chinese man (have)?a?drink?in?a?bar. 【答案】?to?have 【解析】考查动词不定式,句意: 19世纪时一位名叫?Anton?Chekhov的俄罗斯作家邀请一个中国人去酒吧喝酒。invite?sb.?to?do?sth.是固定搭配,意为“邀请某人做某事”,故用动词不定式to have。 5.【2018·安徽名校模拟】?These?best?cookers?in?the?world would?pick?McDonald's?or?KFC?if?they ?had?the?choice?of what (eat). 【答案】?to?eat 【解析】考查动词不定式。分析该结构可知,此处应用疑问代词“what+ to do”作介词of的宾语。 6. 【2018·河北名校联盟质检】For?many?young?people, (go)?to?university?is?one?of?the? most important?stages?of?their?lives. 【答案】?going 【解析】句意:对很多年轻人来说,上大学是他们生命中最重要的阶段之一。设空处作主语但不表示具体某次的行为,故用动名词形式?going。 7. 【2018·福建永春一中四校联考】During the Qin dynasty, to keep the enemy out of his empire, Emperor Qin Shihuang had all the walls (join)up. 【答案】?joined 【解析】句意:在秦朝时期,为了抵御外敌,秦始皇把所有的墙都连了起来。使役动词had后的宾语?all?the?walls与join?up为被动关系,故用过去分词?joined作宾补。 8. 【2018·河南郑州一中测试】But by1955, the paintings were beginning to become difficult (see). 【答案】??to?see 【解析】句意:但是到1955年,那些画作开始变得很难看清了。“系动词+表示‘难、易、好、坏’的形容词”后需用不定式的主动形式表示被动意义,故填to?see。 9. 【2018·衡水中学调研】She first came across this phenomenon while (research) North American children living in India. 【答案】???researching 【解析】句意:在对生活在印度的北美孩子进行研究时,她第一次偶然遇到了这种现象。主语She与research之间为逻辑上的主动关系,故用现在分词?researching作状语。 10. 【2018·山东烟台期末】They put the food out in their backyards and spend time in the nice weather, (watch) birds. 【答案】??watching 【解析】句意:他们后院,然后一边观鸟一边享受明媚的天气。主语They与?watch为逻辑上的主动关系,且?watch与?spend同时发生,故填现在分词?watching作伴随状语。 11. 【2018·江西宜春中学第一次诊新】 (compare) with the western medicine's high fees, TUM has a reasonable price that ordinary people can afford. 【答案】?Compared 【解析】句意:与西药的高额费用相比,传统中药的价格合理,普通人够承担得。?compared?with为固定结构,在句中作状语,意为“与…相比” 。 二、单句改错模拟真题练习 1. 【2018·襄阳模拟】Later?I?became?accustomed?to?talk?with prople?from?various?cultures. 【答案】take→?talking 【解析】be/?become?accustomed to“习惯于”,to为介词后跟v.-ing作宾语。 2.?【2018·成都模拟】We?hope?that?all?of?us?will?devote?our?efforts?to?protect pandas?and?let? them?live?in?the?wild?again?some?day. 【答案】protect→?protecting 【解析】devote …to…,致力于……;to为介词后跟.-ing作宾语。 3. 【2018·山西八校第一次联考】Besides , there is a longholiday?waits?for?me?after? the?Gaokao.And?I?can?travel anywhere?I?like?then. 【答案】waits→?waiting 【解析】分析句子结构可知,此处为非谓语动词,wait与其逻辑主语?holiday之间是主谓关系,故用现在分词作后置定语。 4. 【2018·赣州十四县市联考】?However,?what?still?makes me?puzzling?is?how?to?make?my? dream?to?go?to?a?top university?come?true. 【答案】puzzling→?puzzled 【解析】考查非请语动词。?puzzled是过去分词充当形容词,在句子中作宾语补足语,修饰人,意为“困惑的”。 5. 【2018··河北五个一联盟二模】??Soldiers?came?to?rescue?those burying?under?the?ruins, ?and?the?government?provided?food,clothes,?and?shelters?for?the?homeless. 【答案】burying- buried 【解析】句意:士兵来营救那些被埋在废墟下的人们,政府为那些无家可归者提供食物、衣服和庇护所。原句中的“ burying under the ruins”为非谓语动词短语作定语,修饰代词 those,但 those与bury为逻辑上的被动关系,且错误处表示状态,故将 burying改为bruried。 三、阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式。 Mary:?I?have?decided?1. ?(leave)my?job?next?month. John:?But?you?said?2. (work)?in?an?architect's?office?was?enjoyable. Mary:?Oh,I?did.?But?I?feel?like?3.? (do)?something?different?for?a?while. John: Didn’t you promise 4. (stay)ther at ltast two years? Mary:?Yes,?I?did?but?I?just?can't?stand?working?with?these?people.?One?of?them?refuses? to?stop 5. (talk)while?she?works,?and?another?one?keeps?6. (sing)to himself. And?there?is?a?man?7.? (attermpt)?to?tell?awful?jokes?all?the?time?while he?always?gets wrong..?I?feel?8. ?( annoy)?with?all?that?noise?around?me. John:?lt?sounds?a?quite?cheerful?place?to?me.?Can't?you?think?of?a?way?9. ?(solve) your?problem??You?can?manage?to?ignore?them?and?get?on?with?your?work. Mary:?No,I can’t .I just can’t carry on 10. (go)there every day.I’m hping tp go abrod for?a?bit. John.?Well.?good?luck. 【答案与解析】 1. to leave decide to do sth固定搭配:决定做某事。不定式作宾语,故用to do 形式。 2.working 句意:但是你说在建筑师的办公室工作很愉快。working作主语,为动名词形式。 3.doing feel like doing 固定搭配,想要做某事。like 为介词doing作宾语。 4. to stay 固定搭配:promise to do sth.。不定式作宾语,故用to do 形式。 5. talking 固定搭配:stop doing sth.。故用doing 形式。 6. singing 固定搭配:keep doing sth一直做某事.。故用doing 形式。 7. attempting 句意:还有一个人总是犯错误,却总是不停地讲可怕的笑话。Attermpt作the man的定语,与所修饰词为主动关系。 8. annoyed feel是系动词,annoy应用annoyed形式说明人的状态。 9.to solve a way to do sth做某事的方法,习惯搭配,故用不定式形式作定语。 10.going carry on doing sth坚持做某事,习惯搭配,on为介词,doing形式作宾语。 3 第19讲 动词-ing形式和-ed形式(原卷版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第12个条目是非谓语动词,其中包含对动词-ing形式和-ed形式的考查。高考主要以语法填空和短文改错形式,结合上下文语境,主要考查动词-ing形式和-ed形式的作用。其中在作用方面,主要考查作宾语时用不定式还是动名词;作定语、状语、补语时用不定式还是分词;以及它们作某一成分时的特殊结构。在形式方面,主要考查用是完成式、主动式还是被动式等。这一部分是学生的易错点和薄弱点,汉语中没有非谓语动词形式,所以教师在一轮复习时要注意加强引导,精讲精练,有的放失,直击高考重点。 1-6观察v-ing在句中所作成分;7-10观察v-ed在句中所作成分。 1.Spending money on himself or leading a comfortable life means very little to YuanLongping . 2.Yuan really loves working the land .He doesn’t care about being famous. 3. Charlie Chaplin was born in a poor family.You may find it astonishing that Charlie was taught to sing as soon as he could speak and dance as soon as he could walk. 4.His acting of eating shoes is so convincing that it makes you believe that it is one of the best meals he has ever tasted. 5. Yesterday, another student and I, representing our universirv's student association,went to the Capital Intemational Airport to meet this year's international students. 6 .After half an hour of waiting, I saw several young people enter the waiting area looking around Curiosity. 7. John Snow became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. 8. Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well. 9. Exhausted, I slid into bed and fell fast asleep 10. Ladies and gentlemen, please remain seated until the plane has come to a complete stop. V-ing在句子中所做成分 V-ed在句子中所做成分 【深思熟虑】 V-ing在句子中所做成分 1.作主语 2. 作宾语 3. 作宾补 4. 作表语 5. 6.作状语 V-ed在句子中所做成分 7. 作定语 8. 作宾补 9. 作状语 10. 作表语 从以上句子中含义可以看出,v-ing和v-ed可以充当各种句子成分,在句中有不同的功能和作用;从句子中形式可以看出,根据语境和表达的需要,它们也有不同的形式。本节会分类讲解,总结规律,抓住特征,参透语法,从而提升学生使用v-ing和v-ed的能力。 1、 动词-ing形式 (一)、动词-ing形式的分类 动词-ing形式可以分为动名词形式和现在分词形式 1.现在分词的构成与特征 现在分词(?The?Present?Participle)由“动词原形+ing”构成,现在分词亦有双重性,它具有动词的特征,可以有自己的宾语和状语;同时具有形容词和副词的特征,可以充当表语、补足语、定语、状语,表示主动或正在进行的动作。如: My?mother?is?in?the?kitchen?making?coffee。 我母亲在厨房里煮咖啡。(现在分词起副词的作用,在句中作状语,有宾语) 2.动名词的构成与特征 动名词由“动词原形+-ing”构成,与现在分词的构成完全相同。动名词既具有动词的特征,又具有名词的特征。所谓的动词特征是说动名词可以有自己的宾语和状语,名词特征是指动名词可以像名词一样充当主语、表语、宾语和定语。如: Drinking enough water will improve your skin and give you healthy hair.饮用足量的水可改善你的肌肤,保持头发健康。(动名词起名词的作用,在句中作主语,有宾语)(译林①U3) (二)、动词-ing形式的功能与用法 1. 作主语 Travelling?in?space?by?ordinary?citizens?will?be common.普通市民去太空旅行将会很普遍。(外研④M1) ★【即学即练】【全国改】 felt?funny?watching?myself?on?TV. 2.作表语 现在分词作表语表示主语所具有的特征。如: Body?language?is?fascinating?for?anyone?to?study.身势语对于任何学习者来说都具有吸引力。(外研M3) ★【即学即练】【上海改】It?is?believed?that?if?a?book?is (interest),?it?will?surely (interest) the reader. 3.作宾语 (1)作动词的宾语 常是的只能动名词作宾语的动词有: admit, allow,avoid, consider,delay,deny,dislike, enjoy,escape,fancy, finish, imagine, include, keep, mention, mind, miss, practise, resist,risk,stop, suggest等,短语动词有: give up, insist on, feel like, get down to, look forward to等,如: He will keep trying out now ideas so he can help farmers around China.他(袁隆平)将不断试验新想法,以帮助全中国的农民。(人教U2) Every time you feel like smoking a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non-smoker. 每当你想要吸烟的时候,就提醒自己,你不再是吸烟的人了。(人教U3) ★【即学即练】【上海改】Bill suggested (hold)a meeting on what to do for the Shanghai Expo during the vacation。 ★【即学即练】【陕西改】Now I really enjoy study because I'm growing old and know what I want. (2)作介词的宾语 They developed new methods of growing food, hunting and moving around.他们掌握了种植、狩猎和迁徙的新方法。 After eating breakfast at the cafeteria I go by minibus to the university lecture halls or the library.在食堂吃过早饭后,我坐小公共汽车去大学的报告厅或图书馆。(人教U5) 4.作补足语 现在分词可以在see,watch,notice,hear,keep,find,feel,have,get等动词后作补足语。如: She could feel her heart beating with fear.她能感觉到她的心因害怕而跳动。(译林U1) I looked down into the water and could see Old Tom swimming by the boat,showing us the way.我低头看了看水面,可看见老汤姆在船旁边游着,正在给我们指路呢。(人教U3) ★【即学即练】【四川改】I looked up and noticed a snake (wind) its way up the tree to catch its breakfast. ★【即学即练】【全国改】They use computers to keep the traffic (run) smoothly. 5.作定语 单个分词作定语一般放在所修饰的名词的前面,分词短语作定语放在所修饰名词的后面。如:I?travel to?unusual?places?and?meet?interesting?people?from?all?over the world我到不寻常的地方旅游,见到世界各地有趣的人。 If you?see?soldiers?wearing?sky-blue?helmets,?they?are?United?Nations?Peacekeepers.如果你看见戴着天蓝色头盔的士兵,他们就是联合国维和人员。(外研M6) ★【即学即练】【全国改】Today there are more airplanes (carry) more peop le than ever before in the sky. ★【即学即练】【山东改】The room is empty except for a bookshelf (stand)in one corner. 6.作状语 现在分词作状语多表示时间、原因、结果、伴随等。如: Having realized that I could use a kite to attract lightning, I decided to do an experiment.我意识到可以用风筝来吸引闪电,于是决定做个试验。(时间或原因) Wang Peng sat in his empty restaurant feel very frustrated.王鹏坐在他那空荡荡的餐馆里,感觉沮丧极了。(伴随) (人教U2) ★【即学即练】【重庆改】Like ancient sailors,birds can find their way (use) the sun and the stras. ★【即学即练】【全国改】The?sunlight?is?white?and?blinding, (throw)?hard-edged? shadows?on?the?ground. ★ 【即学即练】【福建改】Pressed?from?his?parents,?and (realize)?that?he?has?wasted?too ?much?time,the boy is?determined?to?stop?playing?video?games. ★ 【即学即练】【上海改】A?small?plane?crashed?into?a?hillside?five?miles?east?of?the?city, (kill)all for people on board. ★【即学即练】【北京改】 (see)that?she?was?going?off?to?sleep,I?asked?if?she'd ?like?that?little?doll?on?her?bed. 注意:不定式和现在分词可做原因状语和结果状语。不定式常在作表语的形容词后面作原因状语,在句首作原固状语只能用现在分词;不定式作结果状语表示意想不到的结果,现在分词则表示自然的结果 (三)、动词-ing的否定式: 由“not+doing”构成,如:The?king?takes?the?woman?to?his?palace?and?marries?her,?not?knowing?that?she?is?a?wicked?witch.国王不知道这个女人是个巫婆,他把她带到宫殿,娶他为妻。 (外研M2) I am sorry for not handing in my homework on time. 很抱歉我没有按时完成作业。 ★ 【即学即练】【广东改】 (not,?complete)?the?programme,?they?have?to?stay?there? for?another?two?weeks。 ★【即学即练】【上海改】Victor apologized for his (not,be)able to inform me of the change in the plan. (四)、现在分词的时态与语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 doing being dong 完成式 having done having been done 1.现在分词的时态 现在分词的一般式表示其动作正在进行或与谓语的动作同时发生,现在分词的完成式表示其动作发生在语动词的动作之前。如: Having worked hard all day,I went to bed.(现在分词having worked 表示work这一动作发生在谓语went之前)(人教U5) ★【即学即练】【湖南改】The?sun?began?to?rise?in?the?sky, (bathe)?the?mountain?in?golden ?light. ★ 【即学即练】【全国改】I?got?to?the?office?earlier?that?day, ?(catch)the 7:30?train? from?Paddington. 2.现在分词的语态 现在分词的主动式表示其逻辑主语是现在分词动作的执行者;现在分词的被动式表示其逻辑主语是在分词动作的承受者,如: Being taught by?the?gentlemen,?Eliza?made?great?progress.由两位绅士辅导,伊丽莎进步很快。(现在分词的逻辑主语是?Eliza,与teach是被动关系)(人教U4) ★【即学即练】【陕西改】 (show)?around?the?Water?Cube,?we?were?then?taken?to?see? the?Bird's?Nest for?the2008 Olympics Games. (五)现在分词与动名词的区别 现在分词与动名词在形式上没有任何区别,但在功能和意义上有较大差异,现在不能作主语和宾语,动名词不能作状语和补足语。 1.作定语的比较 现在分词与所修饰的名词有逻辑上的主谓关系,而动名词则没有这种主谓关系,动名词其所修饰的名词的性质、用途等,试比较: 现在分词 动名词 a?sleeping?beauy睡美人 a?living language活的语言the?waiting?audience等候的观众running?water自来水 a walking?dictionary活词典 a sleeping car 卧铺车 living conditions 生活条件 the waiting room 候车室 running track 跑道 a walking stick 拐杖 A virus is a very small living thing that causes disease.病毒是一种引起疾病的微生物。(现在分词)(人教U3) 2.作表语的比较 做表语时,现在分词说明主语的特证,动名词则说明主语的内容,试比较: His job is interesting.他的工作很有趣。(现在分词) His job is teaching他的工作是教书。(动名词) 二、动词-ed形式 (一)、动词-ed形式的定义 动词-ed形式也叫做过去分词,过去分词(?The?Past?Participle)的形式有规则和不规则之分。规则动词的过去分词由“动词原型+ed”构成,不规则动词的过去分词形式要逐一记忆(参见后面的不规则动词表)。过去分词有双重性,既具有动词的特征,可以有自己的宾语和状语,又具有形容词和副词的特征,可以充当表语,补足语,定语和状语。过去分词表示已完成的动作或被动的含义,如: Built in 1910,the museum is almost 100 years old.(过去分词起副词作用,在句中作状语,有自己的状语,表示被动) (人教U3) (二)、动词-ed形式在句中的作用 1、作表语 过去分词作表语多表示主语所处的状态,如: Father,don'?t?be?upset.?Everything'?s?all?right?now. 爸爸,别难过。现在一切都好啦!(人教U3) ★【即学即练】【安徽改】While?waiting?for?the?opportunity?to?get (promote),?Henry?did ?his?best?to?perform his?duty. 2、作补足语 过去分词可以在?see,hear,notice,?watch,keep.find.feel.have,make,get等动词后作补足语。 To?their?surprise,?the?three?countries?found?themselves?tired?peacefully?instead?of?by?war.?这三个国家惊奇地发现他们和平统一了,而不是通过战争。(人教U2) have?sth?done常表示“叫某人做某事”,在口语中可以用?get?sth?done代替?have?sth done.有时?have?sth?done表示“意外或不幸遭遇”,如: When?are?you?going?to?get?the?roof?repaired?你什么时候叫人把屋顶修好? We?had?the?car?delivered?to?the?airport.我们让人把车开到了机场。George?had?his?nose?broken?in?a?fight.乔治在打斗中弄伤了鼻于。Have?you?ever?had?your?passport?stolen?你曾经把护照弄去了吗? ★ 【即学即练】【北京改】When?we?saw?the?road block)?with?snow,?we?decided?to ?spend?the holiday?at home. ★【即学即练】【四川改】Before?driving?into?the?city,?you?are?required?to?get?your?car (wash).? (3)作定语 Paper cuts used for religious purposes are often found in temples.用于宗教目的的剪纸常常在寺庙里可以见到。(北师大U6) ★【即学即练】【陕西改】The witnesses (question) by the police just now gave very different descriptions of the flight. (4)作状语 过去分词作状语多表示时间、原因、条件、伴随等。如: Seen from above, the old town is a maze of canals, little bridges and tiny cobbled streets that tourists get lost in.从上面俯看,古城就是一座由沟渠、小桥和鹅卵石铺成的街巷构成的迷宫, 游人极易迷失其中。(时间) (外研M5) Frightened by the noise outside, Sue dared not sleep in her bedroom.由于受到外面噪音的吓,Sue不敢在卧室里睡觉了。(原因) (人教U3) The lady retumed home, followed by the famous detective Holmes.女士回到家,身后跟着著名的侦探福尔摩斯。(伴随) 1.动名词的语态:在一些动词后主动表被动: (1)want,need,?require等动词后面的动名词常用主动式表示被动意义。如: The?library?needs?repairing,?but?it?will?have?to?wait?until Sunday.图书馆需要修缮,但要等到礼拜天。 (2)worth后接动名词,用主动式表示被动意义。如: The?book?is?worth?reading?a?second?time.这本书值得再读一遍。 2.动名词的复合结构 动名词有时带有自已的逻辑主语,这样就构成了动名词的复合结构,即:“名词所有格/物主代词+动名词”。这种结构可作主语、表语或宾语,如: Mary's coming late made the teacher very angry.玛丽的迟到让老师很生气。(在口语中可用名词通格:Mary coming late made the teacher very angry.) Do you still remember my first meeting with you?你还记得我第一次与你见面的情景吗?(在口语中可用代词宾格: Do you still remember me first meeting with you?) ★【即学即练】【全国改】At the beginning of class, the noise of desks (open and close) could be heard outside the classroom. 3.不定式和动名词比较不同之处在于:在一些动词后用动名词与不定式会产生意思的差异 动名问的逻辑主语可能泛指人们,不定式的逻辑主语是句子本身的主语。比较: I hate smoking.我讨厌吸烟。(相当于说:?I?hate?peoplesmoking.) I hate to smoke.我不爱吸烟。(相当于说:?I don't?smoke?as?I?dislike?it.) 动名词表示一般的或抽象的多次性的动作,而不定式则表示具体的一次性动作。比较: I?like seeing English films.我喜欢看英语电影。 Would?you?like?to?see?the?English?film?tonight?今晚你想看英语电影吗? 有些动词后面只能接动名词作宾语,而有些动词只能接不定式,这些动词我们已有归纳,这里不再赘述,比较: I like living in a big house.?我喜欢住在大房子里。(不可用?to?live) I cannot?afford?to?buy a?villa.我买不起别墅。(不可用?buying)? 有不少动词后面既可接动名词作宾语,也可接不定式作宾语或状语。这类动词常见的有:?attempt,?begin.?continue,?fear,?forget,?hate,?help,?intend,?learn,?like,?love,?mean,?need,?neglect,prefer,?propose,?regret,?remember,start,?stop,?try,want等,有些动词后接动名词与不定式,含义会有所不同,常见的有: try doing试着做…. /try to do 努力做… stop doing停止做…/stop to do 停下来去做… mean doing..意味着做…/mean to do…打算做… regret doing…后悔做过…/regret to do…很遗憾要做…. forget doing …忘记做过…/forget to do…忘记要做…. remember doing…记得做过…/remember to do...记得要做…. can’t help doing…禁不住做…/can’t help to do…对做…无能为力 go on doing….继续做同一件事/go on to do…继续做另外一件事 ★ 【即学即练】【湖南改】Susan?wanted?to?be?independent?of?her?parents.?She?tried ?(live)alone,?but?she didn't?like?it?and?moved?back?home . need,?want,,?require等动词后面接非谓语动词表示被动意义时,接动名词用主动式,而接不定式则要用被动式。比较: The?car?needs?repairing.汽车需要修理。 The?car?needs?to?be?repaired.汽车需要修理。 The?shoes?want?mending,鞋子需要修补。 The?shoes?want?to?be?mended.鞋子需要修补。 4. 动词-ing形式应该注意悬垂分词: 看下面两个句子: Entering the house, the window was found broken.这句话是错误表达,因为现在分词的逻辑主语是句子的主语,所以“谁走进屋子”?显然不是 the window;应将其更正为:Entering the house, I found the window broken. Judging from her action,she must be an American.(从她的口音判断,她肯定是美国人)这句话被看作是正确的,这类现在分词被称为“悬垂分词”。 常见的悬垂分词还有: strictly speaking(严格地的),generally speaking(-般说来), personally speaking (就我个人而言)等。 5、动词过去分词与动词现在分词完成被动式的区别 过去分词可作表语、定语、状语和补足语,现在分词的完成被动式一般只做状语。 作定语的区别 过去分词常作定语,表示其动作发生在句子谓语动词动作之前或没有明确的时间性;现在分词的完成被动式极少作定语,有时可作非限制性定语,表示其动作发生在句子谓语动词动作之前。如: The?number?of?people?killed?in?Mumbai?Terror?Attacks?has?reached125.在孟买连环恐布袭击中丧生的人数已达125人。 (kill发生在?reach之前) Scientific?experiments?carried?out?by?students?without?the?teacher's?instructions?can be dangerous.学生在没有老师指导的情况下进行的科学实验可能是危险的。(没有明确的时间性)The?poor,?having?been?oppressed?and?exploited?for?so?long,?took?up?their?guns?and?knives to kill?rich?nobles.长期受到剥削和压迫的穷人拿起刀枪杀贵族。(?oppress和?exploit发生在take之前) 、作状语的区别 过去分词作状语时,多表示其动作与句子谓语动词的动作或状态同时发生或存在,现在 分词的完成被动式则表示其动作发生在句子谓语动词动作之前。如: Hit?by?the?lack?of?fresh?air,?he?got?a?bad?headache.由于缺乏新鲜空气,他头疼得厉害。(hit与get同时发生) (人教⑤U3) Having?been?warned?of?typhoon,?the?fishermen?sailed?for?the?nearest?harbour.听到台风警报,渔民们驾船驶向最近的港口。(wam发生在sail之前) ★ 【即学即练】【天津改】Clearly?and?thoughtfully (write),?the?book?inspires? confidence?in?students?who wish?to?seek?their?own?answers. ★【即学即练】【四川改】 (tell)?many?times,?he?finally?understood?it. 知识点一 现在分词和过去分词作状语的考查 例1.【2018·福州八中质检】 (realize)it was our last high school sports meeting ,we decided to make it?an?unforgettable?experience?for?all?of?us. 【答案】Realizing 【解析】分析句子结构可知,空格所处的部分为非谓语动词作状语,?realize与主语we之间为逻辑上的主谓关系,故填Realizing。 变式训练 1: 【2018·蚌埠二中模拟】?Greatly (encourage),?the?team?conducted?another?experiment, this?time?with?water?that?contained?bacteria. 知识点二 现在分词和过去分词作前置定语和表语的考查 例2.【全国卷2】There were many people waiting at the bus stop ,42.and some of them looked very anxious and 43. (disappoint). 【答案】disappointed 【解析】?looked后面为表语部分,此处指一些人看起来很焦急、很失望。故填?disappointed. 变式训练2: 【2018·山西省实验中学质检】Dennis?Williams,the?new?owner?of?the?phone?number,? responded?to?the (excite)baby news. 变式训练3: 【2018·山西省长治二中五中一联】With (puzzle) look on my face, I pointed to myself and said,“Me?” 知识点三 不定式、现在分词和过去分词作后置定语的考查 例3.【四川卷】For 25 days, she never left her baby, not even to find something 64. (eat)! 【答案】to eat 【解析】此处表示找到要吃的东西,表示动作尚未进行,故填to eat。 变式训练4: 【全国卷I】Abercrombie&.Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it 69. regularly( regular) arranges quick getaways here for people 70. (live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong. 变式训练5: 【全国卷Ⅱ】The adobe dwellings(土坯房)41. (build) by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even 42.the most modern of architects and engineers. 知识点四 不定式与动名词作宾语的考查 例4.【2018·全国卷Ⅲ】I?quickly?lower?myself,?ducking my?head?to?avoid?64 (look)?directl y?into his?eyes?so?he?doesn't?feel?65.?challenged(?challenge). 【答案】looking 【解析】动词?avoid后需要接动名词作宾语,表示“避免做某事”。 变式训练6: 【2018·菏泽模拟】 Next?keep?in mind?that forgiveness?does?not?necessarily?mean?69 (accept?)the?action?of?the?person?who?upsets?yot. 知识点五 不定式符号to的多余与缺失的考查 例5.【2018·全国卷Ⅰ改错】Some?of?us?were?confident?and?eager take?part?in?the?class?activity:? others?were?nervous?and anxious. 【答案】take前加to 【解析】?be?eager?to?do?sth.意为“渴望做某事”。 变式训练7: 【2017·全国卷Ⅱ改错】When?summer?comes,?they?will?invite their?students?pick?the?fresh? vegetables! 知识点六 介词to与不定式符号to的辨析考查 例6.【2018·重庆西北狼联盟第一次联考改错】)?So?I?would?like to?advise?you?not?to?hurt ?yourself?to?trying?to?make money. 【答案】?trying→try 【解析】考查动词不定式,此处是动词不定式表目的,故to后应用动词原形try。 变式训练8: 【2018·福州三月质检改错】In the?beginning,I wasn’t used?to?talk?to?strangers. 知识点七 谓语动词与非调语动词混用的考查 例7.【2018·全国卷Ⅲ改错】Everyone?was?silent,?wait?to?see?who would?be?called?upon?to?read? his?or?her?paragraph?aloud. 【答案】?wait→?waiting 【解析】主语?Everyone与wait为主动关系,故用现在分词作状语,因此将wait改为?waiting。 变式训练9: 【2018·广州调研改错】?They?send?letters?to?businesses,?going to?job?interviews,?and?ask?their? friends?and?relatives?for help. 知识点八 现在分词与过去分词的错用的考查 例8.【2018·江西五校第一次联考改错】?Locating?in?a?beautiful?and quiet?neighborhood,? The house?is?big?enough?to?enable?you to have a room of your?own. 【答案】?Locating→?Located 【解析】考查非谓语动词。?be?located?in意为“坐落于”为固定短语,在句中作状语,故把?Locating改为?Located。 变式训练10: 【2018·惠州第二次调研改错】??Not?long?ago,?I?was?touched?by the?reply?from?Tsinghua? University?to Wei?Xiang,?which aroused?a?heating?discussion. 一、语法填空模拟真题练习 1. 【2018·2018·南昌一模】Hongcun, (fill)?with lakes?and?beautiful?Anhuistyle?buildings, ?is?900?years?old.?It was?built?to?look?like?a?big?ox.?Huangshan?Mountain?is the?head:?the?town?is? the?body?and?the?bridges?are?legs. 2. 【2018·安徽名校模拟】As?the?researchers?expected, 30%?of?the?chefs (survey)?said ?that?their best?meal?as?a?kid?was?still?what?they?liked?the?most?as an?adult. 3. 【2018·广州调研】He?was?amazed (see) a whole?community?of?creatures?swimming?in? this?one drop--tiny?beings?no?one?had?ever?seen?before. 4. 【2018·湖北八校第一次联考】?A?famous?19?th?century Russian?writer,?Anton?Chekhov,?once ?invited?a?Chinese man (have)?a?drink?in?a?bar. 5.【2018·安徽名校模拟】?These?best?cookers?in?the?world would?pick?McDonald's?or?KFC?if?they ?had?the?choice?of what (eat). 6. 【2018·河北名校联盟质检】For?many?young?people, (go)?to?university?is?one?of?the? most important?stages?of?their?lives. 7. 【2018·福建永春一中四校联考】During the Qin dynasty, to keep the enemy out of his empire, Emperor Qin Shihuang had all the walls (join)up. 8. 【2018·河南郑州一中测试】But by1955, the paintings were beginning to become difficult (see). 9. 【2018·衡水中学调研】She first came across this phenomenon while (research) North American children living in India. 10. 【2018·山东烟台期末】They put the food out in their backyards and spend time in the nice weather, (watch) birds. 11. 【2018·江西宜春中学第一次诊新】 (compare) with the western medicine's high fees, TUM has a reasonable price that ordinary people can afford. 二、单句改错模拟真题练习 1. 【2018·襄阳模拟】Later?I?became?accustomed?to?talk?with prople?from?various?cultures. 2.?【2018·成都模拟】We?hope?that?all?of?us?will?devote?our?efforts?to?protect pandas?and?let? them?live?in?the?wild?again?some?day. 3. 【2018·山西八校第一次联考】Besides , there is a longholiday?waits?for?me?after? the?Gaokao.And?I?can?travel anywhere?I?like?then. 4. 【2018·赣州十四县市联考】?However,?what?still?makes me?puzzling?is?how?to?make?my? dream?to?go?to?a?top university?come?true. 5. 【2018··河北五个一联盟二模】??Soldiers?came?to?rescue?those burying?under?the?ruins, ?and?the?government?provided?food,clothes,?and?shelters?for?the?homeless. 三、阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式。 Mary:?I?have?decided?1. ?(leave)my?job?next?month. John:?But?you?said?2. (work)?in?an?architect's?office?was?enjoyable. Mary:?Oh,I?did.?But?I?feel?like?3.? (do)?something?different?for?a?while. John: Didn’t you promise 4. (stay)ther at ltast two years? Mary:?Yes,?I?did?but?I?just?can't?stand?working?with?these?people.?One?of?them?refuses? to?stop 5. (talk)while?she?works,?and?another?one?keeps?6. (sing)to himself. And?there?is?a?man?7.? (attermpt)?to?tell?awful?jokes?all?the?time?while he?always?gets wrong..?I?feel?8. ?( annoy)?with?all?that?noise?around?me. John:?lt?sounds?a?quite?cheerful?place?to?me.?Can't?you?think?of?a?way?9. ?(solve) your?problem??You?can?manage?to?ignore?them?and?get?on?with?your?work. Mary:?No,I can’t .I just can’t carry on 10. (go)there every day.I’m hping tp go abrod for?a?bit. John.?Well.?good?luck. 1

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  • ID:4-4962494 [精]高考英语一轮复习学案 第18讲 动词不定式(解析版+原卷版)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    第18讲 动词不定式(原卷版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第12个条目是非谓语动词,其中包含对动词不定式的考查。高考主要以语法填空和短文改错形式,放在篇章当中结合上下文语境,主要考查不定式的作用和形式。其中在作用方面,主要考查作宾语时用不定式还是动名词;作定语、状语、补语时用不定式还是分词;它们作某一成分时的特殊情况及特殊结构。在形式方面,主要考查用是完成式、主动式不是被动式等。这一部分是英汉差异较大的部分,汉语中没有非谓语动词形式,所以教师在一轮复习时要帮助学生抓住基础,把握要点,找准突破点,夯实易错点。 1-6观察to do在句中所作成分;7-12观察to do的各种形式及省略。1.?It?is?terrible?to?see?the?ship?sinking?into?the?sea. 2.?Do?you?think?it?necessary?for?us?to?learn?to?wait? 3.?The?old?mans?job?is?to?take?care?of?the?flowers?in?the?garden. 4.He told me not to bring you anything. 5.In my dreams I always have very different jobs to do. 6.In?his?third?year,?he?left?Harvard?to?work?for?a?company?called?Microsoft. 7.?She?pretended?not?to?see?me?when?I?passed?by. 8.IDS?is said to have been the biggest health challenge to both men and women in that area over the past few years. 9.Hurry up!He is sure to be waiting for us. 10.-You should have thanked her before you left. -I?meant?to,?but?when?I?was?leaving?I?couldn't?find?her?anywhere. 11.-Has?he?finished?his?homework? -He ought to have,but?he?played?all?the time. 12.-Tina?has?changed?a?lot?since?she?became?a?senior?high?grade?three?students. -Yes.?She?is?no?longer?what?she?used?to?be. to do在句子中所做成分 to do的否定形式 to do的完成形式 to do的进行形式 to do的省略 【深思熟虑】 to do在句子中所做成分:1.真正主语2.真正宾语 3.表语 4.宾补5.目的状语6.主补 to do的否定形式: not to do to do的完成形式: to have done to do的进行形式: to be doing to do的省略: mean to; ought to; used to be 从以上句子中含义可以看出,动词不定式可以充当各种句子成分,在句中有不同的功能和作用;从句子中形式可以看出,根据语境和表达的需要,动词不定式也有不同的形式。本节会分类讲解,总结规律,抓住特征,参透语法,从而提升学生使用动词不定式的能力。 一、不定式的构成与特征 动词不定式的英语名称为“The?Infinitive”,一般由“to+动词原形”构成。它在句中起名词、形容词或副词的作用,同时也保留着动词的一些特征,可以有自己的宾语或状语。如: At the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, Liu Xiang excited people all over Asia when he became the first Asian to win the gold medal in the men'l0- metre hurdles. 在2004年雅典奥运会上,刘翔在110米跨栏比赛中成为第一个获得金牌的亚洲人,使全亚洲人兴奋不已。(不定式起形容词的作用,带有宾语和状语) (译林U2) 二、不定式的功能与用法 1、作主语 To see is to believe.眼见为实。 在很多情况下,特别是在口语中,我们常用it作形式主语,而把不定式移至句尾,以保持句子平衡。如: It’s not easy to find your way around the town.在这个小镇要找到路很不容易。(外研M2) It is difficult to imagine a more inhospitable place.很难想象出一个比这(南极洲)更不宜居 住的地方. (外研M1) 2、作表语 His ambition is to become an actor.他的理想是成为一名演员。(人教U1) The?aim?of?the?treaty?is?to prevent?the?commercial and military use of the continent. 以这个公约的目的是为了阻止商业和军事上使用这个洲。(外研M1) Acollege counsellor’s job is to help students adjust to college life. 大学辅导员的工作是帮助学生适应大学生活。(北师大U23) 注意:当主语中有实意动词do 时,表语中的不定式符号to可以省略。如: All she could do is go back home. 3、作宾语 ①常见的接不定式作宾语的动词有:afford,aim,ask,bear,begin,bother,care,choose,continue, dare,decide,demand,desire,determine,expect,fail,forget,hate,help,hope,intend,?learn,?like,? long,?love,?manage,?mean,?need,?offer,?plan,?pretend,?promise,?refuse,?remember,threaten,try,want,wish等。如: He?was?very?happy?to?meet?two?foreigners?and?wanted?to?learn?all?about?Europe. 他很高兴遇到两个外国人,于是想全面了解欧洲。 (北师大①U8) ★【即学即练】【上海卷改】David threatened (report)?his?neighbour?to?the?police?if?the? damages were?not?paid. 注意:介词but后一般接带10的不定式,但在”do something /?anything/nothing/?everythiny…but”结构中but后要接不带to的不定式,如: ?My?dog?can?do?everything but speak. 我的狗什么都会做,就是不会说话。 当不定式作宾语,而后面又有宾语补足语时,常用it作形式宾语,而将不定式后置。常见结构为:?consider/fell/find/make/?think…+it+宾补+?to?do?sth。如: He?felt?it?necessary?to?learn?English well.他觉得有必要学好英语。 They?found?it?impossible?to?get everything ready in such a short time.他们发现不可能让他在短时间把一切准备好。 He made it a rule only to speak English in class.他规定课上只能讲英语。 ★【即学即练】【山东卷改】The two girls are so alike that strangers find difficult to tell one from the other. 4、作宾语补足语 常见的接不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:advise,allow,ask,beg,?cause,?command,?direct,?enable,encourage,expect,forbid,force,instruct,invite,?order,?permit,?persuade,?press,recommend,remind,request,teach,tell,train,urge,?want,?warm等。如: I?was?interested?in?astronomy?and?he?asked?me?to?give?a?presentation?to?the?class.我对天文学很感兴趣,他叫我对全班作口头陈述 (北师大③U15 ) ★【即学即练】【北京卷改】My advice encouraged me (take)?a?summer?course?to?improve? my?writing?skill. 注意:在汉语里,我们常说“希望某人做某事”,但在英语里却不可以说“?hope?sb?to?do?sth",即hope不接不定式作宾补。如:They hope?me to?tell them?my?experiences?in?China.是错误的表达,可将hopc改为wish或want,也可使用从句表达:? They?hope (that)?David?will?make?a?speech?about?his?experiences?in?China. 有些感官动词和使役动词接不定式作宾语补足语语补足语时,通常不带to。下面的口诀可以帮助记忆:“吾看三室两厅一感觉”可以解释为:吾即我,我重点大学毕业,单位分给一套三室两厅的房子,自己去看时就一个感觉--好。其实为“五看三使两听一感觉”共11个词。“五看(?(see,?watch,look at,?notice,observe),三使役(let,have,make)二听(hear,?listen?to)一感觉(feel)”。如: They?made?me?wait?while?they?checked?everyone'?s?air?tickets.他们检查所有人的机票,而让我等着。 ★【即学即练】【全国卷改】The director had her assistant (pick) up some hot dogs for the meeting. help后的不定式作宾语补足语可以带to,也可以不带,如: ?This?interesting?study?can?help?you?avoid?difficulty?in?communication.这项有趣的研究能帮助你避免交际中遇到的困难。Xie?Lei's?preparation?course?is?helping?her?to?get?used?to?academic?requirements?of?a?Westernunversity。谢蕾的预科班课程帮助她适应西方大学的学业要求。(人教U5) 注意:感官动词和使役动词make用于被动语态时,作主语补足语的不定式要带to。如:Tom?doesn't?have?to?be?made?to?learn.?He?always?works hard .不必强迫汤姆学习,他一直很用功。 5、作定语 不定式作定语一般与所修饰的名词构成主谓关系、动宾关系、同位关系或偏正关系。如:I?am?always?the?first?person?to?get?to?the?office.我总是第一个到办公室的人。(主谓关系) (北师大U1) There?are?lots?of?interesting?things?to?see?there.那里有许多有趣的东西可看。(动宾关系) (人教U3) Thers are many ways to make people tough.有很多方法逗人们笑。(偏正关系) ★【即学即练】 【北京卷改】Birds'singingr is sometimes a warning to other hirds (stay)away. ★【即学即练】【上海卷改】If there is a lot of work (do), I'm happy to just keep on until it is finished. ★【即学即练】【全国卷改】---The last (arrive) pays the meal!-----Agreed! 注意:不定式作定语时,如果与其所修饰的名词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,而不定式动词又是一个不及物词,则不定式后要有相应的分词,如: Give me a pen to write with.给我一支笔写字. You might think that with all these dangerous animals Australia is an unsafe place to live in or visit.澳大利亚有这么多的危动物,你也许会认为在这里居住或到这里旅游很不安全. (人教U3) 还有一种“介词+ which/whom+不定式”的结构也可以作定语,如: The young couple needs a lot of money with which to buy a new house.这对年轻夫妇需要一大笔钱,用来买房子。 不定式作定语时,多表示将来的动作。如: The meeting to be held tomorrow is of great importance.明天要召开的会议非常重要。 6、作状语 不定式做状语,多表目的,也表示结果、原因等。 To make friends easily ,you need to be kind.要想很容易的交朋友,你需要友善。(目的) The poor girl has been collecting seashells to make a living.这位穷苦的女孩一直靠拾贝壳为生。(目的)(人教U5) I am so exicted to be here .(译林U3) 注意: 在强调目的状语时,会出现in order to和so as to,但是so as to不能置于句首。如: In order to persuade people to do something ,advertisements often appeal to our hopes and dreams or our emtions.为了规劝人们去做某事,广告常常激起人们的希望、梦想和情感。(人教U5) 在so ….as to,enough to,only to,too…to等结构中,不定式表结果。 ★【即学即练】【福建卷改】 (learn) more about Chinese culture, Jack has decided to take Chinese folk music as an elective course. ★【即学即练】【辽宁卷改】This machine is very easy (operate). Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes. ★【即学即练】【四川卷改】Tom took a taxi to the airport,only (find) his plane high up in the sky. 一、不定式的否定式 不定式的否定式由“not+不定式”构成。如: Try not to worry it you don't understand every word of the passage如果你不理解文章里的每 一个单词,不要担心。(外研⑥M2) 二、不定式的时态与语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 to write to be written 进行式 to be writing × 完成式 to have written to have been written 1、不定式的时态 不定式的一般式表示其动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生或在谓语动词的动作之后发生;不定式的进行式表示谓语动词的动作发生时,不定式表示的动作正在进行;不定式的完成式表示其动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前,如: People began to wonder how long the disaster would last.人们开始想知道灾难将要持续多久。(不定式 to wonder表示的动作和 began的动作同时发生)(人教U4) She pretended to be reading when her mother came in.她妈妈进来的时候她假装正在看书。(不定式to be reading表示read这一动作在谓语 pretended的动作发生时正在进行) Robert is said to have studied abroad, but I don' t know which country he studied in.据说罗伯 特在国外学习过,但我不知道他是在哪个国家学习的。(不定式 to have studied表示study这 动作发生在谓语 is said之前) ★【即学即练】【 重庆卷改】 The engine just won't start. Something seems (go) wrong with It. 2、不定式的语态 不定式的主动式表示其逻辑主语是不定式动作的执行者;不定式的被动式表示其逻辑主语是不定式动作的承受者。如: It?is?believed?by?many?people?to?have been?gradually?covered?over?by?sandstorms?from?AD?200 to AD500.许多人认为它(古楼兰城)在公元200年至500年期间渐渐被沙尘暴所覆盖。(不定式的逻辑主语是it,与cover是被动关系,且动作发生在?is?believed之前,故用不定式的完成被动式) (译林U3) 注意:不定式的语态由不定式与其主语的关系而定,因此准确辩识不定式的逻辑主语是关键。一般情况下,不定式复合结构作主语时,介词for或of后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语;不定式作宾语时,句子的主语是其逻辑主语;不定式作宾语补足语时,不定式前面的宾语是其逻辑主语;不定式作定语时,不定式所修饰的名词或代词是其逻辑主语或宾语;不定式作状语时,句子的主语是其逻辑主语。 ★ 【即学即练】【 陕西卷改】?His?first?book (publish)next?month?is?based?on?a?true?story. 注意: 在easy,?difficult,?hard,?comfortable等形容词作表语或构成复合宾语时,其后不定式通常用主动形式表示被动含义。如: This?sentence?is?difficult?to?translate.这句话很难翻译。 They?found?the?lecture?hard?to?understand他们发现这报告不好懂。 不定式作定语时,如果与其所修饰的名词或代词为动宾关系,但同时与句子中另一个名词或代词为主谓关系,不定式常用主动形式表示被动含义。如: Do?you?have?anything?to?buy?你要买什么东西吗? Give?him?some?books?to?read给他点书看。 ?to?blame作表语时,用主动形式表示被动含义。如:Who?is?to?blame?for?it?这该怪谁呢? 三、“疑问词+不定式”结构 疑问词?who,?what,?which,when,?where,how等后加上不定式相当于名词性从句。同样一句话英语里可用从句和不定式结构来表达,意思没有区别。试比较: I?didn'?t?know?how?I?could?get?back?to?the?village.我不知道怎样回到村子。(宾语从句,较正式) I didn’t?know?how?to?get?back?to?the?village.我不知道怎样回到村子。(“疑问词+不定式”结构作宾语,简洁,较口语化) ★【即学即练】【 四川卷改】 He?told?us?whether (have)?a?picnic?was?still?under?discussion. 四、不定式的复合结构 1、有时候不定式前有自己的逻辑主语,用for引出,结构为“for+名词/代词宾格+不定式”的复合结构。 When she arrived at Gombe in 1960, it was unusual for a woman to live in the forest. (人教④U1) 她1960年来到汞贝时,对女性来说,住进大森林还是件很不寻常的事。 2、在kind,silly, foolish, stupid, careless,crue,rude, clever等表示人物特征的形容词后接不定式的复合结构时,介词用of,说明不定式所指对象。如: It' s cruel of them to kill animals.他们屠杀动物,真是太残忍了。 知识点一不定式做不同句子成分的考查 例1.【2018·北京】During the Mid-Autumn Festival, family members often gather together _________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes. A. share B. to share C. having shared D. shared 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式做目的状语。句意:在中秋期间,家人们会通常聚在一起吃饭,赏月,品尝月饼。Gather是谓语动词,“_________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes ”是目的状语,不定式形式表示目的,所以选用B。 点睛:动词不定式可以做主语,状语,定语,宾语,表语等。动词不定式做目的状语时,可以置于主句之前也可以置于主句之后,通常译为“为了”。 变式训练 1: 【2017·北京卷】27. Many airlines now allow passengers to print their boarding passes online ______ their valuable time. A. save B. saving C. to save D. saved 例2.【2018·天津】I didn't mean ___________anything but the ice cream looked so good that I couldn’t help_______ it. A. to eat;to try B. eating;trying C. eating;to try D. to eat; trying 【答案】D 【解析】考查不定式和动名词作宾语。句意:我不打算吃任何东西,但冰淇淋看起来如此的好以至于我忍不住的要试一试。固定短语mean to do(打算做,不定式作宾语),couldn’t help doing(忍不住做,doing形式作宾语)。故选D。 点睛:本题考查动词短语固定搭配。同学在平时学习中要多把握动词不同搭配的不同含义,本题需要区分“mean to do打算做”与“mean doing意味着做”和“can’t help to do sth.不能帮助做”与“couldn’t help doing忍不住做”之间的含义。 变式训练 2: 【安徽卷】I remembered the door before I left the office,but forgot to turn off the lights. A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked 例3.【上海卷】As Jack left his membership card at home,he wasn’t allowed into the sports club. A. going B.to go C. go D. gone 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式作补足语。句意:因为杰克把会员卡丢在家里了,他不被允许进入体育俱乐部。固定短语allow sb. to do sth(允许某人做某事,不定式作宾语补足语),sb be allowed to do sth(某人被允许做某事,不定式作主语补足语)。故选B。 变式训练 3:【北京卷】My advisor encouraged me (take)a summer course to improve my writing skills.(单句语法填空) 例4.【山东卷】It is standard practical for a company like this one a security officer. A. employed B.being employed C. to employ D. employs 【答案】C 【解析】考查不定式作真正主语。句意:对于像这样的公司来说,雇佣一名安全人员是标准可行的。根据句意可知,It是形式主语,而to employ a security officer是真正主语, 故选C。 变式训练 4: (climb) the mountain road is hard work but to go down the hills is great fun. (单句语法填空) 例5.The airport next year will help you respond quickly to emergencies. A. being completed B.to be completed C. completed D. having been completed 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式作定语。句意:明年完工的机场将帮助你迅速应对紧急情况。 根据句意可知, next year做的是The airport的定语,the airport与complete是逻辑上的被动关系,又是将来发生的动作,故选B。 变式训练5:【北京卷】Volunteering gives you a chance lives,including your sons. A.change B.changing C. changed D. to change 例6.What he likes to do best on weekends is (listen)to some light music. 【答案】to listen 【解析】考查不定式作表语。句意:每逢周末他最喜欢做的事情就是听听一些轻音乐。 根据句意可知,表语说明的是主语的性质状态,故用to do形式。 知识点二 不定式否定式的考查 例7.【上海卷改】The purpose of new technology is (not,make) life more difficult ,but to make it easier.(单句语法填空) 【答案】not to make 【解析】考查不定式的否定形式。句意:新技术的目的不是是生活更困难,而是更容易。根据表语 (not,make) life more difficult ,but to make it easier和“not….but…不是…而是…”以及not to do sth是不定式的否定形式,推出此处填not to make。 变式训练6:【2018·内蒙古自治区模拟】There is going to ______ an important meeting tomorrow. Please try ______ late. A. have,not to be B. have,not be C. be,not to be D. be,not be 知识点三 不定式时态和语态的考查 例8.【山东卷改】We are invited to a party (hold) in our club next Friday. 【答案】to be held 【解析】考查不定式的语态。不定式作定语,表示一个将来的被动动作,故用不定式的被动式。 变式训练7: 【北京卷】 There are still many problems before we are ready for a long stay on the moon. A. solving B. solved C. being solved D. to be solved 知识点四 不定式特殊句式中的考查 例9.【 江西卷改】He is thought (act) foolishly. Now he has no one but himself to blame for losing the job 【答案】to have acted 【解析】考查不定式特殊句式中的应用。句意:他被认为行事愚蠢,现在丢了那份工作,他只能责怪自己了。“be thought+不定式”为固定句式,意为“被认为…”由句意可知他行事愚蠢是在丢掉工作之前,故用不定式的完成式。 变式训练8: 【湖南卷】You were silly not (lock) your car. 一、高考模拟真题练习 1.【2018·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空】?The?government?encourages?farmers to grow corn?instead?of?rice (improve)water quality. 2. 【2018·南昌市质检一语法填空】Once I arrived in China.,my dream was (learn) tai chi and kung fu and master the techniques of martial arts. 3.【2018·天津河北区模拟改语法填空】With five professional hands (help) them next month,these students are sure (complete) the expertment on time. 4.【2018·山西联考一语法填空】It is hoped that having one day every year ( celebrate) Mandarin will encourage more people around the world to take it up. 5.【2018·太原市质检一语法填空】 This mode of travel provided protection from robbers who might attempt (rob)the valuable goods being transported. 6.【2018·福州市质检语法填空】 “ Every dog has his day” describes a person with a period of good fortune and"work like a dog" is used (describe) a hard worker. 7.【2017·北京卷】Many airlines now allow passengers to print their boarding passes online ______ their valuable time. A. save B. saving C. to save D. saved 8.【2017·全国卷Ⅲ语法填空】 But Sarah, who has taken part in shows along with top models, wants (prove) that she has brains as well as beauty. 9.【2016·全国卷1语法填空改】I ?was?the?first?Western?TV?reporter permitted (?film)?a? special?unit caring?for?pandas from?starvation?in?the?wild. 10.【2016·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空】You find something you love doing outside of the office, you'll be less likely (bring)your work home. 11.【2016·全国卷Ⅲ 语法填空】Skilled workers also combine various hardwoods and metal (create)special designs. 二、阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式。 (一) Mary:I?have?decided? 1. (leave)?my?job?next?month. John:?But?you?said? 2 (work)in?an?architect's?office?was?enjoyable. Mary:?Oh,?I?did.?But?I?feel?like 3. (do)something different for a while. John:?Didn't?you?promise? 4. ?(?stay)??there?at?least?two?years. Mary:Yes,?I?did?but?I?just?can't?stand?working?with?these?people.?One?of?them?refuses? 5. (stop) talking?while?she?works,?and?another?one? keeps? 6. (sing)?to himself.?And?there?is?a?man? attampting 7. (?tell)?awful?jokes?all?the?time?which he?always?gets?wrong.?I?feel annoyed?with?all?that?noise?around?me. John:?It?sounds?a?quite?cheerful?place?to?me.?Can't?you?think?of?a?way? 8. (solve)your?problem?? You?can?manage? 9. (?ignore)?them?and?get?on?with?your?work. Mary:?No,?I?can't.?I?just?can't carrry?on going?there?every?day.?I'm?hoping? 10. (?go )abroad? for?a?bit. John:?Well! good?luck. (二) The Interner is playing a more and more important part in people’s daily life.It is an 1. (amaze) information resource. Students, teachers, and researchers use it as an investigative tool. Journalists use it 2. (find) information for stories. Doctors use it 3 (learn)more about unfamiliar diseases and the latest medical deveopment. Ordinary people use it for shopping, banking billpaying ,and 4 (communicate) with family and friends. People all over the world use it 5 (connect) with individuals from other countries and cultures.However, while there are many positive developments 6. (associate) with the Internet, there are also certain fears and concerns. One concern relates to a lack of control over what appears on the Internet. With television and radio there are editors 7. (check) the accuracy or appropriateness of the content of programs, and with television there are restrictions on other aspects, for example, what kinds of programs can 8. ( broadcast) and at what time of the day. With the Internet, parents cannot check a published guide 9. ( determine) what is suitable for their children 10. (see). 1 第18讲 动词不定式(解析版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第12个条目是非谓语动词,其中包含对动词不定式的考查。高考主要以语法填空和短文改错形式,放在篇章当中结合上下文语境,主要考查不定式的作用和形式。其中在作用方面,主要考查作宾语时用不定式还是动名词;作定语、状语、补语时用不定式还是分词;它们作某一成分时的特殊情况及特殊结构。在形式方面,主要考查用是完成式、主动式不是被动式等。这一部分是英汉差异较大的部分,汉语中没有非谓语动词形式,所以教师在一轮复习时要帮助学生抓住基础,把握要点,找准突破点,夯实易错点。 1-6观察to do在句中所作成分;7-12观察to do的各种形式及省略。1.?It?is?terrible?to?see?the?ship?sinking?into?the?sea. 2.?Do?you?think?it?necessary?for?us?to?learn?to?wait? 3.?The?old?mans?job?is?to?take?care?of?the?flowers?in?the?garden. 4.He told me not to bring you anything. 5.In my dreams I always have very different jobs to do. 6.In?his?third?year,?he?left?Harvard?to?work?for?a?company?called?Microsoft. 7.?She?pretended?not?to?see?me?when?I?passed?by. 8.IDS?is said to have been the biggest health challenge to both men and women in that area over the past few years. 9.Hurry up!He is sure to be waiting for us. 10.-You should have thanked her before you left. -I?meant?to,?but?when?I?was?leaving?I?couldn't?find?her?anywhere. 11.-Has?he?finished?his?homework? -He ought to have,but?he?played?all?the time. 12.-Tina?has?changed?a?lot?since?she?became?a?senior?high?grade?three?students. -Yes.?She?is?no?longer?what?she?used?to?be. to do在句子中所做成分 to do的否定形式 to do的完成形式 to do的进行形式 to do的省略 【深思熟虑】 to do在句子中所做成分:1.真正主语2.真正宾语 3.表语 4.宾补5.目的状语6.主补 to do的否定形式: not to do to do的完成形式: to have done to do的进行形式: to be doing to do的省略: mean to; ought to; used to be 从以上句子中含义可以看出,动词不定式可以充当各种句子成分,在句中有不同的功能和作用;从句子中形式可以看出,根据语境和表达的需要,动词不定式也有不同的形式。本节会分类讲解,总结规律,抓住特征,参透语法,从而提升学生使用动词不定式的能力。 一、不定式的构成与特征 动词不定式的英语名称为“The?Infinitive”,一般由“to+动词原形”构成。它在句中起名词、形容词或副词的作用,同时也保留着动词的一些特征,可以有自己的宾语或状语。如: At the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, Liu Xiang excited people all over Asia when he became the first Asian to win the gold medal in the men'l0- metre hurdles. 在2004年雅典奥运会上,刘翔在110米跨栏比赛中成为第一个获得金牌的亚洲人,使全亚洲人兴奋不已。(不定式起形容词的作用,带有宾语和状语) (译林U2) 二、不定式的功能与用法 1、作主语 To see is to believe.眼见为实。 在很多情况下,特别是在口语中,我们常用it作形式主语,而把不定式移至句尾,以保持句子平衡。如: It’s not easy to find your way around the town.在这个小镇要找到路很不容易。(外研M2) It is difficult to imagine a more inhospitable place.很难想象出一个比这(南极洲)更不宜居 住的地方. (外研M1) 2、作表语 His ambition is to become an actor.他的理想是成为一名演员。(人教U1) The?aim?of?the?treaty?is?to prevent?the?commercial and military use of the continent. 以这个公约的目的是为了阻止商业和军事上使用这个洲。(外研M1) Acollege counsellor’s job is to help students adjust to college life. 大学辅导员的工作是帮助学生适应大学生活。(北师大U23) 注意:当主语中有实意动词do 时,表语中的不定式符号to可以省略。如: All she could do is go back home. 3、作宾语 ①常见的接不定式作宾语的动词有:afford,aim,ask,bear,begin,bother,care,choose,continue, dare,decide,demand,desire,determine,expect,fail,forget,hate,help,hope,intend,?learn,?like,? long,?love,?manage,?mean,?need,?offer,?plan,?pretend,?promise,?refuse,?remember,threaten,try,want,wish等。如: He?was?very?happy?to?meet?two?foreigners?and?wanted?to?learn?all?about?Europe. 他很高兴遇到两个外国人,于是想全面了解欧洲。 (北师大①U8) ★【即学即练】【上海卷改】David threatened (report)?his?neighbour?to?the?police?if?the? damages were?not?paid. 【答案】to?report ? 【解析】threaten后接不定式作直接宾语。 注意:介词but后一般接带10的不定式,但在”do something /?anything/nothing/?everythiny…but”结构中but后要接不带to的不定式,如: ?My?dog?can?do?everything but speak. 我的狗什么都会做,就是不会说话。 当不定式作宾语,而后面又有宾语补足语时,常用it作形式宾语,而将不定式后置。常见结构为:?consider/fell/find/make/?think…+it+宾补+?to?do?sth。如: He?felt?it?necessary?to?learn?English well.他觉得有必要学好英语。 They?found?it?impossible?to?get everything ready in such a short time.他们发现不可能让他在短时间把一切准备好。 He made it a rule only to speak English in class.他规定课上只能讲英语。 ★【即学即练】【山东卷改】The two girls are so alike that strangers find difficult to tell one from the other. 【答案】it ? 【解析】it在此是作形式宾语,真正的宾语是后面的不定式短语 to tell one from the other。 4、作宾语补足语 常见的接不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:advise,allow,ask,beg,?cause,?command,?direct,?enable,encourage,expect,forbid,force,instruct,invite,?order,?permit,?persuade,?press,recommend,remind,request,teach,tell,train,urge,?want,?warm等。如: I?was?interested?in?astronomy?and?he?asked?me?to?give?a?presentation?to?the?class.我对天文学很感兴趣,他叫我对全班作口头陈述 (北师大③U15 ) ★【即学即练】【北京卷改】My advice encouraged me (take)?a?summer?course?to?improve? my?writing?skill. 【答案】?to?take? 【解析】encourage后接不定式作宾语补足语。 注意:在汉语里,我们常说“希望某人做某事”,但在英语里却不可以说“?hope?sb?to?do?sth",即hope不接不定式作宾补。如:They hope?me to?tell them?my?experiences?in?China.是错误的表达,可将hopc改为wish或want,也可使用从句表达:? They?hope (that)?David?will?make?a?speech?about?his?experiences?in?China. 有些感官动词和使役动词接不定式作宾语补足语语补足语时,通常不带to。下面的口诀可以帮助记忆:“吾看三室两厅一感觉”可以解释为:吾即我,我重点大学毕业,单位分给一套三室两厅的房子,自己去看时就一个感觉--好。其实为“五看三使两听一感觉”共11个词。“五看(?(see,?watch,look at,?notice,observe),三使役(let,have,make)二听(hear,?listen?to)一感觉(feel)”。如: They?made?me?wait?while?they?checked?everyone'?s?air?tickets.他们检查所有人的机票,而让我等着。 ★【即学即练】【全国卷改】The director had her assistant (pick) up some hot dogs for the meeting. 【答案】?pick 【解析】根据句意,had是使役动词的过去式have的过去式,后长接不带to的不定式作宾语补足语。have sb. do sth 意为“让某人做某事”。 help后的不定式作宾语补足语可以带to,也可以不带,如: ?This?interesting?study?can?help?you?avoid?difficulty?in?communication.这项有趣的研究能帮助你避免交际中遇到的困难。Xie?Lei's?preparation?course?is?helping?her?to?get?used?to?academic?requirements?of?a?Westernunversity。谢蕾的预科班课程帮助她适应西方大学的学业要求。(人教U5) 注意:感官动词和使役动词make用于被动语态时,作主语补足语的不定式要带to。如:Tom?doesn't?have?to?be?made?to?learn.?He?always?works hard .不必强迫汤姆学习,他一直很用功。 5、作定语 不定式作定语一般与所修饰的名词构成主谓关系、动宾关系、同位关系或偏正关系。如:I?am?always?the?first?person?to?get?to?the?office.我总是第一个到办公室的人。(主谓关系) (北师大U1) There?are?lots?of?interesting?things?to?see?there.那里有许多有趣的东西可看。(动宾关系) (人教U3) Thers are many ways to make people tough.有很多方法逗人们笑。(偏正关系) ★【即学即练】 【北京卷改】Birds'singingr is sometimes a warning to other hirds (stay)away. 【答案】?to stay 【解析】不定式在句中与 warning是同位关系。 ★【即学即练】【上海卷改】If there is a lot of work (do), I'm happy to just keep on until it is finished. 【答案】?to do 【解析】此处表示未来的动作,不定式与work构成逻辑上的动宾关系。 ★【即学即练】【全国卷改】---The last (arrive) pays the meal!-----Agreed! 【答案】?to arrive 【解析】根据句子结构,此处用非谓语形式,表示未来的动作,用不定式作定语,one与to arrive构成逻辑上的主谓关系。 注意:不定式作定语时,如果与其所修饰的名词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,而不定式动词又是一个不及物词,则不定式后要有相应的分词,如: Give me a pen to write with.给我一支笔写字. You might think that with all these dangerous animals Australia is an unsafe place to live in or visit.澳大利亚有这么多的危动物,你也许会认为在这里居住或到这里旅游很不安全. (人教U3) 还有一种“介词+ which/whom+不定式”的结构也可以作定语,如: The young couple needs a lot of money with which to buy a new house.这对年轻夫妇需要一大笔钱,用来买房子。 不定式作定语时,多表示将来的动作。如: The meeting to be held tomorrow is of great importance.明天要召开的会议非常重要。 6、作状语 不定式做状语,多表目的,也表示结果、原因等。 To make friends easily ,you need to be kind.要想很容易的交朋友,你需要友善。(目的) The poor girl has been collecting seashells to make a living.这位穷苦的女孩一直靠拾贝壳为生。(目的)(人教U5) I am so exicted to be here .(译林U3) 注意: 在强调目的状语时,会出现in order to和so as to,但是so as to不能置于句首。如: In order to persuade people to do something ,advertisements often appeal to our hopes and dreams or our emtions.为了规劝人们去做某事,广告常常激起人们的希望、梦想和情感。(人教U5) 在so ….as to,enough to,only to,too…to等结构中,不定式表结果。 ★【即学即练】【福建卷改】 (learn) more about Chinese culture, Jack has decided to take Chinese folk music as an elective course. 【答案】To learn 【解析】不定式作目的状语。 ★【即学即练】【辽宁卷改】This machine is very easy (operate). Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes. 【答案】to operate 【解析】不定式可用在作表语的形容词后面作状语. ★【即学即练】【四川卷改】Tom took a taxi to the airport,only (find) his plane high up in the sky. 【答案】to find 【解析】不定式与only连用作结果状语,表示出人意料的结果。 一、不定式的否定式 不定式的否定式由“not+不定式”构成。如: Try not to worry it you don't understand every word of the passage如果你不理解文章里的每 一个单词,不要担心。(外研⑥M2) 二、不定式的时态与语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 to write to be written 进行式 to be writing × 完成式 to have written to have been written 1、不定式的时态 不定式的一般式表示其动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生或在谓语动词的动作之后发生;不定式的进行式表示谓语动词的动作发生时,不定式表示的动作正在进行;不定式的完成式表示其动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前,如: People began to wonder how long the disaster would last.人们开始想知道灾难将要持续多久。(不定式 to wonder表示的动作和 began的动作同时发生)(人教U4) She pretended to be reading when her mother came in.她妈妈进来的时候她假装正在看书。(不定式to be reading表示read这一动作在谓语 pretended的动作发生时正在进行) Robert is said to have studied abroad, but I don' t know which country he studied in.据说罗伯 特在国外学习过,但我不知道他是在哪个国家学习的。(不定式 to have studied表示study这 动作发生在谓语 is said之前) ★【即学即练】【 重庆卷改】 The engine just won't start. Something seems (go) wrong with It. 【答案】to have gone 【解析】seems后接不定式作宾语,不定式表示的动作发生在谓语表示的动作或状态之前,故用动词不定式的完成式。 2、不定式的语态 不定式的主动式表示其逻辑主语是不定式动作的执行者;不定式的被动式表示其逻辑主语是不定式动作的承受者。如: It?is?believed?by?many?people?to?have been?gradually?covered?over?by?sandstorms?from?AD?200 to AD500.许多人认为它(古楼兰城)在公元200年至500年期间渐渐被沙尘暴所覆盖。(不定式的逻辑主语是it,与cover是被动关系,且动作发生在?is?believed之前,故用不定式的完成被动式) (译林U3) 注意:不定式的语态由不定式与其主语的关系而定,因此准确辩识不定式的逻辑主语是关键。一般情况下,不定式复合结构作主语时,介词for或of后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语;不定式作宾语时,句子的主语是其逻辑主语;不定式作宾语补足语时,不定式前面的宾语是其逻辑主语;不定式作定语时,不定式所修饰的名词或代词是其逻辑主语或宾语;不定式作状语时,句子的主语是其逻辑主语。 ★ 【即学即练】【 陕西卷改】?His?first?book (publish)next?month?is?based?on?a?true?story. 【答案】to?be?published 【解析】?逻辑主语?book?与publish之间是被动关系,且通过?next?month可知动作将要发生,故用不定式的被动式。 注意: 在easy,?difficult,?hard,?comfortable等形容词作表语或构成复合宾语时,其后不定式通常用主动形式表示被动含义。如: This?sentence?is?difficult?to?translate.这句话很难翻译。 They?found?the?lecture?hard?to?understand他们发现这报告不好懂。 不定式作定语时,如果与其所修饰的名词或代词为动宾关系,但同时与句子中另一个名词或代词为主谓关系,不定式常用主动形式表示被动含义。如: Do?you?have?anything?to?buy?你要买什么东西吗? Give?him?some?books?to?read给他点书看。 ?to?blame作表语时,用主动形式表示被动含义。如:Who?is?to?blame?for?it?这该怪谁呢? 三、“疑问词+不定式”结构 疑问词?who,?what,?which,when,?where,how等后加上不定式相当于名词性从句。同样一句话英语里可用从句和不定式结构来表达,意思没有区别。试比较: I?didn'?t?know?how?I?could?get?back?to?the?village.我不知道怎样回到村子。(宾语从句,较正式) I didn’t?know?how?to?get?back?to?the?village.我不知道怎样回到村子。(“疑问词+不定式”结构作宾语,简洁,较口语化) ★【即学即练】【 四川卷改】 He?told?us?whether (have)?a?picnic?was?still?under?discussion. 【答案】to have 【解析】本题考查的是“?whether+不定式”在宾语从句中作主语。 四、不定式的复合结构 1、有时候不定式前有自己的逻辑主语,用for引出,结构为“for+名词/代词宾格+不定式”的复合结构。 When she arrived at Gombe in 1960, it was unusual for a woman to live in the forest. (人教④U1) 她1960年来到汞贝时,对女性来说,住进大森林还是件很不寻常的事。 2、在kind,silly, foolish, stupid, careless,crue,rude, clever等表示人物特征的形容词后接不定式的复合结构时,介词用of,说明不定式所指对象。如: It' s cruel of them to kill animals.他们屠杀动物,真是太残忍了。 知识点一不定式做不同句子成分的考查 例1.【2018·北京】During the Mid-Autumn Festival, family members often gather together _________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes. A. share B. to share C. having shared D. shared 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式做目的状语。句意:在中秋期间,家人们会通常聚在一起吃饭,赏月,品尝月饼。Gather是谓语动词,“_________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes ”是目的状语,不定式形式表示目的,所以选用B。 点睛:动词不定式可以做主语,状语,定语,宾语,表语等。动词不定式做目的状语时,可以置于主句之前也可以置于主句之后,通常译为“为了”。 变式训练 1: 【2017·北京卷】27. Many airlines now allow passengers to print their boarding passes online ______ their valuable time. A. save B. saving C. to save D. saved 【答案】C 【解析】考查不定式做目的状语。句意:许多航空公司现在允许乘客网上打印他们的登机牌来节省时间。此处是动词不定式表目的,故选C。 例2.【2018·天津】I didn't mean ___________anything but the ice cream looked so good that I couldn’t help_______ it. A. to eat;to try B. eating;trying C. eating;to try D. to eat; trying 【答案】D 【解析】考查不定式和动名词作宾语。句意:我不打算吃任何东西,但冰淇淋看起来如此的好以至于我忍不住的要试一试。固定短语mean to do(打算做,不定式作宾语),couldn’t help doing(忍不住做,doing形式作宾语)。故选D。 点睛:本题考查动词短语固定搭配。同学在平时学习中要多把握动词不同搭配的不同含义,本题需要区分“mean to do打算做”与“mean doing意味着做”和“can’t help to do sth.不能帮助做”与“couldn’t help doing忍不住做”之间的含义。 变式训练 2: 【安徽卷】I remembered the door before I left the office,but forgot to turn off the lights. A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式作宾语。句意:我记得离开办公室时去锁门了,但忘记去关灯了。 本句考查的还有forget的用法。注意:forget to dosth. 忘记去做某事;forget doing sth忘记做过某事;此处符合第一种用法,故选C。 例3.【上海卷】As Jack left his membership card at home,he wasn’t allowed into the sports club. A. going B.to go C. go D. gone 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式作补足语。句意:因为杰克把会员卡丢在家里了,他不被允许进入体育俱乐部。固定短语allow sb. to do sth(允许某人做某事,不定式作宾语补足语),sb be allowed to do sth(某人被允许做某事,不定式作主语补足语)。故选B。 变式训练 3:【北京卷】My advisor encouraged me (take)a summer course to improve my writing skills.(单句语法填空) 【答案】to take 【解析】考查不定式作宾语补足语。句意:我的班主任鼓励我上暑假课程来改善我的写作技巧。根据encourage的用法, encourage sb to do sth. 鼓励某人去做某事;故填to take。 例4.【山东卷】It is standard practical for a company like this one a security officer. A. employed B.being employed C. to employ D. employs 【答案】C 【解析】考查不定式作真正主语。句意:对于像这样的公司来说,雇佣一名安全人员是标准可行的。根据句意可知,It是形式主语,而to employ a security officer是真正主语, 故选C。 变式训练 4: (climb) the mountain road is hard work but to go down the hills is great fun. (单句语法填空) 【答案】To climb 【解析】考查不定式作主语。句意:上山很艰难而下山却很好玩。根据but to go down the hills is great fun推出此句的主语也应为to do的形式;故填To climb。 例5.The airport next year will help you respond quickly to emergencies. A. being completed B.to be completed C. completed D. having been completed 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式作定语。句意:明年完工的机场将帮助你迅速应对紧急情况。 根据句意可知, next year做的是The airport的定语,the airport与complete是逻辑上的被动关系,又是将来发生的动作,故选B。 变式训练5:【北京卷】Volunteering gives you a chance lives,including your sons. A.change B.changing C. changed D. to change 【答案】D 【解析】考查不定式作定语。句意:志愿服务给你一个改变生活的机会,包括你的儿子。 根据句意可知, lives做的是a chance的定语,a chance to do sth是习惯搭配,故选D。 例6.What he likes to do best on weekends is (listen)to some light music. 【答案】to listen 【解析】考查不定式作表语。句意:每逢周末他最喜欢做的事情就是听听一些轻音乐。 根据句意可知,表语说明的是主语的性质状态,故用to do形式。 知识点二 不定式否定式的考查 例7.【上海卷改】The purpose of new technology is (not,make) life more difficult ,but to make it easier.(单句语法填空) 【答案】not to make 【解析】考查不定式的否定形式。句意:新技术的目的不是是生活更困难,而是更容易。根据表语 (not,make) life more difficult ,but to make it easier和“not….but…不是…而是…”以及not to do sth是不定式的否定形式,推出此处填not to make。 变式训练6:【2018·内蒙古自治区模拟】There is going to ______ an important meeting tomorrow. Please try ______ late. A. have,not to be B. have,not be C. be,not to be D. be,not be 【答案】C 【解析】句意:明天有一个重要会议。请尽力不要迟到。根据句意可知第一句为there be句式,第二句表达“尽力不要做某事try not to do sth”,故选C。 知识点三 不定式时态和语态的考查 例8.【山东卷改】We are invited to a party (hold) in our club next Friday. 【答案】to be held 【解析】考查不定式的语态。不定式作定语,表示一个将来的被动动作,故用不定式的被动式。 变式训练 7: 【北京卷】 There are still many problems before we are ready for a long stay on the moon. A. solving B. solved C. being solved D. to be solved 【答案】D 【解析】考查不定式的语态。句意:在我们准备长时间在月球上停留之前,还有许多问题有待解决。不定式作定语,表示many problems与solve是被动动作,故用不定式的被动式。 知识点四 不定式特殊句式中的考查 例9.【 江西卷改】He is thought (act) foolishly. Now he has no one but himself to blame for losing the job 【答案】to have acted 【解析】考查不定式特殊句式中的应用。句意:他被认为行事愚蠢,现在丢了那份工作,他只能责怪自己了。“be thought+不定式”为固定句式,意为“被认为…”由句意可知他行事愚蠢是在丢掉工作之前,故用不定式的完成式。 变式训练8: 【湖南卷】You were silly not (lock) your car. 【答案】to have locked 【解析】考查不定式特殊句式中的应用。句意:“你没有锁上车真是太傻了”根据句意可知,此处表示be silly to do sth.,但是lock的动作早于谓语动词were,故用不定式的完成时。 一、高考模拟真题练习 1.【2018·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空】?The?government?encourages?farmers to grow corn?instead?of?rice (improve)water quality. 【答案】to improve 【解析】考查非谓语动词中的动词不定式。句意:为了改善水质政府鼓励农民种植玉米而不是大米。谓语动词是encourages,故improve应该用非谓语动词。此处表示目的,故用不定式。故填to improve。 2. 【2018·南昌市质检一语法填空】Once I arrived in China.,my dream was (learn) tai chi and kung fu and master the techniques of martial arts. 【答案】to learn  【解析】考查非谓语动词中的不定式做表语。句意:一到中国,我的梦想就是学习太极和功夫,掌握武术技巧。此处是动词不定式作表语,表示my dream的内容,故填to learn。 3.【2018·天津河北区模拟改语法填空】With five professional hands (help) them next month,these students are sure (complete) the expertment on time. 【答案】to help;to complete  【解析】考查非谓语动词中的不定式做宾补和不定时的特殊结构。句意:下月有五个专业人员将帮助他们,这些学生肯定能按时完成这个实验。with+n/pron+to do (表将来)是with的复合结构,此处With five professional hands (help) them正好符合,故填to help;be sure to do sth表示一定会做某事,是固定句式,故填to complete。 4.【2018·山西联考一语法填空】It is hoped that having one day every year ( celebrate) Mandarin will encourage more people around the world to take it up. 【答案】to celebrate  【解析】考查非谓语动词中动词不定式作定语。句意:希望每年有庆祝普通话的一天会鼓励世界各地更多的人去学习普通话。“one day to do sth用于做….的一天”是类似于“time to do sth”的结构,为固定搭配,故用动词不定式作定语。 5.【2018·太原市质检一语法填空】 This mode of travel provided protection from robbers who might attempt (rob)the valuable goods being transported. 【答案】to rob  【解析】考查非谓语动词中动词不定式作宾语。attempt to do sth尝试/企图做某事,是固定搭配,故用不定式做宾语。 6.【2018·福州市质检语法填空】 “ Every dog has his day” describes a person with a period of good fortune and"work like a dog" is used (describe) a hard worker. 【答案】to describle  【解析】考查非谓语动词中动词不定式作补足语。sth be used to do sth某物被用于做某事,习惯搭配,做主语sth的补足语,故用不定式形式。 7.【2017·北京卷】Many airlines now allow passengers to print their boarding passes online ______ their valuable time. A. save B. saving C. to save D. saved 【答案】C 【解析】考查非谓语动词中的不定式做状语。 句意:许多航空公司现在允许乘客网上打印他们的登机牌来节省时间。此处是动词不定式表目的,故选C。 8.【2017·全国卷Ⅲ语法填空】 But Sarah, who has taken part in shows along with top models, wants (prove) that she has brains as well as beauty. 【答案】to prove  【解析】考查非谓语动词中的动词不定式作宾语。want to do sth为固定搭配,故用动词不定式。 9.【2016·全国卷1语法填空改】I ?was?the?first?Western?TV?reporter permitted (?film)?a? special?unit caring?for?pandas from?starvation?in?the?wild. 【答案】to?film?  【解析】考查非谓语动词中的不定式做定语。句意:关于在野外照顾饥饿的熊猫,我是第一个被允许拍摄一个特殊单元的西方电视记者。the+?序数词?/next /only/last +n.to do sth是习惯搭配,故此处用to?film?作定语。 10.【2016·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空】You find something you love doing outside of the office, you'll be less likely (bring)your work home. 【答案】to bring  【解析】考查非谓语动词中动词不定式的特殊句式。Be likely to do sth为固定搭配,故用动词不定式。 11.【2016·全国卷Ⅲ 语法填空】Skilled workers also combine various hardwoods and metal (create)special designs. 【答案】to design 【解析】考查非谓语动词中的不定式做状语。句意:熟练的工人还将各种硬木和金属结合在一起,以便创造出独特的设计。此处是动词不定式表目的,故填to design。 二、阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式。 (一) Mary:I?have?decided? 1. (leave)?my?job?next?month. John:?But?you?said? 2 (work)in?an?architect's?office?was?enjoyable. Mary:?Oh,?I?did.?But?I?feel?like 3. (do)something different for a while. John:?Didn't?you?promise? 4. ?(?stay)??there?at?least?two?years. Mary:Yes,?I?did?but?I?just?can't?stand?working?with?these?people.?One?of?them?refuses? 5. (stop) talking?while?she?works,?and?another?one? keeps? 6. (sing)?to himself.?And?there?is?a?man? attampting 7. (?tell)?awful?jokes?all?the?time?which he?always?gets?wrong.?I?feel annoyed?with?all?that?noise?around?me. John:?It?sounds?a?quite?cheerful?place?to?me.?Can't?you?think?of?a?way? 8. (solve)your?problem?? You?can?manage? 9. (?ignore)?them?and?get?on?with?your?work. Mary:?No,?I?can't.?I?just?can't carrry?on going?there?every?day.?I'm?hoping? 10. (?go )abroad? for?a?bit. John:?Well! good?luck. 【答案与解析】 1. to leave 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “decide to do sth”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 2.working 考查非谓语doing形式作主语 “2 (work)in?an?architect's?office?”是“?was?enjoyable.”的主语,动词作主语有两种形式,doing和to do,doing表示经常性习惯性的动作或正在发生的动作,to do表示具体的偶然性的动作;此处是第一种情况,故用working。 3.doing 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “feel like doing想要做某事”是习惯搭配,故用doing 形式作介词like的宾语。 4.to stay 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “promise to do sth许诺做某事”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 5.to stop 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “refuse to do sth拒绝做某事”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 6.singing 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “keep doing一直做某事”是习惯搭配,故用doing形式作宾语。 7.to tell 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “attempt to do sth尝试/企图做某事”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 8.to solve考查非谓语doing形式作定语 “a way to do sth做某事的方法”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作定语。 9.to ignore 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “manage to do sth设法做某事”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 10. to go 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “hope to do sth希望做某事”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 (二) The Interner is playing a more and more important part in people’s daily life.It is an 1. (amaze) information resource. Students, teachers, and researchers use it as an investigative tool. Journalists use it 2. (find) information for stories. Doctors use it 3 (learn)more about unfamiliar diseases and the latest medical deveopment. Ordinary people use it for shopping, banking billpaying ,and 4 (communicate) with family and friends. People all over the world use it 5 (connect) with individuals from other countries and cultures.However, while there are many positive developments 6. (associate) with the Internet, there are also certain fears and concerns. One concern relates to a lack of control over what appears on the Internet. With television and radio there are editors 7. (check) the accuracy or appropriateness of the content of programs, and with television there are restrictions on other aspects, for example, what kinds of programs can 8. ( broadcast) and at what time of the day. With the Internet, parents cannot check a published guide 9. ( determine) what is suitable for their children 10. (see). 【答案与解析】 1.amazing 考查非谓语doing形式作定语,句意:这是一个惊人的信息资源。“amazing adj. 令人惊异的”指事物的性质。 2.to find 考查非谓语to do形式作宾语补足语“use sth. to do sth使用…做某事”是习惯搭配,故用不定式形式做宾补。 3. to learn 考查非谓语to do形式作宾语补足语 句意:医生用它来了解更多不熟悉的疾病和最新的医疗发展。 “use sth. to do sth使用…做某事”是习惯搭配,故用不定式形式做宾补。 4. communicating 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 在介词for之后,shopping, banking billpaying ,and (communicate)是并列形式做宾语,都为doing形式。 5. to connect 考查非谓语to do形式作宾语补足语 同2,3的解释。 6. associated? 考查非谓语done形式作定语 句意:然而,尽管有许多有关互联网的积极发展….语境中associate与所修饰词development是动宾关系,故用过去分词作定语。 7. to check 考查非谓语中不定式形式作定语 句意:有了电视和收音机,编辑就可以检查节目内容的准确性或适宜性,而有了电视,就有了其他方面的限制…。editors与check是主动关系,在there be句式中常有there be sb to do sth的习惯搭配,所以用to do形式作定语。 8. be broadcast(ed)? 考查含情态动词的谓语被动形式。broadcast与programs是动宾关系,所以programs做主语时,谓语动词用被动形式。 9. to determine 考查非谓语中不定式形式作目的状语 句意:在互联网上,父母们无法查看出版的指南,以便确定什么适合他们的孩子可以看。“ ( determine) what is suitable for …”表示目的,故用to do形式。 10.to see 考查特殊句式中不定式的使用。符合句式:sth is +adj+for sb +to do ,故用to see。 13

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