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  • ID:3-6144762 2018_2019学年一年级数学上册期末检测卷(一)北师大版(含答案)

    小学数学/期末专区/一年级上册

    期末测试 总分: 100分时间:60分钟 题号 一 二 三 四 五 六 七 总分 得分 一、填一填。(31分) 1. 1个十和8个一组成(),2个十是()。 2. 13和15的中间是(),19后面紧挨的数是()。 3. 比7大而又比15小的数有()。 4. 17里面有()个十和()个一,10个一就是1个()。 5. 15中的1在()位上,表示()个();5在()位上,表示()个()。 6. 在○里填上“+”或“-”。 15○5=104○9=138○8=0 10+2=6○616○6=107○0=7 7. 在○里填上“>”“<”或“=”。 6+9○1612-1○1319○9+9 8-6○8+69-9○0+916+2○18 从左往右数,第3盆开了()朵花,第()盆和第()盆都开了3朵花,开6朵花的是第()盆,没有花的是第()盆。 画一画。(12分) 4. 找规律,接着画5个图形。 三、连一连,圈一圈。(11分) 1.?连一连。(5分) 把不同类的圈出来。(6分) 四、选一选。(6分) 1. 在重的后面画“√”。 哪个杯子里的水最多,在下面画“√”。 五、我是计算小能手。(12分) 4+8=6+3=19-7=18-8= 14-4+1=5+10+2=6+8+1=18-8+9= 9+4-3=3+8+3=5+5+5=20-10-5= 数图形。(4分) 解决生活中的数学问题。(24分) 1. 小林想买一本笔记本和一条毛巾,需要()元。 (2)小林带了10元钱,买一条毛巾,应找回()元。 小丽比小明少写了多少个大字? 小红看一本漫画书。 4. 长颈鹿家在小猴子家前面一家,从前面数第4家是小猴子家,从后面数第5家是长颈鹿家,这一排一共住了多少家? 参考答案 一、1. 18202. 14203. 8,9,10,11,12,13,14 4. 17十5. 十1十个5一6. -+-+-+或-7. <<><<= 8. 22475 二、自己画一画 三、1. 自己连一连 2. (1)圈飞机 (2)圈正方形 四、1.在左边的方框里画?√ 2.在中间的方框里画√ 五、1291210111715191014155 六、4142 七、1.(1)114+7=11(2)310-7=3 2. 16-5=11 3. 9+10=19 4. 方法一:把多数的两家要减去,列式为5+4-2=7 方法二:先推算出长颈鹿家是从前面数第3家,而且他家后面还有(5-1)家,所以要求这一排一共住了多少家,列式为5-1+3=7 4

  • ID:3-6144760 2018_2019学年一年级数学上册期中检测卷(一)北师大版(含答案)

    小学数学/期中专区/一年级上册

    期中测试 总分:100分时间:60分钟 题号 一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 九 十 十一 总分 得分 我会数。(看图写数)(5分) 二、找朋友。(把同样多的连一连)(4分) 三、比一比。(9分) 1. 高的画“√”,矮的画“○”。 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 重的画“√”,轻的画“○”。 最长的画“√”,最短的画“○”。 四、我是计算小能手。(16分) 3+6=10-7=5+5=6-3= 10-10=6+1=9-1=0+9= 4+5=7+2=4+2=5+3= 3+4=8-3=10-3=0+5= 五、在○里填上“+”或“-”。(8分) 4○5=95○5=06○4=28○2=6 3○7=103○3=65○3=20○3=3 六、在○里填上“>”“<”或“=”。(8分) 4○10-77○2+65+3○94○8-4 3+3○5+17-2○0+66+1○2+34-3○4+3 七、猜猜小动物背后藏了数字几,把它写在()里。(4分) -6=4()3+ =7() 5+ =6() -5=3() 八、填一填。(20分) 1. 比10少1的数是(),7比()多1。 2. 比6大比10小的数有()。 3. (1)上面一共有()个数,最大的是(),最小的是()。 (2)如果8排在第1个,那么9排在第()个,3排在第()个。 (3)如果10排在第1个,那么9又排在第()个,3又排在第 ()个。 (4)把它们按从大到小的顺序排一排。 ()>()>()>()>()>()>()> ()>()>() 九、画一画。(4分) 十、解决生活中的数学问题。(17分) 1.?共有10个桃子。(4分) 2.?一共有多少只蝌蚪?(4分) 还剩多少人?(4分) ? 4?妈妈买回一些苹果,小军吃了5个,还剩下3个,妈妈买了多少个苹果?(5分) 把0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9这10个数填在方框里,使等式成立。(每个数只能用一次)(5分) 参考答案 一、 二、自己连一连 三、1. (1)○√(2)√○ 2. √○ 3. 四、93103078999687575 五、+---++-+ 六、><<==<>< 七、10418 八、1.962. 7,8,9 3. (1)10100(2)47(3)74 (4)10987654310 九、自己画一画 十、1. 10-5=52. 6+3=93. 5+2-4=3 4. 5+3=8 十一、0+9=1+8=2+7=3+6=4+5(填法不唯一) 5

  • ID:4-6143313 2020年高考英语必考点专题1-5练习(打包10套)(含解析)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    专题01名词——高效演练 一.单句语法填空 1.The__________ (possible)that there is life on other planets in the universe has always inspired scientists to explore the outer space. 【答案】possibility 【解析】考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。句意:宇宙中其它星球上存在生命这种可能性总是激励科学家们去探索外部空间。故填possibility。 2. Try?to?understand?what’s?actually happening instead of acting on the _______ (assume)you’ve made. 【答案】assumption 【解析】考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。句意:试着去理解实际发生的事情,而不是按照你所做的假设行事。 故选assumption 。 In 1863 the first underground passenger railway in the world opened in London. It ran for just under seven kilometers and allowed people to avoid terrible (crowd) on the roads above as they travelled to and from work. 【答案】crowds 【解析】考查名词。crowd前没有冠词、指示代词和形容词性人称代词,故用复数形式。 4.But for tourists like me,pandas are its top ________(attract). 【答案】attraction  【解析】句意:但是对于像我一样的游客来说,大熊猫是最大的吸引。形容词top“头等的;最重要的”后面跟名词形式。 5.The nursery team switches him every few ________(day)with his sister so that while one is being bottle?fed... 【答案】days  【解析】句意:护理团队每隔几天就把他和他的妹妹互换一下,这样当他们中的一个在被人工喂养的时候……。every few days“每隔几天”。 6.Then,handle the most important tasks first so you'll feel a real sense of ________(achieve). 【答案】achievement  【解析】句意:然后,首先处理最重要的任务,那么你会感到真正意义上的成就。介词of后应用名词作宾语。 7.Recent ________(study)show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks regularly. 【答案】studies  【解析】句意:最近的研究显示如果我们有规律地进行短暂的休息的话,我们工作的效率会更高。study“研究”为可数名词,本句的谓语动词为show,说明主语应用名词复数studies。 8.Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius,who lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C.,influenced the ________ (develop)of chopsticks. 【答案】development  【解析】句意:一些人认为大约生活于公元前551年到479年间的中国伟大学者孔子影响了筷子的发展。根据空格前的the可知,所填词应用名词形式。故填development。 9.Any smell might attract natural ________(enemy)that would try to eat the little panda. 【答案】enemies  【解析】句意:任何气味都有可能吸引自然界中那些想要吃掉熊猫宝宝的敌人。根据常识可知,此处表示“吸引了自然界中的敌人”,故填可数名词enemy的复数形式。 10.It is important to pay your electricity bill on time,as late ________(pay)may affect your credit. 【答案】payments  【解析】句意:准时付电费很重要,因为支付晚了会影响你的信用。前面有形容词late修饰,此处应用名词形式,payment可用作可数名词,所以用复数形式。 11.We can achieve a lot when we learn to let our _______ _(different)unite,rather than divide us. 【答案】differences  【解析】句意:当我们学会“求同存异”,而不是“分崩离析”的时候,我们就能获得很多。物主代词our后面接名词,这里是指“我们的差异”,所以用复数形式。 12.He gave himself a new name to hide his ____(identical) when he went to carry out the secret task. 【答案】identity 【解析】句意:他执行一项秘密任务时,给自己起了一个新的名字来掩盖身份。 根据空格前是形容词性所有格his可知,其后应该用名词。故填identity。 13.There is no need to tell me your answer now. Give it some ______ (think)and then let me know. 【答案】 thought 【解析】句意:现在没必要告诉我答案,你再思考一下,之后告诉我。 这里指让对方再好好想想。根据空格前有some,故填名词thought。 14.—Go and say sorry to your Mom, Dave. —I’d like to, but I’m afraid she won’t be happy with my ______(apology) . 【答案】apologies 【解析】句意:—Dave,去跟你的妈妈道歉。—我想这样做,但是我担心她对我的道歉不满意。 英语中,给别人的祝贺(congratulations)、祝福(wishes)、感谢(thanks)、道歉(apologies)和问候(greetings)等都要用复数形式。故填apologies。 15.Some schools will have to make ______(adjustment) in agreement with the national soccer reform. 【答案】adjustments 【解析】句意:为了与国家的足球改革相适应,一些学校必须做出调整。根据空格前没有指示代词、形容词性所有格和冠词可知,此处用复数形式。故adjustments 。 16. One of the most effective ways to reduce (stressful) is to talk about feeling with someone you trust. 【答案】stress 【解析】句意:减少压力的最有效的方法之一是和你信任的人谈谈你的想法。reduce做“减少”时是及物动词,其后接宾语,故用名词形式stress。 17.She was put under house arrest two years ago but remained a powerful (symbolic) in last year's election. 【答案】symbol 【解析】 考查名词 。根据空格前有冠词a和形容词powerful可知此处填名词symbol。 句意:虽然两年前就已遭软禁,她在去年的选举中仍然是势力强大的代表人物。故填symbol。 Wind is now the world’s fastest growing ________ (sourced)of power. 【答案】source 【解析】 考查的是名词 。 根据空格前有the world's fastest growing可知此处应该填名词。句义:风力是现在世界上增长速度最快的电力来源。根据句义可知source of power指电力来源。故填source。 19. We most prefer to say yes to the ______ (request)of someone we know and like. 【答案】requests 【解析】考查名词。根据空格前有the可知此处应该用名词,又根据空格后的of someone可知此处用复数形式。句意: 我们更喜欢同意那些我们了解和喜欢的人的请求。故填requests 。 20.Health care workers are at the risk of getting infectious diseases because of their ________(expose) to patients. 【答案】exposure 【解析】考查名词。句意:医护人员因接触病人而有被感染的风险。根据空格前有their这个形容词性物主动词,故填名词exposure。  21.If you want to see a doctor,you fix a date with him ahead of time.That is a common ________(practical) in the USA. 【答案】practice 【解析】考查名词。根据空格前有a common,故填名词形式practice 。句意为:如果你想去看医生,你要提前和他约定日期。那在美国是一种惯例。common practice意为“普遍的做法,惯例”。 22.In 2013,Beijing adopted an emergency ____(respond) program for air pollution. 【答案】response 【解析】考查名词。根据空格前有冠词an和名词emergency,故填名词形式response。  句意为:在2013年,北京通过了空气污染应急响应计划。emergency response应急响应。 23.Usually the Player of the Year title is given to a big name from the best team.But this time there is a ________(except). 【答案】exception 【解析】考查名词。根据空格前的冠词a可知此处需用名词,故填exception 。句意为:通常情况下,“年度最佳球员”这一头衔会给最好球队中的大牌运动员,但是这一次却是个例外。exception一般情况以外的人(或事物),例外。 24.Although war still exists on our planet,I do believe it’s possible for different ethnic groups to live together in ________(harmonious). 【答案】harmony 【解析】考查名词。 根据空格前的介词in可知此处要用名词,故填harmony。句意为:尽管我们的星球上依然存在战争,但是我坚信不同种族的人民是能和谐相处的。live together in harmony和谐相处。 25. Don't wait for an ________ (apologize).“Many times the person who hurt you may never think of apologizing,” says Dr.Luskin. 【答案】apology  【解析】句意:不要等待道歉。拉斯科说:“多次伤害你的人也许从来就不会考虑道歉。”不定冠词an后须用名词形式,根据apologize可知答案填apology。 26.He pushed and pulled with all his ________(strong)to move it. 【答案】strength  【解析】句意:他用力地推拉将它(石头)移走。分析句子结构可知,with后面接名词,故填strength。 27.He asked ________(permit)to introduce his friend,whose name was Mr Wickham,and who had apparently arrived recently from London. 【答案】permission  【解析】句意:他请求允许介绍他的朋友,他的朋友威克姆先生,显然是最近从伦敦来的。根据句子结构可知,此处动词ask后面须用名词,故填permission。 28.Experts hope the whole society pay more attention to the mental health of ________(adolescent). 【答案】adolescents  【解析】句意:专家们希望全社会都来关心青少年的心理健康。根据句意可知,此处泛指“青少年”,用复数表示泛指,故填adolescents。 29.Girls are luckier than boys;they have more flexible ________(choose)than boys. 【答案】choices  【解析】句意:女孩比男孩要幸运些,她们比男孩有更灵活的选择。前面flexible是形容词,后面须接名词;choice此处应为可数名词,意味着多种选择,故填choices。 30.I have a strong ________(believe)that one day Chinese students can buy these tickets,too. 【答案】belief  【解析】句意:我坚信有朝一日中国学生也会购买这些票。空白处前面有a strong修饰,说明空白处须填可数名词单数。 31.So I asked her why she sat there in ________(silent). 【答案】silence  【解析】句意:因此我问她为什么坐在那里沉默不语。in silence“沉默”,是固定用法。 32.About 20 percent of ________(baby)feel nervous when they see strangers. 【答案】babies  【解析】句意:约百分之二十的婴儿见到陌生人会感到紧张。baby是可数名词,前面有百分数修饰,故用复数形式。 33.There was never a time when I had not called him and he did not call me right back within a couple of ________(hour). 二.单句改错 1.It was a difficult job for him.He had tried everything but it made little different. ________ 【答案】different改为difference 【解析】考查名词。make little difference意为“没有多大区别”,为固定结构。类似的结构还有:make no difference没有影响;make a difference有影响,起重要作用。故把different改为difference。 2.Jianbing,one of the most popular snacks in China,appeals to almost everyone in America and has become new hit foods there. ________ 【答案】foods改为food 【解析】考查名词。此处food是不可数名词,不能用复数学生。句意为:煎饼是中国最受欢迎的小吃之一。它几乎吸引了每一个美国人并且已成为那里新的风行一时的食品。hit在此处为名词,意为“成功而轰动(或风行)一时的人或物”。 3.Time and time again she was warned of the consequence of her action. ________ 【答案】consequence改为consequences 【解析】考查名词。句意:她一次又一次地被警告要注意她的行为的后果。根据“Time and time again ”可知此处需用复数形式。故把consequence改为consequences。 4.It is important to pay your electricity bill on time,as late payments may affect your credits. ________ 【答案】credits改成credit 【解析】考查名词。句意为:按时支付电子账单是很重要的,因为延期支付会影响你的信用。credit做“信誉,信用”讲时是不可数名词。故把credits改成credit。 5.True happiness does not lie in the possessions of money,but the joy of achievement.________ 【答案】 possessions 改成 possession 【解析】考查名词。possession占有,拥有,是不可数名词。句意为:真正的幸福不在于金钱的占有,而在于取得成就的喜悦。故把possessions 改成 possession。 6. The book which you bought yesterday are so interesting. ________ 【答案】 book 改成 books 【解析】考查名词。根据后面的“are”可知book应该用复数形式。故把book 改成 books。 Visiting an apple event is a good chance to see, and often taste a wide variety of apple. ________ 【答案】 apple改成 apples 【解析】考查名词。a variety of “各种各样的”要修饰可数名词复数,故把apple改成 apples。 3. The life of these people have finally been recorded thanks to the effects of a Frenchman from Paris called Gin. 【答案】 life改成 lives 【解析】考查名词。根据后面的谓语动词是have been可知life 应该用复数形式。故把life改成 lives。句意:多亏了一位来自巴黎叫金恩的法国人的影响,这些人的生活终于被记录下来了。 4. The company has got lots of new equipments. 【答案】 equipments改成 equipment 【解析】考查名词。equipment“设备”是不可数名词,故把equipments改成 equipment。 5. I had no choices but to prepare for it,though. 【答案】choices改成 choice 【解析】考查名词。“have no choice but to do sth别无选择,只有……”是固定表达方式,故把choices改成 choice。 6. The first time I landed on the country, I couldn' t make an adjust to the customs of the country. 【答案】adjust 改成 adjustment 【解析】考查名词。根据其前面有冠词an可知其后需要用名词,故把adjust 改成 adjustment。句意:第一次来到这个国家的时候,我无法适应这个国家的风俗习惯。 7. There is no need to tell me your answer now. Give it some thinking and then let me know. 【答案】thinking 改成thought 【解析】考查名词。some修饰名词,故把thinking 改成thought。句意:现在没有必要告诉我你的答案。好好想想,然后告诉我。 8. Only a few dollar can help to fill a child's hungry stomach. 【答案】dollar 改成dollars 【解析】考查名词。a few 要修饰可数名词复数,故把dollar 改成dollars。句意:只有几块钱就能帮孩子填饱肚子。 9. I am still thankful to my uncle for teaching me to ride on my ninth birthdays. 【答案】birthdays 改成birthday 【解析】考查名词。由my ninth可知birthday要用单数形式。句意:我仍然感谢我的叔叔在我的第九个生日时教我骑车。 10.why not buy a second-hand cars first if you don't have enough money for a new one? 【答案】cars 改成car 【解析】考查名词。a second-hand要修饰可数名词单数,故把cars 改成car。 11. " Reading for pleasure"plays a more important role in one's grow than one's family background. 【答案】grow 改成growth 【解析】考查名词。one's是形容词性所有格,要修饰名词,故把动词grow 改成名词growth。句意:“快乐读书”比家庭背景对一个人的成长起着更重要的作用。 As a witness, he gave the police a vivid descriptions of the accident. 【答案】descriptions改成description 【解析】考查名词。a 要修饰单数名词,故把descriptions改成description。 13. You can't legally take possessions of the property until three weeks after the contract is signed. 【答案】possessions 改成possession 【解析】考查名词。take possession of占有……,是固定搭配。故把possessions 改成possession。 14. We are told that Professor Chen lives on the twenty-second floors of this building. 【答案】floors 改成floor 【解析】考查名词。根据“the twenty-second ”可知其后要接可数名词单数。故把floors 改成floor。 15. Two-fifths of the machines on display are new item. 【答案】item 改成items 【解析】考查名词。根据“Two-fifths of the machines ”和“are”可知,item应该用复数形式。故把item 改成items。 16.Some sellers were shouting at the top of their voice to attract people' s attentions. 【答案】attentions改成attention 【解析】考查名词。attention“注意,注意力”,是不可数名词,不能用复数形式。故把attentions改成attention。 17. To my great joys, Mary took good care of me. 【答案】joys改成joy 【解析】考查名词。joy“快乐,愉悦”,是不可数名词,不能用复数形式。故把joys改成joy。 “to one's joy”使某人高兴的是……。 18.Why not come and join us if you want to know more informations about our future space school? 【答案】informations改成information 【解析】考查名词。information“消息,信息”,是不可数名词,不能用复数形式。故把informations改成information。 19.It is well known that doing exercise can help people lose weights and have a healthy life. 【答案】weights改成weight 【解析】考查名词。weight“重量”是不可数名词,不能用复数形式。故把weights改成weight .lose weight,减肥。 20.Sometimes failure can make us lose hearts. 【答案】 hearts改成 heart 【解析】考查名词。lose heart“泄气,失去信心”是固定搭配。故把 hearts改成 heart。 21. They may be too young to tell right from wrong without the guidance of their parents. Some may take illegal activity . 【答案】activity 改成 activities 【解析】考查名词。activity“活动”是可数名词,其前面没有形容词性物主动词、冠词和指示代词,又根据本句主语是some可知,需用复数形式。故把activity 改成 activities。句意:他们可能还太年轻,没有父母的指导,不能分辨是非。有些人可能从事非法活动。 22.But my father's dead changed me.My life became poorer, but my mother tried her best to give me what I wanted even though it was too difficult for her. 【答案】 dead 改成 death 【解析】考查名词。my father's是形容词性所有格,其后需解名词,而dead是形容词,故把dead 改成 death。句意:但我父亲的死改变了我,我的生活变得越来越穷,但我母亲尽力给我想要的,尽管这对她来说太难了。 After we walked along the bank for forty minute, we reached the Happy Valley. 【答案】 minute 改成 minutes 【解析】考查名词。根据forty可知其后该加可数名词复数,故把minute 改成 minutes。 24.It is necessary that one should eat various kind of healthy food such as fish, eggs, vegetables and fruits. 【答案】 kind改成 kinds 【解析】考查名词。various“各种各样的”修饰名词复数,故把kind改成 kinds。句意:有必要吃各种健康食品,如鱼类、鸡蛋、蔬菜和水果。 25.By the way, after the contest,I am to drop in at your universities to visit you. 【答案】 universities改成 university 【解析】考查名词。根据句意“顺便说一下,比赛结束后,我要去你们的大学参观一下。”可知university应该用单数形式。故把 universities改成 university。 PAGE 1 专题01 名词 I.单句语法填空 1.(2019?全国卷I)In recent years some Inuit people in Nunayut have reported increases in bear sightings around human settlements, leading to a ______ (believe) that populations are increasing. 【答案】belief 【解析】考查名词。根据其前不定冠词和其后的同位语从句可知,空格处为名词形式,故填belief。 (2019?全国卷III)When they were free from work,they invited us to local events and let us know of an interesting (compete)to watch,together with the story behind it. 【答案】competition 【解析】考查名词。由空格前的不定冠词an与空格后的不定式to watch可以确定空格处应该填名词形式。故填competition。 3.(2019?浙江卷)Other American studies showed no ______(connect) between uniforms and school performance. 【答案】connection/connections 【解析】考查名词。句意:其他的美国研究表明校服和学校表现之间没有联系。no是形容词,形容词修饰名词,位于名词前,名词可用复数也可用单数形式。connect是动词,“联系”的意思,因此,要用其名词形式。故填connection/connections。 4.(2018·6月浙江高考) Making Chinese ( dish)is seen as especially troublesome. 【答案】dishes 【解析】考查名词单复数。dish是可数名词,其前无限定词,故用其复数形式dishes。 5.(2017?全国卷I) This trend, which was started by the medical community(医学界) as a method of fighting heart disease has had some unintended side ( effect) such as overweight and heart disease -the very thing the medical community was trying to fight. 【答案】effects 【解析】考查名词复数。side effect副作用,由前面的some和下文中的两个例子overweight and heart disease可知名词effect用复数形式effects。 6.(2016?全国卷I) The nursery team switches him every few (day ) with his sister so that while one is being bottle-fed, the other is with mum-she never suspects. 【答案】days 【解析】考查名词。其前面有few,而few修饰可数名词复数,故填days. II.单句改错 1.(2019?全国卷I)To everyone's surprising, the ball went into the net. 【答案】surprising改成surprise 【解析】考查固定搭配。“to one’s + 名词”在句中表示结果,“to one’s surprise”意思为“使某人惊讶的是…”。故将surprising改为surprise。 2.(2019?全国卷II)Since I was a kid, I've considered different job I would like to do. 【答案】job改为jobs。 【解析】考查名词的数。“job(工作;职业)”为可数名词,用different(不同的)修饰时意思为不同种类的工作,应该用名词的复数形式。故将job改为jobs。 3.(2019?全国卷III)I wish to have a chain of cafes in many different city. 【答案】city改为cities 【解析】本句考查名词的用法。many different后跟可数名词的复数形式。故把city改为cities。 4.(2018?全国卷I) Last winter when I went there again,they had a big separate house to raise dozens of chicken. 【答案】chicken改为chickens。 【解析】考查名词的单复数。短语dozens of之后应接可数名词复数,而此处chicken为可数名词“鸡”,故把chicken改为chickens。 5.(2018?全国卷Ⅲ)At that moment, I remembered at m' father once said,“The classroom is a place for learning and that includes learning from textbooks, and mistake as well.” 【答案】mistake改为mistakes。 【解析】考查名词的数。根据语境可知,此处表示“从课本和错误中学习”,mistake“错误”为可数名词,应使用复数形式,即mistakes。 6.(2016?全国卷) The teenage year from13to19 were the most difficult time for me. 【答案】year改为years。 【解析】考查可数名词复数形式。根据数字13和19,可知改用复数形式years。 高考对名词词义辨析以及习惯搭配用法的考查将仍然是重点。 名词除了独立考查其词义辨析外,还常结合其他项目一起考查,题型以单项填空、短文改错、完形填空及单词拼写等形式出现,考查要点主要包括: 1.考查名词词义辨析和习惯搭配。名词词义辨析包括同义词辨析、近义词辨析、同形词辨析和不同词义的名词在语境中的辨析。另外,高考还考查容易混淆的名词的辨形、辨义以及名词的惯用法等。 2.考查名词的数(可数与不可数、单数与复数)、名词所有格、抽象名词的具体化、物质名词的量化、名词和冠词的搭配以及主谓一致等。 3.考查名词的“旧词新意”和“名词动化”现象。这种现象主要以隐形考查的方式出现在阅读理解和完形填空试题中。如:shelter n.庇护,避难所→vt.保护,躲避,避难; storm n. 暴风雨, 大动荡→vi.&vt.横冲直撞, 猛攻; shoulder n. 肩,肩膀,肩部→vt.肩负,承担; trail n.小径, 痕迹→vt.追踪。 【谨记规则】 可数名词有单复数形式,而不可数名词通常没有复数形式。表示一个人或事物用单数,表示一个以上的人或事物用复数。 一、可数名词复数的构成及读音规则如下: 情况 构成方法 读音 例词 一般情况 加 -s 清辅音后/s/;浊辅音和元音后读/z/ map – maps 地图? bag - bags?书包/袋子 car – cars 小汽车? book-books?书 apple-apples 苹果? ? pen-pens鸟 ? ??bird-birds ?钢笔? tree-trees?树 ??girl-girls?女孩 以 s,ss,x,ch,sh等结尾的词 加 -es -es 读 /iz/ bus – buses? 公共汽车 class - classes?课 box – boxes?盒子 watch - watches?手表 brush - brushes 刷子 dish-dishes?盘子/一碟菜 以-f或-fe 结尾的 名词 多数将-f和-fe变v加 -es -ves读/vz/ wife-wives?妻子 leaf – leaves? 树叶 shelf-shelves 架子 knife - knives 小刀 wolf-wolves?? 狼 thief – thieves 贼/小偷 half-halves?半 life – lives?? 生命 记忆口诀:妻子用树架小刀将贼和狼劈成2半结束它们的生命 以元音字 母+ y结 尾的名词 (a,e,i, o,u) 直接加-s -s 读 /z/ boy-boys 男孩??day-days 天? monkey – monkeys 猴子? holiday — holidays 假日 toy-toys?玩具 ? ?key-keys?钥匙/【答案】 记忆口诀:男孩和猴子天天在节假日玩玩具和钥匙 ? 以辅音字 母+ y结 尾的非专 有名词 a,e,i ,o, u 变y为i 再加es -s 读 /z/ baby — babies?婴儿/宝贝 story — stories 故事 factory-factories 工厂 city-cities?城市 library-libraries?图书馆 family-families?家庭 hobby-hobbies?业余爱好 以辅音字 母 + 0结 尾的名词 一般加 -es -es 读/z/ Negro-Negroes?黑人 hero — heroes?英雄 tomato – tomatoes?西红柿 potato – potatoes?土豆 mango-mangoes?芒果 记忆口诀:黑人英雄喜欢吃西红柿,土豆还有芒果 以元音字 母 + 0结 尾的以及外来名词 加-s -s 读/z/ zoo - zoos ?动物园 photo-photos?照片 kangaroo-kangaroos?袋鼠 bamboo – bamboos?竹子 radio – radios?收音机 piano-pianos?钢琴 记忆口诀:(动物园)(照片)中的(袋鼠)可以用(竹子)听(收音机)和弹(钢琴) ? 单复数同形名词 保持不变 ? deer-deer?鹿 sheep-sheep?绵羊 fish-fish?鱼 people-people?人/人们 Chinese-Chinese? 中国人 English?英国人 Japanese-Japanese 日本人 Vietnamese- Vietnamese 越南人 Swiss?瑞士人 Portuguese?葡萄牙人 Lebanese?黎巴嫩人 记忆口诀:草原上吃草两种动物:鹿和绵羊 水里游的鱼;中日英 三国家人;越,瑞,葡,黎 4四国家人 表示某国人名词的复数 ? 直接加s ? human-humans(人,人类) German-Germans(德国人) Russian-Russian(俄罗斯人) American-Americans(美国人) Italian-Italians(意大利人) Indian-Indians(印度人) Canadian-Canadians(加拿大) Australian-Australians(澳大) Swede-Swedes(瑞典人) 记忆口诀:人类/德国 俄,美,意,印,加,瑞 复数加S 无连字号复合名词 以后面名词变复数规律保持一致 ? mooncake-mooncakes(月饼) bookcase-bookcases(书橱) armchair-armchairs(轮椅) toothpick-toothpicks(牙签) housewife-housewives(家庭主妇) gentleman-gentlemen(绅士) bookshelf-bookshelves(书架) stopwatch-stopwatches(秒表) wineglass-wineglasses(酒杯) birthday-birthdays(生日) blackboard-blackboards(黑板) greenhouse-greenhouses(温室) 【考题印证】? 单句语法填空 1.(2018全国卷I) Two of the authors of the review also made a study published in 2014 that showed a mere five to 10 minutes a day of running reduced the risk of heart disease and early deaths from all (cause). 【答案】:causes 【解析】:考查名词。此处cause是可数名词,意为“原因”,句中的all表示“所有的”,其后应用可数名词的复数形式,故填causes。 2.(2017?全国卷Ⅱ)In1863 the first underground passenger railway in the world opened in London. It ran for just under seven kilometers and allowed people to avoid terrible (crowd) on the roads above as they travelled to and from work. 【答案】:crowds 【解析】:考查名词复数。crowd是可数名词,且前面没有限定词,故应用复数形式。 单句改错 1.(2018·全国卷II) After supper, we would play card games of all sort in the sitting room. 【答案】:sort改为sorts。 【解析】:考查名词的单复数。由前面的all“所有的”可知,sort应用复数形式,all sorts意为“各种各样”。 2.(2017?全国卷I) The instructor kept repeating the word,“peed up!”“ Slow down!”“ Turn left!” 【答案】:word→words  【解析】:词法错误。 根据后面引号内的内容可知word应该用复数形式words。 二、抽象名词具体化 抽象名词是表示状态、品质、情感等而没有实物的名词。抽象名词具体化后变成可数名词,前面可加不定冠词,用来强调其具体表现形式或表示某一次短暂的动作,常意为“一次……的事情;一个……的人;一种……的东西”。如: 抽象名词 具体意义 success成功 a success成功的人或事 failure失败 a failure失败的人或事 pleasure乐趣 a pleasure令人高兴的事 pity同情 a pity令人遗憾的事 relief宽慰 a relief令人宽慰的事 【考题印证】 全国卷)But for tourists like me,pandas are its top ____(attract). 【答案】:attraction。 【解析】:考查词性转换之动词变为名词。形容词top修饰空格处的名词,attract的名词形式是attraction,意思是“吸引人之物”。[ 三、不可数名词 单词 意义 短语、例句 advice 建议 give sb. some advice on sth. equipment ? a set of equipment experience 经验(注:“经历”可数) Mr. Li has much teaching experience. exercise 锻炼(注:“练习”可数) take exercise fun 开心、快乐的事 What fun it is to do sth.! furniture 家具 a set of furniture news/information /word 消息,新闻 Word came that he won the first prize in the match. baggage/luggage 行李 a piece of baggage/luggage progress 进步 make great/rapid/some/no progress in sth. practice 练习 Practice makes perfect. work 工作 ? weather 天气 ? applause 掌声 a burst of applause 一阵掌声 wealth 财富,富裕 ? friendship 友谊 ? energy 精力 ? homework 家庭作业 ? knowledge 知识 ? nature 自然 ? luck 运气 ? 两者都要变复数 ? man teacher-men teachers(男老师) woman doctor---women doctors(女医生) 男人/女人做定语修饰名词,两者都需要变复数 health 健康 ? technology 技能 ? courage 勇气 ? help 帮助 ? hope 希望 ? food 食物 ? wood 木材 ? scenery 风景 ? jewelry 珠宝 ? poetry 诗歌 ? evidence 证据 ? 【考题印证】 单句改错 (2019.开封模拟)Why not come and join us if you want know more informations about our future space schools? 【答案】:1. informations改为 information。 【解析】:考查名词形式。information为不可数名词,在此不能用复数形式。故改为原形。 (2016.全国卷II)If we go on a trip abroad,we can broaden our view and gain knowledges we cannot get from books. 【答案】:knowledges改为knowledge。 【解析】:考查名词形式。knowledge为不可数名词,在此不能用复数形式。故改为原形。 语法填空解题“三定向” 一.根据修饰词确定名词的单复数形式 (1)不定冠词a,an后用名词单数形式; (2)有these,those,several,all,many,both,a pair of,a variety of,different,a few等修饰可数名词时名词用复数形; (3)名词前有one of,among时用名词复数形式。 【思路点拨】 1.?The?team?who?won?the?three?world (championship)would always get this cup. 【答案】:championships 【解析】:考查名词形式。championship意为“冠军地位;冠军称号”,为可数名词,其前面有three修饰,故用复数形式。 2.?Interested?in?their?work,?she?picked up?a?pair?of (scissor). 【答案】:scissors。 【解析】:考查名词形式。一般只有在当动词或修饰功能的词组时 scissor 这个词才会以单数形式出现,在单纯当成“剪刀”使用时,都是以复数 scissors 的形式,和眼镜 glasses 一样。 剪刀、眼镜、筷子这些词,都被视为“可数名词”,但是都一样体现在它们的计数单位 pair 上: 一把剪刀、一副眼镜、一双筷子都是用 a pair of (scissors, glasses, chopsticks) 来表达,如果是复数,就用 XXX pairs of (scissors, glasses, chopsticks) 说明。 3.During the festival ,which lasts threes or four days,people are dressed in their best clothes and participated a variety of rich and colorful (activity). 【答案】:activities。 【解析】:考查名词形式。activity为可数名词,又因为有a variety of 修饰可数名词复数,故用activities。 4. Although they are seen as companions and part of the family today, China and Western countries have different cultural (belief) about dogs. 【答案】:beliefs 【解析】:考查名词形式。Belief做“看法、信念”讲时是可数名词,又因为different 修饰名词复数修饰,故用beliefs。 5.Above all, commercial interests often outweigh educational (complaint) about the unbearable advertisements. 【答案】:complaints。 【解析】:抽象名词具体化。complaint作“抱怨”讲时时不可数名词 ;作“抱怨的行动或电话投诉?”时是可数名词。句意为“首当其冲的是,商业利益常常高于教育目的,所以这些令人无法忍受的广告就招来很多抱怨。” 6. Going to Cambridge University was a dream of mine, for it is one of the top ( university) in the world. 【答案】:universities. 【解析】:考查名词形式。university是可数名词,又因为one of 修饰可数名词复数,故用universities。 I decided to label one of my small ( purse) which I actually had with me that day, with her name, along with some some cash inside and an encouraging note. 【答案】: purses。 【解析】:考查名词形式。详解同上一题。 二.根据谓语动词确定名词的单复数形式 名词作主语时,如果一般在时的谓语动词是动词原形或are,要虑用名词的复数形式。 【思路点拨】 1. While here are amazing stories of instant transformation,for most of us, the (change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. 【答案】: changes。 【解析】:考查名词形式。根据其后的are和主谓一致的原则,此处应用复数形式purses。 2. Recent (study) show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks regularly. 【答案】:studies。 【解析】:考查名词复数形式。其后谓语动词为show,故用名词复数形式。 三.根据常识和句意确定名词的单复数形式 表示两个(武两个以上)的可数名词及并列名词时,名词需数形式 【思路点拨】 1.Tim and his team set out to seek the effects of phone use on (passer- by). 【答案】:passers-by。 【解析】:考查名词复数形式。passer-by是可数名词,句意为:蒂姆和他的团队开始寻找电话使用对路人的影响,故用复数形式。 2.It thinks that Chinglish may hurt people's ability to speak standard English and make it hard for them to communicate with (foreigner). 【答案】:foreigners 。 【解析】:考查名词复数形式。foreigner是可数名词,句意为“它认为中国式英语可能会损害人们讲标准英语的能力并且让他们很难与外国人交流。”故用复数形式。 3. Unable to express himself easily in conversation, he uses a special typewriter to write letters to his friends, and beautiful ( poem). 【答案】:poems。 【解析】:考查名词复数形式。poem是可数名词,此处poem与前面的letters并列,故用复数形式。 三招巧解短文改错解题 一.分清名词单复数 看到 several,a few,many, one of, a number of,large number of,a great many等和具体数字(two,three)等时,要想到其后的名词应用复数形式。 【思路点拨】 l. The two thing that change your life are the people you meet and books you read. 【答案】:thing→things 【解析】:考查名词形式。thing是可数名词,其前有具体数词two,故改为things。 It is not easy for our parent to bring us up. 【答案】:parent→parents 【解析】:考查名词形式。parent意为“父亲或母亲”,而parents意为“父母”。句意为“父母把我们养大不容易”,故改为parents。 I failed to respond to their question. 【答案】:question→questions 【解析】:考查名词形式。根据句意“我没有回答他们的问题”此处应改为复数形式questions。 The teachers often encourage us to make more friend in the school. 【答案】:friend→friends 【解析】:考查名词形式。friend是可数名词,其前面有more,故用复数形式。 Due to some rich tourist attraction, every year many visitors come to my hometown, where they cannot only appreciate the beautiful scenery,but also enjoy the delicious food. 【答案】:attraction→attractions 【解析】:考查抽象名词具体化。attraction作“吸引,吸引力”时是不可数名词,作“有吸引力的人或物”时具体化为可数名词。句意为“由于一些丰富的景点,每年大量的游客来打我的家乡。在这里,他们不仅能欣赏到美丽的风景还能 品尝到美味的食品。”故改为attractions。 二.明了不可数名词 看到 information,evidence, advice,baggage,news, homework,work,fun, progress,knowledge, furniture, luggage, strength等,要想到它们是不可数名词,没有复数形式 【思路点拨】 1.He has much knowledges and his teaching method is scientific. 【答案】:knowledges→knowledge 【解析】:考查不可数名词形式。Knowledge“知识”是不可数名词,没有复数形式。故改为knowledge 。 2.Looking at the spot where he thought the "fly"was again,he was so angry that he slapped it with all his strengths. 【答案】:strengths→strength 【解析】:考查不可数名词形式。strength是不可数名词,没有复数形式。 3.A lot of informations can be stored in it. 【答案】:strengths→strength 【解析】:考查不可数名词形式。【解析】同第6.7题。 4.She' s getting married next month and decides to buy some decorations and furnitures. 【答案】:furnitures→furniture 【解析】:考查不可数名词形式。【解析】同第6.7题。 三.注意词性错误 看到冠词、形容词性物主代词、介词或及物动词(短语),要想到后跟名词形式。 【思路点拨】 1.I would appreciate it if you could give me a reply at your earliest convenient. 【答案】:convenient→convenience。 【解析】:考查名词形式。根据形容词性物主代词their可知其后该跟名词,故convenient改为convenience。 2.Firstly, it is of vital important to have a positive attitude. 【答案】: important→importance 【解析】:考查名词形式。此处用到be of +n.结构,故 形容词important改为名词importance 。 3.I restarted to pick up my confident again. 【答案】:confident→confidence 【解析】:考查名词形式。根据confident前有形容词性物主代词my可知其应该为名词形式。故形容词confident改为名词confidence。 单句语法填空 (山东省安丘市、诸城市、五莲县、兰山区2019届高三4月模拟训练英语试题)A collection of short ______ (essay), Writing in the Margins of Life, was published in 1941. 【答案】:essays 【解析】:考查名词复数。句意:1941年出版了一本短篇小品集,名为《生命的边缘》。固定搭配:a collection of+可数名词复数,故【答案】为essays。 2.(哈师大附中 东北师大附中 辽宁省实验中学2019年高三第二次联合模拟考试)Throughout the buffet dinner, we enjoyed several fantastic _____ (perform). 【答案】:performances。 【解析】:考查名词。句意:在自助餐的过程中,我们欣赏了几场精彩的表演。该空作句子宾语,用名词,且被several修饰,用名词复数,所以填performances。 3.(吉林省名校2019届高三下学期第一次联合模拟考试)The colour comes from the wooden _________ (container) in which the whisky is stored for several years 【答案】:containers 【解析】:考查名词的数。句意:威士忌的颜色来自于储存多年它的木质容器。此处容器不止一个,故用复数形式containers。 (2019年东北三省四市教研联合体高考模拟试卷(一))Even the second class _____ (chair) provide plenty of space. 【答案】:chairs。 【解析】:考查名词。句意:即使是二等座的椅子也有相当大的空间。分析句子可知,本句缺乏主语,chair为可数名词,故用其复数形式,chairs。 4.(吉林省辽源市普通高中2019届高三第二次模拟考试)Co-sponsored by AESA, America East Shandong Chamber of Commerce and Confucius Education Foundation Inc, the festival ______ (feature) recitation of the“Di Zi Gui. 【答案】:features 【解析】:考查动词形式。此处指这个节目以背诵弟子规为特色,与上下文时态一致用一般现在时,主语是the festival是单数,动词也用第三人称单数。故填features. 5.(辽宁省葫芦岛市2019届高三下学期第一次模拟考试)The robots’ sensors can detect ______ (object) and quickly get out of the way. 【答案】:objects 【解析】:考查名词的数。句意:这些机器人的传感器可以探测到障碍物,并迅速避开。object为可数名词,前面没有冠词修饰,故用复数形式objects。 6.(山东省淄博市高三第一次模拟考试英语试题)People rushed to get free ______ (ticket)online,for the rare night-time opening, 【答案】:tickets 【解析】:考查名词。人们争相在网上获得免费的门票,为了这罕见的夜间开放,门票几分钟内就会被抢购一空。ticket是可数名词,此处用复数表泛指,故填tickets。 7.(山东省泰安市2019届高三第一次模拟考试)Like the nearby Huangjuewan Overpass,in Chongqing, this incredibly complex infrastructure project has been labelled a nightmare for ____ (motorist) trying to find their way around. 【答案】:motorists 【解析】:考查名词的数。句意:就像附近的重庆黄觉湾立交桥一样,这个极其复杂的基础设施项目已经成为那些试图找到路出去的司机们的噩梦。motorist为可数名词,此处驾驶者不止一个,为复数概念,故填motorists。 8.(山东省济南市2019届高三第一次模拟考试)Fairy tale writer Hans Christian Andersen liked to cut ___65___ (character),such as princesses and angels, 【答案】:characters 【解析】:考查名词。句意:神话作家Hans Christian Andersen在给孩子讲故事的时候,喜欢用纸剪成小人,像公主和天使。根据后文such as princesses and angels可知,剪成的纸人不止一个,故用复数形式characters。 9.(2019年大连市高三第一次模拟考试)Even the second class ______ (chair) provide plenty of space. 【答案】:chairs 考查名词。句意:即使是二等座的椅子也有相当大的空间。分析句子可知,本句缺乏主语,chair为可数名词,故用其复数形式,chairs。 10.(广东省2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试模拟试卷(一))“Alcohol is something that everyone thought harmful for_______( decade), but no one has scientifically demonstrated it,”a professor wrote in a press release. 【答案】:decades 【解析】:考查名词复数。句意:几十年来,每个人都认为酒精有害,但没有人从科学上证明这一点。此处decade“十年”,结合句意此处表示“几十年”,所以用名词复数,故【答案】为decades。 (湖南省岳阳市2019届高三第二次模拟考试)No problem, this smartwatch can get through without so many as nicks (刻痕) or _____ (scratch). 【答案】:scratches 【解析】:考查名词。句意:没问题,这种智能手表能够对付日常的刻痕和刮擦。分析句子可知,and并列连接nicks,而scratch为可数名词,故需用复数形式scratches。 12.(山东省日照市2019届高三第一次模拟考试)From its thousands of rooms to its many beautiful artifacts,it’s no wonder it is one of China’s most popular scenic ______(spot). 【答案】:spots 【解析】:考查名词复数。根据空前one of可知,此处应使用名词复数。故填spots。 (咸阳市2019年高考模拟检测(二))Every year around Valentine’s Day, men begin to worry about what _____ (present) to buy … 【答案】:presents 【解析】:考查名词。句意:每年情人节前后,男人们开始关注买什么礼物。分析句子可知,主语是复数men,买的礼物也要用复数,故填presents。 单句改错 1.(哈师大附中 东北师大附中 辽宁省实验中学2019年高三第一次联合模拟考试)Cloning humans can bring negative effects and wrong informations. 【答案】:informations改为information。 【解析】:考查名词。句意:克隆人类会带来负面的影响和错误的信息。information是不可数名词,没有复数形式,故informations改为information。 2. (哈师大附中 东北师大附中 辽宁省实验中学2019年高三第二次联合模拟考试)I am sure that your involvement will not only help us win the award and also strengthen the friendship between our school. 【答案】:school改成 schools。 【解析】:考查名词单复数。句意:我相信你的参与不仅会帮助我们赢得这个奖项,而且会加强我们学校之间的友谊。“我们学校”是复数意义,用名词复数,所以school改成 schools。 3.(山东省安丘市、诸城市、五莲县、兰山区2019届高三4月模拟训练英语试题)As far as I know, Peter is always in poor health, so he should take more exercises by riding a bike to have his body build up. 【答案】:exercises改为exercise。 【解析】:考查名词的数。exercise此处表示锻炼,无复数形式。故exercises改为exercise。 (吉林省名校2019届高三下学期第一次联合模拟考试)We each spent several classes make a paper mask and wore it when reading our own work before the class. 【答案】:work改为works。 【解析】:考查名词的数。此处work的意思为“作品”,故加“s”. (2019年东北三省四市教研联合体高考模拟试卷(一)) It is advisable to participate in different kind of activities。 【答案】:kind改为kinds。 【解析】:考查名词的数。短语kinds of“各种各样的”应用kind的复数形式,故kind改为kinds。 6. (吉林省辽源市普通高中2019届高三第二次模拟考试)I was lost in happinesses because I did a little for a stranger and I gained a lot. 【答案】:happinesses改为happiness 【解析】:考查名词。happiness是抽象名词,没有复数形式,所以happinesses→happiness。 7.(辽宁省葫芦岛市2019届高三下学期第一次模拟考试)In the museum, we saw the latest progresses in science and technology. 【答案】:progresses 改为 progress 考查名词的数。progress 为不可数名词,意为“进步”。故正确【答案】为将 progresses 替换为 progress。 8.(山东省淄博市高三第一次模拟考试英语试题)With a little of bit of patience and communication,many of these problem can be solved. 【答案】:problem改为 problems 【解析】:考查名词。句意参考上题【解析】,these修饰可数名词复数,故problem改为 problems。 9.(山东省泰安市2019届高三第一次模拟考试)I am writing to offer my sincere congratulation. 【答案】:congratulation改为congratulations 【解析】:考查名词的数。句意:我写信表达我最诚挚的祝贺。Congratulation为可数名词,此处“祝贺”为复数概念,故需要复数形式congratulations。 10.(山东省济南市2019届高三第一次模拟考试)To express our thank for your excellent teaching in our school,we have decided to have a party for you. 【答案】:thank改为thanks 【解析】:考查名词复数。句意:为了向你表达我们的谢意,我们决定为你举办一个派对。本句为短语express our thanks for sth因为某事而表达谢意,故把thank改为thanks。 (2019年大连市高三第一次模拟考试)It is advisable to participate in different kind of activities , … 【答案】:kind改为kinds 【解析】:考查名词。句意:也建议你参加各种各样的活动,在这些活动中,你可以和不同的人交流。由于different修饰,故用名词复数,把kind改为kinds。 12.(广东省2019年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试模拟试卷(一))I saw a mother bird stay in her nest in a big tree, watching some of her baby flying away. 【答案】:baby改成babies 【解析】:考查名词复数。句意:我看见一只鸟妈妈呆在她的巢里,在一棵大树上,看着她的一些孩子飞走了。some of+名词复数,故把baby改成babies。 13.(湖南省湘潭市2019届高三下学期第二次模拟考试)Three of our cousin piled in with us and we took our first ride with Li Ming. 【答案】: cousin改成cousins 【解析】:考查名词复数。句意:我们的三个堂兄弟姐妹和我们挤在一起,我们第一次和李明一起骑车。可知此处名词用复数形式,故把cousin改成cousins。 14.(湖南省岳阳市2019届高三第二次模拟考试)Unexpectedly, he saw his friend coming towards him, so he hurriedly hid the ice creams behind him. 【答案】:creams改为cream 【解析】:考查名词。句意:没有预料到,他的朋友正朝他走去,因此他把冰激凌藏在身后。ice cream为不可数名词,故把creams改为cream。 15.(山东省日照市2019届高三第一次模拟考试)That evening,a group of local actor came to give a performance in the village hall. 【答案】:actor改为actors 【解析】:考查名词复数。根据a group of 可知,此处应使用名词复数。故actor改为actors。 16.(咸阳市2019年高考模拟检测(二))Seeing some pigeon flying the white wings in the sky and others feeding themselves on the bank, I merrily rowed the boat, 【答案】:pigeon改为pigeons 【解析】:考查名词的复数。句意:看到一些鸽子在天空中展翅飞翔,另一些则在岸边觅食。分析句子可知,本句中的pigeon在句中被some修饰,所以要用复数形式,故把pigeon改为pigeons。 17.(烟台市2019届高三第一次模拟考试)During the first two weeks,I learnt a lot about the story behind the artworks. 【答案】:story改为stories 【解析】:考查名词单复数。句意:在前两周里,我了解了这些艺术品背后的很多故事。根据句义可知有很多故事,所以要把story改为stories。 真题速递 考纲解读 考纲解读 考纲解读 知识梳理 考点精讲 模拟训练 PAGE 1 专题02冠词——高效演练 一、单句语法填空 1.I often have a chat with my friends on ________ phone in my spare time. 【答案】the 【解析】句意为:在我闲暇时我经常和朋友们在电话里聊天。 on the phone是习惯搭配。故填the。 2.Health care workers are at risk of getting infectious diseases because of their exposure to patients. 【答案】the 【解析】句意为:医护人员有因接触病人而被感染的风险。at the risk of“冒着……风险”是固定搭配,故填the。 3.If you want to see a doctor,you fix a date with him ahead of time.That is common practice in the USA. 【答案】a 【解析】句意为:如果你想去看医生,你要提前和他约定日期。那在美国是一种惯例。a common practice意为“普遍的做法,惯例”,故填a。 4.In 2013,Beijing adopted emergency response program for air pollution. 【答案】an 【解析】emergency response应急响应,修饰单数可数名词program;又因为program前没有指示代词和形容词性物主代词可知此处应该用冠词;emergency又是首字母为元音音素发单词,故用an。句意为:在2013年,北京通过了空气污染应急响应计划。。 5.Usually the Player of the Year title is given to a big name from the best team.But this time there is ________exception . 【答案】an 【解析】 根据句意“通常情况下,“年度最佳球员”这一头衔会给最好球队中的大牌运动员,但是这一次却是个例外。”故填an。 6.The fear of failing exams can cause you to panic and stress can be block to your performance at school. 【答案】a 【解析】 根据句意“对考试失败的恐惧会引起你的恐慌,压力会成为一种你在学校的表现的阻碍”故填a。 7.Unfortunately,a stone hit him on ______ head and he got injured. 【答案】the 【解析】句意:不幸的是,一块石头击中了他的头部,他受伤了。hit sb on the head“打某人的头部”,是固定搭配,故用the。  8.It was difficult job for him.He had tried everything but it made little difference. 【答案】a 【解析】根据句意“这项工作对他来说有点难。他尝试了各种办法,但收效甚微。”可知填a。 11.This is our contribution to ________ world of the 21st century, a world of independence and mutual understanding. 【答案】the 【解析】 句意为:这是我们对21世纪的世界的贡献,一个独立的、互相理解的世界。指“21世纪的世界”而且是独一无二的东西要用特指。故答案为the。 12.For the final leg of our journey,we decided to take coach. 【答案】the 【解析】句意为:在我们旅行的最后一段路程,我们决定乘长途汽车。the+单数名词表示类别。如:the bike自行车,the car汽车等等。 take the coach“搭乘长途汽车”。故填the。 13.Jianbing,one of most popular snacks in China,appeals to almost everyone in America and has become new hit food there. 【答案】the 【解析】根据snacks in China 可知比较范围是全中国,故用最高级,所以用the。句意为:煎饼是中国最受欢迎的小吃之一。它几乎吸引了每一个美国人并且已成为那里新的风行一时的食品。 14.My neighbor Molly is very kind-hearted.She usually volunteers to help ________ poor in our community out of sympathy. 【答案】the 【解析】“the+形容词”表示一类人,本题中the poor 即是“穷人”之意;故填the。 15.Time and time again she was warned of consequences of her action. 【答案】the 【解析】根据句意“她一次又一次地被警告要注意她的行为的后果。”可知“consequences”特指她行为后果,故填the。 16.I don’t fully understand what you said,but I have got ________ rough idea of the plan. 【答案】a 【解析】have a rough idea of对……大致了解,是固定搭配。故填a. 17.When the captain found ship was rapidly sinking,he ordered his men to send out a signal for help. 【答案】the 【解析】根据句意“当船长发现该船在迅速下沉时,他命令手下发出求救信号。”可知ship特指船长所在的那条船。故填the. 18.One of the most common illnesses in our society is “time sickness”,________ sense of time pressure and hurry that causes anxiety and tension. 【答案】the 【解析】a sense of...意为“……感”,为固定搭配。故填a。句意:在我们的社会中,最常见的疾病之一是“时间病”,它是一种会引起焦虑和紧张的时间压力感和紧迫感。 19.True happiness does not lie in possession of money,but the joy of achievement. 【答案】the 【解析】根据句意“真正的幸福不在于金钱的占有,而在于取得成就的喜悦。”可知“对金钱的占有”是特指,故填the。 二、单句改错 1.Don't wait for an apology.“Many times a person who hurt you may never think of apologizing,” says Dr.Luskin. 【答案】a改成the 【解析】根据句意“不要等待道歉。拉斯科说:‘多次伤害你的人也许从来就不会考虑道歉'。”可知person要特指,故把a改成the。 Like many popular restaurants in Paris, reservations are hard to get at Dave,so I wasn't surprised to find the complete sign hanging over the red door. 【答案】the改成a 【解析】根据句意“就像巴黎许多受欢迎的参观一样,在Dave 也很难预定,因此当我看见红色的门上挂着一个客人已满的招牌时并不惊讶。”可知the应该改成a。 3.He asked the permission to introduce his friend,whose name was Mr Wickham,and who had apparently arrived recently from London. 【答案】去掉the 【解析】permission是不可数的抽象名词,此处不需要特指,故去掉the。句意:他请求允许介绍他的朋友,他的朋友威克姆先生,显然是最近从伦敦来的。根据句子结构可知,此处动词ask后面须用名词,故填permission。 4.He pushed and pulled with all the his strength to move it. 【答案】去掉the 【解析】定冠词the和形容词性物主动词不能重复使用,故去掉the。句意:他用力地推拉将它(石头)移走。分析句子结构可知,with后面接名词,故填strength。 5.Experts hope the whole society pay more attention to a mental health of adolescences. 【答案】a改成the  【解析】health是不可数名词,不能用a修饰。又根据句意“专家们希望全社会都来关心青少年的心理健康。”可知,此处特指“青少年的心理健康”,故填把a改成the。 6.Girls are luckier than boys;they have more flexible choices than the boys. ________ 【答案】去掉the  【解析】本句中girls泛指所有的女孩;boys泛指所有的男孩,故句去掉the。意:女孩比男孩要幸运些,她们比男孩有更灵活的选择。 7.I have strong belief that one day Chinese students can buy these tickets,too. ________ 【答案】strong前加上a 【解析】本句中belief是抽象名词具体化,意为“观点”。句意:我坚信有朝一日中国学生也会购买这些票。 8.So I asked her why she sat there in the silence. ________ 【答案】去掉the 【解析】in silence为固定配“默默地”,故去掉the。句意:因此我问她为什么坐在那里沉默不语。 9.About 20 percent of babies feel nervous when they see the strangers. ________ 【答案】去掉the  【解析】本句中,strangers泛指所有的陌生人,故去掉the。句意:约百分之二十的婴儿见到陌生人会感到紧张。 There was never a time when I had not called him and he did not call me right back within the couple of hours.________ 【答案】 the改成a 【解析】a couple of“几个……”是固定搭配。句意“当我给他打电话,如果他没接的话,他都会在几个小时内回电话。” 11.In the centre of the main road into the town,he placed very large stone. ______ 【答案】very 前加a  【解析】句意:他在进城的主干道中间放了一块很大的石头。在此stone作可数名词,意为“一块石头”,前面需要用不定冠词a。故加上a。 12.…when they heard the sound of horses,and saw Darcy and Bingley riding down the street.And two gentlemen came straight towards the ladies to greet them. 【答案】two前加the  【解析】句意:……这时她们听到了马嘶的声音,看见达西和宾利骑着马在街上走来。这两位男士径直朝那些女士们走来问候。根据上文可知,此处的gentlemen指上文中的达西和宾利,须用定冠词the。 13.They may have wanted to hurt you or they just don't see things same way. ______ 【答案】same前加the  【解析】句意:他们可能想过要伤害你,或者他们并没有用同样的方式看待事情。当名词前面有形容词same修饰时,same前面必须加定冠词the。故在same前加the。 14.On the third day,I received a message from Mike's wife that she said Mike had been killed in the unexplained truck crash on the morning of my call. ______ 【答案】the改成an  【解析】句意:第三天,我收到了来自迈克妻子的短信,她说在我打电话的那天早上迈克在一次不明原因的卡车撞击事故中死亡。此处泛指“一次不明原因的车祸”,故用不定冠词;unexplained以元音音素开头,故把the改成an。 15.Covering the area of 16,800 square kilometers with a population of about 11 million,Beijing has 18 districts and counties under its jurisdiction(管辖). ______ 【答案】the改成an 【解析】句意:占地16 800平方千米,拥有约1 100万人口的北京市,管辖着18个区和县。an area of...“面积是……”,是固定短语,故把the改成an。 What if your first choice is wrong?If so,just give yourself the second chance. ______ 【答案】the改成a 【解析】句意:如果你的第一次选择错误怎么办?如果是这样,要在给自己一次机会。根据意思可知,指犯错误后的又一次、再一次机会。序数词前加不定冠词,表示“又一,再一”,所以把the改成a。 17.So God turned it into the dog. ______ 【答案】the改成a  【解析】句意:所以上帝把它变成了一条狗。此处泛指“一条狗”,所以把the改成填不定冠词a。 18.A government study has found that South Korean children are least happy compared to children in 29 other developed countries. ______ 【答案】在least前加the  【解析】句意:政府研究发现,与其他29个发达国家的儿童相比韩国儿童是最不快乐的。形容词最高级前用定冠词the。故在least前加the。 19.I am reporter from the New York Times. ______ 【答案】reporter前加a  【解析】句意:我是来自《纽约时报》的一名记者。泛指“一名记者”,表示身份,用不定冠词故在reporter前加a。 20.I consider myself very lucky because I was only one of my friends who had their dads around. ______ 【答案】 only前加the  【解析】句意:我认为自己很幸运,因为我是朋友当中唯一一个爸爸在身边的。only前一般用定冠词,表示“唯一的”。故在only前加the。 21.I prefer writing the letters to talking on the phone. 【答案】去掉letters前面的the 【解析】句意为:和打电话相比,我更喜欢写信。letters为名词复数泛指,其前不用冠词。故把前面的the去掉。 PAGE 1 专题02 冠词——精讲深剖 单句语法填空 1.(2019全国I卷)Of _____ nineteen recognized polar bear subpopulations, three are declining, six are stable, one is increasing, and nine lack enough data. 【答案】the 【解析】考查冠词。此处为特指,意为“在已知的19个北极熊亚种群中”,故填the。 2.(2019全国II卷)When we got a call saying she was short-listed,we thought it was ______ joke. 【答案】a 【解析】考查冠词。根据句意“我们还以为这是一个玩笑” 可知,此处joke为泛指,故填a。 3. (2019全国浙江卷)Everybody wears______ same style of clothes. 【答案】the 【解析】考查冠词。句意:每个人都穿相同风格的衣服。same是形容词,意思是“相同的”,常与the连用修饰名词。故填the。 4.(2018全国II卷)Corn production has jumped nearly 125 percent over past 25 years, while rice has increased only 7 percent. 【答案】the 【解析】考查冠词。此处是特指,故用定冠词the。over the past 25 years表示“在过去的25年里”。 5.(2018全国III卷)Unexpectedly,I'm facetoface with the gorilla,who begins screaming at top of her lungs. 【答案】the 【解析】考查冠词。at the top of“在……顶端”,此处表示“大声地”。 6.(2017全国I卷)As  result, people will eat more food to try to make up for that something missing. 【答案】a 【解析】考查固定搭配中的冠词。as a result结果,是固定搭配。 7.(2017全国II卷)This included digging up the road,laying the track and then building a strong roof over top. 【答案】the 【解析】考查冠词。此处特指“地铁的顶部”,故用定冠词the。 8.(2017全国III卷)Instead, she is earning £6,500 a day as model in New York. 【答案】a 【解析】考查冠词。句意:相反,她在纽约作为一名模特儿每天收入6 500英镑。用不定冠词a表泛指。 单句改错 1.(2019全国I卷)Suddenly football fell just in front of me but almost hit me. 【答案】在football前加a 【解析】考查冠词。名词football为可数名词,前边需要有限定词。这里football第一次出现,故在football前加a。 2.(2018全国III卷)Each of my cafes will have a different theme and an unique style. 【答案】an改为a 【解析】考查冠词。本句考查冠词的用法。an用在元音音素前,a用在辅音因素前。unique是以辅音音素开头的单词,前用a。故把an改为a。 3.(2018全国I卷)During my last winter holiday,I went to countryside with my father to visit my grandparents. 【答案】在countryside前加the。 【解析】考查冠词。定冠词the用于某些固定习语中,“go to the countryside”意为“去乡下”。 4.(2018全国II卷)As the kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times …. 【答案】the改为a。 【解析】考查冠词。此处表示“作为一个孩子”,kid表泛指,且kid的发音以辅音音素开头,故用不定冠词a。 5.(2018全国III卷)I had done myself homework,but I was shy. 【答案】myself改为my/the。 【解析】考查限定词。此处特指“我的作业”,故将myself改为my/the。 6.They live far from the school, and it takes them about a hour and a half to go to work every day. 【答案】a→an/one 【解析】词法错误。hour是以元音音素开头的单词,前面要用不定冠词an。表示“一个小时”可以用an hour也可以用one hour。 7.(2017全国III卷)Around me in picture are the things which were very important in my life at that time:car magazines and musical instruments. 【答案】in后加this/the 【解析】词法错误。picture在文中第一句已经出现过,故此处可以加the表示特指;也可加this,表示“在这张照片中”。 冠词的考查几乎每年都有一两道题,而且基本都设两空。一般情况下,试题的情景较为曲折,句式以复合句为主。另外,在短文改错和语法填空中也常常涉及冠词的考查。考查要点主要包括: 1.考查定冠词和不定冠词的基本用法。 2.考查定冠词和不定冠词的特殊用法。抽象名词具体化前冠词的使用情况、比较级前冠词的使用情况。 3.考查冠词的泛指、特指、类指和专指用法。 4.考查零冠词的运用。另外,还涉及很多冠词与名词的固定搭配。 复习冠词须把握好以下三个原则: (1)单数可数名词用不定冠词a/an表示泛指; (2)复数可数名词及不可数名词表示泛指时,其前不加冠词; (3)无论可数名词还是不可数名词,表示特指时,其前都要加定冠词the。 一、定冠词 1.表示特指。 特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。 Give me the book. Did you hear the talk given by Mr Li? How do you like the film. Have you got the letter? 指谈话双方都知道的人或事物。 Where is the teacher? Open the door. 复述上文提过的人或事物。 I have a beautiful wallet, but the wallet was stolen yesterday. 世界上独一无二的事物等(月亮、地球、天空、宇宙) The sun rises in the east. The earth goes round the sun. the globe, the universe. the atmosphere大气层 用在方位名词前 in the south, in the west ,in the north 用在序数词或形容词最高级前 The first thing I want to say is to listen carefully in class. He is the tallest one in our class. 表示两者间“较……的一个”时用定冠词 The older of the two noblemen took a light. He is the taller of the two boys. 用在单数可数名词前表示一类人或事物。 The horse is a useful animal. 定冠词用在形容词前,表示一类人或东西。 The rich, the poor ,the wounded ,the deaf 冠词可用在党派、阶级、民族名词前 The Chinese people中华民族 The working class 工人阶级 The Communist Party 用在姓氏的复数形式前表示一家人,或这一姓的夫妇二人。 The Lius live upstairs. The Johns are watching TV. 在乐器前加the the piano the violin 在习惯性短语中 in the morning in the afternoon 在人或物后有限定性的后置定语 The man standing by the gate is Li Feng. 代替所有格代词,表示人体的一部分 He received a blow on the head 他头上挨了一击。 John’s brother took him by the hand. 约翰的哥哥牵着他的手。 在世纪,年代名词前用冠词。 In the 1980s或in the 1980’s 20世纪80年代 in the nineteenth century 二十世纪 【考题印证】 单句语法填空 1.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)The nursery team switches him every few days with his sister so that while one is being bottle?fed, ________ other is with mum—she never suspects. 【答案】the 【解析】考查冠词。one...the other意为“一个……另一个”,为固定用法。 2.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ)The adobe dwellings(土坯房) built by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even ________most modern of architects and engineers. 【答案】the 【解析】考查形容词最高级的用法。形容词最高级前用定冠词the。 【变式探究】(2016·浙江,2) prize for the winner of the competition is two?week holiday in Paris. 【答案】The 【解析】句意:这个比赛获胜者的奖品是一个为期两周的在巴黎度假的机会。特指“获胜者的奖品”,用定冠词the。 【变式探究】(2015·新课标Ⅱ,42)The adobe dwellings(土坯房)built by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even ________ most modern of architects and engineers. 【答案】the  【解析】句意:由美国西南部的印第安村庄的印第安人建造的土坯房甚至被最现代的建筑师和工程师欣赏。根据后面的most modern可知应为“最现代化的”,最高级前要用定冠词the。 单句改错 (2016·全国卷Ⅱ)But in that case,we will learn little about world. ____________ 【答案】在world前加the (2016·四川卷)I asked Mom to stay in the sitting room and I cooked in kitchen. ____________ 【答案】在kitchen前加the 【解析】本题考查了冠词漏用。根据语境可知,此处特指家里的厨房,所以用定冠词the修饰。 【变式探究】(2016·新课标Ⅱ)But in that case,we will learn little about world. 【答案】world前加the  【解析】句意:但是,在那种情况下,我们对世界的认识就会很少。world前通常加定冠词the,表示特指。 【变式探究】(2016·新课标Ⅲ)At the first,I thought I knew everything and could make decisions by myself. 【答案】去掉the  【解析】句意:起初,我认为我知道一切,并且能够独自做决定。at first“起初;一开始”,为固定短语。 【变式探究】(2016·四川)I asked Mom to stay in the sitting room and I cooked in kitchen. 【答案】kitchen前加the  【解析】句意:我告诉妈妈待在客厅,我在厨房里做饭。此处表示特指“我”家的厨房,故应用定冠词the。 【变式探究】(2015·新课标Ⅱ)Tony saw a toy in a shop window...A woman saw him crying and told him to wait outside a shop. 【答案】第三个a→the  【解析】句意:……有个妇女见他哭了,就告诉他在那家商店外面等候。由上下文可知,此处shop指前面“Tony saw a toy in a shop window”中的shop,应用定冠词。 【变式探究】(2015·陕西)I wanted to do something special for him at his retirement party...At a party,my coach,with a biscuit in his mouth,asked surprisingly who made them and joked,“I might have to retire again next year just to get some more of these biscuits.” 【答案】第一个a→the  【解析】句意:……在那次聚会上,我的教练口含饼干惊奇地问道是谁做的,并且开玩笑说:“为了多吃一些这样的饼干我明年可能会再退休一次。”根据上文“I wanted to do something special for him at his retirement party.”可知,此处指前面所提到的那次退休聚会。 二、不定冠词 泛指某一类人或物中的任何一个。 A teacher shouldn't talk like that. 教师不应当那样讲话。 用于序数词前表示“又一”“再一”。用于形容词最高级前意为“很,非常”。 We'll have to do it a second time. 我们得再做一次。 He is a most wise man. 他是一个十分明智的人。 用于具体化了的抽象名词前。 He was a success in business. 他是事业成功人士。 在专有名词前表示“某一个”“类似的一个”。 A Mr. Smith wants to see you. 一位史密斯先生想见你。 用于of短语中表示“同一”(=the same)。 Tom and Kate are of an age. 汤姆与凯特同岁。 【考题印证】 语法填空 【变式探究】(2016·全国卷Ⅱ节选)Give your body and brain a rest by stepping outside for ________ while,exercising or doing something you enjoy. 【答案】a 【解析】考查冠词。for a while意为“一会儿”,为固定短语。 (2016·新课标Ⅱ,48)Give your body and brain a rest by stepping outside for ________ while,exercising,or doing something you enjoy. 【答案】a  【解析】句意:你可以先出去一会儿,通过锻炼或做些你喜欢的事情来让你的身体和大脑得到休息。for a while意为“一会儿”。 【变式探究】(2015·四川,5)Brian is gifted in writing music;he is very likely to be ________ Beethoven. 【答案】a 【解析】句意:布莱恩在写音乐方面很有天赋;他很有可能会成为一个贝多芬。不定冠词加人名,意为“一个像某某那样的人”,因此填a。 【变式探究】(2016·浙江,2) The prize for the winner of the competition is ________ two?week holiday in Paris. 【答案】a  【解析】句意:这个比赛获胜者的奖品是一个为期两周的在巴黎度假的机会。泛指“一个为期两周的假期”,用不定冠词a。 单句改错 【变式探究】(2016·新课标Ⅰ)My uncle says that he never dreams of becoming rich in the short period of time. 【答案】the→a  【解析】句意:我叔叔说他从没有梦想过要在短时间内变得富有。in a short period of time“在短时间内”,为固定搭配。 零冠词 用于表示泛指或一般意义的物质名词、抽象名词、专有名词、复数名词等之前。 Knowledge begins with practice. 知识从实践开始。 Teachers should be respected. 教师应该受到尊重。 东、西方都有的节日名称前不用冠词 New Year's Day, Christmas, Nati

  • ID:4-6143297 备战2020年高考英语考点01-08一遍过考点练习(含解析)(打包8套)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    考点01 冠词 【命题解读】 冠词是历年高考的必考点,常出现在语篇型语法填空和短文改错中。但从整套试题来看,在短文改错、书面表达、阅读理解等题型中对冠词的隐性考查可谓无处不在。在日常交际中,几乎每说一句话、每写一篇日记、每读一篇文章都会涉及冠词的运用。故不论高考的考查形式如何变化,冠词仍应是高考复习的重点。 【命题预测】 预计2020年的高考仍然会以考查冠词在具体语境中的正确使用为主,以语篇型语法填空和短文改错的形式出现,它可能把冠词的各种用法结合名词一起进行考查。 【复习建议】 复习冠词须把握好以下三个原则: 1.单数可数名词用不定冠词a/an表示泛指; 2.复数可数名词及不可数名词表示泛指时,其前不加冠词; 3.无论可数名词还是不可数名词,表示特指时,其前都要加定冠词the。 考向一 不定冠词 1.不定冠词有a和an 两种形式。a用在以辅音音素开头的名词前,an用在以元音音素开头的词前。 In a university,a European and a one-eyed man walked along a one-way road with a useful tool. This is a usual thing. 在一所大学里,一个欧洲人和一个一只眼的人拿着一件有用的工具沿着一条单行道走着。这是一件平常之事。 An hour ago,an honest man accepted an unusual gift and went to finish an honorable task. 一小时前,一个诚实的人接受了一件非同寻常的礼物,去完成一项光荣的任务。 2.不定冠词a/an用在单数可数名词前表示泛指,泛指某一人或某一物。 The "Chinese Dream" is a dream to improve people’s well-being and a dream of harmony,peace and development."中国梦"是一个改善民生的梦,是一个和谐、和平和发展的梦。 3.表示某种身份、职业、地位、国籍。 When the Ashleys tried to make her return,Mumbet consulted a lawyer,Theodore Sedgewick. 当 Ashleys一家试图让她回来时,Mumbet咨询了一个叫西奥多·塞奇威克的律师。 4.用在人名或时间名词前表示不确定的某个人或某个时间;用在人名前还可表示与某人有类似性质的人。 —Excuse me,is there a Mr Tailor living in the neighborhood?There is a parcel for him. —Sorry,but there is no such person here. ——劳驾,这个居民点住着一位名叫Tailor的先生吗?这里有他的包裹。 ——对不起,这儿没有这么一个人。 5.不定冠词用在序数词前不表示排序,而表示"再一,又一"。 She didn’t like the color of the two bags and asked for a third one.她不喜欢这两个包的颜色,又要了一个。 6.表示单位时间内的频度,含有"每"的概念。 The medicine is to be taken three times a day. 这药每天吃三次。 7.具有动作意义的名词在与have,take,make等构成短语表示一种短暂性的动作时,前面要加不定冠词。如:take a look看一看;have a try试一试。 You had better go to the factory and have a look. 你最好到厂里去看一看。 8.不定冠词常用在一些固定搭配中。如:a waste of浪费……;all of a sudden突然地;as a rule通常。 It hit me all of a sudden that I had forgotten her birthday.我突然想起,我把她的生日给忘了。 1.(2019·新课标I卷·短文改错)Suddenly football feel just in front of me but almost hit me. 【答案】 Suddenly football fell just in front of me almost hit me. 【解析】考查冠词。名词football为可数名词,前边需要有限定词。这里football第一次出现,故在football前加a;考查连词。句意:突然一个足球落在我前边并且差点打到我。“足球落下来”与“打到我”两个动作是顺承关系,不是转折关系。故将but改为and。 2. (2018·新课标II卷·短文改错)As the kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times I asked to watching them, my parents would not to let me. 【答案】the改为a 【解析】考查冠词。这里表示“作为一个孩子”,a用在表示泛指的单数名词前,the表示特指。故把the改为a。 3.(2017·新课标1卷语法填空)As 65 result, people will eat more food to try to make up for that something missing. 【答案】a 【解析】考查冠词。固定短语as a result表示“结果”。句意:结果,人们将吃更多的食物去弥补损失的东西。故填a。 4.(2017新课标3卷语法填空)But unlike her school friends, 16-year-old Sarah is not spending half-term resting (rest). Instead, she is earning ?6500 a day as 62 model in New York. 【答案】a 【解析】考查冠词。model是可数名词,前面没有限定词,而此处泛指 "一个",故填a。 5. ______prize for the winner of the competition is ______two-week holiday in Paris. A. The ; 不填 B. A ; 不填 C. A ; the D. The ; a 【答案】D 【解析】句意:这个比赛获胜者的奖品是一个巴黎的两个星期的假期。第一空填the,是特指"获胜者的奖品",用定冠词,第二空是泛指"一个两周的假期",用不定冠词a。故选A。 考向二 定冠词 1.用在名词前表示特指。 —Did you enjoy yourself yesterday? —Yes,as you know,the party went on in a pleasant atmosphere. ——你昨天玩得开心吗? ——是的,正如你所知,晚会是在愉快的气氛中进行的。 2.用在世界上独一无二的人或物、自然现象、发明物之前。 Do you know who invented the telephone? 你知道是谁发明了电话吗? 3.用在序数词、比较级(两者相比较,表示特指的时候)和最高级前。 Do you know which story is the more interesting of the two?你认为这两个故事中哪个更有趣? 4.用于集合名词、物质名词和某些专有名词前。 Marco Polo is said to have sailed on the Pacific Ocean on his way to Java in the thirteenth century.(2013·陕西) 据说在十三世纪马可·波罗去爪哇岛途中曾航行经过太平洋。 5.定冠词the和形容词、过去分词连用,表示一类人或事物。 Many of the injured are still in danger. 许多受伤者仍处于危险中。 6.用在表示计量的名词前如by the hour,by the dozen等,但若名词为抽象名词则不加冠词如by weight,by height等。 —It’s said John will be in a job paying over $ 60,000 a year. —Right,he will also get paid by the week. ——据说约翰将拥有一份年收入超过60 000美元的工作。 ——是的,而且会按周获得报酬。 7.定冠词the用在表示姓氏的复数名词前,表示全家人或夫妻俩。 The Whites settled down in Canada last year. 去年怀特一家在加拿大定居。 8.用在方位名词和西洋乐器名词前。 the east 东部  play the piano 弹钢琴 1.(2019·浙江卷·语法填空)Everybody wears___57___ same style of clothes. 【答案】the 【解析】考查冠词。句意:每个人都穿相同风格的衣服。same是形容词,意思是“相同的”,常与the连用修饰名词。故填the。 2. (2017年新课标2卷短文改错)During my last winter holiday, I went to countryside with my father to visit my grandparents. 【答案】 countryside前加the 【解析】句意:去年寒假,我和父亲去乡下拜访爷爷奶奶。此处特指去的是乡下,故加定冠词the。 3. (2017年新课标3卷短文改错)Around me in picture are the things which were very important in my life at that time: car magazines and musical instruments. 【答案】 picture前加the或this 【解析】考查限定词的用法。单数可数名词前应该有限定词,根据句意可知在picture前加the或者this。 4.Jane’s grandmother had wanted to write children’s book for many years, but one thing or another always got in way. A. a;不填 B. the; the C. 不填;the D. a;the 【答案】D 【解析】句意:多年来,简的奶奶想写一本有关于儿童的书,但总是被这样或那样的原因阻碍了。第一个空使用不定冠词表泛指,第二个in the way 是固定搭配,意为挡道或阻碍。定冠词用于特指或者是固定搭配,不定冠词用于泛指。选D。 考向三 零冠词 1.不可数名词、复数名词表泛指,用零冠词。 Teachers are badly needed in the remote districts. 偏远地区非常需要教师。 2.称呼语及表示独一无二的头衔、职务的名词作表语、补足语或同位语时,不加冠词。 Dr. Peter Spence,headmaster of the school,told us,"A fifth of pupils here go on to study at Oxford and Cambridge." 这所学校的校长Peter Spence博士告诉我们,这里五分之一的学生将继续到牛津或剑桥大学深造。 3.月、季、星期、节假、洲前;三餐、球类、惯用语前;学科、棋类名词前,用零冠词。 A year can be divided into four seasons — spring,summer,autumn and winter. 一年可以分为四季——春、夏、秋、冬。 4.no与such连用时应放在such之前,such后的名词不用冠词。 There is no such thing as a free lunch in the world. 天下没有免费的午餐。 5.在turn(变成)作表语的名词前不用冠词,但become后的可数名词作表语时前要加冠词。 He became a doctor while his brother turned teacher. 他成了一名医生而他弟弟当了教师。 1.Dr.Peter?Spence,??____________headmaster?of?the?school,?told?us,?________?fifth?of?pupils?here?go?on?to?study?at?Oxford?and?Cambridge.?? A.?不填;A??????????? B.不填;The?????? C.?the;?The??????? D.?a;?A?? 【答案】A?? 【解析】句意为"校长Peter?Spence告诉我们说,我校的五分之一学生将到牛津大学和剑桥大学去学习。"headmaster校长,职务前面不加冠词;a?fifth表示五分之一。选A。 2.Some?people?fear?that?________?air?pollution?may?bring?about?changes?in?_______?weather?around?the?world.??? A.?/;?the??????? B.?the;?/???? ???C.?an;?the?????? ??D.?the;?a?? 【答案】A?? 【解析】Air?pollution?是抽象名词这里是泛指,其前不用冠词; weather?这里是特指全球的气候,?根据the?weather?around?the?world?可知答案为A 考向四 冠词的位置 1. 不定冠词位置 不定冠词常位于名词或名词修饰语前。注意: a. 位于下列形容词之后: such,what,many,half, I have never seen such an animal. Many a man is fit for the job. b. 当名词前的形容词被副词as, so, too, how, however, enough修饰时,不定冠词应放在形容词之后: It is as pleasant a day as I have ever spent. So short a time. Too long a distance. c. quite,rather与单数名词连用,冠词放在其后。 但当rather,quite 前仍有形容词,不定冠词放其前后均可。如:quite a lot d. 在as,though 引导的让步状语从句中,当标语为形容词修饰的名词时,不定冠词放形容词后: Brave a man though he is,he trembles at the sight of snakes. 他尽管勇敢,可见到蛇还是发抖。 当名词被比较级形容词修饰时,不定冠词通常置于比较级形容词之后。 2.定冠词位置 定冠词通常位于名词或名词修饰语前,但放在all, both,double,half,twice,three times等词之后,名词之前。 All the students in the class went out.班里的所有学生都出去了。 学习冠词的难点 一、在特殊情况下混用a和an   关于a和an的一般区别,同学们可能比较清楚,也不易搞错,但是对于数字和字母前用该用不定冠词a还是an,则是许多考生可能忽略的问题。如:   They have an 8-year-old daughter. 他们有一个8岁大的女儿。(数字8在英语中读音与eight同,故其前用an,不用a;类似地,我们要说an 11-year-old child,不能说a 11-year-old boy。)   Our daughter sent us an SOS for some more money. 我们的女儿给我们发来了再要点钱的求救信号。(字母s的读音为[es],它的第一个音为元音,故其前要用an。) 二、"星期"名词前冠词的使用问题  表示"星期"的名词(如Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday等)一般不与冠词连用,但有时为了表示"特指"可以带定冠词;若表示不确定的"某一个",其前可用不定冠词。如:   "When can I have my birthday party?" "On the Saturday nearest to it." "我的生日庆祝会在哪天举行?""就在离你生日最近的那个星期六吧。"   Christmas Day falls on a Monday. 今年的圣诞节是星期一。   You won’t catch me working on a Sunday! 你绝对见不到我在星期日工作!   He never opens up shop on a Sunday. 星期日他的商店从不营业。 We had a card from her on the Friday after she got back. 在她回去后的那个星期五我们收到了她的明信片。 "When can I have my birthday party?" "On the Saturday nearest to it." "我的生日庆祝会能在哪天举行?""在离你生日最近的那个星期六吧。" 三、"三餐饭"前冠词的使用问题   一般说来,表示一日三餐的 breakfast, lunch, supper前不用冠词。如:   Breakfast is served until 9 a.m. 早餐一直供应到上午9点。   Can you manage lunch on Tuesday? 你星期二能来吃午饭吗?   但是,若要特指某一顿早餐、中餐或晚餐,则可在其前加定冠词。如:   The supper is well cooked. 晚饭做得很好。   Thank you for the breakfast. 谢谢你的这顿早餐。   另外,若 breakfast, lunch, supper 受到描绘性定语的修饰,则其前通常要用不定冠词。如:   We make a good breakfast before leaving. 我们动身前好好吃顿早饭。   I’ve got out of the habit of having a cooked breakfast. 我已不再保持早餐吃热食的习惯。   After a quick breakfast, he hurried to the station. 匆匆忙忙吃完早餐,他就赶到车站去了。   We were well primed for the journey with a large breakfast. 为了去旅行, 我们早餐都吃得饱饱的。  _______ walk is expected to last all day, so bring _______ packed lunch.  A. A; a B. The; 不填  C. The; a D. A; 不填 【答案】C 【解析】第一空填定冠词,表特指;第二空填不不定冠词,因为名词lunch前带有描给性修饰语,a packed lunch在此指"打包的午餐"。 四、冠词的非前位用法 限定语与所修饰的中心名词的关系一般顺序是:冠词+表示大小尺寸的限定词+表示颜色的限定词+表示原材料的限定词+中心名词。但在某些固定结构中,冠词放在了形容词之后。 1.Peter won’t drive us to the station. He has________ to take us all. A. a very small car B. too small a car C. a too small car D. such a small car 【答案】B 【解析】C迷惑性较大,学生都学过too +adj./adv. +to…结构,但对于too +adj.+n.?+to…结构不熟悉。 解题方法与技巧:名词前修饰语一般正常语序为:不定冠词+形容词+名词。但有些固定结构需注意,如too+adj. +a/an+n.。 2.Exercise is ________ as any other to lose unwanted weight. A.so useful a way B.as a useful way C.as useful a way D. such a useful way 【答案】C 【解析】错解分析:A、B迷惑性较大,so…as结构常用于否定句和疑问句,故不能选A、B。 解题方法与技巧:名词前修饰语正常语序为:不定冠词+形容词+名词,但有些固定结构需注意,如:as+adj. +a/an+n.? 【锦囊妙计】 1.不定冠词用在quite,rather,many,half,what,much等词之后。例如: He is rather a fool. —What did you think of the concert? —Oh,it was quite a success. 2.不定冠词用在so(as,too,how)+形容词之后。 例如:She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet. It’s too difficult a book for us to read. 注意:以元音音素开头的名词前加不定冠词时用"an"。例如:an apple。 即使单词拼写以辅音字母开头,但该词的读音是元音音素开头,加不定冠词时也要用"an",例如:an hour,an honest boy;反之,拼写以元音字母开头,但读音是辅音,加不定冠词时要用"a",例如:a university。 3.so…that与such…that:①so…that和such…that都作"如此……以致"解,that引导结果状语从句。常见句型如下:so②such…that和so…that有时可以换用,条件是such所修饰的名词必须是一个单数可数名词,且该名词还带有表性质的形容词。转变公式如下:such a/an+形容词+名词→so+形容词+a/an+名词。 例如:He is such a good student that we all like him.→He is so good a student that we all like him。 但是,如果是不可数名词或复数可数名词,则只能用such,不能用so修饰。 例如:It was such bad weather that he had to stay at home。③如果复数名词前有many,few,不可数名词前有much,little等表示量的形容词时,应该用so而不用such。 如:I’ve had so many falls that I’m black and blue all over. Mr White got so little money a month that he could hardly keep body and soul together(维持生活)。 但little不表示数量而表示"小"的意思时,仍用such。 例如:They are such little children that they cannot clean the house by themselves. 题组一(真题在线) 1.(2016·浙江)______prize for the winner of the competition is ______two-week holiday in Paris. A. The ; 不填 B. A ; 不填 C. A ; the D. The ; a 2.(2016·全国新课标卷II·语法填空)Give your body and brain a rest by stepping outside for 48 while, exercising, or doing something you enjoy. 3.(2018·新课标卷III·语法填空)Unexpectedly, I'm face-to-face with the gorilla, who begins screaming at ____62____ top of her lungs. That makes her baby scream, and then a 400-pound male appears. 4.(2015··浙江)Jane’s grandmother had wanted to write children’s book for many years, but one thing or another always got in way. A. a;不填 B. the; the C. 不填;the D. a; the 5.(2015·重庆)I just heard____ bank where Dora works was robbed by____ gunman wearing a mask. A. the; / B. a; / C. the; a D. a; the 6.(2014·重庆)I can’t tell you _______ way to the Wilsons’ because we don’t have _______ Wilson here in the village. A. the; a B. a; / C. a; the D. the; / 7.(2014·天津)Life the like ________ ocean; Only ________strong-willed can reach the other shore. A. an; the B. the; a C. the ;/ D. / ; a 8.(2014·江西)They chose Tom to be ________captain of the team because they knew he was _______smart leader. A. a; the B. the; the C. the; a D. a; a 9.(2014·陕西)________ village where I was born has grown into ________ town. A. The; a B. A; the C. The; the D. A; a 10.(2014·浙江)The paper is due next month, and I am working seven days ______ week, often long into ______ night. ??A. a; the??????????????? B. the;?不填????????? C. a; a???????????????? D.?不填;the 题组二 1.Brian is gifted in writing music; he is very likely to be Beethoven. A. a B. an C. the D.不填 2.—How do you like his plan? —It may be great in ________ theory, but how will it work in ________ practice? A. the; the B./; / C. the; / D./; the 3.We have every reason to believe that ________ 2022 Winter Olympic Games will be ________ great success. A./ ; a B. the; / C. the; a D. a; a 4.Lily owns ______ larger collection of ______ books than any other student in our class. A. the; / B. a; / C. a; the D./; the 5.________ headmaster Smith is quite good at painting and it is said that he is _______ Picasso. A. The; / B./;a C./;/ D. The; a 6.—What ______great fun it is to play with computer games! —Don’t you think it’s _______waste of time? A. a; a B./;a C./; the D. the; the 7.The woman has ________ complete absence of small talk. As a consequence, she acted as if she hadn’t recognized me and didn’t make __________sound. A./; a B. a; a C. the;/ D. a; the 8.    China you see today is     powerful and fast-developing country, quite different from what it used to be. A. The; a B. The; the ?? C. 不填; a ??? D. 不填; the 9.In 1778, Banks was elected _______ president of the Royal Society, _______position he held for 42 years. A./, the B. the, / C. the, the D./, a 10.I am not fond of ______ music very much, but I do like ______ music they are dancing to. A.不填; 不填 B. the; the C. the; 不填 D.不填; the 题组三 语篇填空(用a/an/ the填空) There once was a king who offered __1__ prize to __2__artist who would paint __3__ best picture of peace. Many artists tried. The king looked at all __4__ pictures. But there were only two he really liked,and he had to choose between them. One picture was of a calm lake. The lake was a perfect mirror for peaceful high mountains all around it. Overhead was a blue sky with fluffy white clouds. All who saw this picture thought that it was __5__ perfect picture of peace. The other picture had mountains,too. But these were rugged (崎岖的) and bare. Above was __6__angry sky, from which rain fell and in which lightning played. Down __7__side of the mountain tumbled (翻腾) a foaming (水泡) waterfall. This did not look peaceful at all. But when the king looked closely, he saw behind __8__ waterfall a tiny bush growing in a crack (裂缝) in the rock. In the bush __9__ mother bird had built her nest. There, in the midst of the rush of angry water,sat the mother bird on her nest—in perfect peace. The king chose __10__second picture. 题组一 1.D【解析】句意:这个比赛获胜者的奖品是一个巴黎的两个星期的假期。第一空填the,是特指"获胜者的奖品",用定冠词,第二空是泛指"一个两周的假期",用不定冠词a。故选D。 2. a【解析】介词短语for a while意为"一会儿",本句是指通过锻炼或做一些你喜欢的事情,让你的身体和大脑休息一会儿。 3. the 【解析】考查冠词。此处为固定短语at the top of,此处表示以最大的肺活量喊叫。 4.D【解析】句意:多年来,简的奶奶想写一本有关于儿童的书,但总是被这样或那样的原因阻碍了。第一个空使用不定冠词表泛指,第二个in the way 是固定搭配,意为"挡道"或"阻碍"。定冠词用于特指或者是固定搭配,不定冠词用于泛指。选D。 5.C 【解析】句意:我刚刚听说朵拉工作的那家银行被一个带面具的持枪人给抢劫。第一个空表示朵拉工作的那家银行,可知表示特指,用the;第二空表示一个带面具的持枪人表示泛指,用a。 【名师点睛】冠词的运用要把握 a 一般表示泛指某一类人或物,意为"任何一个,任一" 。the 表示表示特指,或有某类型的修饰。 6.A【解析】去威尔逊家的道路是特定的,故选择定冠词;本村没有叫做威尔逊的人。叫威尔逊的人有很多,不具有唯一性,故选择不定冠词。A项正确。 7.A【解析】句意:生活就像一片海;只有那些意志坚强的人才能到达彼岸。ocean海洋,是可数名词,又是元音开头,所以用an;strong-willed是形容词,前面用the 表一类。又如。the injured伤员。故选A。 8.C 【解析】Captain后跟了个介词短语of the team作定语,表特指;后一空表类型(一个聪明的领导者),因此C选项正确。句意为" 他们选了汤姆为这个队的队长,那是因为他们知道汤姆是个聪明的头儿。" 9.A【解析】考查冠词。第一空后的名词后有where引导的定语从句,故应是特指,用the;第二空表示一个城镇,故填不定冠词a。故选A。 10.A 【解析】第一空a表示"每一";into the night到深夜;句意:我的论文下个月就要交,我现在一周工作七天,还经常熬夜到深夜。故选A。 【名师点睛】考生做题时要保持清醒的头脑,准确猜摸出题人意图。week是普通的可数名词,就可以用a修饰, into the night是约定俗成的短语,就算考试时考生不能详细阐述该理由,但是根据以往做题见到的句子、用法,可以发散思维,准确选出答案,没必要在考场死扣某一题原理,这在平时就需要大量的英语阅读、做题,才能厚积薄发。 题组二 1. A 【解析】考查冠词。本题考查不定冠词在人名前,表示:一个像……那样的人。故选择A。句意:Brian在创作音乐上极有才华,他很有可能成为一个像贝多芬那样的人才。 2.B 【解析】考查冠词。句意:——你觉得他的计划怎么样?——可能从理论上来说是很好,但在实践中它会起作用吗?in theory"理论上,从理论上看";in practice"在实践中;实际上"。故选B。 3.C 【解析】考查冠词。这里特指2022年的冬季奥运会,所以用定冠词;success可以用作可数名词,指"一个成功的人或一件成功的事"。句意:我们有理由相信2016年的奥运会将会是成功的。故选C。? 4.B 【解析】考查冠词。"a collection of +名词的复数"是常用结构,意为"一批,一些;许多的";第二空后的名词泛指书籍,用a larger collection of来修饰,指"许多书",因此不用冠词。故选B。? 5.B 【解析】考查冠词。句意:史密斯校长很擅长绘画,据说他是一个毕加索。headmaster, monitor, chairman等独一无二的官衔词做主语,表语,同位语时,前面不用冠词。Picasso在此语境中表示"像毕加索一样的画家",是一个普通名词。故第二个空要填不定冠词a。B选项切题。? 6.B 【解析】考查冠词。句意:——玩电脑游戏是多么有乐趣!——难道你不认为它是浪费时间吗?fun表示"乐趣"时是不可数名词,不需要冠词修饰,a waste of是固定搭配,表示"浪费",故B项正确。 7.B 【解析】考查冠词。句意:那个女人不太爱说话,所以见到我假装没认出来而且也没打招呼。have a complete absence of是固定搭配,意为"缺乏";make a sound是固定搭配,是"没出声"之意。故选B。 8.A 【解析】考查冠词。第一空特指"你现在看到的中国";第二空表示"一个强大和快速发展的国家",表泛指。故选A。 ?9.D 【解析】考查冠词。句意:1778年,Banks当选为皇家学会的主席,这是一个他拥有了42年的职位。第一空的president意为"主席",在表示职位、头衔的名词作主语补足语时,前面要用零冠词;第二空表示泛指,意为"一个他拥有了43年的职位",用不定冠词a。故选D。? 10.D 【解析】考查冠词。句意:我不太喜欢音乐,但是我的确很喜欢他们伴舞的音乐。第一空后的music表示泛指,是不可数名词,不需要加冠词。第二空后的music后面有定语从句they are dancing to修饰,特指他们伴舞的音乐,故用定冠词the修饰。故选D。 题组三 1.a 2.the 3.the 4.the 5.a 6.an 7.the 8.the 9.a 10.the 【口诀助记】 泛指首提为最多,有时表示某“一个”; 物质抽象表“一场”,so加形容再跟“a”; 可数名词为“一类”,序数词前“又一个”; quite等词常放后,固定短语须琢磨。 【口诀助记】 特指双方都熟悉,上文已经被提及。 世上无二仅独一,序数词和最高级。 山河海岛建筑物,姓氏复数奏乐器。 少数形表人一类,方位名词须牢记。 普构专有惯用词,试用此诀有效率。 【口诀助记】 名词复数泛指人,冠词用法是个零。 专有、物质、抽象名,泛指时候冠不行。 含有day的节假日,不用冠词莫忘记。 季节月份星期几,不用冠词有道理。 三餐饭和打球前,不用冠词理当然。 名词前边已有代,不用冠词也无碍。 固定词组多注意,用与不用小心记。 称呼头衔不用冠,总共八条切莫乱。 PAGE 1 考点02 名词 高考频度:★★★★☆ 【命题解读】 名词是中学英语的主要词汇之一,也是历年高考的重要考点。研究近年的高考题我们不难看出,名词部分主要考查名词的词义辨析和习惯搭配、名词的数(可数与不可数、单数与复数)、名词的所有格、抽象名词的具体化、物质名词的量化、名词和冠词的搭配以及主谓一致等。在高考试题中,名词常结合其他项目一起考查,考查题型以短文改错、完形填空、语法填空为主。 【命题预测】 预计2020年的高考名词在完形填空、短文改错及语法填空中仍会占有重要地位。 【复习建议】 在学习过程中,要掌握常用名词的基本用法,注意一词多义和旧词新义。另外要多归纳总结,做题时要结合语境。 考向一 可数名词的复数 (1)规则变化 情况 方法 例词 一般情况 加-s students,teachers,doc tors,tables 以s,x,ch,sh结尾 加-es glasses,dishes,boxes,watches但stomach复数形式直接加s,即stomachs 以辅音字母+y结尾 变y为i再加-es families,babies,armies,bodies 以元音字母+y结尾 加-s boys,toys,pianos,photos 以f或fe结尾 大都变f或fe为v,再加-es thieves,wives,knives,shelves,lives 少数加-s beliefs,proofs,roofs,chiefs 以o结尾 通常加-s radios,videos,zoos,tobaccos 有的加-es heroes,potatoes,tomatoes 注意:①以-o结尾的下列名词要加-es,它们是"黑人英雄在回声中吃土豆、西红柿",即Negroes,heroes,echoes,potatoes,tomatoes。 但下列以-o结尾的名词既可以加-es,也可以加-s,它们是:zeros(zeroes)零,mosquitos (mosquitoes)蚊子,volcanos(volcanoes)火山。 ②以-f或-fe结尾的下列名词需要把f或fe去掉,加-ves,它们是"为了自己活命,小偷和他的妻子手里拿着刀子和树叶站在架子上,把狼劈成两半",即selves,lives,thieves,wives,knives,leaves,shelves,wolves,halves。 但下列以-f结尾的名词既可以去掉f加-ves,也可以直接加-s,如:handkerchiefs (handkerchieves) 手帕。 ③名词前有man或woman修饰,变复数时,作定语的man 或woman和后面的名词都要变成复数。如:woman doctor→women doctors (2)不规则变化 ①常见单复数同形的名词 Chinese 中国人;sheep 绵羊;deer鹿;series 系列;means 方式;works 工厂;fish 鱼;fruit 水果等。其中fish,fruit表示种类时,可加复数词尾,即fishes,fruits。 ②自身有特殊变化的名词 child孩子→children man男人→men tooth牙→teeth foot脚,英尺→feet mouse老鼠→mice phenomenon现象→phenomena medium传播媒介→media 5.【2019·新课标II卷·短文改错】Since I was a kid, I’ve considered different job I would like to do. 【答案】job改为jobs 【解析】考查名词的数。“job(工作;职业)”为可数名词,用different(不同的)修饰时意思为不同种类的工作,应该用名词的复数形式。故将job改为jobs。 2.(2018·全国新课标卷I·语法填空)Two of the authors of the review also made a study published in 2014 66that/which showed a mere five to 10 minutes a day of running reduced the risk of heart disease and early deaths from all 67 (cause). 【答案】causes 【解析】考查单复数。一项研究表明,仅仅每天5到10分钟的跑步,就能减少各种原因的心脏病和早亡。根据句意用复数形式。故填causes。 3.(2018·全国新课标卷I·短文改错)Last winter when I went here(改为there) again, they had a big separate house to raise dozens of chicken. 【答案】chicken改为chickens 【解析】考查名词复数。他们拥有一个大的独立住宅,还养了许多只鸡。根据前文的dozens of可知,其后用名词复数形式。 4.(2016·全国新课标卷I·语法填空)Chengdu has dozens of new millionaires, Asia’s biggest building, and fancy new hotels. But for tourists like me, pandas are its top 61 (attract)... The nursery team switches him every few 69 (day) with his sister so that while one is being bottle-fed, 70(the) other is with mum — she never suspects. 61.【答案】attraction 【解析】考查名词。 形容词top后面跟名词形式。 69.【答案】days 【解析】考查名词复数。few修饰复数名词。 考向二 不可数名词具体化 (1)通常只用作不可数名词的名词:advice建议, furniture家具, fun乐趣;information信息,news新闻, weather天气, progress进步,wealth财富,value价值等。 (2)不可数名词具体化 ①具有某种特性、状态、情感的抽象名词在表示具体的概念时,可以与不定冠词连用,常考的有: 单词 抽象名词意义 具体化名词意义 success 成功 成功的人或事 pleasure 乐趣 令人高兴的事 beauty 美;美丽 美丽的人或事物 comfort 安慰;慰藉 令人感到安慰的人或事物 danger 危险 危险的人或因素 delight 高兴 令人高兴的事 failure 失败 失败的人或事物 surprise 惊奇 令人惊奇的事情 shock 震惊 令人震惊的事情 pride 骄傲 令人骄傲的事情 Your contribution will certainly make the event a huge success.你的贡献一定会使这个事件很成功。 ②物质名词具体化 drink饮料→two drinks 两杯饮料 coffee咖啡→a coffee一杯咖啡 chalk 粉笔→a chalk 一支粉笔 hair 头发→a hair 一根头发 ③抽象名词与a(an)连用,淡化了抽象概念,转化为似乎可以体验到的动作、行为或类别。例如: Being able to afford a drink would be a comfort in those tough times.在那些艰难的时期,能够买得起一杯酒会是一件欣慰的事。 考向三 名词所有格 (1)-’s所有格 ①用and连接的并列名词的所有格要分两种情况,即表示各自的所有关系时,要分别在并列名词后加-’s 或’;表示共同的所有关系时,只在最后一个名词后加-’s或’。 Tom’s and Jim’s rooms.汤姆和吉姆(各自)的房间。 Tom and Jim’s room.汤姆和吉姆(共同)的房间。 ②表示店铺、办公室或某人的家时,名词所有格后被修饰的名词一般省略。 at the barber’s在理发店 at the teacher’s在老师办公室 (2)of所有格 表示无生命的事物的名词通常用of所有格表示所有关系;名词短语或有定语修饰的有生命的名词也常用of所有格。 the content of the novel小说的内容 the name of the girl over there那边那位女孩的名字 (3)双重所有格 指"名词+of+名词所有格"或"名词+of+名词性物主代词"。 a play of Shakespeare’s(莎士比亚的一个戏剧) a friend of mine(我的一个朋友) 1. (2018·全国新课标卷II·短文改错)When I was little, Friday’s night was our family game night. 【答案】Friday’s改为Friday。 【解析】考查名词的格。名词作定语,往往表明被修饰名词的时间、地点、类别、目的或用途、材料或来源等。名词所有格作定语则强调与被修饰的词的所有关系或表示逻辑上的谓语关系。此处表示“星期五晚上”,并不是所有关系,故把Friday’s改为Friday。 2.The village is far away from here indeed. It’s _________ walk. A. a four hour B. a four hour’s C. a four-hours D. a four hours’ 【答案】D 【解析】’s属格除了用在表示有生命的东西(人或物)的名词后,有时还用于某些无生命的名词(如表示时间的名词)后,一般是在名词词尾加’s,如果该名词词尾已有-s或-es,则是在其后加"‘ "。故选D。 考向四 名词的语法功能 1.作主语 The young woman played an important part in the matter. 那年轻女人在这件事上举足轻重。 His grandpa joined the Red Army at the age of fifteen. 他爷爷十五岁时参加红军。 2.作宾语 (1)作及物动词的直接宾语 I met your elder brother in the street。我在街上碰见你哥哥了。 Have you finished the letter to Jane?你写完给珍的信了吗? (2)作及物动词的间接宾语。 I told my students a funny story. 我给学生们讲一个有趣的故事。 She asked the doctor another question. 她问了医生另一个问题。 (3)作介词的宾语。 After 20 years’ traveling, he settled down in Liangxiang. 二十年的流浪后,他在良乡定居。 Do you still ask your parents for money?你还向爸妈要钱吗? 3.作表语 It’s a good idea to plant trees here . 在这里栽些树是个好主意。 She is now a professor while her husband remains a worker. 也现在是教授而丈夫仍是个工人。 4.作宾语的补足语 They elected Tom head of the workshop. 他们推选汤姆当车间的头。(职务名词作宾补前面不加冠词) The old man called my uncle Xiao Li. 老人喊我叔叔小李。 5.作定语 (1)直接作定语, 通常用单数形式。 college students大学生 girl friend女友 vegetable garden菜园 basketball match篮球赛 Let’s stop by the book store on the way home.回家的路上,我们的书店停一下吧! He bought the shoes in that shoe shop. 这双鞋他是在那个鞋店买的。 (2)名词所有格作定语。 students’ books学生用书 China’s capital中国的首都 the world’s population世界人口 (3)man,woman,gentleman作定语 man,woman,gentleman作定语时可以用单数和复数两种形式,但必须随所修饰名词的数而定。 He said that two women doctors would come to our village the next day. 他说明天有两个女医生到我们村子来。 There are many men teachers in our school. 我们学校有很多男教师。 (4)某些常用复数的名词用作定语 某些常用复数的名词,当它们用作定语时,也须用复数形式。 arms production 武器生产 clothes shop服装商店 sales department营业部 a goods train货车 savings bank 储蓄所 foreign languages department外语系 (5)单位名称、报纸、广播、电视等的标题中经常出现复数名词作定语。 Learning Skills center学习技巧交流中心 The Boys Club 男孩俱乐部 (6)表示类别时名词直接作定语还是用所有格作定语一定要严格遵守习惯。 a peasant family/boy(peasant习惯直接作定语) a worker’s family(worker习惯用所有格作定语) (7)两种定语有时并存但意义不一样。 women drivers女司机 the woman’s driver这位妇女的司机 girl friend女朋友 the girl’s friend 这女孩的朋友 mother tongue母语 mother’s tongue母亲的舌头 (8)名词作定语强调被修饰成分的内容或职能,与其同根的形容词作定语则强调特点或属性 gold watch 金表 (指手表是含金的) golden watch 金色的表 (指表是金色的,但不一定含金) 6.作状语 时间名词、数量名词、距离名词等有时可以作状语。 The soldiers walked 50 kilometers at a night. 战士们一夜行军五十公里 Your suitcase weighs 10 kilograms. 你的手提箱重10千克。 考点五 疑难名词比较与辨析 1.force; energy; strength; power force表示"力、力量"的意思。指为做或实现某事而实际运用的力量。 He overcame his bad habits by force of will.毅力使他克服了自己身上的不良习惯。 Those people are the progressive forces in the society. 这些人是社会的进步力量。 energy主要强调"精力",指用来做某事或完成某事的能力。还可以指"能源"。 Young people usually have more energy than the old. 青年人通常此老年人精力充沛。 Many countries are increasing their use of natural gas, wind and other forms of energy. 很多国家正在提高天然气、风以及其他能源形式的利用。 strength表示"力"的意思。指做事情的--种内在能力。就人而育,着重指力气;就物而言,着重指强度潜力等。 He lifted the stone with all his strength.他使出全身力气举起了那块石头。 The side man hasn’t got enough strength to get out of bed. 那位病人还没有足够的力气下床。 power 表示 "能力、能量、动力"的意思。指身体上、心理上和道德上的能力(不管是否发挥出)。 Knowledge is power.知识就是力 量。 I shall do everything in my power to help you.我将尽我的能力帮助你。 2.manner; means; method; way manner表示"方式、方法"的意思。指个人喜欢采用的方式。 The manner of their meeting makes a good story. 他们相见的方式似乎有些传奇色彩。 He has developed his own manner of acting. 它形成了自己独特的演出风格。 means表示"方法、手段 、工具"的意思。 Students sometimes support themselves by means of evening job. 学生有时通过晚上打工的方法来养活自己。 The quickest means of travel is by plane.最快的旅行工具是飞机。 Have you the means to support a family? 你有维持家的方法没有? method指做某事的具体步骤或程序,也指系统的、抽象概念的原理。 His idea is all right, but he lacks method.他的想法不错,但是缺少方法。 He is a man of method.他是个有条理的人。 method of teaching 教学方法 method of study 学习方法 Roasting is one method of cooking meat. 烤是做肉的一种方法。 way是最通用的词,也是最不正式的词,本义是"通道、通路",引申作"方式、方法"讲,含义很广。 In this way over several days, the artist and his mice became friends. 就这样过了几天,这位艺术家和他的老鼠成了好朋友。 Look ! Work on it in this way. 看!像这样搞它。 My parents always let me have my own way of living. ?At the meeting they discussed three different _______ to the study of mathematics。 A. approaches B. means C. methods D. ways 【答案】D。 【解析】在会议上他们讨论了三种不同的学习数学的方法。way意为“方式,方法”,可指具体的方法,也可指抽象的方法,多指一般的思想、行动、办事的方法,也可指个人特殊的方式、方法。approach意为“接近,靠近,方式,方法”,指接近某人或某事,也可指对待或处理事情的方式或方法。mean意为“方式,方法”,用于抽象意义,可指为达到某一目的而采用的方法、计划、政策、策略等,尤指整套方法;用于具体意义,常指为达到某一目的所使用的工具、材料、机器、 用具、车船等。method意为“方式,方法”,指具体的、系统的、有步骤的方法,强调条理性及高效率。 3.cost; price; value; worth; expense cost表示"成本、费用"的意思。 原指生产某种物品的成本 ,包括生产中所支付的原料和劳动。一般要低于售价,有时也可用来泛指价格。也可用于借喻,指所付出的代价,甚至生命。 As a result, costs will be reduced by as much as 90%. 因此,成本将会降低90% 之多。 China Daily has plenty of advertisements, which help to cut the costs of making the newspaper. 《中国日报》刊登大量广告有助于降低报纸生产的成本。 price表示"价格、价钱、定价"的意思。 指经营商品出售的单价,通常要高于商品的出厂成本。也用于借喻,指做某事所付出的代价。 Can you try to get them to bring down the price? 你能把价格讲下来吗? They can sell their beef at a high price in the capital. 他们可以在首都以高价出售他们的牛肉。 value表示"价值、价格"。指我们所估计一件东西的价值,因此是不能 以金钱估价的。 Instead, they are writing once more about things that are common for everyone: feeling alone in the modern world, the value of having good friends and so on. 他们现在再一次写常人常事——现代世界中的孤独感及交好朋友的价值等等。 The park is good value for the money.公园花这么多钱值得。 worth意思是价值。指东西本身的真正价值,是经久不变的,是可贵的。 It was worth five hundred francs at the most.它最多值500法郎。 He asked me how much this computer was worth. 他问我这台计算机值多少钱。 expense意思是"费用、支出、开销",指花费金钱、时间和精力。 We travelled to France at our own expense. 我们自费去法国旅行了。 Do you know at whose expense your visit to Japan will be?你 知道谁将担负你访问日本的费用吗? 4.land; ground; soil; earth land表示"陆地、土地、地",是河流和海洋的相对用语。用于指土地或土壤时,着重指它的性质、用途等。有时泛指大地,也可作"国家、地产"讲。 The rocky soil has been turned into rich land.岩石地已变成了沃土。 But some people don’t want good farm land to be built on. 但是有些人不愿意把好的农田用来修建厂房。 To the sea captain’s surprise, he found that land travel could also be quite pleasant. 使那位船长吃惊的是,他发现陆地旅行也很愉快。 ground(n. )表示"地、土地"的意思。主要指大地表面,也可以指土壤、场地。也可用于借喻指"根据、理由"。 He learnt how to clean rough ground before planting crops. 他学会了在种植作物之前如何拾掇毛糙的土地。 Then the Class 2 runner dropped his stick on the ground when he was passing it on to the fourth runner.然而,当二班运动员传给第四棒时,接力棒掉在地上了。 soil表示"土壤、土地",指可以生长植物且富有有机物的沃土,宜于农耕。 When the plants are in the ground, I’ll put some powder on the soil.当植物种到地里时,我将给地里撒些粉剂。 He studied how to improve soil conditions.他研究如何改善土壤环境。 earth表示"地、地球、泥土",着重指"大地",以别于天空。作"泥土"解时,常用于以别于坚硬的岩石。 Later, in a few weeks’ time I’ll put the little plants in the earth. 几星期后,我将把小植物埋在泥土里。 5.practice; exercise; training; drill practice; exercise; training; drill都表示"练习、训练"的意思。 training表示"训练、培养、教练、锻炼"的意思。一般指对于身体的锻炼、对动物的训练、对士兵的训练等。 These football players had no strict training until they joined our club.这些足球队员直到加入我们俱乐部才受到严格的训练。 The athlete is in training.这个运动员锻炼得好。 The home training of children is the first class social problem. 儿童的家庭教育是社会的头等问题。 exercise主要指为提高技巧或业务水平而规定的"练习或体格锻炼"。 The book contains a series of graded exercises adapted to the use of beginners. 书中有一系列按难易排列的练习适于初学者应用。 You need more outdoor exercise.你需要多进行户外运动。 practice主要指正规的、有条理的、不断反复的 "练习"或把理论道理贯彻在行动中的 "实践"。 More practice will make you speak with greater fluency. 多练习会使你口语更流利。 The integration of theory and practice is one of the basic points of Marxism. 理论和实践的统一是马克思主义的基本论点之一。 drill表示"操练、训练"的意思。一般指严格的训练或反反复复练习或军事上的练兵。 Let’s do some pattern drills.咱们做些句型练习吧。 The soldiers were at drill in the barrack yard.士兵们在营场上操练。 6.sign; signal; mark; symbol sign表示 "符号、记号、招牌"等意思。是最普通的用语,指一个具有公认意义的、简单的、随意制定的代表物。 Letters are signs used to represent sounds.字母是用来代表声音的符号。 You’ll see the sign for the rest rooms.你将看到休息室的指示牌。 signal表示 "暗号、信号"的意思。有时是有意的;有时是无意的。有意的,如强风讯号、求救信号等。 There the electrical signal is changed back into sound. 在那儿电信号又变成声音。 mark表示 "痕迹、记号、商标、特征、分数"的意思。指印在物品上的记号,可用在好坏两个方面。作动词时,表示"标明、作记号"的意思。 He got full marks in his maths test. 他在数学测试中得了满分。 Each stone was marked with a number. 每个石头上都标明号码。 symbol表示 "象征"的意思,特别强调故意用来包含某一特定意义的东西,或故意构成的传达某一特定意义的事物。 a good luck symbol 好运气的象征 The lion is considered the king of the forest as it is a symbol of courage and power. 狮子被看作百兽之王,是因为它是勇气与权利的象征。 1. (2018·天津卷·单项填空)The__________ that there is life on other planets in the universe has always inspired scientists to explore the outer space. A. advice B. order C. possibility D. invitation 【答案】C 【解析】考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。句意:宇宙中其它星球上存在生命这种可能性总是激励科学家们去探索外部空间。A. advice建议;B. order命令;C. possibility可能性;D. invitation邀请。故选C。 2. The school advisers help you talk through your problems but they don’t give you any direct________. A. solution????????? B. target C. measure????????? D. function 【答案】A 【解析】 句意:学校顾问会帮你梳理一下你的问题,但是他们不会给你任何直接的解决办法。本题考查名词辨析。solution 解决问题的办法;target目标,靶子;measure措施;function功能,作用。根据句意可知选A。 3.(2017年新课标I卷完形填空)Before the school year 47 (ended) ,I gave the kids a special 48 , T-shirts with the words “Verbs Are Your 49 ” on them. I had advised the kids that while verbs(动词)may seem dull ,most of the 50(fun) things they do. 48.A.lesson B. gift C. report D. message 49. A. Friends B. Awards C. Masters D. Tasks 48.【答案】B 【解析】考查名词辨析,A.lesson课,教训, B.gift礼物, C.report 报告,D.message信息,根据后文可知作者送给Freddy一件衬衫,即一个特殊的礼物,故选B。 49.【答案】A 【解析】考查名词辨析。A.Friends 朋友,B.Awards奖, C.Masters 主人,D.Tasks任务。衬衫上写着“动词是你的朋友”,故选A。 4. (2017年北京卷完形填空)… In the more than five years since Hannah began her activities, she has received a lot of 51 .For example, she received the 2007 BRICK Award recognizing the 52 of young people to change the world…. 51. A. praises B. invitations C. replies D. appointments 52. A. needs B. interests C. dreams D. efforts 51.【答案】A 【解析】考查名词。A. praises赞美B. invitations邀请C. replies回复D. appointments约会。她收到了很多的赞美。因为下文有这方面的举例,给她颁奖,故答案为A。 52. 【答案】D 【解析】考查名词。A. needs 需要 B. interests 兴趣C. dreams梦想D. efforts努力。此处是指这个奖项是为了认可年轻人改变这个世界所作出的努力,根据句意可知选D。 5 The accident caused some ________ to my car,but it’s nothing serious. A. harm B. injury C. ruin D. damage 【答案】D 【解析】考查名词。damage指使用价值遭到损坏, 这种损坏是部分性的,不是完全,根据语境"it is nothing serious"所以选D。harm指肉体上或精神上的伤害。injury指人在事故中受伤。ruin 多用于借喻之中,经常指把某物损坏到了不能再使用的程度。 题组一(真题在线) 1.(2019·江苏)Nowadays the ___________ for travelling is shifted from shopping to food and scenery. A. priority B. potential C. proportion D. pension 2.(2019·天津)We can observe that artificial intelligence has already made a(n) ___________on our lives in many ways. A. statement B. impact C. impression D. judgment 3.(2018·江苏)Try?to?understand?what’s?actually happening instead of acting on the _______ you’ve made. A. assignment B. association C. acquisition D. assumption 4.(2016·天津)The weather forecast says it will be cloudy with a slight _____ of rain later tonight. A. effect B. sense C. change D. chance 5.(2016·江苏) — Can you tell us your for happiness and a long life? — Living every day to the full, definitely. A. recipe B. record C. range D. receipt 6. (2017·全国新课标卷I·语法填空)This trend, which was started by the medical community(医学界) as a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side 62 (effect) such as overweight and heart disease — the very thing the medical community was trying to fight. 7.(2015·湖北)He gave himself a new name to hide his ____ when he went to carry out the secret task. A. emotion B. talent C. identity D. treasure 8.(2015·安徽)There is no need to tell me your answer now. Give it some ______ and then let me know. A. thought B. support C. protection D. authority 9.(2015·江苏)—Go and say sorry to your Mom, Dave. —I’d like to, but I’m afraid she won’t be happy with my ______ . A. requests B. excuses C. apologies D. regrets 10.(2015·江苏)Some schools will have to make ______ in agreement with the national soccer reform. A. judgments B. adjustments C. comments D. achievements 题组二 1.(2015·福建)The failure was a big __________to him, but he wasn’t discouraged and soon got as enthusiastic as ever. A. blow B. issue C. excuse D. Factor 2.(2015·浙江)One of the most effective ways to reduce is to talk about feeling with someone you trust. A. production B. stress C. energy D. passive 3.It is believed that very little _____has been made of the waste materials from factories in the past decades, which on the contrary has brought pollution to the environment. A. cost B. use C. value D. action 4.England is a multicultural society and welcomes a variety of cultures which add a __________ to our daily lives. A. collision B. dimension C. dilemma D. privilege 5.Lots of campaigns have occurred in China to defend the Nansha Islands recently. What is your _________ of the situation? A. intention B. assessment C. attitude D. appointment 6.My morning ________ includes jogging in the park and reading newspapers over breakfast. A. drill B. action C. regulation D. routine 7.Harry has been out of work for six months, so he has difficulty __________. A. earning livings B. earning his living C.to earn livings D.to earn his living 8.The role will be the biggest __________of his acting career. A. conclusion B. challenge C. explanation D. approach 9.Finding the window was broken, he asked whose __________it was. A. mistake B. error C. fault D. responsibility 10.She does exercise every morning to keep her __________. A. figure B. nature C. image D. character 题组三 语篇填空 A strong memory depends? 1 ?the health and vitality(活力)of your brain. Humans are 2 ?(high) social animals, so relationships stimulate(刺激)our brains — in fact, interacting with? 3 ?may be the best brain exercise. Having? 4 ?(mean) relationships is not only vital to emotional health, but also to brain health. In one recent study from the Harvard School of Public Health, for example, researchers found that people with the most active social life had the? 5 ?(slow) rate of memory deterioration. And moreover, you’ve heard that laughter is the best medicine for the brain as? 6 ?as the body. As psychologist Daniel? 7 ?(note)in his book?Emotional?Intelligence, "Laughter seems to help people think more broadly and associate more freely." When you hear laughter, move toward it. Most of the time, people are very happy? 8 ?(share) something funny because it gives them an opportunity to laugh together. Please spend time with those? 9 ?laugh easily — both at themselves and at life’s humorous events. Surround yourself with reminders to lighten up. Keep? 10 ?toy on your desk or in your car. Put up a funny poster in your office. Choose a computer screen saver that makes you laugh. 题组一 1.A 【解析】考查名词辨析。句意:当今,旅行的重点从购物转变成了品尝美食和欣赏风景。A. priority优先;优先权;B. potential潜在的,可能的;C. proportion比例,占比;D. pension退休金,抚恤金。故选A。 2. B 【解析】考查名词词义辨析。句意:我们能够看到人工智能在许多方面已经对我们的生活产生了强烈的影响。 statement“陈述说明”; impact“强烈的影响,冲击力”; impression“印象,感想”; judgement“判断力判断”。故选B。 3.D 【解析】考查名词词义辨析及语境理解。句意:试着去理解实际发生的事情,而不是按照你所做的假设行事。A. assignment分配;B. association交往;C. acquisition获得;D. assumption假设。故选D。 4.D 【解析】句意:天气预报说今天会是多云,后半夜可能有雨。A.影响;B.感觉;C.改变;D.机会,可能性。故选D。 5.A 【解析】考查名词词义辨析。recipe秘诀,食谱,药方;record记录;range范围;receipt收据,收条;句意:—你能告诉我你对幸福长寿的秘密吗?—当然是尽情享受每一天。根据句意可知A项意为"秘诀",与上下文相符。 6. effects 【解析】考查单复数。分析语境可知作者表达的意思是“一些不为人知的副作用”,根据前文的some可知“side effect”(副作用)有很多,故填effects。 7.C 【解析】句意:他执行一项秘密任务时,给自己起了一个新的名字来掩盖身份。A项"情绪";B项 "才能";C项"身份";D项"财富"。故选C项。 【名师点睛】考生解答本题的关键是抓住题干中的关键词"secret task(秘密任务)"和" gave himself a new name(给自己取了个新名字)",然后推知肯定是为了"hide his identity(掩藏身份)",从而锁定正确答案。 8.A 【解析】句意:现在没必要告诉我答案,你再思考一下,之后告诉我。A思考;B支持;C保护;D权威,当局。这里指让对方再好好想想,故选A。 9.C 【解析】句意:——Dave,去跟你的妈妈道歉。——我想这样做,但是我担心她对我的道歉不满意。A项"请求";B项"借口";C项"道歉";D项"遗憾,后悔"。故选C项。 10.B 【解析】句意:为了与国家的足球改革相适应,一些学校必须做出调整。A项"判断,决断";B项"调整";C项"评价,评论";D项"成就"。故选B项。 【名师点睛】本题侧重考查在特定的语境中辨析名词词义的能力。四个选项都可以跟前面的动词make搭配。因此,考生除了要充分利用特定语境理解词义,还应注意多积累可以跟同一动词搭配的名词。另外还可以利用固定搭配排除C项make本题侧重考查在特定的语境中辨析名词词义的能力。comments on"对……做出评价/评论",缩小正确答案的范围。 题组二 1.A 【解析】blow打击; issue问题;excuse借口;factor要素。句意:这个失败对他来说是一个打击,但是他没有泄气,很快振作恢复了原来的热情。故选A 2.B 【解析】句意:一种最有效的减压方法就是和你觉得信任的人谈谈你的想法。production产品, stress压力, energy能源, passive力量。根据常识可知,和别人谈心应该来说是减压。所以答案是B.。 3.B 【解析】考查名词词义辨析。句意为:有人认为在过去几十年里,来自工厂的废料的利用率很小,这反而给环境带来了污染。make use of是固定搭配,表示"利用",故B项正确。 4.B 【解析】考查名词辨析。collision碰撞;dimension方面;dilemma困境;privilege特权。句意:英国是一个多元文化的社会,它欢迎为我们日常生活增添内容的各种文化。故选B。? 5.B 【解析】考查名词词义辨析。intention意图,打算;assessment评估,评价;attitude态度;appointment约定,约会。句意:在中国,为了保卫南沙群岛,开展了大量的运动。你对形势有什么评估?根据句意,B选项正确。attitude要和介词to/toward连用。 6.D【解析】考查名词。句意:我早上要做的事包括在公园慢走和吃早餐时读报。drill"操练,(反复)练习"; action"行动,行为"; regulation"规则,规章"; routine"常规,日常事务"。 故选D。? 7.B 【解析】考查固定短语。句意:Harry已经失业六个月了,因此他谋生有困难。have difficulty (in) doing sth.意为"做某事有困难",earn one’s living意为"谋生",都是固定短语,故选B项。 8.B 【解析】考查名词辨析。句意:扮演这个角色将是他演艺生涯中最大的挑战。challenge"挑战",符合句意。 9.C 【解析】考查名词。句意:发现窗户被打破了,他问那是谁的过错。mistake指判断或理解方面,或因考虑不周而造成的错误;error 常指违反一定标准而犯的错误;fault 表示过失,侧重于所要承担责任的过错;responsibility指责任。根据句意可知,此处指把窗户打破了的过错,故选C。 10.A 【解析】考查词汇辨析。句意:她每天早上做运动以保持身材。figure"身材,身段",符合句意。 题组三 语篇填空 【文章大意】本文是一篇议论文。记忆力取决于健康状况和大脑的活力。重要的人际关系和大笑有益大脑。 1.on 【解析】考查固定短语。depend on"依赖,取决于",是固定短语。故填介词on。 2.highly 【解析】考查副词。根据语境和句子结构可知,此处该用副词修饰形容词social,highly意为"非常地,高度地",表示抽象意义。而high也可用作副词,但表示具体意义上的"高"。 3.others 【解析】考查不定代词。由上文中的social animals和relationships可知,此处表示与"别人(others)"互动。 4.meaningful 【解析】考查形容词。根据语境可知,此处表示"重要的"人际关系,故用mean的形容词形式作定语,修饰relationships。 5.slowest 【解析】考查形容词最高级。根据上文提到的与人交往的好处以及空前的"the most active social life"可知,此处表示"记忆力下降得最慢",应用最高级形式。 6.well 【解析】考查固定短语。对身体和大脑来说,微笑是良药。as well as表示"和",是固定短语。 7.notes 【解析】考查时态。分析句子结构可知,本句缺少谓语动词。文章的主体时态为一般现在时,且此处描述的是事实,故应用一般现在时;再结合从句的主语Daniel可知,此处应用动词的第三人称单数形式。 8.to share 【解析】考查非谓语动词。根据be happy to do sth."乐于做某事"可知,此处应填不定式to share。 9.who 【解析】考查关系代词。空处引导一个定语从句,关系词在从句中作主语,根据句意及先行词those可知,此处应用指人的关系代词who。 10.a 【解析】考查不定冠词。toy是可数名词,且以辅音音素开头,此处表示泛指,故应用a。 PAGE 1 考点03 主谓一致 【命题解读】 在英语句子里,谓语受主语支配,其动词必须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这就叫主谓一致。近几年来,高考关于该内容的考查主要集中在语法形态一致、逻辑意义一致以及就近一致三个方面上。 【命题预测】 主谓一致在高考中常与名词结合在一起进行综合考查,多以语法填空和短文改错的形式出题,在完形填空中也会有所涉及,总体难度系数较低,纵观近年的高考真题,主谓一致中的固定搭配是考查的重难点。预计2020年高考仍会沿袭这一命题规律。 【复习建议】 1. 掌握主谓一致的三个原则:语法形态一致、逻辑意义一致和就近一致; 2. 掌握主谓一致中的固定搭配; 3. 掌握定语从句中的主谓一致; 4. 掌握倒装句、强调句中的主谓一致。 高考主谓一致的知识结构 一致原则 考点详解 例句 语法一致 1. 以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。 His father is working on the farm. To study English well is not easy. What he said is very important for us all. The children were in the classroom two hours ago. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. 2. 由连接词and或both …… and连接起来的合成主语后面,要用复数形式的谓语动词。 Lucy and Lily are twins. She and I are classmates. The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. Both she and he are Young Pioneers. 3. 主语为单数名词或代词,尽管后面跟有with,together with,except,but,like,as well as,rather than,more than,no less than, besides,including等引起的短语,谓语动词仍用单数形式;若主语为复数,谓语用复数形式。 Mr. Green,together with his wife and children,has come to China. Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. She,like you and Tom,is very tall. 4. either,neither,each,every 或no +单数名词和由some,any,no,every构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。 Each of us has a new book. Everything around us is matter. 5. 在定语从句中,关系代词that,who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。 He is one of my friends who are working hard. He is the only one of my friends who is working hard. 一致原则 考点详解 例句 语法一致 6. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数;如果它指集体的成员,其谓语动词就用复数形式。 这些词有family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience等。 Class Four is on the third floor. Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor. 注:people,police,cattle等名词一般都用作复数。如:The police are looking for the lost child. 7. 由“a lot of,lots of,plenty of,the rest of,the majority of +名词”构成的短语以及由“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。 There are a lot of people in the classroom. The rest of the lecture is wonderful. 50% of the students in our class are girls. 注:a number of 与the number of的区别 8. 在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。 There comes the bus. On the wall are many pictures. Such is the result. Such are the facts. 逻辑一致 1. what, who, which, any, more, all等代词可以是单数,也可是复数,主要靠意思来决定。 Which is your bag?Which are your bags? All is going well. All have gone to Beijing. 2. 表示“时间、重量、长度、价值”等的名词的复数作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式,这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体。 Thirty minutes is enough for the work. Ten miles is too long. 3. 若主语是书名、片名、格言、剧名、报名、国名等的复数形式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。 “The Arabian Nights” is an interesting story-book. 4. 表数量的短语“one and a half”后接复数名词作主语时,其谓语动词可用单数形式。 One and a half apples is left on the table. 一致原则 考点详解 例句 逻辑一致 5. 算式中表示数目(字)的主语通常作单数看待,其谓语动词采用单数形式。 Twelve plus eight is twenty. Fifty-six divided by eight is seven. 6. 一些学科名词是以 –ics 结尾,如:mathematics,politics,physics 以及news, works等,都属于形式上是复数的名词,实际意义为单数名词,它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 The paper works was built in 1990. I think physics isn‘t easy to study. 7. trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes,jeans 等词作主语时,谓语用复数,但如果这些名词前有a(the) pair of等量词修饰时,谓语动词用单数。 My glasses are broken. The pair of shoes under the bed is his.? 8. “定冠词the + 形容词或分词”,表示某一类人时,动词用复数。 The old are taken good care of. 9. a (large) quantity of 修饰可数或不可数名词,作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 A large quantity of people is needed here. 注意:quantities一般用复数。 Quantities of food (nuts) were on the table. 10. a great deal of, a large amount of 修饰不可数名词, 作主语时, 谓语动词通常用单数;large amounts of 修饰不可数名词, 作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数。 A large amount of (A great deal of) damage was done in a very short time. Large amounts of money were spent on the bridge. 就近一致 1. 当两个主语由either … or, neither … nor,whether … or …,not only …but also连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语一致。 Either the teacher or the students are our friends. Neither they nor he is wholly right. 2. there be句型的be动词单复数取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由and连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致。 There are two chairs and a desk in the room. Here引导的句子用法同上。 如:Here is a map and a handbook for you. 考向一语法一致 语法一致:就是谓语动词和主语在单、复数形式上保持一致。  单数名词、不可数名词、不定式、动名词或从句作主语时,谓语动词用单数。主语为复数时,谓语动词用复数。 ? His father is working on the farm. ? Time is money. ? To finish all the work on time is impossible. ? Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. ? The children are in the classroom 2 hours ago. ◆由what引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词多用单数但如果表语是复数或what从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时,谓语动词用复数。  What I bought were 3 English books. What I say and do are helpful to you. 由and 或both...and 连接起来的合成主语后面谓语动词用复数。  Lucy and Lily are twins. She and I are friends. Both she and he are Young Pioneers. ◆如果and所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物时,它后面的谓语动词就用单数。 The writer and artist has come. ◆由and 连接的并列单数主语前分别有each, every, no more than a(an), many a(an)修饰时,谓语动词用单数。  Every student and every teacher was in the room. No boy and no girl likes it. 主语后面有with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including等引起的短语时,谓语动词的单复数由主语的单复数决定。 Mr Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground.  She, like you and Tom, is very tall. either, neither, each, every或no+单数neither/neither/none of +复数名词,还有some, any, no, every 构成的复合不定代词作主语,谓语动词用单数。  Each of us has a new book. Everything around us is matter.  Neither of the texts is interesting. None of us has been to South Africa. 定语从句中,关系代词that, which, who 作主语时,谓语动词的数和先行词一致。  He is one of my students who are working hard. He is the only one of my friends who is working hard. 1.(2019·江苏卷·单项填空)The musician along with his band members ___________ ten performances in the last three months. A. gives B. has given C. have given D. give 【答案】B 【解析】考查现在完成时与主谓一致。句意:在过去的三个月里,这名音乐家与他的乐队成员已经完成了十场演出。由“in the last three months”可知,这句话的时态为现在完成时,故排除AD选项。本句主语为the musician,为第三人称单数形式,句中的“along with his band members”是附加成分,故谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式。故选B。 2(2018·新课标卷I·语法填空)While running regularly can’t make you live forever, the review says it 64 (be) more effective at lengthening life 65than walking, cycling or swimming. 【答案】is 【解析】考查主谓一致和时态。医学报告显示:跑步比散步、骑车和游泳更能有效地延长寿命。这里叙述的是一个事实,故用一般现在时,且主语是it,表示单数概念。故填is。 3.He is one of the most selfish men that _______ ever lived; that’s why hardly _______ making friends with him. A. has;anyone likes B. have;does anyone like C. has;no one likes D. have;anyone likes 【答案】D 【解析】考查主谓一致。that引导的定语从句修饰的是名词复数men,因此定语从句的谓语动词应用have。第一个空考查的是定语从句中谓语动词的单复数,one of+复数名词+关系代词+复数动词,因此第一个空用have;后半句译为"那就是几乎没有任何人和他交朋友的原因",hardly表示"几乎不",根据句意,后面应是肯定句,故排除C项;hardly作为否定副词放在句首时,句子才使用倒装语序,因此排除B项。故选D项。 集体名词family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience等,指整体时,用单数;指集体的成员时,用复数。 His family is a happy one.  The whole family are watching TV.  The population of China is 1400 million.(人口)  One third of the population here are workers.(人) ◆people, cattle, police作主语时,谓语动词用复数。 由 a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of +名词,或者是分数/百分数+名词构成的短语作主语,谓语动词的数由名词的单复数决定。 The rest of the lecture is wonderful. A lot of time is wasted. A lot of people take part in the meeting. 2/3 water is drunk by him. 2/3 students are absent. 倒装句中,谓语v.的数与其后的主语一致。  On the wall are many pictures. Such is the result. Such are the facts. It is important to remember that success ________ a sum of small efforts made each day and often ________ years of achieve. A. is; takes B. are; takes C. are; take D. is; take 【答案】A 【解析】主谓一致指"人称"和"数"方面的一致关系。根据分析,第一空的谓语要填一个单数,因为此宾语从句:…that success a sum of…day.的主语是success,一个单数名词,故谓语要用is;后面的句子:often years to achieve.的主语也是success,故第二空的谓语也是一个单数形式。句意:成功是将每天一小点努力积累起来,是需要多年的努力去达到,记住这些很重要。 考向二 意义一致原则 表示时间、度量、长度、价值等的复数名词作主语,因为其在概念上是一个整体,谓语动词用单数。  Twenty minutes is enough for the work. One hundred dollars is stolen from the ATM. 如果是书名,片名,格言,剧名,报名,国名等的复数形式作主语,谓语动词用单数。  The Arabian Nights is an interesting story book. one and a half +复数n.,谓语动词用单数。  One and a half apples is left on the table. 算是中表示数目通常用单数(加减乘除) 表示 上聊天是保持你的外语水平的很好的方式。动词词组keep up意为"使某事物保持(在同一水平,通常指高水平)"。 10.Hopefully 【解析】考查副词。句意:希望以上所述能够帮助你放下你的顾虑,开始你的旅程。本空用来修饰整个句子,因此应该用副词形式。又因为本空在句首,所以单词首字母应大写。 体验真题 1.C 【解析】本题考查时态、语和主谓一致态。句意:艾米和他的兄弟们当上周回到村里时,受到了热烈的欢迎。根据last week可知应用过去时,排除选项A和B。as well as连接并列主语,谓语动词就前原则。这句话真正的主语是Amy,她受到热烈欢迎,所以用过去时的被动。故选C。 2. C 【解析】考查主谓一致。本句是包含定语从句的复合句,先行词是Great Expectations是书名,看作单数,所以定语从句的谓语也要使用单数形式;根据"strengthened"可知,"被广泛阅读和得到高度评价"发生在过去,故选C。 3. B 【解析】句意:现在骑自行车、慢跑和游泳被认为是最全面的锻炼方式之一。根据动词短语regard...as… (把……看做……)和句意确定应该用被动语态,排除A和D;由介词短语along with连接的三个名词作主语,谓语动词应该就前一致,即用单数,排除C。故选B。 4. has grown【解析】考查时态和主谓一致。since加时间点,主句要用现在完成时,且主语为the country,所以应该应该用单数形式。句意:2011年以来,中国种植的玉米比水稻多。故填has grown。 5.A 【解析】考查主谓一致。句意为:通常情况,对别人期望很高的学生的内在动机对他们的发展是必要的。主语students’ inner motivation表示单数意义,所以谓语动词用单数,并且叙述的是现在的状态,所以用一般现在时,故选A项。 PAGE 1 考点04 代词 【命题解读】 冠词是历年高考的必考点,常出现在语篇型语法填空和短文改错中。但从整套试题来看,在短文改错、书面表达、阅读理解等题型中对冠词的隐性考查可谓无处不在。在日常交际中,几乎每说一句话、每写一篇日记、每读一篇文章都会涉及冠词的运用。故不论高考的考查形式如何变化,冠词仍应是高考复习的重点。 【命题预测】 预计2020年的高考仍然会以考查冠词在具体语境中的正确使用为主,以语篇型语法填空和短文改错的形式出现,它可能把冠词的各种用法结合名词一起进行考查。 【复习建议】 1. 掌握冠词的基本用法; 2. 掌握冠词的习惯用法; 3. 掌握冠词的活用; 4. 多做练习,提高熟悉语境的能力。 高考频度:★★★★★ ◆代词的考查要点 代词分为九类:人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词、指示代词、疑问代词、连接代词、关系代词、不定代词。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的作用。 一、 人称代词 1.人称代词作主语用主格,作宾语、表语用宾格,但应注意以下四种情况: ①作主语的人称代词如果孤立地使用于无谓语动词的句子中,或在这种句子中与动词不定式连用,常用宾格。 —Susan,go and join your sister cleaning the yard. —Why me?John is sitting there doing nothing. ②句子中代词作宾语或宾语补足语时,与所替代的名词在人称、数、格以及意义上一般要保持前后一致。 The thief was thought to be he.(the thief是主格,故用he替代) They took me to be her.他们误以为我是她。(me是宾格,故用her替代) ③作表语的人称代词一般用宾格,但在强调句型中,被强调部分代词的格不变。 I met her in the hospital.→It was her who I met in the hospital. ④在比较级的句子中than、as后用主格、宾格都可以。如:He is taller than me(I).但在下列句中有区别: I like Jack as much as her.=I like both Jack and her. I like Jack as much as she.=I like Jack and she likes him,too. 2.两个以上的人称代词并列,其次序排列原则: 在并列主语中,"I"总是放在最后,排列顺序为:二 三 一(人称)。宾格me也一样。 You,she and I will be in charge of the case. Mr. Zhang asked Li Hua and me to help him. 1.(2018·新课标卷II·短文改错)As kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times I asked to them, my parents would not let me. They would say to us that playing card games would help my brain. 【答案】us改为me 【解析】句意:他们会对我说玩纸牌有助于大脑。偷换人称代词,是对“我”说,前面提到的I,而不是we。故把us改为me。 2. (2018·新课标卷III·语法填空)When the gorillas an

  • ID:4-6143206 备战2020年高考英语纠错笔记系列专题练习(打包10套)(含解析)

    高中英语/高考专区/二轮专题/语法专题/语法复习

    专题01 名词、主谓一致和冠词 易错点1 望词生义 1. —Could you tell me the____ of making such tasty cakes? — Well, I just follow the directions in the cookbook. A. feature B. plan C. cost D. trick 【错因分析】本题侧重考查在特定的语境中辨析名词词义的能力。由后文的回答可以推断本题答案,"我只是按照食谱上说明书(做蛋糕)",那么前面问的肯定是"你做蛋糕有啥技巧呀?"再根据初步判断去看选项,B、C可以排除,A和D可能拿捏不准,尤其是D,考生可能会想到play tricks,认为是"把戏"的意思,就错选成A了。但是A仅仅有"特征"之意,D在此由"把戏"被转化为"技巧",类似于tips。 【试题解析】这里表示"你能告诉我做如此美味蛋糕的诀窍吗"。feature特征;plan计划;cost花费;trick 诀窍,所以选D。句意:上文,你能告诉我做如此美味蛋糕的诀窍吗?下文,好吧,我就是按照烹饪书上的说明做的。 【参考答案】 D 同义词、近义词甚至是形近词有着不同的含义和适用场合,要特别注意在特定语境中准确运用词汇和语法知识的能力。平时要努力扩大词汇量,做题时要深入理解语境,整体把握,结合句意作出最佳选择。 名词词义辨析是高考的热点,主要考查考生结合语境区分词义的能力,因而在记忆单词时,一定要结合语境体会其意义。如近几年高考中常出现的: (1)expectation(期望);reputation(声誉);contribution(贡献);civilization(文明) (2)accommodation(住宿);occupation(职业);adaptation(适应,改编);appreciation(欣赏) 1. Her_____ for writing was a desire for women to get the right to higher education. A. motivation B. qualification C. talent D. technique 【解析】 A项表示"动力,激励";B项为"资格";C项是"才能,天赋";D项表示"技巧"。句意上"她写作的动力源自为女性获得更高教育的权利"。故选A。 【答案】 A 【名师点睛】A、B形式相近,容易让考生迷惑,不知意思。C、D读音较为相近,又让考生犯疑惑了。此时就分析题目,抓住题干中的"desire",把题干简化为Her_____ for writing was a desire,这样看来,其实就在考查desire的近义词,下面哪个选项意为"渴望、心愿"就是正确答案。多角度解题是考生致胜的关键。 易错点2 主谓一致错误 2. It is important to remember that success ________ a sum of small efforts made each day and often ________ years of achieve. A. is; takes B. are; takes C. are; take D. is; take 【错因分析】 此题易错选D,关键是第二空的主语容易弄混,因此误选答案D。 【试题解析】主谓一致指"人称"和"数"方面的一致关系。根据分析,第一空的谓语要填一个单数,因为此宾语从句:…that success a sum of…day.的主语是success,一个单数名词,故谓语要用is;后面的句子:often years to achieve.的主语也是success,故第二空的谓语也是一个单数形式。句意:成功是将每天一小点努力积累起来,是需要多年的努力去达到,记住这些很重要。 【参考答案】A 1.如果主语有more?than?one很多?非常,或many?a许多,构成,one?and?a?half与单数名词组成的短语。尽管从意义上看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词仍用单数形式。 2.each作主语或修饰主语时? 1)单独用作主语(或修饰主语),谓语用单数: Each?student?has?his?own?desk.?每个学生都有自己的课桌。? Two?boys?entered.?Each?was?carrying?a?suitcase.?两个男孩进来,每人提着一只箱子。? 【注意】? (1)?两个或多个"each+单数名词"结构并列作主语时,谓语用单数。?(2)?"each?of+复数名词或代词"用作主语,谓语一般要用单数?Each?of?them?was?deeply?frightened.?他们个个都惊恐万分。? 但是在非正式文体中(尤其是当?each?of之后的名词较长时)偶尔也可用复数谓语,但很少见,学生宜慎用。? 2)each?用于复数名词后作同位语?此时谓语动词用复数:? They?each?have?an?English-Chinese?dictionary.?他们每人都有一本英汉词典。? 4.?有些名词的单数和复数形式一样,作主语的时候,?其谓语动词单复数由上下文决定(尤其注意其前的修饰语),这一类名词有:?means,?works,?deer,?fish,?sheep,?Chinese, Japanese等。 5.?kind"种类"作主语? 6.?在主谓倒装的句子中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。例如: Between?the?two?windows?hangs?a?picture.? 7."分数或百分数+名词"构成的短语以及由"?a?lot?of,?lots?of,?plenty?of,?a?large?quantity?of,?a?heap?of,?heaps?of,?half?of?+?名词"构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词要与短语中of?后面的名词的数保持一致,这是因为短语中后面的名词是中心词,而短语中前面的量词是修饰语。 8.?表时间长度、钱数、速度等的词组作主语,此时通常将其视为整体,谓语用单数。 2. All we need ________a small piece of land where we can plant various kinds of fruit trees throughout the growing seasons of the year. A. are B. was C. is D. were 【解析】考查主谓一致及时态用法。句中的主语为代词all,代指的是物,故谓语动词用单数形式。再根据从句中的can可以判断用一般现在时。句意:我们所需要的是一小块土地,在整个一年的生长季节,我们能够种各种不同的水果树。故C正确。 【答案】C 易错点3 误用冠词 3. I couldn’t remember the exact date of the storm, but I knew it was ______ Sunday because everybody was at ______ church. A. a;the B. a;/ C. /;a D. /;/ 【错因分析】容易误选 D,因为星期名词前不加冠词;而at church表示在教堂里做礼拜,其中也不用冠词。 【试题解析】最佳答案为 B。确实,在通常情况下星期名词前不用冠词,但在某些特殊情况下还是可以用冠词的,如表示特指,其前可用定冠词;表示"某一个"或受描绘性定语修饰表示"某种"这样的意义等,其前可用不定冠词。此处的Sunday就特指一个Sunday。 【参考答案】B 冠词的考查一直以来是一个易错点,虽然冠词只有3个(a , an, the) 但是麻雀虽小五脏俱全,考查起来往往会弄错。名词第一次出现或泛指时,冠词用a/an,,但名词的首字母是(A、E、I、O、U)发音时,用an, 如:apple, English, important, operation, unusual, 特殊的有umbrella, hour, honest用an, university, unique, usual 用 a。 名词第二次出现用the;①强调特指时用the;②the + 最高级,③ the + 形容词(rich 富人, poor穷人, wounded伤者, dead死者, elderly长者)表某一类人 ④the+比较级(the more .. the better)⑤the +序数词 (表顺序);?a+ 序数词 (表"又,再"),⑥固定搭配 (in the way 挡道) 另外也需要注意零冠词的情况。零冠词用法归纳:独一职位在某地,用作表/补/同位语;独立主格作状语,用by短语表方式;man字一词指人类,对比含义两名词;系词turn+名单数,街/路/期刊与杂志;具体意义变抽象,as/though之倒装句;人名/地名/国一词,抽象/物质不特指;桥名/单岛/单山峰,一专加一普专用词;月份/星期/节假日,学科/语言/称呼语;颜色/病名/五感觉,棋类/球类/三餐词;复数名词系泛指,固定词组惯用语;以上情况请记住,其前均用零冠词。 3. more learned a man is, more modest be usually become. A. The; the B. A; a C. The; a D. A; the 【解析】句意:一个人越有学识,他就越可能更谦虚。使用the +比较级+主谓, the +比较级+主谓的句型,所以选A。 【答案】A 【名师点睛】冠词的考查集中在the表示特指;a/an表示泛指。另外要注意冠词的一些固定搭配中冠词的使用。这里用的是:the +比较级+主谓, the +比较级+主谓的句型,学生在平时应该多积累这些包含冠词的短语和句型。 易错点4序数词、比较级、最高级前误用定冠词 4. His English is ________ second to none. And he is going to learn ________ second language in ________ second grade. A./;a;the B.the;the;a C./;the;a D.a;the;the 【错因分析】 此题涉及序数词,很多学生误以为序数词a前都要用定冠词the,因此易错选答案。 【试题解析】 second to none"首屈一指"是固定短语,所以second前不加冠词;second前加不定冠词,表示"又一,再一";the second grade表示"在二年级"。由此可以判断答案为A。 【参考答案】 A 序数词前用不定冠词而不用定冠词the的情况: 1.泛指某一类人或物中的任何一个。 A teacher shouldn't talk like that.教师不应当那样讲话。 2.用于序数词前表示"又一""再一"。用于形容词最高级前意为"很,非常"。 We'll have to do it a second time.我们得再做一次。 He is a most wise man.他是一个十分明智的人。 3.用于具体化了的抽象名词前。 He was a success in business.他是事业成功人士。 4.在专有名词前表示"某一个""类似的一个"。 A Mr. Smith wants to see you.一位史密斯先生想见你。 5.用于of短语中表示"同一"(=the same)。 Tom and Kate are of an age.汤姆与凯特同岁。 4. more learned a man is, more modest be usually become. A. The; the B. A; a C. The; a D. A; the 【解析】句意:一个人越有学识,他就越可能更谦虚。使用the +比较级+主谓,the +比较级+主谓的句型,所以选A。 【答案】A 易错点5 名词的一词多义与熟词新义 5. —Why do you choose to work in an international travel agency? —Well, you know, English is my ________. So it is my best choice. A. strength B. talent B. ability C. skill 【错因分析】 很多考生不知道此题该选择哪一个,关健问题是弄不清楚strength的词义。 【试题解析】考查名词词义辨析。句意:"你为什么选择在国际旅行社工作?""噢,你知道,英语是我的强项,因此这是我的最佳选择。"strength"强项;长处";talent"天资;才能";ability"能力;力量";skill"技能;擅长"。题中strength的常见词义为"力气",但此处表示"长处,优势"。 【参考答案】A 名词的一词多义与熟词新义是考查的重点和难点,因此在复习过程中,要注意学会在语境中掌握同义词的细微差别,全面掌握词汇的多层含义。如interest既要知道它有"兴趣,趣味"的意思,又要知道它的另一层意思:"利益;好处"。 The weather forecast says it will be cloudy with a slight _____ of rain later tonight. A. effect B. sense C. change D. chance 【解析】试题分析:句意:天气预报说今天会是多云,后半夜可能有雨。A.影响;B.感觉;C.改变;D.机会,可能性。故选D。 【答案】D 一、疑难名词比较与辨析 1.force; energy; strength; power force表示"力、力量"的意思。指为做或实现某事而实际运用的力量。 He overcame his bad habits by force of will.毅力使他克服了自己身上的不良习惯。 Those people are the progressive forces in the society. 这些人是社会的进步力量。 energy主要强调"精力",指用来做某事或完成某事的能力。还可以指"能源"。 Young people usually have more energy than the old. 青年人通常此老年人精力充沛。 Many countries are increasing their use of natural gas, wind and other forms of energy. 很多国家正在提高天然气、风以及其他能源形式的利用。 strength表示"力"的意思。指做事情的--种内在能力。就人而育,着重指力气;就物而言,着重指强度潜力等。 He lifted the stone with all his strength.他使出全身力气举起了那块石头。 The side man hasn’t got enough strength to get out of bed. 那位病人还没有足够的力气下床。 power 表示 "能力、能量、动力"的意思。指身体上、心理上和道德上的能力(不管是否发挥出)。 Knowledge is power.知识就是力 量。 I shall do everything in my power to help you.我将尽我的能力帮助你。 2.manner; means; method; way manner表示"方式、方法"的意思。指个人喜欢采用的方式。 The manner of their meeting makes a good story. 他们相见的方式似乎有些传奇色彩。 He has developed his own manner of acting. 它形成了自己独特的演出风格。 means表示"方法、手段 、工具"的意思。 Students sometimes support themselves by means of evening job. 学生有时通过晚上打工的方法来养活自己。 The quickest means of travel is by plane.最快的旅行工具是飞机。 Have you the means to support a family? 你有维持家的方法没有? method指做某事的具体步骤或程序,也指系统的、抽象概念的原理。 His idea is all right, but he lacks method.他的想法不错,但是缺少方法。 He is a man of method.他是个有条理的人。 method of teaching 教学方法 method of study 学习方法 Roasting is one method of cooking meat. 烤是做肉的一种方法。 way是最通用的词,也是最不正式的词,本义是"通道、通路",引申作"方式、方法"讲,含义很广。 In this way over several days, the artist and his mice became friends. 就这样过了几天,这位艺术家和他的老鼠成了好朋友。 Look! Work on it in this way. 看!像这样搞它。 My parents always let me have my own way of living. 3.cost; price; value; worth; expense cost表示"成本、费用"的意思。 原指生产某种物品的成本 ,包括生产中所支付的原料和劳动。一般要低于售价,有时也可用来泛指价格。也可用于借喻,指所付出的代价,甚至生命。 As a result, costs will be reduced by as much as 90%. 因此,成本将会降低90% 之多。 China Daily has plenty of advertisements, which help to cut the costs of making the newspaper. 《中国日报》刊登大量广告有助于降低报纸生产的成本。 price表示"价格、价钱、定价"的意思。 指经营商品出售的单价,通常要高于商品的出厂成本。也用于借喻,指做某事所付出的代价。 Can you try to get them to bring down the price? 你能把价格讲下来吗? They can sell their beef at a high price in the capital. 他们可以在首都以高价出售他们的牛肉。 value表示"价值、价格"。指我们所估计一件东西的价值,因此是不能 以金钱估价的。 Instead, they are writing once more about things that are common for everyone: feeling alone in the modern world, the value of having good friends and so on. 他们现在再一次写常人常事——现代世界中的孤独感及交好朋友的价值等等。 The park is good value for the money.公园花这么多钱值得。 worth意思是价值。指东西本身的真正价值,是经久不变的,是可贵的。 It was worth five hundred francs at the most.它最多值500法郎。 He asked me how much this computer was worth. 他问我这台计算机值多少钱。 expense意思是"费用、支出、开销",指花费金钱、时间和精力。 We travelled to France at our own expense. 我们自费去法国旅行了。 Do you know at whose expense your visit to Japan will be?你 知道谁将担负你访问日本的费用吗? 4.land; ground; soil; earth land表示"陆地、土地、地",是河流和海洋的相对用语。用于指土地或土壤时,着重指它的性质、用途等。有时泛指大地,也可作"国家、地产"讲。 The rocky soil has been turned into rich land.岩石地已变成了沃土。 But some people don’t want good farm land to be built on. 但是有些人不愿意把好的农田用来修建厂房。 To the sea captain’s surprise, he found that land travel could also be quite pleasant. 使那位船长吃惊的是,他发现陆地旅行也很愉快。 ground(n. )表示"地、土地"的意思。主要指大地表面,也可以指土壤、场地。也可用于借喻指"根据、理由"。 He learnt how to clean rough ground before planting crops. 他学会了在种植作物之前如何拾掇毛糙的土地。 Then the Class 2 runner dropped his stick on the ground when he was passing it on to the fourth runner.然而,当二班运动员传给第四棒时,接力棒掉在地上了。 soil表示"土壤、土地",指可以生长植物且富有有机物的沃土,宜于农耕。 When the plants are in the ground, I’ll put some powder on the soil.当植物种到地里时,我将给地里撒些粉剂。 He studied how to improve soil conditions.他研究如何改善土壤环境。 earth表示"地、地球、泥土",着重指"大地",以别于天空。作"泥土"解时,常用于以别于坚硬的岩石。 Later, in a few weeks’ time I’ll put the little plants in the earth. 几星期后,我将把小植物埋在泥土里。 5.practice; exercise; training; drill practice; exercise; training; drill都表示"练习、训练"的意思。 training表示"训练、培养、教练、锻炼"的意思。一般指对于身体的锻炼、对动物的训练、对士兵的训练等。 These football players had no strict training until they joined our club.这些足球队员直到加入我们俱乐部才受到严格的训练。 The athlete is in training.这个运动员锻炼得好。 The home training of children is the first class social problem. 儿童的家庭教育是社会的头等问题。 exercise主要指为提高技巧或业务水平而规定的"练习或体格锻炼"。 The book contains a series of graded exercises adapted to the use of beginners. 书中有一系列按难易排列的练习适于初学者应用。 You need more outdoor exercise.你需要多进行户外运动。 practice主要指正规的、有条理的、不断反复的 "练习"或把理论道理贯彻在行动中的 "实践"。 More practice will make you speak with greater fluency. 多练习会使你口语更流利。 The integration of theory and practice is one of the basic points of Marxism. 理论和实践的统一是马克思主义的基本论点之一。 drill表示"操练、训练"的意思。一般指严格的训练或反反复复练习或军事上的练兵。 Let’s do some pattern drills.咱们做些句型练习吧。 The soldiers were at drill in the barrack yard.士兵们在营场上操练。 6.sign; signal; mark; symbol sign表示 "符号、记号、招牌"等意思。是最普通的用语,指一个具有公认意义的、简单的、随意制定的代表物。 Letters are signs used to represent sounds.字母是用来代表声音的符号。 You’ll see the sign for the rest rooms.你将看到休息室的指示牌。 signal表示 "暗号、信号"的意思。有时是有意的;有时是无意的。有意的,如强风讯号、求救信号等。 There the electrical signal is changed back into sound. 在那儿电信号又变成声音。 mark表示 "痕迹、记号、商标、特征、分数"的意思。指印在物品上的记号,可用在好坏两个方面。作动词时,表示"标明、作记号"的意思。 He got full marks in his maths test. 他在数学测试中得了满分。 Each stone was marked with a number. 每个石头上都标明号码。 symbol表示 "象征"的意思,特别强调故意用来包含某一特定意义的东西,或故意构成的传达某一特定意义的事物。 a good luck symbol 好运气的象征 The lion is considered the king of the forest as it is a symbol of courage and power. 狮子被看作百兽之王,是因为它是勇气与权利的象征。 二、学习冠词的难点 1.在特殊情况下混用a和an   关于a和an的一般区别,同学们可能比较清楚,也不易搞错,但是对于数字和字母前用该用不定冠词a还是an,则是许多考生可能忽略的问题。如:   They have an 8-year-old daughter. 他们有一个8岁大的女儿。(数字8在英语中读音与eight同,故其前用an,不用a;类似地,我们要说an 11-year-old child,不能说a 11-year-old boy。)   Our daughter sent us an SOS for some more money. 我们的女儿给我们发来了再要点钱的求救信号。(字母s的读音为[es],它的第一个音为元音,故其前要用an。) 2."星期"名词前冠词的使用问题  表示"星期"的名词(如Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday等)一般不与冠词连用,但有时为了表示"特指"可以带定冠词;若表示不确定的"某一个",其前可用不定冠词。如:   "When can I have my birthday party?" "On the Saturday nearest to it." "我的生日庆祝会在哪天举行?""就在离你生日最近的那个星期六吧。"   Christmas Day falls on a Monday. 今年的圣诞节是星期一。   You won’t catch me working on a Sunday! 你绝对见不到我在星期日工作!   He never opens up shop on a Sunday. 星期日他的商店从不营业。   We had a card from her on the Friday after she got back. 在她回去后的那个星期五我们收到了她的明信片。   "When can I have my birthday party?" "On the Saturday nearest to it." "我的生日庆祝会能在哪天举行?""在离你生日最近的那个星期六吧。" 3."三餐饭"前冠词的使用问题   一般说来,表示一日三餐的 breakfast, lunch, supper前不用冠词。如:   Breakfast is served until 9 a.m. 早餐一直供应到上午9点。   Can you manage lunch on Tuesday? 你星期二能来吃午饭吗?   但是,若要特指某一顿早餐、中餐或晚餐,则可在其前加定冠词。如:   The supper is well cooked. 晚饭做得很好。   Thank you for the breakfast. 谢谢你的这顿早餐。   另外,若 breakfast, lunch, supper 受到描绘性定语的修饰,则其前通常要用不定冠词。如:   We make a good breakfast before leaving. 我们动身前好好吃顿早饭。   I’ve got out of the habit of having a cooked breakfast. 我已不再保持早餐吃热食的习惯。   After a quick breakfast, he hurried to the station. 匆匆忙忙吃完早餐,他就赶到车站去了。   We were well primed for the journey with a large breakfast. 为了去旅行, 我们早餐都吃得饱饱的。 4.冠词的非前位用法 限定语与所修饰的中心名词的关系一般顺序是:冠词+表示大小尺寸的限定词+表示颜色的限定词+表示原材料的限定词+中心名词。但在某些固定结构中,冠词放在了形容词之后。 【锦囊妙计】 1.不定冠词用在quite,rather,many,half,what,much等词之后。例如: He is rather a fool. —What did you think of the concert? —Oh,it was quite a success. 2.不定冠词用在so(as,too,how)+形容词之后。 例如:She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet. It’s too difficult a book for us to read. 注意:以元音音素开头的名词前加不定冠词时用"an"。例如:an apple。 即使单词拼写以辅音字母开头,但该词的读音是元音音素开头,加不定冠词时也要用"an",例如:an hour,an honest boy;反之,拼写以元音字母开头,但读音是辅音,加不定冠词时要用"a",例如:a university。 3.so…that与such…that:①so…that和such…that都作"如此……以致"解,that引导结果状语从句。常见句型如下:so②such…that和so…that有时可以换用,条件是such所修饰的名词必须是一个单数可数名词,且该名词还带有表性质的形容词。转变公式如下:such a/an+形容词+名词→so+形容词+a/an+名词。 例如:He is such a good student that we all like him. →He is so good a student that we all like him。 但是,如果是不可数名词或复数可数名词,则只能用such,不能用so修饰。 例如:It was such bad weather that he had to stay at home。③如果复数名词前有many,few,不可数名词前有much,little等表示量的形容词时,应该用so而不用such。 如:I’ve had so many falls that I’m black and blue all over. Mr White got so little money a month that he could hardly keep body and soul together(维持生活)。 但little不表示数量而表示"小"的意思时,仍用such。 例如:They are such little children that they cannot clean the house by themselves. 三、高考主谓一致的知识结构 一致原则 考点详解 例句 语法一致 1. 以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。 His father is working on the farm. To study English well is not easy. What he said is very important for us all. The children were in the classroom two hours ago. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. 2. 由连接词and或both …… and连接起来的合成主语后面,要用复数形式的谓语动词。 Lucy and Lily are twins. She and I are classmates. The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. Both she and he are Young Pioneers. 3. 主语为单数名词或代词,尽管后面跟有with,together with,except,but,like,as well as,rather than,more than,no less than, besides,including等引起的短语,谓语动词仍用单数形式;若主语为复数,谓语用复数形式。 Mr. Green,together with his wife and children,has come to China. Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. She,like you and Tom,is very tall. 4. either,neither,each,every 或no +单数名词和由some,any,no,every构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。 Each of us has a new book. Everything around us is matter. 5. 在定语从句中,关系代词that,who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。 He is one of my friends who are working hard. He is the only one of my friends who is working hard. 一致原则 考点详解 例句 语法一致 6. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数;如果它指集体的成员,其谓语动词就用复数形式。 这些词有family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience等。 Class Four is on the third floor. Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor. 注:people,police,cattle等名词一般都用作复数。如:The police are looking for the lost child. 7. 由"a lot of,lots of,plenty of,the rest of,the majority of +名词"构成的短语以及由"分数或百分数+名词"构成的短语作主语,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。 There are a lot of people in the classroom. The rest of the lecture is wonderful. 50% of the students in our class are girls. 注:a number of 与the number of的区别 8. 在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。 There comes the bus. On the wall are many pictures. Such is the result. Such are the facts. 逻辑一致 1. what, who, which, any, more, all等代词可以是单数,也可是复数,主要靠意思来决定。 Which is your bag?Which are your bags? All is going well. All have gone to Beijing. 2. 表示"时间、重量、长度、价值"等的名词的复数作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式,这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体。 Thirty minutes is enough for the work. Ten miles is too long. 3. 若主语是书名、片名、格言、剧名、报名、国名等的复数形式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。 "The Arabian Nights" is an interesting story-book. 4. 表数量的短语"one and a half"后接复数名词作主语时,其谓语动词可用单数形式。 One and a half apples is left on the table. 一致原则 考点详解 例句 逻辑一致 5. 算式中表示数目(字)的主语通常作单数看待,其谓语动词采用单数形式。 Twelve plus eight is twenty. Fifty-six divided by eight is seven. 6. 一些学科名词是以 –ics 结尾,如:mathematics,politics,physics 以及news, works等,都属于形式上是复数的名词,实际意义为单数名词,它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 The paper works was built in 1990. I think physics isn‘t easy to study. 7. trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes,jeans 等词作主语时,谓语用复数,但如果这些名词前有a(the) pair of等量词修饰时,谓语动词用单数。 My glasses are broken. The pair of shoes under the bed is his.? 8. "定冠词the + 形容词或分词",表示某一类人时,动词用复数。 The old are taken good care of. 9. a (large) quantity of 修饰可数或不可数名词, 作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 A large quantity of people is needed here. 注意:quantities一般用复数。 Quantities of food (nuts) were on the table. 10. a great deal of, a large amount of 修饰不可数名词,作主语时, 谓语动词通常用单数;large amounts of 修饰不可数名词, 作主语时, 谓语动词通常用复数。 A large amount of (A great deal of) damage was done in a very short time. Large amounts of money were spent on the bridge. 就近一致 1. 当两个主语由either … or, neither … nor,whether … or …,not only …but also连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语一致。 Either the teacher or the students are our friends. Neither they nor he is wholly right. 2. there be句型的be动词单复数取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由and连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致。 There are two chairs and a desk in the room. Here引导的句子用法同上。 如:Here is a map and a handbook for you. 【巧学妙记】 主谓一致记忆口诀单单复复最常见,集体名词谓用单。 如若强调其成员,复数谓语记心间。 有些名词谓常复,people, police即这般。 主语单数后接介,谓语单数介无关。 many a作主语也如此,谓语动词应用单。 or、nor、but also、there be,近主原则挂嘴边。 关系代词定主语,谓语根据先行词判。 不定式短语、动名词,主语从句谓全单。 时间、货币与距离,谓语多单复少见, rest,means,following等,意义决定其复、单。 none,all,half of等,of之宾语定答案。 还有分数、百分数,仍据of之宾定复、单。 代词all指人谓复数,all指事情谓用单。 量词用法请注意,谓语要随量词变。 and连接两名词,身兼两职一定冠。 no,each,every后单名,两种事物一概念。 以上情况请记清,谓语动词全用单。 形容词带the一类人,姓氏复数加定冠, -s结尾的海峡、山脉与群岛,谓语用复勿用单。 代词neither,either,each,用作主语谓全单。 1.(2019·江苏卷·单项填空) Nowadays the ___________ for travelling is shifted from shopping to food and scenery. A. priority B. potential C. proportion D. pension 【答案】A 【解析】考查名词辨析。句意:当今,旅行的重点从购物转变成了品尝美食和欣赏风景。A. priority优先;优先权;B. potential潜在的,可能的;C. proportion比例,占比;D. pension退休金,抚恤金。故选A。 2.(2019·天津卷·单项填空)We can observe that artificial intelligence has already made a(n) ___________on our lives in many ways. A. statement B. impact C. impression D. judgment 【答案】B 【解析】考查名词词义辨析。句意:我们能够看到人工智能在许多方面已经对我们的生活产生了强烈的影响。statement“陈述说明”;impact“强烈的影响,冲击力”;impression“印象,感想”;judgement“判断力判断”。故选B。 3.(2019·新课标I卷·语法填空)Of ___69___ nineteen recognized polar bear subpopulations, three are declining, six are (be) stable, one is increasing, and nine lack enough data. 【答案】the 【解析】考查定冠词。此处为特指,意为“在已知的19个北极熊亚种群中”,故填the。 4.(2019·浙江卷·语法填空)Everybody wears___57___ same style of clothes. 【答案】the 【解析】考查冠词。句意:每个人都穿相同风格的衣服。same是形容词,意思是“相同的”,常与the连用修饰名词。故填the。 5.(2019·新课标I卷·短文改错)Suddenly football fell just in front of me but almost hit me. 【答案】 Suddenly football fell just in front of me almost hit me. 【解析】考查冠词。名词football为可数名词,前边需要有限定词。这里football第一次出现,故在football前加a。 6.(2019·新课标II卷·短文改错)Since I was a kid, I’ve considered different job I would like to do. 【答案】Since I was a kid, I’ve considered different I would like to do. 【解析】考查名词的数。“job(工作;职业)”为可数名词,用different(不同的)修饰时意思为不同种类的工作,应该用名词的复数形式。故将job改为jobs。 7.(2018·全国新课标卷I·语法填空)Two of the authors of the review also made a study published in 2014 66that/which showed a mere five to 10 minutes a day of running reduced the risk of heart disease and early deaths from all 67 (cause). 【答案】causes 【解析】考查单复数。一项研究表明,仅仅每天5到10分钟的跑步,就能减少各种原因的心脏病和早亡。根据句意用复数形式。故填causes。 8.(2018·全国新课标卷I·短文改错)Last winter when I went here(改为there) again, they had a big separate house to raise dozens of chicken. 【答案】chicken改为chickens 【解析】考查名词复数。他们拥有一个大的独立住宅,还养了许多只鸡。根据前文的dozens of可知,其后用名词复数形式。 9. (2018·全国新课标卷II·短文改错)When I was little, Friday’s night was our family game night. 【答案】Friday’s改为Friday。 【解析】考查名词的格。名词作定语,往往表明被修饰名词的时间、地点、类别、目的或用途、材料或来源等。名词所有格作定语则强调与被修饰的词的所有关系或表示逻辑上的谓语关系。此处表示“星期五晚上”,并不是所有关系,故把Friday’s改为Friday。 10.(2018·新课标II卷·短文改错)As the kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times I asked to watching them, my parents would not to let me. 【答案】the改为a 【解析】考查冠词。这里表示“作为一个孩子”,a用在表示泛指的单数名词前,the表示特指。故把the改为a。 11.(2018·新课标卷I·语法填空)While running regularly can’t make you live forever, the review says it 64 (be) more effective at lengthening life 65than walking, cycling or swimming. 【答案】is 【解析】考查主谓一致和时态。医学报告显示:跑步比散步、骑车和游泳更能有效地延长寿命。这里叙述的是一个事实,故用一般现在时,且主语是it,表示单数概念。故填is。 12. (2017·全国新课标卷I·语法填空)This trend, which was started by the medical community(医学界) as a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side 62 (effect) such as overweight and heart disease — the very thing the medical community was trying to fight. 【答案】effects 【解析】考查单复数。分析语境可知作者表达的意思是"一些不为人知的副作用",根据前文的some可知"side effect"(副作用)有很多,故填effects。 13.(2017·新课标I卷·语法填空)As 65 result, people will eat more food to try to make up for that something missing. 【答案】a 【解析】考查冠词。固定短语as a result表示"结果"。句意:结果,人们将吃更多的食物去弥补损失的东西。故填a。 14. (2017·天津·单项填空)Nowadays, cycling, along with jogging and swimming, ___________ as one of the best all-round forms of exercise. A. regard B. is regarded C. are regarded D. regards 【答案】B 【解析】句意:现在骑自行车、慢跑和游泳被认为是最全面的锻炼方式之一。根据动词短语regard...as… (把……看做……)和句意确定应该用被动语态,排除A和D;由介词短语along with连接的三个名词作主语,谓语动词应该就前一致,即用单数,排除C。故选B。 15.(2017·江苏·单项填空)The publication of Great Expectations, which ____________ both widely reviewed and highly praised, strengthened Dickens, status as a leading novelist. A. is B. are C. was D. were 【答案】C 【解析】考查主谓一致。本句是包含定语从句的复合句,先行词是Great Expectations是书名,是单数意义,所以定语从句的谓语也要使用单数形式;根据"strengthened"可知,"被广泛阅读和得到高度评价"发生在过去,故选C。 16.(2016·全国新课标卷II·语法填空)Give your body and brain a rest by stepping outside for 48 while, exercising, or doing something you enjoy. 【答案】a 【解析】介词短语for a while意为"一会儿",本句是指通过锻炼或做一些你喜欢的事情,让你的身体和大脑休息一会儿。 17.(2016·浙江)______prize for the winner of the competition is ______two-week holiday in Paris. A. The ; 不填 B. A ; 不填 C. A ; the D. The ; a 【答案】D 【解析】句意:这个比赛获胜者的奖品是一个巴黎的两个星期的假期。第一空填the,是特指"获胜者的奖品",用定冠词,第二空是泛指"一个两周的假期",用不定冠词a。故选D。 18.(2016·江苏卷·单项填空)— Can you tell us your for happiness and a long life? — Living every day to the full, definitely. A. recipe B. record C. range D. receipt 【答案】A 【解析】考查名词词义辨析。recipe秘诀,食谱,药方;record记录;range范围;receipt收据,收条;句意:—你能告诉我你对幸福长寿的秘密吗?—当然是尽情享受每一天。根据句意可知A项意为"秘诀",与上下文相符。 19.?At the meeting they discussed three different _______ to the study of mathematics。 A. approaches B. means C. methods D. ways 【答案】D 【解析】在会议上他们讨论了三种不同的学习数学的方法。way意为"方式,方法",可指具体的方法,也可指抽象的方法,多指一般的思想、行动、办事的方法,也可指个人特殊的方式、方法。approach意为"接近,靠近,方式,方法",指接近某人或某事,也可指对待或处理事情的方式或方法。mean意为"方式,方法",用于抽象意义,可指为达到某一目的而采用的方法、计划、政策、策略等,尤指整套方法;用于具体意义,常指为达到某一目的所使用的工具、材料、机器、 用具、车船等。method意为"方式,方法",指具体的、系统的、有步骤的方法,强调条理性及高效率。 20. The school advisers help you talk through your problems but they don’t give you any direct________. A. solution????????? B. target C. measure????????? D. function 【答案】A 【解析】 句意:学校顾问会帮你梳理一下你的问题,但是他们不会给你任何直接的解决办法。本题考查名词辨析。solution 解决问题的办法;target目标,靶子;measure措施;function功能,作用。根据句意可知选A。 21.Dr.Peter?Spence,??___________headmaster?of?the?school,?told?us,?________?fifth?of?pupils?here?go?on?to?study?at?Oxford?and?Cambridge.?? A.?不填;A????????? ??B.不填;The?????? C.?the;?The??????? D.?a;?A?? 【答案】A?? 【解析】句意为"校长Peter?Spence告诉我们说,我校的五分之一学生将到牛津大学和剑桥大学去学习。"headmaster校长,职务前面不加冠词;a?fifth表示五分之一。选A。 22. more learned a man is, more modest be usually become. A. The ; the B. A; a C. The ; a D. A; the 【答案】A 【解析】句意:一个人越有学识,他就越可能更谦虚。使用"the +比较级…, the +比较级…"句型,所以选A。 【名师点睛】冠词的考查集中在the表示特指;a/an表示泛指。另外要注意冠词的一些固定搭配中冠词的使用。这里用的是:"the +比较级…, the +比较级…"句型,学生在平时应该多积累这些包含冠词的短语和句型。 23.So far as I know, a number of the students in our school ___________ from the suburb and the number of them ___________ 500. A. come;is B. comes;are C. comes;is D. come;are 【答案】 A 【解析】考查主谓一致。第一空的主语是"a number of the students in our school",指"许多学生",谓语用复数形式;第二空的主语是"the number of them",指"学生的数量",谓语用单数形式。故选A。 24.The teacher along with her students ___________ the Palace Museum when we came across her. A. were visiting B. was visiting C. has visited D. have visited 【答案】B 【解析】考查主谓一致和时态。句意:当我们遇见那位老师的时候,她正在和她的学生们参观故宫。名词+介词短语作主语时,谓语动词要和介词前面的名词保持一致,即遵循"就远原则"。该题中,谓语动词要和the teacher保持一致。该句时间状语为"when we came across her",表示过去的时间,且根据句意可知,该空表示我们遇见老师时老师正在做的事情,要用过去进行时态。故选B。 ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ PAGE 1 专题02 介词、代词 1 介词 易错点1 单个介词的误用 1.(2017·北京)Many people who live along the coast make a living ___________ fishing industry. A. at B. in C. on D. by 【错因分析】本题学生易误选C项或D项。很多学生不仔细看题,就认为本题是考查make a living on (doing) sth. 以……为生/谋生,直接选C项;也有学生会误以为本题考查by(以……方式,借助……手段)而误选D。 【试题解析】句意:许多住在海边上的人都是靠渔业来谋生的。此处用介词in,不用by,因为by后面通常接做什么事情来谋生,此处是指在捕鱼这个行业里谋生,用in,故选B。 【正确答案】B 常见介词的基本用法 介词在英语中的使用很广泛,也是高考中的重点,正确使用介词是很重要的,下面归类讲述一些重点介词的用法: 一、表示时间的介词 1. in,on,at,over (1)in表示在一段时间之内。通常时间较长,如世纪、朝代、时代、年、季节、月及一般(非特指)的早、中、晚等。如: in the 1950s,in 1989,in summer,in January,in one’s thirties,in the morning等。 (2)on表示具体的某一天及其早、中、晚。如: on May 1st,on Monday,on a cold night in January, on a fine morning等。 (3)at表示在一个时间点上。指某一时刻或较短暂的时间,也泛指圣诞节,复活节等。如:at 3:20,at this time of year,at Christmas,at night,at this moment等。 (4)over后面接一段时间,表示"超过……"或"在……期间"。 (5)在last,next,this,that,some,every等词之前通常不用介词。 2. in,after (1)"in+一段时间"表示将来的一段时间之后。 (2)"after+一段时间"表示过去的一段时间之后。 (3)"after+具体时间"表示将来或过去的某一时刻之后。 3. from,since,for (1)from后接具体时间,说明从什么时候开始,不说明某动作或情况持续多久。 (2)since后接具体过去时间,表示某动作或情况持续至说话时刻,通常与完成时连用。 (3)for后接一段时间,通常与完成时连用。 二、表示地点、方位的介词 1. at,in,on,to (1)at表示在小地方或"在……附近;在……旁边"。 (2)in表示在大地方或"在……范围之内,在……方面"。 (3)on表示毗邻或接壤。 (4)to表示"在……范围外",不强调是否接壤。 2. above,over,on (1)above意为"在……上方",只表示位置高于某物,但不强调是否垂直,与below相对。 (2)over意为"在……之上",表示垂直高于,与under相对。over强调与物体有一定的空间,不直接接触。 (3)on意为"在……之上",表示在某物体上面并与之接触。 1.(2019·新课标I卷·语法填空)Modem methods ___63___ tracking polar bear populations have been employed only since the mid-1980s, and are expensive to perform (perform) consistently over a large area. 【解析】考查介词用法。此处tracking polar bear populations作Modern methods的定语,用of 连接,“methods of doing sth.”,意为“……的方法”,构成固定结构。或者意为“对于跟踪北极熊的方法”用for。故填of/for。 【答案】of/for 2.(2018·北京卷·单项填空) —Good morning, Mr. Lee’s office. —Good morning. I’d like to make an appointment _________ next Wednesday afternoon. A. for B. on C. in D. at 【解析】考查介词。句意:——早上好,Lee先生办公室。——早上好。我想预约下周三下午(和Mr. Lee见面)。make an appointment for意为“为……预约”,是固定搭配,故A选项正确。 【答案】A 3. The Great Wall travels ___________deep valleys, ___________deserts and ___________ mountains. 【解析】through穿过;across从表面横过;over从上方越过。句意:长城穿过深深的峡谷,横过沙漠,越过高山。 【答案】through; across; over 4. —Why not buy this type of car, sir? —But ________ the high price, I could have chosen one. 【解析】句意:——为什么不买这种汽车,先生?——要不是价格高,我可能已经选了一辆了。but for要不是。 【答案】for 易错点2 介词短语及语境混淆 2.(2019·江苏卷·单项填空)Favorable policies are ___________ to encourage employees' professional development. A. in effect B. in command C. in turn D. in shape 【错因分析】学生容易因搞不清楚句子要表达的意思和混淆介词短语的含义而误选选项。 【试题解析】考查介词短语。句意:好的制度政策实际上都会激发员工的专业水平的提升。A. in effect实际上;B. in command指挥;C. in turn轮流,依次;D. in shape在外形上,处于良好的状态。故选A。 【正确答案】A 常见介词短语: 表示的概念 构成 举例 动作(表进行概念、表被动的关系) at+名词 at dinner/table在吃饭 at work在工作 at war交战 at church在做礼拜 at work 在办公 at play?在玩耍 ???? at rest在休息??????? school在上学 beyond+名词 beyond?belief难以置信 ? beyond?control不听管教,无法掌控 beyond?compare无可比拟 beyond?description难以形容 beyond?expression无法表达 beyond?suspicion无可怀疑,毫无疑问 in+名词 或in?+名词+of+名词 in the army在当兵 in?(good)?repair维修良好的 in progress在进行 in operation在运行中 in?sight看得见 in?store贮藏着 in action在运转 in?use?开始使用 in?course?of?construction正在兴建当中 in need of需要 in?course?of?shipment正在运输途中 in?charge?of?负责????????????????????????????? in?the?charge?of?由……负责 in?possession?of?拥有????????????????????? ?in?the?possession?of?被……拥有 on+名词 on business办事/出差 on holiday/vacation/leave在休假 on watch值班 on duty值勤/日 on guard在值勤 on strike在罢工 on sale出售 on loan借贷 on the air在广播   on?fire在燃烧 on?show/display/ exhibition在展出 under+名词 under control在控制之中 under discussion在讨论中 under development在发展中 under observation在观察中 under test在被测试 under construction在建设中 under fire在炮火中??????? under examination在检查/调查中 under consideration在考虑中 under repair在修理中 under?arrest被逮捕 under?attack受到袭击 under?medical?treatment在治疗中 under?study在研究中 其他 against one’s opinion反对某人的见解 for one’s opinion同意某人的见解 for?sale供出售at the mercy of在……支配下;任由……摆布 1.(2018·江苏卷·单项填空)China’s soft?power?grows?_______ the?increasing?appreciation?and?understanding of China globally. A. in line with B. in reply to C. in return for D. in honour of 【解析】考查介词短语词义辨析及语境理解。句意:中国的软实力增长与日俱增全球对中国的赏识和理解相一致。A. in line with按照;与...一致;B. in reply to答复;C. in return for作为 ... 的报酬;D. in honour of为纪念。故选A。 【答案】A 2. (2015·新课标全国卷Ⅰ·语法填空) For those who fly to Guilin, it’s only an hour away      car and offers all the scenery of the better-known city.? 【解析】by car是固定表达,意为"坐汽车"。by后接交通工具时,表示交通工具的名词前不加冠词。 【答案】by 3. (2015·新课标全国卷Ⅱ·语法填空)When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough to cool the house during the hot day;       the same time, they warm up again for the night.? 【解析】at the same time意为"同时",为固定短语。由空前的分号可知,此处的at的首字母应用小写。 【答案】at 4. I got a place next      the window, so I had a good view of the sidewalk.? 【解析】根据句子结构可知此空应填介词。next to"挨着,仅次于",是固定短语。故填介词to。 【答案】to 易错点3 介词搭配错误或缺失、多余 3.(2017·新课标全国卷II短文改错)They have also bought for some gardening tools. 【错因分析】考生容易一看句子就觉得buy for是为某人买东西,是正确的,从而遗漏本处或将for错改成其他介词。 【试题解析】考查搭配。bought是及物动词,后无需跟介词,故将for去掉。 【正确答案】将for去掉 高考主要考查学生对固定短语的掌握程度、对短语意义的了解以及介词在固定搭配中的应用。常见的介词搭配有: 1. 名词词组:如solution/approach/way to……的方法;name of……的名字;entrance to/of……的入口等。 2. 动词词组:如remind sb. of sth.提醒某人某事;rob sb. of sth.抢劫某人的……;result from由……引起;call at访问(某地);lead to导致等。 3. 形容词词组:如be curious about对……好奇;be proud of因……而自豪;be popular with受到……的欢迎等。 4. 介词短语:如apart from除……之外;in addition to除……之外(还);because of因为;instead of代替;in fear of为……提心吊胆;for fear of以免;in case of防备,万一;thanks to由于;in the middle of在……中间according to根据;in front of在……前面;in return for作为对……的回报;in charge of负责;as a result of作为……的结果;in exchange for与……交换;on the contrary相反;in turn依次;in one’s opinion根据某人的看法;on time准时;out of reach够不着等。 Lady Gaga has been struck ___________the head by a pole while performing a concert ___________New Zealand, which is part of a world tour. A. in; on B. in; at C. with; at D. on; in 【解析】考查固定结构中的介词搭配。strike sb. on the head是固定用法,意为"打在某人头上",New Zealand是国家名,故其前应用介词in。故选D。? 【答案】D 2 代词 易错点1 人称代词、物主代词和反身代词的误用 1. Tom felt that he knew everybody’s business better than they knew it . A. themselves B. oneself C. itself D. himself 【错因分析】考生容易因对反身代词理解错误而误选D。如果把注意力放在everybody上,就会误选D。 【试题分析】句意:汤姆感觉他比每个人自己都清楚每个人的职责。这里是强调than后的句子中的主语they,it指代的是business,此处表示的是每个人知道自己的职责,故选A。 【正确答案】 A 【特别提醒】 形容词性物主代词(my, your, his, her, its, our, their)只能在名词前作定语。如果名词前有形容词性物主代词,则不能再使用冠词(a, an, the)或指示代词(this, that, these, those)来修饰此名词。 名词性物主代词(mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs)相当于"形容词性物主代词+名词",在句中可作主语、宾语、表语,而不作定语。 在使用反身代词时,要注意其所在句子的主语。如果主语是I就用myself,是you就用yourself,he用himself,she用herself,it用itself,we用ourself,they用themselves。 1. 人称代词 形式 句法功能 主格 I,we,you,he,she,it,they 主要用作主语,有时用作表语 宾格 me,us,you,him,her,it,them 作动词或介词的宾语;口语中常用宾格作表语 2. 物主代词 形式 句法功能 形容词性物主代词 my, our, your, his, her, its, their 作定语 名词性物主代词 mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, theirs 作主语、宾语或表语 【特别提醒】 1. 英汉差异。英语中必须有形容词性物主代词,而汉语中往往省略不翻译。 Jack took off his coat and went go bed.(his不能省略) 2."of+名词性物主代词"用作定语。 Some friends of mine will attend my birthday party. That car of hers is a1ways breaking down. 3."形容词性物主代词+own+名词"表示强调,在own前还可加very表示进一步的强调。 It’s nice if a man can have his own car. I want to have my very own car. 4."a(an,some,any) +名词+ of one’s own"表示"某人自己的……"的意思。名词前可以用this, that, these, four, those, several, another, no等修饰,但不能用定冠词the。 5. 含有反身代词的习惯用语: by oneslf( =alone) 独自地,亲自 to oneself 暗自 for oneself 为自己 of oneself 自动地,自发地 be oneself 玩得愉快 dress oneself in 穿着…… help oneslf to 随便吃……,自行取用 come to oneself 苏醒 make oneself at home 不要客气 devote oneself to 专心于;献身于…… find oneself in/at发觉自己来到…… teach oneself 自学 dress oneself 自己穿衣 lose oneself 迷路 1.(2019·天津卷·单项填空)A study shows the students who are engaged in after-school activities are happier than _________who are not. A. ones B. those C. these D. them 【解析】考查代词。句意:一项研究表明,参加课外活动的学生比不参加课外活动的学生更开心。空格处代词与the students是对应关系,可以用the ones或者those替代。“them”指代的是前边提到的复数名词,不能与the students形成对应关系。“these”一般不用定语从句修饰。故选B。 【答案】B 2. (2018·新课标卷III·短文改错)Some of us were confident and eager take part in the class activity, others were nervous and anxious. I had done homework but I was shy. 【解析】句意:我已经完成了自己的作业。表示“我的”用my不用myself,或改为定冠词the也可以。 【答案】myself改为my/the 3.(2017·浙江卷·语法填空)Paulson screamed so loudly that her daughter came running from the house. "She thought I had hurt (I),"says Paulson. 【解析】考查代词。主语为I,横线处为宾语,根据语境可知这里指她以为"我"弄伤了自己。故填myself。 【答案】myself 易错点2 不定代词的误用 (2015·重庆)The meeting will be held in September, but knows the date for sure. 【错因分析】考生容易因为没有理解but而误填其他复合不定代词。 【试题解析】句意:会议将在九月召开,但是没人知道具体日期。句中的关键词为but,表转折,故填nobody(没有人),符合句意。 【正确答案】nobody 不定代词有all, both, every, each, either, neither, more, little, few, much, many, another, other, some, any , one, no 以及some, something, anything, everything, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, nothing, nobody, no one, none, everybody, everyone等。 (一)不定代词的基本用法: 不定代词用法 用法 each/both/all each指"(两者或两者以上物或人中的)每个";both表示"两者都";all指"(三者或三者以上物或人中的)所有,全部"。 either/neither either表示"(两者中的)任何一个";neither表示"两者都不"。 none/nothing none表示"(三者或三者以上)全无,没有一点";nothing表示"没有任何东西,没有事"。 another another泛指"(三者或三者以上中的)另一,又一"。 other/others other泛指"其余的,另外的",只作定语。other+可数名词复数=others。 the other/ the others the other特指"(两者之中的)另一个"。the other+可数名词复数=the others。 (二)复合不定代词的用法 某…… 任何…… 每个……,所有…… 没有…… 人 someone/somebody anyone/anybody everyone/everybody no one/nobody 物 something anything everything nothing 【特别注意】 all,both,everyone,everybody,everything以及"every+名词"都表示全部肯定。 none,no one,nobody,nothing,neither,not any 以及"no+名词"均表示全部否定;但当not 与表示全部肯定的不定代词连用时,不管not的位置在其前还是其后,都表示部分否定。 ?None of them smoke. (全部否定) 他们都不吸烟。 ?Such a person can’t be found everywhere.(部分否定) 这种人并非随处可见。 (三)指示代词 指示代词 用法 this/these 指在时间或空间上较近的人或事物;this可指下文将要谈到的人或物。 that/those 指在时间或空间上较远的人或事物;that可指上文提到过的人或物。 such 指代前面所叙述的人或事物。作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于后面的名词或代词的数。 so 代替一个句子或短语所表达的事情,意思是"如此,这样"。在believe,think,expect,suppose,imagine,guess等词后用so代替前文提出的观点。 几组相似的不定代词: 1. all, both, either, neither, each和none (1)both(两者都),either(两者中的任何一个),neither(两者都不)。以上这些词使用范围为两者。 ?John and Mary have both won the prizes. 约翰和玛丽都得了奖。 ?The research group produced two reports based on the survey, but neither contained any useful suggestions. 这个调查组在调查的基础上提供了两份报告,但是没有一份包含有用的建议。 ?I’ve lived in New York and Chicago,but don’t like either of them very much. 我曾经在纽约和芝加哥居住过,但是这两个城市我都不是很喜欢。 (2)both与复数名词连用,either与单数名词连用。 ?There are flowers on both sides of the street. 街道两旁都有花。 ?There are flowers on either side of the street. 街道的每一边都有花。 (3)all(所有的,全部的人或物),any(任何一个),none(都不)。以上词使用范围为三者或三者以上。 ?All the students in my class like our teachers. 我们班的所有学生都喜欢我们的老师。 ?Although Rosemary had suffered from a serious illness for years,she lost none of her enthusiasm for life. 虽然罗斯玛丽患上这种严重的疾病多年,但是她一点儿也没有失去对生活的热情。 (4)each可指两者,也可指两者以上。 ?They each have a car. 他们都有车。 2. no,none,nobody和nothing (1)no不能单独使用,相当于not a或not any,作定语修饰可数名词或不可数名词。 ?He has no worry about safety. 他一点也不为安全担心。 (2)none既可以指人,也可以指物,侧重指三者或三者以上的人或物,可与介词of连用,用于回答how many/much引出的疑问句。 ?—How many people are there in the room? 房间里有多少人? —None. 没有人。 (3)nobody指人,用于回答who引导的疑问句;nothing指物,用于回答what引出的疑问句。 ?The meeting will be held in September, but nobody knows the date for sure. 这次会议将在9月举行,但没人知道确切的日期。 ?—What are you doing? 你正在做什么? —Nothing.没干什么。 1. (2018·新课标卷I·短文改错) The first time I went there, they were living in a small house with dogs, ducks, and another animals. 【解析】他们住在一个小房子里,院子里有狗、鸭子和其他牲畜。根据句意可知,将another改成other。 【答案】another改为other 2.(2017·新课标全国卷II短文改错)Mr. and Mrs. Zhang all work in our school. 【解析】考查both和all的用法。both的主语是两个,而all是三个或者三个以上,句子中只有两个人Mr. and Mrs. Zhang,故将all改为both。 【答案】all改为both 3.—One week’s time has been wasted. —I can’t believe we did all that work for . A. something B. nothing C. everything D. anything 【解析】句意:——一周的时间已被浪费掉了。——我无法相信我们所做的一切毫无结果。前面说"浪费",那么应该是没有什么结果,因此用nothing,for nothing毫无结果。 【答案】B 易错点3 指示代词的误用 3.(2016·浙江·单项填空)In many ways, the education system in the US is not very different from _________ in the UK. A. that B. this C. one D. it 【错因分析】考生容易因没有弄清楚that,this,it的区别而误选答案。 【试题解析】句意:在很多方面,美国的教育体系和英国的教育体系不太相同。指代上文的名词education system,是同类不同物,用that,而且后面有介词短语作后置定语。this表示近指,one泛指可数名词单数,it特指上文提到的名词。故选A。 【正确答案】A 指示代词是用来指代或标记人或事物的代词,有this,that,these,those。this,that是单数,these,those是复数。指示代词可以在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语等。 几组常见的指示代词的辨析: 1. it,one,ones,that,those (1)it特指上文所提到的同一事物,它所代替的名词常由the,this,that等修饰。 (2)one泛指上文提到的同类事物中的一个,不特指,相当于"a/an+单数名词";the one特指前面的可数名词单数,有时可以用that来代替(尤其是后面有后置定语时); (3)ones泛指上文提到的同类事物的复数名词;the ones特指上文提到的复数名词,有时可以用those代替,尤其在有后置定语的情况下。 (4)that特指前面出现的单数名词或不可数名词,相当于"the+可数名词单数/不可数名词";that 的复数形式为those,替代可数名词复数,既可指人也可指物。 ?Yesterday I lost my pen and I couldn’t find it. So I had to buy one.(it指代my pen;one替代a pen) 昨天我丢了钢笔而且没找到。所以我不得不再买一支。 ?The books on the desk are better than those/the ones under the desk.(those/the ones替代the books) 桌子上的书要比桌子下面的好。 ?Few pleasure can equal that of a cool drink on a hot day. 没有什么能比得上在炎热的天气里喝上一杯冷饮那样快乐。(that替代pleasure) 【特别注意】 that既可替代可数名词单数,也可替代不可数名词,常有后置定语,一般不指人,复数形式为those;one只能替代可数名词单数,复数形式为ones。当可数名词前有形容词修饰时,只能用one,不用that。当of短语做可数名词单数的后置定语时,用that,不用one。 2. another,other,the other和others (1)another既可以单独使用,也可以用于单数名词前,泛指三者或三者以上中的"另外一个人或物"。还可以用于"another+数词+复数名词"中,表示"再,又"。 ?Recycling is one way to protect the environment; reusing is another. 循环利用是保护环境的一种方式,重新利用是另一种方式。 ?You have to wait for another three weeks. 你还得等待三周。 (2)other 可用作形容词,意思为"别的,其他的",泛指"其他的(人或物)"。 ?You can ask other people to help you. 你可以让其他人帮你。 (3)the other指两个人或物中的一个,不能用another,此时other为代词。 ?The old man has two sons.One is a teacher; the other is a doctor. 这位老人有两个儿子。一个是老师,另一个是医生。 (4)the other 后可接可数名词单数,也可接可数名词复数,不接不可数名词。此时other为形容词。 ?On the other side of the street, there is a tall tree. 在街道的另一边,有一棵高大的树。 ?He is taller than the other students in his class. 他比班里其他学生都高。 (5)others 是other的复数形式,泛指"另外几个;其他的"。others不能作定语,表示复数意义,相当于"other+复数名词";the others相当于"the other+复数名词",指剩下的全部。 ?In some countries,people eat with chopsticks,while in others,knives and forks. 在一些国家里,人们用筷子吃饭,而在另一些国家里,,人们用刀子和叉子。 ?Two students in our class failed,but all the others passed the exam. 班里两个学生没及格,但其他学生全部通过了考试。 Cars do cause as us some health problems — in fact far more serious than mobile phones do. A. one B. ones C. it D. those 【解析】句意:汽车确实给我们造成了一些健康问题,事实上远比手机造成的健康问题严重。这里ones用来替代前面的problems,由于有修饰语serious,故不能填those。 【答案】B 易错点4 代词it的误用 4. How would you like if you were watching your favorite TV program and someone came into the room and just shut it off without asking you? 【错因分析】学生容易因不清楚it的用法而误填其他答案。 【试题解析】句意:如果你正在看最喜爱的电视节目,这时有人进来没有征求你的意见就把电视关了,你会怎么想?固定表达how would you like it if...,在此结构中it为形式宾语,代替后面if从句的内容。 【正确答案】it it的用法考点透析: (一)it作为代词,与one,that的辨析 1. it 特指,代替单数可数名词,一般代替一个具体的事物,不带修饰成分。 (1)用作人称代词,代替前文提到的事物。 ?—What’s this?这是什么? —It’s a pen. 钢笔。 (2)代替指示代词this,that。 (3)表示时间、天气、距离、季节、明暗等。 ?—How far is it to New York? 纽约有多远? —It’s 400 kilometers. 400公里。 2. one (1)泛指,代替前面出现过的名词单数,避免重复(用ones代替前面出现过的复数名词)。可用this/that/each/which及形容词修饰,也可与冠词连用,或带后置定语。 ?He has no child, and he wants to adopt one. 他没有孩子,想认养一个。 (2)作不定代词时,可以泛指人,意为"一个人,一种人"。 ?One should do one’s duty. 人人应该尽责。 比较: ?There was a piano in the shop, so I decided to buy it at once. 店里有一架钢琴,我决定立刻买下来。(it 特指上文出现的piano, 与piano是同一事物) ?I wanted to buy a house and I’d like one with a garden. 我想买个带花园的房子。(one=a house) ?There are many good flats for you to choose.Would you like to buy one? 有许多好的公寓让你选择,你要买一套吗?(one=a flat, one 指many good flats中的一个) 3. that 代替单数可数名词或代替不可数名词,只可带后置定语。只能代替物,不能代替人。those可指人,也可指物;在比较状语从句中,特指前面提到的同一类东西。 ?The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing. 上海的人口多于北京。 (二)it作形式主语时的常见句型: 1. It is (high) time (that) 主语+should do/did sth. ?It is (high) time that this problem was solved. 是时候解决这个问题了。 2. It is...since... ?It is two years since he came to work in this city. 自从他来到这个城市工作已经两年了。 3. It be...before... ?It will be three years before we can meet again. 我们要三年才能相见。 4. It is/was+adj.+for/of sb.to do sth. ?It was difficult for her to move so heavy a box. 叫他搬这么重的箱子有点难。 5. It is/was+adj.+that... ?It was clear that he was lying to us. 很明显他在对我们说谎。 6. It is+v?ed+that... ?It is reported that our team has won the gold medal. 据报道我们队获得了金牌。 7. It seems/appears/happens that... ?It seemed that he had known the truth. 看来他已经知道了真相。 8. It matters/doesn’t matter that... ?It matters a lot whether he will agree to our plan. 他是否同意我们的计划关系重大。 9. It is no use/no good/no harm doing sth. ?It’s no good arguing with him. 与他争吵没好处。 (三)it作形式宾语的常用句型(S代替主语,V代替谓语动词) 1. S+V+it+adj./n.+to do sth. ?We consider it a great honor to be able to host the 2020 Olympic Games. 我们认为能举办2020奥运会是极大的荣幸。 2. S+V+it+adj./n.+doing sth. ?They find it no use searching the empty house. 他们发觉搜寻这座空房子没用。 ?Do you consider it any good trying again? 你认为再试一次没有任何好处? 3. 主语+谓语+it+that/when... ?I don’t like it when you shout at me. 我不喜欢你对我大喊大叫。 4. 强调句:It is/was+被强调成分+who/that... 如:可对下列句子中四处画线部分进行强调。 ?We saw Tom in_the_park yesterday. 我们昨天在公园看见汤姆。 →It was we who/that saw Tom in the park yesterday. (强调主语,为人,可用who或that) 是我们昨天在公园看见汤姆的。 →It was Tom who/that we saw in the park yesterday. (强调宾语) 昨天我们在公园看见的是汤姆。 →It was in_the_park that we saw Tom yesterday. (强调地点状语) 我们昨天是在公园看见汤姆的。 →It was yesterday that we saw Tom in the park. (强调时间状语) 我们是昨天在公园看见汤姆的。 【温馨提示】 1. It is...that … 不能用来强调谓语动词,强调动词要用"do+动词原形"。 ?Do come early tomorrow. 明天一定要早点来。 ?The little boy did work out the problem. 小男孩的确做出了那个题目。 2. 强调时间、地点、某个事物时都要用that,而不能用when,where,which。 1.(2018年·浙江卷·语法填空)Many westerners 57 who/that come to China cook much less than in their own countries once they realize how cheap 58 can be to eat out. 【解析】考查it用法。句子为感叹句,正常语序应该是it can be cheap to eat out.其中不定式to eat out是真正主语,用it 是形式主语。故填it。 【答案】it 2. I’d appreciate __________ if you could let me know in advance whether or not you will come. A. it B. you C. one D. this 【解析】句意:如果你能让我提前知道你是否能来,我会很感激的。I would appreciate it if… "如果……我会很感激的",it是形式宾语,真正的宾语是if引导的从句。 【答案】A 1 介词 常考介词辨析 介词是英语中最活跃的词类之一,使用频率相当高,其用法跟冠词一样复杂。介词按其词义可分为下列几种: 1. 表示方向、地点。如:about,across,after,among,around,behind,below,beside,beyond,down,from,into,off,over,throughout,towards,up,within,without 等。 2. 表示时间。如:about,after,around,as,at,before,behind,between,by,during,for,from,in,into,of,on,over,past,since,through,till(until),to,towards,within 等。 3. 表示除去。如:besides,but,except 等。 4. 表示比较。如:as,like,above,over 等。 5. 表示赞同、反对。如:for,against 等。 6. 表示原因、目的。如:for,with,from 等。 7. 表示结果。如:to,with,without 等。 8. 表示手段、方式。如:by,in,with 等。 9. 表示所属。如:of,with 等。 10. 表示条件。如:on,without,considering 等。 11. 表示让步。如:despite,in spite of等。 12. 表示关于。如:about,concerning,regarding,with regard to,as for,as to 等。 13. 表示对于。如:to,for,over,at,with 等。 14. 表示根据。如:on,according to 等。 但根据近年来高考命题的情况来看,考生需要掌握以下内容: 1. 表示相同或相似概念的介词(短语)的区别 表示的概念 介词(短语) 区 别 时间 in on at at在一个时间点上; in在一段的时间之内; on在具体日子。 since from since 指从过去到现在的一段时间,和完成时连用; from指从时间的某一点开始。 in after in指在一段时间之后,也可以指一段时间之内(=within); after表示某一具体时间点之后或用在过去时的一段时间中。 in the end at the end of by the end of in the end作"最后""终于"解,单独作句子成分,后不接介词of; at the end of 表示"在……末梢""到……尽头",既可指时间,也可以指地上或物体,不可单独使用; by the end of 作"在……结束时""到……末为止"解,只能指时间。不可单独使用。 位置 between among between表示两者之间; among用于三者或三者以上的中间。注意:有时说的虽然是三个以上的人或东西,强调的是两两相互间接关系时、在谈到一些事物或一组事物,而把它们视为两组时以及在谈事物间的差别时,就用between。 in on to in表示在某范围内; on指与什么毗邻; to指在某环境范围之外。 on in on只表示在某物的表面上; in表示占去某物一部分。 in into in通常表示位置(静态); into表示动向,不表示目的地或位置。 through across through表示从内部通过,与in 有关; across则表示从一端至另一端在表面上的通过,与on有关。 除了 besides except but except for besides指"除了……还有,再加上"; except指"除了,减去什么",不能放在句首; but与except意思近似,表示"除了……外"经常用在no, all, nobody, anywhere, everything等和其他疑问词后面; except for表示"如无……就,只是"表明理由细节。 2. 常见同一形容词与不同介词搭配时意义上的差别 常见形容词 搭配 意义 absent (be) absent from 缺席 (be) absent in 不在……(而在……) afraid (be) afraid of 担心…… (be) afraid for 为……而担心 angry (be) angry with sb. 对某人生气 (be) angry at/about sth. 因某事而生气 anxious (be)anxious for sth. 急于想得到 (be)anxious about sth./sb. 对某事/某人担心 different (be) different from 与……不同 (be) different to 不关心 familiar (be) familiar with 精通,熟悉 (be) familiar to 为……熟知(悉) good (be) good at 擅长于 (be) good for 对……有益 (be) good to 对……友好/态度好 popular (be) popular with sb. 受……欢迎 (be) popular for 因……而流行 strict (be) strict with sb. 对某人要求严格 (be) strict in sth. 对某事要求严格 3. 容易混淆的含有介词固定搭配的词组 类 型 举 例 差一冠词,大相径庭 in front of(在……前面)——in the front of(在……前部) in charge of(负责)——in the charge of(由……负责) out of question(毫无疑问)——out of the question(不可能) at table(在吃饭;在吃饭时)——at the table(在桌子旁边) 有无介词,意义不同 know sb.认识某人——know about sb.了解某人 shoot sb.击中某人——shoot at sb.向某人射击 search sb.搜身——search for sb.搜寻某人 believe sb.相信某人的话——believe in sb.信任某人的人格 benefit sb.使某人受益——benefit from sb.从某人那里得到益处 画蛇添足,误加介词 serve the people为人民服务(容易在serve后加for) enter the room进入房间(容易在enter后加into) follow me跟在我后面(容易在follow后加behind) marry sb.与某人结婚(容易在marry后加with) go abroad出国(容易在go后面加to) live upstairs住在楼上(容易在live后面加 in) 2 代词 几组易混不定代词的用法区别: 1. some和any 二者都可用作名词(作主语或宾语),也可用作形容词(作定语)来修饰可数名词或不可数名词。 (1)some一般用于肯定句中。当some用于单数可数名词前时,表示"某一(个)",与数字连用则有"大概,大约"的意思;用于疑问句时,表示说话人希望得到肯定的回答,或表示请求、建议。 ?I’ve read the story in some book. (某一本) ?Some girl. is waiting for you at the school gate.(某个) ?The country has exported some two million bikes this year. ( 大约 ) ?May I have some water? (表示请求) ?Would you like some apples? (邀请) (2)any多用于疑问句,否定句和条件句中。在肯定句中,any表示"任何的",修饰单数可数名词。也可用作状语,表示程度。 2. much和many (1)both两者都,all三者或三者以上,全体;在句中可作主语、宾语、定语和同位语。 (2)all指人,作主语时,谓语动词用复数;指物,表示"所有,一切",作主语时,谓语动词用单数,也可用来作定语,修饰不可数名词。 ?All but one are present.(作主语,指人,谓语动词用复数) ?All is over with him.(作主语,指物,谓语动词用单数) ?I have forgotten all about it(作宾语) ?All hope has gone.(修饰不可数名词) ?They all agree to stay here.(作同位语) 3. much和many 两个词都有"许多"的意思,much表示或修饰不可数名词,many表示或修饰可数名词。在口语中,much或many多用于疑问句或否定句,在肯定句中常用a lot of,lots of,plenty of,a large quantity of,quantities of代替。much还可以用a great deal of代替,many可以用a (1arge) number of代替。 (1)much可用作副词,作状语,表程度。be not much意为"不怎么样",much还可与too连用构成"too much+不可数名词"短语,意为"太多的……","much too+形容词或副词",意为"太……,非常……",是副词词组,修饰形容词、副词,但不修饰动词。 ?The city is much larger than that one. ?I’ve visited the country and it is not much. ?There is too much noise in the classroom. ?I’m much too busy to see visitors. (2)many a + 可数名词单数,表示"许多"。在名词前如果有冠词或指示代词等词时,要用many of或much of结构。 ?Many a student has gone to the cinema. ?Many of the/my books are English. 4. each和every (1)each强调个体,在句子中充当定语、主语、宾语和同位语,指两者或两者以上的人或事物中的每一个。 ?Each room can seat at least fifty people. ?Each of the students will get a new book. ?Each student will get a new book ?The students each will get a new book. ?There are trees and flowers on each side of the street. (街道只有两边,不能用every) (2)every强调整体,在句中只能作定语,指三者或三者以上的人或事物中的每一个。还可以构成"every+数词+复数名词","every + few + 复数名词""every + other + 单数名词""every +序数词 + 单数名词"表示"每隔……"。 ?Every one has strong and weak points. ?Every student has told a story. ?every three weeks 每隔三个星期,每隔两个星期 ?every other week = every second week 每隔一星期 ?every few weeks(不能说evesy a few weeks) 每隔几个星期 4. either 和neither either指"两个人?

  • ID:4-6140401 备战2020年高考英语一轮复习第一套英语1Units1_2单元训练(A+B卷2份打包)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    单元训练卷·高三·英语卷(A) 英语1 Units 1-2 注意事项: 1.答题前,先将自己的姓名、准考证号填写在试题卷和答题卡上,并将准考证号条形码粘贴在答题卡上的指定位置。 2.选择题的作答:每小题选出答案后,用2B铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑,写在试题卷、草稿纸和答题卡上的非答题区域均无效。 3.非选择题的作答:用签字笔直接答在答题卡上对应的答题区域内。写在试题卷、草稿纸和答题卡上的非答题区域均无效。 4.考试结束后,请将本试题卷和答题卡一并上交。 第Ⅰ卷 第一部分:听力(共两节,满分30分)略 第二部分:阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) 第一节(共15小题:每小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A One of the most important things in the world is friendship. In order to have friends, you have to be a friend. But how can you be a good friend at school? Listen ﹣ Listen when they are talking. Don't say anything unless they ask you a question. Sometimes it's not necessary for you to have anything to say; they just need someone to talk to about their feelings. Help them ﹣ If your friend is ever in need of something, be there to help them. You should try to put them first, but make sure you don't do everything they want you to do. Try to take an extra pencil or pen with you to classes in case they forget one. Have a little extra money in your pocket in case they forget something they need. Be there for them﹣Be there for your friends to help make them feel better in hard times. Marilyn Monroe, a famous U.S.actor, once said, “I often make mistakes. Sometimes I am out of control, but if you can't stay with me at my worst, you are sure not to deserve to be with me at my best.” Always remember this! If you don't want to stay with your friends when they're in hard times, then you don't deserve to be with them when they're having a good time! Make plans ﹣ Try to make plans with your friends. Go shopping, go for ice cream, have a party, go to a movie and so on. Take time to know each other even better by doing something you both enjoy. By planning things together, you both can have a good time. And you'll remember these things when you're all old! 21.While your friend is talking to you about his or her feelings, you should   . A.give him or her some advice B.calm him or her down C.just listen unless asked D.share your feelings as well 22.When we provide help for our friends, we should   . A.put them before ourselves B.try to do everything for them C.change their bad habits first D.ignore their faults 23.What can we learn from Marilyn Monroe's words? A.Life without a friend is death. B.A friend is easier lost than found. C.A man is known by his friends. D.A friend in need is a friend indeed. B For Canaan Elementary’s second grade in Patchogue, N.Y.,today is speech day, and right now it’s Chris Palaez’s turn. The 8-year-old is the joker of the class. With shining dark eyes, he seems like the of kid who would enjoy public speaking. But he’s, nervous. “I’m here to tell you today why you should … should…”Chris trips on the“-ld,”a. pronunciation difficulty for many non-native English speakers. His teacher, Thomas Whaley, is next to him, whispering support“…Vote for …me …”Except for some stumbles, Chris is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion, Whaley invites the rest of the class to praise him. A son of immigrants, Chris stared learning English a little over three years ago. Whaley recalls(回想起)how at the beginning of the year,when called upon to read,Chris would excuse himself to go to the bathroom. Learning English as a second language can be a painful experience. What you need is a great teacher who lets you make mistakes. “It takes a lot for any student,” Whaley explains,“especially for a student who is learning English as their new language,to feel confident enough to say,‘I don’t know,but I want to know.’” Whaley got the idea of this second-grade presidential campaign project when he asked the children one day to raise their hands if they thought they could never be a president. The answer broke his heart. Whaley says the project is about more than just learning to read and speak in public. He wants these kids to learn to boast(夸耀)about themselves. “Boasting about yourself,and your best qualities,” Whaley says,“is very difficult for a child who came into the classroom not feeling confident.” 24. What made Chris nervous? A. Telling a story. B. Making a speech. C. Taking a test. D. Answering a question. 25. What does the underlined word “stumbles” in paragraph 2 refer to? A. Improper pauses. B. Bad manners. C. Spelling mistakes. D. Silly jokes. 26. We can infer that the purpose of Whaley’s project is to _________. A. help students see their own strengths B. assess students’ public speaking skills C. prepare students for their future jobs D. inspire students’ love for politics 27. Which of the following best describes Whaley as a teacher? A. Humorous. B. Ambitious. C. Caring. D. Demanding. C Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years, but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers, small, tightly knit (联系)groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other. Some language experts believe that 10,000 years ago, when the world had just five to ten million people, they spoke perhaps 12,000 languages between them. Soon afterwards, many of those people started settling down to become farmers, and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centuries, trade, industrialization, the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalization and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. At present, the world has about 6,800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages, often spoken by many people, while hot, wet zones have lots, often spoken by small numbers. Europe has only around 200 languages; the Americas about 1,000; Africa 2,400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3,200, of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number (中位数)of speakers is a mere 6,000, which means that half the world’s languages are spoken by fewer people than that. Already well over 400 of the total of 6,800 languages are close to extinction(消亡), with only a few elderly speakers left. Pick, at random, Busuu in Cameroon (eight remaining speakers), Chiapaneco in Mexico (150), Lipan Apache in the United States (two or three) or Wadjigu in Australia (one, with a question-mark): none of these seems to have much chance of survival. 28. What can we infer about languages in hunter-gatherer times? A. They developed very fast. B. They were large in number. C. They had similar patterns. D. They were closely connected. 29. Which of the following best explains "dominant " underlined in paragraph 2? A. Complex. B. Advanced. C. Powerful. D. Modern. 30. How many languages are spoken by less than 6, 000 people at present? A. About 6,800 B. About 3,400 C. About 2,400 D. About 1,200 31. What is the main idea of the text? A. New languages will be created. B. People’s lifestyles are reflected in languages. C. Human development results in fewer languages. D. Geography determines language evolution. D Many people have excuses for not learning a foreign language. One of the common ones is that they don’t have a gift for language learning. The excuse that one has no talent for learning a certain skill is a tragedy in itself, and this common excuse has possibly discouraged millions of people from accomplishing great things. Many experts and scholars, such as K. Ander Ericsson, one of the world’s leading theoretical (理论的) and experimental researchers, have proposed the theory that skill is mostly a matter of large amounts of deliberate practice. Books such as The Talent Code have helped popularize it. While I do not personally believe that we all learn at the same pace or that we are all born the same, I certainly believe that we can all achieve amazing results beyond our imagination, simply through motivation and hard work. To be specific, anything can be learned, unless of course, you start with the belief that you are not talented. The truth is that if you think you are not talented in languages, it probably has something to do with your track record in language classes at school. This isn’t surprising because the curriculum of language classes is made so that it teaches languages in one way, whereas we all learn differently. It might be good at this point to mention that doing interesting stuff does significantly help with the acquisition(获得) of a foreign language. For most of us, this excludes(排除) grammar and drills to a large extent. In my interview with polyglot—speaking or using many languages—and author Susanna Zaraysky, Susanna said that her teacher in high school once told her that she should probably look for another subject to focus her efforts on instead of languages. Susanna now speaks nine languages, has written a book entitled Language is Music, and has traveled to exciting places all over the world. Benny Lewis, probably one of the best known language learners and bloggers on the Internet, has a strikingly similar story, and he now speaks over 12 languages. Not “talented”, eh? 32.What is the excuse for language learning mentioned in the text? A.I cannot learn languages well. B.I have no genius for learning language. C.I’m not fond of learning languages. D.I don’t consider foreign languages vital. 33.What does the underlined word “it” in paragraph 2 refer to? A.The book named The Talent Code. B.A great deal of purposeful practice. C.The idea that a new language is a new skill. D.The theory that practice helps one gain a skill. 34.Which of the following statements might the author probably agree with? A.Language classes aren’t suitable for everyone. B.Schools usually try to make language classes interesting. C.Grammar and drills are the least important in language learning. D.The talent for languages makes you interested in learning them. 35.How does the author explain his idea in the last paragraph? A.By telling stories. B.By explaining facts. C.By giving examples. D.By making comparison. 第二节  (共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。 How to Improve Vocabulary Fast Your vocabulary refers to the words in a language you are familiar with. We should learn some ways to expand it. Read every day. 36 Choose reading material that is slightly above your level and keep a dictionary with you to look up words you do not know. 37 If you do not meet with an unfamiliar word in your daily reading, use your dictionary to search for one. Learn the correct definition and pronunciation for each new word. Pronunciation is as important as definition because in order to add a word to your active vocabulary, you must be able to use it in speech. Elaborate (详尽阐述) on the meaning of the word. If you have just learned the word “stubborn”, think about the neighbor who will not lend you his car. 38 Use your new word in speech and in writing. E?mail your sister about how your cat is stubborn about sleeping on your pillow. 39 But the more you use it, the more fluent you will become in its use. Soon it will be a regular part of your active vocabulary. Tell everyone you are trying to increase your vocabulary. Encourage them to ask you what your latest word is. 40 The more you explain the meaning of a word to someone, the more likely you are to remember it. A.Find a new word every day. B.The vocabulary can be increased. C.Your vocabulary contains the words you understand. D.The more often you read, the faster your vocabulary can grow. E. Or let them ask for the definition of a new word you have used. F. The first time you use a new word in speech it may seem strange. G. Imagine him shaking his head, and think of him as “stubborn in his refusal”. 第三部分:英语知识运用(共两节,满分45分) 第一节 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 One day, when I was in high school, I saw a kid named Kyle from my class walking home from school with all his books. I thought to myself, “ 41 would anyone bring home all his books for the weekend? He must really be 42 .” As I was walking, I saw several kids running toward him. They ran at him, 43 all his books out of his arms and he fell down in the dirt. His glasses went 44 and landed in the grass. My 45 went out to him. So, I ran over to him. 46 I handed him his glasses, he looked at me and said, “Hey, thanks!” I helped him pick up his books, and asked him where he lived. As it 47 , he lived near me. We talked all the way home. Over the next four years, Kyle and I became best friends. Kyle was the 48 student of our class, one of those guys that really found 49 during high school. Therefore he had the honor to prepare a 50 speech. On the graduation day, I could see that he was 51 . So, I patted(拍) him on the back and said, “Hey, big guy, you’ll be 52 !” He looked at me and smiled. He cleared his throat, and began. “Graduation is a time to 53 those who helped you make it through those 54 years. Your parents, your teachers…but mostly your friends. I am here to tell all of you that being a friend to someone is the best 55 you can give him.” I just looked at my friend with 56 as he told the story of the first day we met. He had planned to 57 himself over the weekend and was carrying his books home. “Thankfully, nothing happened. My friend 58 me from doing the unspeakable(不能说出来的).” Not until that moment did I realize that you should never underestimate(低估) the 59 of your actions. With one small act you can 60 a person’s life. For better or for worse. 41.A.Why B.How C.When D.Where 42.A.stupid B.clever C.wonderful D.anxious 43.A.throwing B.catching C.taking D.knocking 44.A.lost B.sending C.broken D.flying 45.A.heart B.head C.hands D.thought 46.A.While B.As C.Because D.Once 47.A.passed B.turned out C.went on D.came up 48.A.top B.hardest C.favorite D.luckiest 49.A.friendship B.pleasure C.themselves D.it 50.A.class B.school C.graduation D.college 51.A.nervous B.excited C.proud D.crazy 52.A.famous B.great C.praised D.honored 53.A.reward B.remember C.thank D.congratulate 54.A.happy B.exciting C.old D.difficult 55.A.chance B.gift C.help D.favor 56.A.wonder B.anxiety C.disbelief D.pride 57.A.test B.enjoy C.kill D.hurt 58.A.protected B.freed C.warned D.saved 59.A.price B.use C.power D.meaning 60.A.destroy B.change C.save D.understand 第Ⅱ卷 第三部分:英语知识运用(共两节,满分45分) 第二节 (共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(不多于1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 Chinese proverbs are rich and they are still widely used 61 Chinese people's daily life. Behind these proverbs, there are often interesting 62 (story). For example, the proverb "plucking up a crop to help it grow" is 63 (base) on the following story. It is said 64 a short-tempered man in the state of Song was very anxious 65 (help) his rice crops grow up quickly. He was thinking about it day and night. But the crops were growing much slower than he expected. One day, he came up with an idea that he would pluck up all of 66 (he) crops a few inches. He did so the next day. He was very tired after finishing doing this for a whole day, 67 he felt very happy since the crops did “grow” 68 (high). His son heard about this and went to see the crops. 69 (unfortunate), the leaves of the crops began to wither (枯萎). This proverb tells us that we should let things go in their natural course. Being anxious to help an event develop often 70 (result) in the contrary to our intention. 第四部分:写作(共两节,满分35分) 第一节:短文改错(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处,每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏词符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下画一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 Thank you for invite me to the summer English courses in your school. As for your choice between the two courses, I prefer the four-week course because of it will give me more time to do traveling. It will let me make a little new friends. Of all the subject I’m learning at school, I like English best. I had been learning English for eleven years but my spoken English is poorly. So I really hope to take this chance to improve them. If possible, I’d like to stay with a family for a couple of days in order that I can know some customs in England, that I’m particularly interested in. I believe I will have good time this summer. 第二节 书面表达(满分25分) 假定你是李华,你的新西兰朋友Terry将去中国朋友家做客,发邮件向你询问有关习俗。请你回复邮件。内容包括: 1. 到达时间; 2.合适的礼物; 3. 餐桌礼仪。 注意: 1. 词数100左右; 2. 可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 单元训练金卷·高三·英语卷(A) 英语1 Units 1-2 答 案 第一部分 听力(共20小题,每小题1.5分,满分30分)(略) 第二部分 阅读理解(共20小题,每小题2分,满分40分) 21-23 CAD 24-27 BAAC 28-31 BCBC 32-35BDAC 36-40 DAGFE 第三部分 英语知识运用(共两节,满分45分) 第一节 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 41. A 42.A 43.D 44.D 45.A 46.B 47.B 48.A 49.C 50.C 51. A 52.B 53.C 54.D 55.B 56.C 57.C 58.D 59.C 60.B 第二节 语法填空(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 61. in 62.stories 63.based 64.that 65.to help 66. his 67.but 68.higher 69.Unfortunately 70.results 第四部分 写作(共两节,满分 35分) 第一节 短文改错(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) 第二节 书面表达(满分25分) Dear Terry, How are you doing? Learning that you are about to pay a visit to a Chinese friend and confused about the Chinese customs, I am writing to inform you of some relevant details. Firstly, I would like to suggest that you arrive 5 to 10 minutes earlier, which is common in Chinese traditional culture. Secondly, if I were you, I would bring some gifts with me, such as souvenirs from my own country. Besides, table manners are also what you should pay attention to. For example, you are not supposed to stick your chopsticks into your food. Instead, laying them on your dish is a smart choice. Hopefully, these suggestions will be helpful for you. Best wishes! Yours, Li Hua 此卷只装订不密封 班级 姓名 准考证号 考场号 座位号 2 1 单元训练卷·高三·英语卷(B) 英语1 Units 1-2 注意事项: 1.答题前,先将自己的姓名、准考证号填写在试题卷和答题卡上,并将准考证号条形码粘贴在答题卡上的指定位置。 2.选择题的作答:每小题选出答案后,用2B铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑,写在试题卷、草稿纸和答题卡上的非答题区域均无效。 3.非选择题的作答:用签字笔直接答在答题卡上对应的答题区域内。写在试题卷、草稿纸和答题卡上的非答题区域均无效。 4.考试结束后,请将本试题卷和答题卡一并上交。 第Ⅰ卷 第一部分:听力(共两节,满分30分)略 第二部分:阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) 第一节(共15小题:每小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A Nowadays everybody seems to think that they know English. Many people speak it but few speak it really well. Practice is necessary in speaking English well. Reading is also one of the things that will help you to speak English better. Read whenever you can and whatever you like! Read papers and Internet sites that you like in English every day. Then, you will see that the number of known words is increasing and you are able to speak with more skills. Then you will have made the foundations and a good basis of English. It is not good to stop and get stuck there. Going to England or an English-speaking country is a good choice, but many people cannot afford it. If you cannot go, reading and speaking with your friends will also help you to practice your English. However, I think it is very good to visit some English-speaking country to see and test your knowledge in everyday life. You will understand the everyday usage of the language in its natural environment. There your level of English is going to improve even faster. Your ability to speak English is better. Nothing can match the excitement and happiness when a native speaker tells you that your English is very good! Finally, in order to speak English well, you must be persistent (坚持的) and do it every day. It is like playing the piano. Pianists play it every day and so should you. Include English in your life and you will see where it is going. Practice, Practice! Read, write and improve your language skills and you are on your way when you will be able to speak it with more and more confidence! 21.What does the writer suggest about reading? A.Trying to improve your vocabulary. B.Keeping on reading when you have time. C.Stopping when you have a good basis of English. D.Looking up every unknown word when reading. 22.The main idea of the last paragraph is that ______. A.we should play the piano every day B.speaking English is fun and entertaining C.if we’ve learned to read and write, we’ll certainly be able to speak D.we should practice English every day to improve our speaking skills 23.According to the passage, what may make the author excited? A.Reading papers and Internet sites. B.Having a good basis of English. C.Going to an English-speaking country. D.A native speaker’s praise. B I first met Paul Newman in 1968, when George Roy Hill, the director of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, introduced us in New York City. When the studio didn’t want me for the film— it wanted somebody as well-known as Paul— he stood up for me. I don’t know how many people would have done that; they would have listened to their agents or the studio powers. The friendship that grew out of the experience of making that film and The Sting four years later had its root in the fact that although there was an age difference, we both came from a tradition of theater and live TV. We were respectful of craft(技艺)and focused on digging into the characters we were going to play. Both of us had the qualities and virtues that are typical of American actors: humorous, aggressive, and making fun of each other— but always with an underlying affection. Those were also at the core(核心)of our relationship off the screen. We shared the brief that if you’re fortunate enough to have success, you should put something back— he with his Newman’s Own food and his Hole in the Wall camps for kids who are seriously ill, and me with Sundance and the institute and the festival. Paul and I didn’t see each other all that regularly, but sharing that brought us together. We supported each other financially and by showing up at events. I last saw him a few months ago. He’d been in and out of the hospital. He and I both knew what the deal was, and we didn’t talk about it. Ours was a relationship that didn’t need a lot of words. 24. Why was the studio unwilling to give the role to author at first? A. Paul Newman wanted it. B. The studio powers didn’t like his agent. C. He wasn’t famous enough. D. The director recommended someone else. 25. Why did Paul and the author have a lasting friendship? A. They were of the same age. B. They worked in the same theater. C. They were both good actors. D. They have similar charactertics. 26. What does the underlined word “that” in paragraph 3 refer to? A. Their belief. B. Their care for children. C. Their success. D. Their support for each other. 27. What is the author’s purpose in writing the test? A. To show his love of films. B. To remember a friend. C. To introduce a new movie. D. To share his acting experience. C If you were to travel anywhere in the globe— even to visit remote tribes (部落人) who have little contact with the larger world — would people be able to read your emotions from your facial expressions and would you be able to read theirs? Charles Darwin argued in The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals that basic facial expressions are universal — suggesting that they are hard-wired within us as the product of natural selection. In other words, you would know if someone looked happy, or sad, etc., wherever you were in the world. Since Darwin’s day, researchers have, indeed, traveled to faraway corners of the world to test the “universality theory”. Paul Ekman, professor of psychology at UC San Francisco and inspiration for the TV show Lie To Me, reported that even Fore tribesmen of New Guinea could look at photos of people from other cultures and identify what emotions were displaying. Since Ekman’s work, other papers have tested the universality theory and occasionally challenged it. Rachael Jack of the University of Glasgow and co-authors used computer graphics to produce facial animations (动画). They then showed these animations to 15 Western Caucasian people far away from countryside and 15 East Asian from modern cities. They were asked to divide the facial expressions into groups. This is what they found: They did get six groups from the Western Caucasians. But the results between emotion groups from the East Asians were complexed. They believe this suggests modern cultural factors have a greater influence than before. 28.Charles Darwin held the view in his book that ________. A.facial expressions are understood by all B.facial expressions are easy to read C.man and animals share the same emotions D.some facial expressions can cause confusion 29.According to the third paragraph, Fore tribesmen of New Guinea ________. A.were confused by the photos B.read the facial expressions in wrong ways C.could recognize the basic facial expressions D.had different facial expressions from city people 30.Since Darwin, all papers have tested the “universality theory” and _______. A.no authors have agreed B.all authors have found the same results C.some papers have been lost D.some authors have expressed different ideas 31.Which of the following shows the structure of the passage? CP:central point P1-P3: Point 1-Point 3 SP: sub-point C: Conclusion A. B. C. D. D Experts say there are about 6,500 languages spoken throughout the world. But the United Nations guesses that about half of these languages are in danger of disappearing. One organization seeking to save world languages is Wikitongues. It has a simple goal: to provide the tools and support that people need to save their languages. When a language disappears, many other things can go away as well. For example, parts of a community's(社区的)culture knowledge and identity can also be lost. Because of this, Udell co-founder of Wikitongues believes the process of bringing languages hack must be done by community members themselves, he said. "There is no way an outside organization can save someone's language for them.” Wikitongues was started in 2016 as an open Internet collection of world languages. The self-described "community" is operated by volunteers from around the world. The collection is in the form of language videos that people speaking the languages add to the Wikitongues website. Udell says saving languages does count. There are many examples of languages that disappeared but later returned to use. "Hebrew went extinct(灭绝的)in the 4th century BC, and was revived(复兴)in the 1800s. Now once again,it's the mother tongue of half of the world's Jewish population.” Another example is a Native American tribe. The tribe's language went extinct in the 1940s. But the tribe was able to successfully build up a "language recovery" in recent years. One of Wikitongues' volunteers is Theron Kolokwe who lives in Namibia. His native language is Subiya which is spoken by about 30.000 people. "I want the world to know about my language,” Kolokwe said. But his goal goes beyond just sharing his language with others through video. He is also working to create a dictionary and language teaching materials that can be used in schools. 32. What does Udell consider important in saving languages? A. Gathering language information. B. Relying on the language speakers. C. Setting up an outside organization. D. Combining languages with culture. 33. How does Wikitongues help save languages? A. By getting language videos from its speakers collected. B. By building an online dictionary for each language. C. By creating a real-life community for its speakers. D. By requiring volunteers to learn new languages. 34. What do the examples in paragraph 5 suggest? A. The achievements of Wikitongues. B. The influences of languages on life. C. The significance of saving languages. D. The difficulty with language recovery. 35. What can be a suitable title for the text? A. Wikitongues Is Struggling to Spread Languages B. Wikitongues Starts a Language Learning Website C. Wikitongues Is Bringing Old Languages Back to Life D. Wikitongues Seeks to Save World's Dying Languages 第二节  (共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。 In today’s world English has become a global language. Speaking or writing in English is a matter of global interest these days, for it is now a requirement for being able to communicate with the outer world. 36 . Enthusiasm(热情) The first thing you need to have is an enthusiasm to reach your goal. The most important thing you have to have is emotional devotion(情感,承诺)with your desire to learn English quickly. 37 . 38 You pass by a lot of things in English that you meet with in your day-to-day life. Things could include magazines, emails, posts on social media, websites, a piece of literary work(文学作品)or a newspaper. Read them because you never know what is waiting for you in there. You might find that a lot of things are already known to you but the content will surely be full of new vocabulary allowing you to improve faster. Keep a note of the new words 39 . It’s a bit more important that you keep a handy notebook with you and whenever you learn a new word or expression, write down the context along with the word. Use the word in a sentence and note the meaning, too. Sometimes you may find forgetting a certain word or phrase seems impossible. 40 . So, to prevent this you need to keep visiting your pages and go through the notes you have made time and time again. A.Don’t just move on after reading B.Read everything you may come across C.Don’t let yourself down if you face a difficulty D.However, being a human being you are built to forget E. You won’t achieve success if you aren’t enthusiastic enough F. By following these tips you will improve the language quickly G. Spend the most of your time in either listening or reading in English 第三部分:英语知识运用(共两节,满分45分) 第一节 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 June is always an unhappy time for Senior 3 students. They have to leave school to 41 their dreams in different 42 after finishing their big exam. It's a difficult time when students 43 to say goodbye to carefree(无忧无虑的)high school life and close friends. People always say that teenage friendship is the most precious. Kids are too young to true friendship 44 most adults 45 to ate it to fame and wealth. In fact, things are quite different with high school best friends. We share each other's 46 . We discuss news from all walks of life and begin to 47 our values. We support each other on the journey to the biggest 48 in our life. We also 49 success and failure. The seeds of deeply 50 . Many of us don’t realize this 51 we enter society. One of my friends, Lily, 52 how strong the bond(联系)with high school friends can be. She said, “It was my high school friend who helped me 53 the darkest days in my life.” In 2015 Lily lost her job in Shanghai. Her best friend was staying in a college dormitory and took her in. Each night the two girl squeezed(挤)into a narrow single bed, chatting and crying. “I will never forget her care and encouragement, 54 supported me out of the darkness,” said Lily. I 55 remember my last days in Senior 3 when we 56 so much personal information with each other, both of us hoping to keep the friendship 57 forever. But we didn’t realize we were already deep in each other’s 58 . During the past 10 years, whenever I’ve needed help or wanted to pour out my 59 , she has always been there at the other end of a telephone line. It is true that friends come and go. But never forget the ones who have been there for you. Take a closer look at those now around you; they could be the most precious treasure you discover in your entire 60 . 41.A.perform B.achieve C.create D.keep 42.A.ways B.relations C.stages D.directions 43.A.begin B.decide C.have D.volunteer 44.A.when B.so C.while D.that 45.A.end B.plan C.manage D.attempt 46.A.time B.wealth C.money D.secret 47.A.measure B.weigh C.abandon D.shape 48.A.question B.challenge C.problem D.failure 49.A.share B.expect C.lack D.meet 50.A.developed B.changed C.rooted D.pulled 51.A.until B.but C.after D.unless 52.A.heard B.experienced C.ignored D.thought 53.A.go through B.look through C.get through D.break through 54.A.that B.who C.as D.which 55.A.still B.yet C.even D.already 56.A.turned B.discussed C.exchanged D.held 57.A.disappearing B.going C.running D.advancing 58.A.brain B.heart C.head D.spirit 59.A.disaster B.curiosity C.devotion D.unhappiness 60.A.study B.period C.life D.work 第Ⅱ卷 第三部分:英语知识运用(共两节,满分45分) 第二节 (共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(不多于1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 Learning 61 new language is not easy, but a Chinese in Washington D.C.says he knows how to make it less 62 (difficulty). Li Lei teaching Chinese to children says, “The magic key to 63 (teach) a language is culture.” Li came to Washington through the State Department’s Teachers of Critical Language Program, which brings teachers from China and Egypt to America. One of the goals of the program is 64 (help) American students learn Chinese and Arabic. The program helps the teachers and students learn about the 65 (culture) of other countries. Li says learning languages helps students learn 66 (much) about the world. Spanish is the native language of many of Li’s students at Cooke Elementary School, so many of 67 (they) are learning English and Chinese at the same time. Li 68 (explore) the local Chinese community and many other cultures in Washington so far. He says the children at the school, some of 69 are as young as five years old, might not remember all of the Chinese characters he teaches them, and that they might even forget his name. And he hopes that they will always remember him 70 a teacher they liked and respected. 第四部分:写作(共两节,满分35分) 第一节:短文改错(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处,每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏词符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下画一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 Now I want to share some tips on my learning English to you. What really help me is watching English TV programs and film. They don’t have to be anything really difficult. I would like to suggest that you can start with a children’s show you had already seen. On the one hand, you know what is happening. You can concentrate on writing down useful words and phrases or repeating that is said. On other hand, you can hear English speak in a more natural way. In my opinion, I will learn much faster but benefit a lot more if you do so. 第二节 书面表达(满分25分) 假定你是李华,自制了一些中国结(Chinese knot),给开网店的美国朋友Tom写封信,请他代卖,要点包括:1.外观(尺寸、颜色、材料); 2. 象征意义;3. 价格 注意:1. 词数100个左右; 2. 可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Dear Tom, How are you? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Looking forward to your reply. Yours, Li Hua 单元训练金卷·高三·英语卷(B) 英语1 Units 1-2 答 案 第一部分 听力(共20小题,每小题1.5分,满分30分)(略) 第二部分 阅读理解(共20小题,每小题2分,满分40分) 21-23 BDD 24-27 CDAB 28-31 ACDD 32-35 BACD 36-40 FEBAD 第三部分 英语知识运用(共两节,满分45分) 第一节 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 41-45 BACCA 46-50 DDBAC 51-55 ABCDA 56-60 CBBDC 第二节 语法填空(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 61.a 62.difficult 63.teaching 64.to help 65.cultures 66.more 67.them 68.has explored 69.whom 70.as 第四部分 写作(共两节,满分 35分) 第一节 短文改错(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) 71. to you中的to →with 72. help →helps 73. film →films 74. 删掉can或can →should 75. had →have 76. that →what 77. other前加the 78. speak →spoken 79. I will中的I →you 80. but →and 第二节 书面表达(满分25分) Dear Tom, How are you? I’m writing to ask you to do me a favor. I have made some Chinese knots myself, which are designed for decorations. I hope you can help me sell them in your Internet store. These Chinese knots are made from good red silk, each one about three centimeters across. As is well-known to us all, a Chinese knot means reunion, friendliness, warmth, peace and love. I think they will sell well. Each Chinese knot I will sent to you is worth about one dollar. Among them there are two intended for you. Would you like to sell them for me. Looking forward to your reply. Yours, Li Hua 此卷只装订不密封 班级 姓名 准考证号 考场号 座位号 2 1

  • ID:4-6139506 (浙江专用)2020版高考英语一轮复习专题10-17课件(打包8套)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共149张PPT) 专题十二 文章补全阅读 高考英语 (浙江专用) A组??自主命题·浙江卷题组 五年高考 Passage 1(2019浙江6月) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Rock music consists of many different styles. Even though there is a common spirit among all mu- sic groups, they make very different music. 1????At that time the Beatles entered the world of mu- sic from Liverpool. After they were given an invitation to appear live on BBC, the Beatles quickly became famous in Britain with nationwide tours. By mid-1963, the Beatles had been extremely popular in England.  2????They held large concerts and performed at clubs. They became the hottest thing on the pop music scene in England. They began as a modestly successful musician group and ended the year as show business legends(传说). John Lennon and Paul McCartney were named composers of the year.  3????They were not sure how the Americans would react to the new type of music. Beatlemania hit New York on February 7, 1964. Hundreds of fans jammed the airport to greet them.  4????The concert was broadcast live and attracted the largest one night audience in the history of television up to that time. The Beatles were described as a British invasion(入侵) by local and nationwide newspapers at that time. Their victory in America was still remembered as a major turning point in the history of rock and roll. Thanks to the Beatles, a lot of opportunities were opened up to new faces on the market. 5???? A.They decided on a tour to the United States in 1964. B.Even their hairstyles became major trends at that time. C.Rock music developed in the 1950s and the early 1960s. D.However, their songs changed the lives of generations to come. E.Many rock bands were able to follow in the footsteps of the Beatles. F.They appeared in the films A Hard Day????s Night (1964) and Help! (1965). G.They performed their first concert in America at CBS television's 53rd street studio. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。主题语境为人与社会,主题语境内容是音乐发展。文章的 主要内容是甲壳虫乐队的发展、在美国的巡演以及对美国音乐的影响。文章侧重于培养学 生的文化意识。 1.C 细节句。本段介绍了摇滚音乐并引出了甲壳虫乐队,C项(摇滚音乐是在20世纪50年代和 20世纪60时代早期发展起来的。)符合本段的主旨。 2.B 细节句。本段的主要内容是甲壳虫乐队在英国的流行程度,B项(甚至他们的发型在当时 都成为主要的趋势。)符合本段的主旨。 3.A 过渡句。本段的主要内容是甲壳虫乐队去美国巡演的情况。A项(1964年,他们决定去美 国巡演。)符合本段的主旨,同时引出了下面美国巡演的内容。 4.G 细节句。G项(他们在哥伦比亚广播公司电视台的第53街演播室举行了在美国的首场音 乐会。)中的concert照应了第三段的主题,符合本段的内容。 5.E 细节句。本空前面的内容介绍了甲壳虫乐队对美国音乐的深远影响。而E项(很多摇滚 乐队能够跟着甲壳虫乐队的步伐。)也是对甲壳虫乐队影响的描述,符合本段的内容。 高考热词 consist of 由……组成 live adv.在现场直播 modestly adv.不很大地 Passage 2 (2018浙江11月) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Some people are so rude. Who sends an e-mail or a text message that just says “Thank you”? Who leaves a voice mail message rather than texts you? Who asks for a fact easily found on the In- ternet? 1???? Maybe I'm the rude one for not appreciating life's little courtesies(礼节). But many social norms (规范)just don't make sense to people drowning in digital communication. Take the thank-you note. Daniel Post Senning, a coauthor of Emily Post's Etiquette, asked, “At what point does showing appreciation outweigh the cost?”  2????Think of how long it takes to listen to one of those messages. In texts, you don't have to de- clare who you are or even say hello. E-mail, too, is slower than a text. The worst are those who leave a voice mail and then send an e-mail message to tell you they left a voice mail. This isn't the first time technology has changed our manners.  3????Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor, suggested that people say, “Ahoy!” Finally, hello won out, and the victory sped up the greeting's use in face-to-face communications. In the age of the smart phone, there is no reason to ask once-acceptable questions about:the weath- er forecast, a business's phone number, or directions to a house, a restaurant, or an office, which can be easily found on a digital map. 4????And when you answer, they respond with a thank-you e -mail. How to handle these differing standards? Easy:Consider your audience. Some people, especially older ones, appreciate a thank-you message.  5????In traditional societies, the young learn from the old. But in modern societies, the old can also learn from the young. Here's hoping that politeness never goes out of fashion but that time-wasting forms of communication do. A.Then there is voice mail. B.Others, like me, want no reply. C.But people still ask these things. D.Don't these people realize that they're wasting your time? E.Won't new technology bring about changes in our daily life? F.Face-to-face communication makes comprehension much easier. G.When the telephone was invented, people didn't know how to greet a caller. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文讨论了目前在社交生活中的一些习惯差异。有人喜欢语音,有人不喜欢。 有人喜欢发邮件致谢,但是有人觉得多此一举,是浪费时间……。 1.D????细节句。本句空前的句子列举了一些不太合适的通信的方式,本句接着对这些现象进行 反问,以引出后面的话题。 2.A 主题句。本段评论语音留言的不好。本句是本段的核心信息。 3.G 细节句。根据下文可知,此处讨论的是发明电话对我们生活的影响。G项符合此主题。 4.C 细节句。上文指出,由于智能手机的发明,一些简单的生活问题都可以从手机上查到。 本句“但是人们总是问这些问题”和上文语义一致。 5.B 细节句。本段的主旨是对这些问题的处理办法。作者认为要因人而异。对老年人,他们 比较喜欢发致谢信。本空“而其他人,像我,就不喜欢致谢回答”符合语境。 高考热词 digital adj.数字的 declare v.声明 长难句???? 原句:But many social norms just don't make sense to people drowning in digital communication. 分析:本句的主句是But many social norms just don't make sense to people。而drowning in digi- tal communication是现在分词结构作定语。 译文:但是,许多社会规范对于沉溺于数字通信的人来说是没有意义的。 Passage 3 (2018浙江6月) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Moving into a new home in a new neighborhood is an exciting experience. Of course, you want to make sure that you become an accepted and valuable part of your new neighborhood. The easiest way to accomplish this is to make sure you conduct yourself as a good neighbor should.  1???? Perhaps one of the most important things you can do as a good neighbor is to keep your property (房产) neat, clean, and in good repair. 2???? By choosing to keep the outside of the home in great shape, you will help to improve the look and feel of the area. Second, take the overall appearance of the neighborhood seriously. When going for a walk, take a- long a small garbage bag.  3???? This small act will let your neighbors know that you care about the area.  4???? If a neighbor is going to be out of town, offer to collect mail and newspapers. If a neighbor suffers an illness, offer to do the grocery shopping. Let them know that you are there to help in any way that is acceptable, while still respecting the privacy of your neighbor.  5???? By following the basic rules of respecting others, taking care of what belongs to you, and taking pride in the appearance of the neighborhood in general, you will quickly become a good neighbor that everyone appreciates. A.In general, keep an eye on their property while they are gone. B.A good neighbor is also one who likes to help out in small ways. C.Being a good neighbor is more or less about considerate behavior. D.Sometimes neighbors may go to the supermarket together to do shopping. E.Should you come across waste paper thrown out of a passing car, pick it up. F.People tend to take pride in keeping everything in their street fresh and inviting. G.Here are a few tips to help you win over everyone in the neighborhood quickly. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文。搬了新家有了新邻居,想要邻居喜欢你吗?按照文章中作者提供 的建议尝试一下吧! 1.G 文章从第二段开始给读者提供了几个建议,因此第一段的最后一句起到总领全文的作 用,应选择G项。 2.F 设空处前句中的to keep your property neat, clean, and in good repair以及设空处后句中的 keep the outside of the home in great shape都与F项中的keeping everything in their street fresh and inviting有联系,故选择F项。 3.E 设空处前句提到散步时带一个垃圾袋,与E项中的come across waste paper...pick it up相呼 应,故选E项。 4.B B选项中的help out in small ways与本段的主旨一致,整段内容都是在讲你可以在邻居需 要帮助时及时提供一些帮助,故选择B项。 5.C 最后一段的功能为总结全文,也是对第一段中提到的文章主旨(如何成为一个好邻居)进 行呼应,故选择C项 高考热词 accomplish vt. 完成,实现 conduct vt. 进行,表现 keep an eye on 照看,注意 Passage 4 (2017浙江11月) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 How to Remember What You Read Reading is important. But the next step is making sure that you remember what you've read! 1???? You may have just read the text, but the ideas, concepts and images(形象) may fly right out of your head. Here are a few tricks for remembering what you read. ● 2???? If the plot, characters, or word usage is confusing for you, you likely won't be able to remember what you read. It's a bit like reading a foreign language. If you don't understand what you're reading, how would you remember it? But there are a few things you can do...Use a dictionary; look up the difficult words. ●Are you connected? Does a character remind you of a friend? Does the setting make you want to visit the place? Does the book inspire you, and make you want to read more? With some books, you may feel a connec- tion right away.  3???? How willing are you to make the connections happen? ●Read it; hear it; be it! Read the lines. Then, speak them out loud. And, put some character into the words. When he was writing his novels, Charles Dickens would act out the parts of the characters. He'd make faces in the mirror, and change his voice for each character.  4???? ●How often do you read? If you read frequently, you'll likely have an easier time with remembering what you're reading (and what you've read).  5???? As you make reading a regular part of your life, you'll make more connections, stay more focused and understand the text better. You'll learn to enjoy literature—as you remember what you read! A.Are you confused? B.Practice makes perfect. C.What's your motivation? D.Memory is sometimes a tricky thing. E.Marking helps you remember what you read. F.But other books require a bit more work on your part. G.You can do the same thing when you are reading the text! 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。文章介绍了几个如何能帮助我们记住阅读内容的建议。 1.D 过渡句。上文说阅读很重要,而下文则说“你可能刚读过文章,但是想法、概念和形象 可能飞出你的脑子”,由此可见,此处选D,承上启下,意为“阅读有时候是一件有窍门的事 情”。 2.A 主题句。本段的中心是如果你读的东西太难懂,你就容易记不住读的内容。所以,本段 的主题句就是A,意为“你困惑吗?” 3.F 细节句。本段的中心是如果你读的东西和你有一定的关联,那么你就容易记住你读的东 西。上句意为“有些书可能让你立即产生联系”,而本句意为“但其他的书需要你多费心 思”。 4.G 细节句。上文提到狄更斯在写小说时,把书的内容和实际结合起来。此处建议“在阅读 时你可以做同样的事情!”。 5.B 细节句。上文提到如果你经常阅读,那么你就会读得更轻松,也就是“熟能生巧”。本 句符合此处的语境。 高考热词 confusing adj.令人困惑的 look up查找;仰望 inspire v.激励 长难句???? 原句:If you read frequently, you'll likely have an easier time with remembering what you're read- ing (and what you've read). 分析:本句中If引导条件状语从句,而what引导宾语从句。 译文:如果你经常阅读,你很可能会更容易记住你在读什么(和你读过什么)。 Passage 5 (2017浙江6月) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 How to Do Man-on-the-Street Interviews The man-on-the-street interview is an interview in which a reporter hits the streets with a camera- man to interview people on the spot. 1????But with these tips, your first man-on-the-street inter- view experience can be easy. ·When your boss or professor sends you out to do man-on-the-street interviews for a story, think about the topic and develop a list of about ten general questions relating to it. For example, if your topic is about environmental problems in America, you might ask,“Why do you think environ- mental protection is important in America?” 2???? ·Hit the streets with confidence. 3????Say,“Excuse me, I work for XYZ News, and I was wonder- ing if you could share your opinion about this topic.”This is a quick way to get people to warm up to you. ·Move on to the next person if someone tells you she is not interested in talking on camera. Don't get discouraged. · 4????Each interview that you get on the street shouldn't be longer than ten minutes. As soon as you get the answer you need, move on to the next person. Make sure that as you go from interview to interview, you are getting a variety of answers. If everyone is giving you the same answer, you won't be able to use it. A safe number of interviews to conduct is about six to ten. 5???? ·If your news station or school requires interviewees to sign release forms to appear on the air, don 't leave work without them. A.Limit your time. B.As you approach people, be polite. C.If you don't own a camera, you can buy one. D.For new reporters, this can seem like a challenging task. E.To get good and useful results, ask them the same question. F.That number of interviews should give you all the answers you need. G.With a question like this, you will get more than a “Yes” or “No” reply. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。文章就“如何做好街头采访”给出了一些建议。 1.D 过渡句。该空的前句引入“街头采访”这一话题,此空表示“对于新记者来说,这似乎 是一个具有挑战性的任务”,引出下文的建议。 2.G 细节句。此段落的建议是“事先准备好问题”,并举例进行了说明。G项中的this指代 上句举出的问题,很好地契合了上文。 3.B 过渡句。此段的建议主要围绕采访时的态度展开。从空后的“Excuse me”可知,接近 被采访者时要有礼貌。故B项符合题意。 4.A 主题句。此空下句说“每次采访的时间不要超过10分钟”,所以此处选A。 5.F 细节句。此空上文提到“采访时需要得到不同的答案,进行大约六到十次采访更稳妥 些”,而F项“这一采访数量应该能给你你想要的答案”正好能与上文密切连接。 长难句???? 原句:The man-on-the-street interview is an interview in which a reporter hits the streets with a cameraman to interview people on the spot. 分析:这是一个复合句,其中in which 引导一个定语从句,修饰interview。 译文:街头采访指的是一个记者带着摄像师在街上现场采访他人的采访。 Passage 6 (2016浙江10月) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 How to Have a Successful Teenage Life Everyone wants to succeed in their life, don't they? Even as a teenager, you can achieve success in your life; it really isn't that hard. 1???? ●Do well in school. No matter how boring it is now, education will help you be a productive member in society. Try your best for excellence in school; listen to the teachers, do your home- work, study, and get good grades. Doing so will help you get into a better university, which will enable you to have a bright future. 2???? ●Do good in your community(社区).Volunteering can not only improve your community's sta- tus, it could make you happier. Studies show that people who volunteer are less likely to develop depression (抑郁)than people who don't. 3???? For example, if you love animals, volunteer at an animal shelter. If you love helping the environment, plant trees or pick up litter. When you help others, it will make you feel better about yourself. ● 4????Remember, they're there to help you be the best that you can be. Respect them and value their opinions, even if they annoy you sometimes. 5????You don't get to choose your teachers or your family, but you still have to put up with them. Learn how to deal with people now, because when you're an adult, you don't get to choose your boss or your co-workers, so learn how to re- spect them now. A.Live life to the fullest. B.School sets you up on the right track! C.Be nice to your parents and teachers. D.Find chances to do volunteer work that interests you. E.It will help you pass time and develop your personality. F.Here are some important points that you may find helpful. G.Keep in mind that they do the things they do because they care about you. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。主要内容是关于青少年如何将自己的生活过得丰富且成功 的建议。 1.F 由文章的题目、第一段内容以及后面的语境可知,本文就青少年如何将自己的生活过得 丰富且有意义提出了一些看法。下面的内容就是作者给出的建议。设空处的句子就是引出 下面的内容,故答案为F。 2.B 第二段的主要内容都是围绕学校学业展开的,建议青少年们在校要认真学习,取得好成 绩;再根据该段倒数第二句“Doing so will help you get into a better university, which will enable you to have a bright future.”进行判断;而余下的六个选项中,只有B项与“学校”有关,且与前 面的“a bright future”相呼应。 3.D 本段的内容是有关社区的志愿活动。作者建议,应该多参与社区的志愿服务工作;D项的 意思是“找机会做引起你兴趣的志愿活动”,符合题意。 4.C 第四段讲的是如何处理好与父母还有老师之间的关系;而余下的四个选项中,只有C项是 关于父母和老师的,且能概括段落大意,作为主旨句,故为正确答案。 5.G 由第四段的第二句和第三句可知,父母和老师的出发点都是为了自己的孩子或学生好, 帮助他们成为最好的人,因此,即使有时候他们会让人生气,也要学着去尊重他们并听取他们的 意见;故要对家长和老师好,余下的三个选项中,只有G项符合此处的语境。 高考热词 put up with sb.忍受某人 长难句???? Studies show that people who volunteer are less likely to develop depression than people who don' t. 研究表明做义工的人比那些不做的人得抑郁症的几率要小。 文中两个who均引导定语从句。 B组????统一命题、省(区、市)卷题组 Passage 1(2019课标全国Ⅰ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Is Fresh Air Really Good for You? We all grew up hearing people tell us to “go out and get some fresh air.” 1????According to re- cent studies, the answer is a big YES, if the air quality in your camping area is good.  2????If the air you're breathing is clean—which it would be if you're away from the smog of cities—then the air is filled with life-giving, energizing oxygen. If you exercise out of doors, your body will learn to breathe more deeply, allowing even more oxygen to get to your muscles(肌肉) and your brain. Recently, people have begun studying the connection between the natural world and healing(治 愈). 3????In these places patients can go to be near nature during their recovery. It turns out that just looking at green, growing things can reduce stress, lower blood pressure, and put people into a better mood(情绪).Greenery is good for us. Hospital patients who see tree branches out their win- dow are likely to recover at a faster rate than patients who see buildings or sky instead. 4????It gives us a great feeling of peace.  5????While the sun's rays can age and harm our skin, they also give us beneficial vitamin D. To make sure you get enough vitamin D—but still protect your skin—put on sunscreen right as you head outside. It takes sunscreen about fifteen minutes to start working, and that's plenty of time for your skin to absorb a day's worth of vitamin D. A.Fresh air cleans our lungs. B.So what are you waiting for? C.Being in nature refreshes us. D.Another side benefit of getting fresh air is sunlight. E.But is fresh air really as good for you as your mother always said? F.Just as importantly, we tend to associate fresh air with health care. G.All across the country, recovery centers have begun building Healing Gardens. 答案 [语篇解读]????本文体裁为说明文。主题语境为人与自然,主题语境内容为人与环境。文章围 绕新鲜空气是否对我们有好处这一话题进行阐述。本文侧重培养学生的语言能力。 1.E 过渡句。设空处前句提到 “go out and get some fresh air”,空格处马上针对呼吸新鲜空 气这件事情进行提问,然后设空处后一句就是针对提问的回答 “the answer is a big YES”,所 以选择E项。 2.A 主题句。设空处后面一整段都是在阐述呼吸新鲜空气的好处,尤其两次提到oxygen(氧 气),且设空处位于段首,所以设空处是整段的主题句,而且话题需要一致,oxygen与A项中的 lungs有联系,所以选择A项。 3.G 细节句。设空处前一句中的关键词healing与G项中的Healing对应,G项中的recovery与设 空处后一句中的recovery对应。此外,G项中出现Healing Gardens,后一句马上出现In these places来指代Healing Gardens,因此答案是G项。 4.C 主题句。根据本段的第三句In these places patients can go to be near nature during their recovery.可知,此段讲了接近大自然有助于病人的康复,而下文对有哪些帮助进行了进一步说 明,所以在本段的最后再次进行总结,话题依然是与大自然有关,而且是总结性质的句子,所以 选择C项。C项中nature与话题一致,与设空处后一句均是对本段话题的收尾。 5.D 主题句。根据设空处位置可以推测此处为主题句,是对本段话题的开启。设空处后一句 中的the sun's rays与D项中的sunlight对应。而D项中的Another side benefit of getting fresh air 又是对前面段落中阐述呼吸新鲜空气有好处的延伸,因此D项是最佳选项。 高考热词 quality n.质量 recovery n.恢复 turn out 结果是 beneficial adj.有益的 长难句???? 原句:Hospital patients who see tree branches out their window are likely to recover at a faster rate than patients who see buildings or sky instead. 分析:本句是主从复合句。句子主干是:Hospital patients are likely to recover at a faster rate than patients。who see tree branches out their window是定语从句,修饰先行词Hospital patients;who see buildings or sky instead也是定语从句,修饰第二个patients。 译文:看到他们窗外树枝的住院病人比看到建筑物或天空的病人恢复得更快。 Passage 2(2019课标全国Ⅱ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Imagine a child standing on a diving board four feet high and asking himself the question: “Should I jump?”This is what motivation or the lack of it can do. Motivation and goal setting are the two sides of the same coin.  1???? Like the child on the diving board, you will stay unde- cided.  2???? More than that, how should you stay motivated to achieve the goal? First, you need to eval- uate yourself, your values, your strengths, your weaknesses, your achievements, your desires, etc. Only then should you set your goals. You also need to judge the quality and depth of your motivation. This is quite important, because it is directly related to your commitment. There are times when your heart is not in your work.  3???? So, slow down and think what you really want to do at that moment. Clarity (清晰) of thoughts can help you move forward. Another way of setting realistic goals is to analyze your short and long term objectives, keeping in mind your beliefs, values and strengths. Remember that goals are flexible.  4???? They also need to be measurable. You must keep these points in mind while setting your goals. Your personal circumstances are equally important. For example, you may want to be a pilot but can't become one because your eyesight is not good enough.  5???? You should reassess your goals, and motivate yourself to set a fresh goal. You will surely need to overcome some difficulties, some planned, but most unplanned. You can- not overcome them without ample motivation. Make sure that you plan for these difficulties at the time of setting your goals. A.This can affect your work. B.So how should you motivate yourself? C.However, this should not discourage you. D.So why should we try to set specific goals? E.They can change according to circumstances. F.Motivation is what you need most to do a good job. G.Without motivation, you can neither set a goal nor reach it. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是说明文。主题语境是人与自我,主题语境内容为认识自我,完善自我。文 章从介绍动机和目标开始,告诉我们如何确立正确的动机和目标对我们更有益。本文旨在培 养学生科学认识自我、激励自我、辩证看待问题、合理解决问题的能力。 1.G 过渡句。句意:若没有动机,你既不能设定目标,也不能达成目标。由设空处上句话Moti- vation and goal setting are the two sides of the same coin.(动机和目标的设定是一件事情的两个 方面。)可知,动机是很重要的。根据设空处下句Like the child on the diving board, you will stay undecided.可知,中间需要加一个表示转折的句子:若没有动机……。故选G。 2.B????主题句。句意:那么,你应该如何激励自己呢?该题中,设空处位于文章第二段开头,可能 会是该段的主旨句。设空处后面的how should you stay motivated to achieve the goal也是引出 该段话题或是对主旨句的进一步说明。另根据句子结构一致的原则,可找到与此问句结构一 致的选项B:So how should you motivate yourself?故选B。 3.A 过渡句。句意:这可能会影响你的工作。根据设空处前面的句子There are times when your heart is not in your work.(有时你的心会不在你的工作上。)可知,接下来会说这样做的后 果(影响你的工作)。设空处后面介绍正确的做法。故选A。 4.E????细节句。句意:它们可以根据情况来改变。设空处前面的句子提到Remember that goals are flexible.(要记得目标是灵活的。),接下来可能会接着解释它们会改变。选项E中的They与 上句话中的goals指代一致。故选E。 5.C????过渡句。句意:然而,这不应该使你泄气。由设空处上句话中的you may want to be a pilot but can't become one because your eyesight is not good enough(你可能想成为一名飞行员,但因 为你的视力不够好而不能成为一名飞行员)可知,接下来会告诉我们解决这个问题的办法。根 据设空处下句话中的You should reassess your goals(你应该重新评估你的目标)可知,选C项。 Passage 3(2019课标全国Ⅲ) In an online class, developing healthy patterns of communication with professors is very important.  1???? While I have only listed two of each, there are obviously many other situations that can arise. Students should be able to extend the logic(逻辑) of each to their particular circumstance. Do's ● 2???? Questions about subject content are generally welcomed. Before asking questions about the course design, read the syllabus(教学大纲) and learning management system information to be sure the answer isn't hiding in plain sight. ●Participate in discussion forums(论坛), blogs and other open-ended forums for dialogue.  3???? Be sure to stay on topic and not offer irrelevant information. Make a point, and make it safe for others to do the same. Don'ts ●Don't share personal information or stories. Professors are not trained nurses, financial aid ex- perts or your best friends. If you are in need of a deadline extension, simply explain the situation to the professor.  4???? ●Don't openly express annoyance at a professor or class.  5???? When a student attacks a profes- sor on the social media, the language used actually says more about the student. If there is truly a concern about a professor's professionalism or ability, be sure to use online course evaluations to calmly offer your comments. A.That's what they are for. B.Turn to an online instructor for help. C.If more information is needed, they will ask. D.Remember that online professors get a lot of emails. E.Below are some common do's and don'ts for online learners. F.Everyone has taken a not-so-great class at one time or another. G.Ask questions, but make sure they are good, thoughtful questions. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文体裁为说明文。主题语境为人与社会,主题语境内容为社会交往。文章针 对如何与在线课程教授沟通为学生提出了一些建议。本文侧重培养学生的学习能力。 1.E 过渡句。设空处前提出与在线(online)课程教授有着良好的沟通很重要,下文介绍了该做 的和不该做的事情,因此答案为E项。 2.G 主题句。根据Do's和Don'ts中各段首句的特点可知,设空处为主题句并且是祈使句,设 空处后一句中的关键词questions与G项中的questions对应,因此答案为G项。 3.A 细节句。由设空处前面的句子Participate in discussion forums, blogs and other open-end- ed forums for dialogue.中的关键信息可知,A项中的That指代dialogue,they指代discussion fo- rums, blogs and other open-ended forums,因此答案为A项。 4.C 细节句。本段建议学生不要和教授聊个人话题,你在说完和教授沟通的内容之后,如果 有必要,教授会进一步向你提问,因此答案为C项。 5.F 细节句。本段建议学生如果对教授的课程有意见,不要公开发表不满,所以空格处的内容 应与本段话题一致,F项提到每个人都曾经上过不太好的课,与前后文内容相关联,因此答案为 F项。 高考热词 pattern n. 模式 arise v. 出现 extend v. 延伸 circumstance n. 情况 irrelevant adj. 不相干的 annoyance n. 烦恼,气恼 evaluation n. 评价??? comment n. 评语,评论 长难句???? 原句:Before asking questions about the course design, read the syllabus and learning management system information to be sure the answer isn't hiding in plain sight. 分析:本句是一个主从复合句。句子的主干是一个祈使句:read the syllabus and learning man- agement system information。Before asking questions about the course design为时间状语;to be sure the answer isn't hiding in plain sight是目的状语,其中the answer isn't hiding in plain sight是 宾语从句。 译文:在询问有关课程设计的问题之前,阅读教学大纲和学习管理系统信息,确保答案不会隐藏 在眼皮底下。 Passage 4(2019北京) 根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余 选项。 Much of the work in today's world is accomplished(完成) in teams. Most people believe the best way to build a great team is to gather a group of the most talented individuals.  1????Companies spend millions hiring top business people. Is their money well spent?  2????They focused on football, basketball and baseball. The results are mixed. For football and basketball, adding talented players to a team proves a good method, but only up to the point where 70% of the players are top talent; above that level, the team's performance begins to decline. In- terestingly, this trend isn't evident in baseball, where additional individual talent keeps improving the team's performance. To explain this phenomenon, the researchers explored the degree to which a good performance by a team requires its members to coordinate(协调) their actions. 3????In baseball, the performance of individual players is less dependent on teammates. They conclude that when task interdependence is high, team performance will suffer when there is too much talent, while individual talent will have positive effects on team performance when task interdependence is lower. If a basketball star is, for example, trying to gain a high personal point total, he may take a shot himself when it would be better to pass the ball to a teammate, affecting the team's performance. Young children learn- ing to play team sports are often told,“There is no I in TEAM.” 4???? Another possibility is that when there is a lot of talent on a team, some players may make less ef- fort. Just as in a game of tug-of-war(拔河比赛),whenever a person is added, everyone else pulls the rope with less force.  5????An A-team may require a balance—not just A players, but a few generous B players as well. A.It's not a simple matter to determine the nature of talent. B.Sports team owners spend millions of dollars attracting top talent. C.The group interaction and its effect drew the researchers' attention. D.Stars apparently do not follow this basic principle of sportsmanship. E.Several recent studies examined the role of talent in the sports world. F.Building up a dream team is more complex than simply hiring the best talent. G.This task interdependence distinguishes baseball from football and basketball. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为议论文,主题语境为人与社会,主题语境内容为体育精神。本文主要讨论 了一个团队是否需要很多有天赋的个人加入。文章有助于培养学生的思维品质。 1.B 细节句。设空处后的“Companies spend millions hiring top business people.”与本空为 并列关系,故答案为B项(体育团队的老板们花数百万美元吸引顶尖人才)。 2.E 主题句。根据下文尤其是“They focused on football, basketball and baseball.”以及 “The results”可知,答案为E项。句意:最近的几项研究调查了人才在体育世界中的作用。 3.G 过渡句。本段主要说明了任务互依性在不同的运动项目中的作用以及对团队表现产生 的影响,与G项中的task interdependence相对应,故答案为G项。 4.D 细节句。根据设空处前的If a basketball star is, for example,...Young children learning to play team sports are often told, “There is no I in TEAM.”可知答案为D项(明星们显然不愿遵 循体育精神的这个基本的原则)。 5.F 主题句。根据设空处后的“An A-team may require a balance—not just A players...”可知 答案为F项(建立一个理想的团队比仅仅雇用最好的人才更复杂)。 长难句???? 原句:Interestingly, this trend isn't evident in baseball, where additional individual talent keeps improving the team's performance. 分析:本句为主从复合句。where引导非限制性定语从句,先行词为baseball。 译文:有趣的是,这一趋势在棒球运动中并不明显,在棒球运动中,增加的个体天才持续不断地 提高球队的表现。 Passage 5 (2018课标全国Ⅰ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Color is fundamental in home design—something you'll always have in every room. A grasp of how to manage color in your spaces is one of the first steps to creating rooms you'll love to live in. Do you want a room that's full of life?Professional?Or are you just looking for a place to relax af- ter a long day? 1????, color is the key to making a room feel the way you want it to feel. Over the years, there have been a number of different techniques to help designers approach this important point. 2????, they can get a little complex. But good news is that there're really only three kinds of decisions you need to make about color in your home:the small ones, the medium ones, and the large ones.  3????. They're the little spots of color like throw pillows, mirrors and baskets that most of us use to add visual interest to our rooms. Less tiring than painting your walls and less expensive than buying a colorful sofa, small color choices bring with them the significant benefit of being easily changeable. Medium color choices are generally furniture pieces such as sofas, dinner tables or bookshelves. ????4????. They require a bigger commitment than smaller ones, and they have a more powerful effect on the feeling of a space. The large color decisions in your rooms concern the walls, ceilings, and floors. Whether you're looking at wallpaper or paint, the time, effort and relative expense put into it are significant. 5????. A.While all of them are useful B.Whatever you're looking for C.If you're experimenting with a color D.Small color choices are the ones we're most familiar with E.It's not really a good idea to use too many small color pieces F.So it pays to be sure, because you want to get it right the first time G.Color choices in this range are a step up from the small ones in two major ways 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文,介绍了在家居装修时如何选择颜色。只需作出三个决定即可:抱 枕、镜子等小物件的颜色选择;沙发、餐桌等中等物件的颜色选择;墙面、天花板、地板等大 物件的颜色选择。 1.B 本句为细节句。上文指出,你是想要一个充满生机的房间呢?还是专业的房间?或者你只 是在寻找漫长的一天过后供你休息的场所呢?本句应该对上文的问题作出回应,B项符合语境, 句意为“无论你在找什么样的房间,要想让房间给你想要的感觉,颜色至关重要”。B项中的 looking for为原词再现。 2.A 本句为细节句。上句指出,在过去的这些年,有很多不同的技巧帮助设计者达到这重要 的一点。本句应该对这些技巧作出回应,A项符合语境,句意为“虽然所有的技巧都有用处,但 是它们有点儿复杂”。A项中的all of them代指上句中的different techniques。 3.D 本句为主题句。上段末尾指出了需要作出的三个决定(the small ones, the medium ones, and the large ones)。根据最后两段首句(Medium color choices...和The large color decisions...)可 知,这两段分别介绍了后两个决定,结合段落内容可知本段介绍第一个决定,故D项(Small color choices...)符合段落主题。 4.G 本句为过渡句。本段介绍了对家具这样的中等物件作出颜色选择。空格前的句子列举 了中等物件的例子,空格后的由and连接的两个分句从两方面与小物件的颜色选择进行了比 较,故G项符合语境。two major ways与下句内容一致。 5.F 本句为细节句。上文指出,在对大物件的颜色作出选择时,付出的时间、精力和相关的费 用都意义重大,F项为该话题的延续,符合语境,意为“因为你想要第一次就选好,所以这肯定是 划算的”。 高考热词????fundamental adj.基本的;十分重要的 approach vt.处理;对付 complex adj.复杂的 commitment n.付出;投入 长难句???? 原句:A grasp of how to manage color in your spaces is one of the first steps to creating rooms you'll love to live in. 分析:本句的主干为A grasp is one of the first steps,how to...结构作介词of的宾语,you'll love to live in为定语从句,先行词为rooms,省略了在从句中作宾语的关系代词。 译文:掌握在你的空间如何选择颜色的技巧是创造你喜欢居住的房间的首要步骤之一。 Passage 6 (2018课标全国Ⅱ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 If you are already making the time to exercise, it is good indeed!With such busy lives, it can be hard to try and find the time to work out. 1????Working out in the morning provides additional benefits beyond being physically fit. ●Your productivity is improved. Exercising makes you more awake and ready to handle whatever is ahead of you for the day. 2???? ●Your metabolism(新陈代谢)gets a head start. 3????If you work out in the mornings, then you will be getting the calorie(卡路里)burning benefits for the whole day, not in your sleep. ● 4????Studies found that people who woke up early for exercise slept better than those who ex- ercised in the evening. Exercise energizes you, so it is more difficult to relax and have a peaceful sleep when you are very excited. ● 5????If you work out bright and early in the morning, you will be more likely to stick to healthy food choices throughout the day. Who would want to ruin their good workout by eating junk food?You will want to continue to focus on positive choices. There are a lot of benefits to working out, especially in the mornings. Set your alarm clock an hour early and push yourself to work out!You will feel energized all day long. A.You will stick to your diet. B.Your quality of sleep improves. C.You prefer healthy food to fast food. D.There is no reason you should exercise in the morning. E.You can keep your head clear for 4—10 hours after exercise. F.After you exercise, you continue to burn calories throughout the day. G.If you are planning to do exercise regularly, or you????re doing it now, then listen up! 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文。早上锻炼不仅有利于身体健康,而且还可以提高效率、促进新 陈代谢、提高睡眠质量并帮你保持良好的饮食习惯。 1.G 本句为过渡句。空格前的句子指出在繁忙的生活中很难找到时间锻炼,空格后的句子则 指出了早上锻炼具有许多益处,G项意为“如果你计划定期锻炼或者现在正在锻炼,那么注意 听!”,能很好地连接上下文,故G项正确。 2.E 本句为细节句。本段指出早上锻炼有助于提高效率,让你更加清醒地处理这一天的事 情,E项意为“锻炼后的4到10个小时内,你可以保持清醒的头脑”。awake与E项中的keep your head clear意思一致。 3.F????本句为细节句。F项中的“continue to burn calories throughout the day(整整一天持续燃 烧卡路里)”与设空处后句中的“will be getting the calorie burning benefits for the whole day (整整一天都会受益于卡路里的燃烧)”意义一致,故F项正确。 4.B 本句为主题句。本段指出,研究发现早起锻炼的人比晚上锻炼的人睡眠更好,故B项符合 本段主旨,意为“你的睡眠质量会有所提高”。 5.A 本句为主题句。阅读本段可知,早上锻炼,你会更有可能全天坚持健康饮食,因为你不想 因为吃垃圾食品而毁掉锻炼的积极效果。A项符合本段主旨,意为“你会坚持你的饮食习 惯”。stick to为原词再现。 高考热词 additional adj. 额外的;附加的 stick to坚持 energize vt. 给……添加能量;使充满 活力 长难句???? 原句:Studies found that people who woke up early for exercise slept better than those who exer- cised in the evening. 分析:本句中found后为that引导的宾语从句,在从句中people后为关系代词who引导的定语从 句,those后仍为who引导的定语从句。 译文:研究发现,早起锻炼的人比晚上锻炼的人睡眠质量更好。 Passage 7 (2018课标全国Ⅲ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Before there was the written word, there was the language of dance. Dance expresses love and hate, joy and sorrow, life and death, and everything else in between.  1???? We dance from Florida to Alaska, from north to south and sea to sea. We dance at wed- dings, birthdays, office parties and just to fill the time. “I adore dancing,”says Lester Bridges, the owner of a dance studio in Iowa. “I can't imagine doing anything else with my life.”Bridges runs dance classes for all ages. “Teaching dance is wonderful.  2???? It's great to watch them. For many of them, it's a way of meeting people and having a social life.”  3???? “I can tell you about one young couple,” says Bridges. “They're learning to do tradi- tional dances. They arrive at the class in low spirits and they leave with a smile.  4????” So, do we dance in order to make ourselves feel better, calmer, healthier?Andrea Hillier says, “Dance, like the pattern of a beating heart, is life. Even after all these years, I want to get better and better.  5???? I find it hard to stop!Dancing reminds me I'm alive.” A.So why do we dance? B.Dance in the U.S. is everywhere. C.If you like dancing outdoors, come to America. D.My older students say it makes them feel young. E.I keep practicing even when I'm extremely tired. F.Dancing seems to change their feeling completely. G.They stayed up all night long singing and dancing. 答案 [语篇解读]????本文是一篇记叙文。在文中作者首先描述了跳舞在美国的受欢迎程度,接着描 述了自己一生为跳舞疯狂的生活。 1.B 本句为主旨句。空格位于段首。空格后描述跳舞在美国的流行程度:从佛罗里达州到阿 拉斯加州,从北到南到大海上。在婚礼上、在生日派对上、在办公室派对上人们都在跳舞。 由此可知到处都能看到美国人在跳舞,与B项吻合,所以答案为B项。 2.D 本句为过渡句。空格前作者用直接引语的方式描述了“教舞蹈简直太美妙了”。空格 后句子中出现的代词them指代的就是Bridges所教的学生。D项中的students和them相对应,所 以答案为D项。即我的那些年龄大的学生说舞蹈让他们感觉自己年轻。 3.A 本句为主题句。空格位于段首。后面以一对年轻夫妻为例说明了跳舞给他们带来的好 处。由此推断出本段是描述跳舞会给一个人的情绪带来巨大的影响,这就是人们喜欢跳舞的 原因。这与A项(那么,我们为什么要跳舞呢?)相符。 4.F 本句为细节句。空格前描述这对夫妻刚来到舞蹈班时情绪低落,当他们离开的时候脸上 露出了微笑。这都是舞蹈给他们的情绪带来的变化。这与F项(舞蹈好像彻底改变了他们的 情绪。)相符。 5.E 本句为过渡句。空格前描述这么多年来Hillier想跳得越来越好。空格后描述Hillier发现 自己就是停不下来,跳舞让Hillier知道自己还活着。作为前后过渡的空格处应该与Hillier一直 不停地跳舞相关,这与E项(即使当我非常累的时候我还在练习跳舞。)相符。 Passage 8 (2018北京) 根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余 选项。 Why Do We Get Angry? Anger seems simple when we are feeling it, but the causes of anger are various. Knowing these causes can make us examine our behavior, and correct bad habits. The main reasons we get angry are triggering(触发)events, personality traits(特征), and our assessment of situations. 1???? Triggering events for anger are so many that to describe them all would take hundreds of pages. However, here are some examples:being cut off in traffic, a deadline approaching, experiencing physical pain, and much more. 2????The reason why someone is triggered by something and others are not is often due to one's personal history and psychological traits. Each person, no matter who they are, has psychological imbalances. People who have personality traits that connect with competitiveness and low upset tolerance are much more likely to get angry.  3????Also, sometimes pre-anger does not have to do with a lasting condition, but rather a tempo- rary state before a triggering event has occurred.  4????Sometimes even routine occurrences become sources of pre-anger, or anger itself. Some- times ignorance and negative(消极的)outlooks on situations can create anger.  5????However, anger can easily turn violent, and it is best to know the reasons for anger to appear in order to prevent its presence. With these main reasons in mind, we can evaluate our level of anger throughout the day and prevent cases of outbursts by comprehending the reasons for our feel- ings. A.Our attitude and viewpoint on situations can create anger within us as well. B.But some types of situations can help us to get rid of the occurrence of anger. C.Anger is rarely looked upon as a beneficial character trait, and is usually advised to reduce it. D.Anger is a particularly strong feeling and maybe people think that they have reasons to feel an- gry. E.Having these personality traits implies the pre-anger state, where anger is in the background of your mind. F.Understanding these reasons will control our own anger if we are willing to evaluate ourselves with a critical eye. G.Not everyone acts the same in response to events, and that is why what triggers one person may or may not trigger another. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。文章从三个方面向读者介绍了引起愤怒的原因,以帮助减 少愤怒的出现。 1.F 本句是总结句。空格位于段尾,作者在该空之前先给出引起人们发怒的三个主要原因: triggering events(触发事件)、personality traits(个人性格特征)、assessment of situations(对形势 的评估),然后就自然地引出总结句:了解这些原因有什么用,故选择F项。 2.G 本句为细节句。第二段主要针对“triggering events(触发事件)”来展开。空格前作者 先列举出几个生活中的事件,通常人们在遇到这些事之后的反应都是发怒;空格后作者介绍说 “因为个人经历和心理特点的不同,所以面对某些事时,有人发怒但也有人不生气”。因此该 空应该承上启下,应该说的是“人们对这些事件的反应是不尽相同的”,与G项一致。 3.E 本句为细节句。第三段主要的关键词是“personality traits(个人性格特征)”。空格前一 句话提到争强好胜的人及忍耐度低的人更容易发怒;空格后介绍pre-anger(生气前兆)的特点, 与E项的these personality traits和pre-anger形成原词复现,故选E项。 4.A 本句为主题句。通读本段内容可知该段主要围绕“our assessment of situations”展开。 空后第二句话中的outlooks on situations的意思是“对局势的判断”,与A项“Our attitude and viewpoint on situations”意思相近,故选A项。 5.D 本句为过渡句。由衔接词“However”可知,设空处内容与后文内容相反,故D项“发怒 是一种特别强烈的情感,或许人们认为愤怒是情有可原的”放在此处最合适,因此选D项。 Passage 9 (2017课标全国Ⅰ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 If anyone had told me three years ago that I would be spending most of my weekends camping, I would have laughed heartily. Campers, in my eyes, were people who enjoyed insect bites, ill- cooked meals, and uncomfortable sleeping bags. They had nothing in common with me.  1???? The friends who introduced me to camping thought that it meant to be a pioneer.  2???? We slept in a tent, cooked over an open fire, and walked a long distance to take the shower and use the bath- room. This brief visit with Mother Nature cost me two days off from work, recovering from a bad case of sunburn and the doctor's bill for my son's food poisoning. I was, nevertheless, talked into going on another fun-filled holiday in the wilderness.  3???? In- stead, we had a pop-up camper with comfortable beds and an air conditioner. My nature-loving friends had remembered to bring all the necessities of life.  4????We have done a lot of it since. Recently, we bought a twenty-eight-foot travel trailer com- plete with a bathroom and a built-in TV set. There is a separate bedroom, a modern kitchen with a refrigerator. The trailer even has matching carpet and curtains.  5????It must be true that sooner or later, everyone finds his or her way back to nature. I recom- mend that you find your way in style. A.This time there was no tent. B.Things are going to be improved. C.The trip they took me on was a rough one. D.I was to learn a lot about camping since then, however. E.I must say that I have certainly come to enjoy camping. F.After the trip, my family became quite interested in camping. G.There was no shade as the trees were no more than 3 feet tall. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文。讲述了作者由讨厌露营到喜欢露营的过程。短文分为三部分: 第一部分为第一段,谈及作者三年前对露营的负面看法;第二部分为第二段,描述了作者被说服 参加的一次露营经历;第三部分为最后三段,讲述了作者从那之后参加的数次愉快的露营经历 以及作者一家人都开始享受露营带来的快乐。 1.D 过渡句。本空位置在第一段的结尾。设题处前面的句子表明作者三年前对露营的抵触 心理,后面的段落描述了露营的经历。由此可以看出本题对应的句子起到承上启下的作用,而 且具有转折的功能。D选项中的关键信息since then 和however起到明显的衔接作用,故为正确 答案。 2.C 概括句。本空位置在段落之中。前面的句子指出作者的朋友们带他参加了一次露营;后 面的句子较详细地描写了那次露营的经历,但多是比较艰苦的体验,如睡在帐篷里、野炊、洗 澡不方便等,根据上下文可知,本句应该是一个概括句,总体说明这次露营的状况。C项中的 they与前面的friends 对应,rough可以概括这次露营的特征,所以是正确答案。 3.A 细节句。本空所在段落描述了一次愉快的露营经历,本空后面的副词Instead是一个重要 的衔接标志词,表明本空后面的内容与本空的信息相反。本空后面的句子强调这次露营中他 们有了舒适的露营车(camper),这个信息是相对于上次的帐篷露营而言的。因此,根据上下文 可知选项A 为正确答案。 4.F 过渡句。设空处在段首,引出一个新话题。本空后面的代词We是一个很强的衔接标志 词,表明本空对应的句子中应该有包括作者在内的复数人群。根据这个线索,选项F中的my family 与We恰好对应,故答案为F项。选项E有一定的干扰性,但E中的I无法与后面的We 对应, 所以不正确。 5.E 总结句。设空处在最后一段(结语段)的段首,是全文的概括,又起到承上启下的作用。选 项E中的关键信息come to enjoy camping既是对前面几段的概括总结,也能够顺畅地衔接下句 内容,即希望别人也能亲近大自然。由此可见,选项E为正确答案。 高考热词 heartily adv.开怀地 pop-up adj.有弹出功能的 camper n.野营车 trailer n.拖车; (拖车式)活动房屋 长难句???? 原句:If anyone had told me three years ago that I would be spending most of my weekends camp- ing, I would have laughed heartily. 分析:本句为主从复合句,且采用了虚拟语气。因为是对过去的虚拟,故本句中条件状语从句为 过去完成时态,主句采用了“would have done”结构。that引导宾语从句。 译文:三年前如果有人告诉我我会用大部分周末的时间来野营,我会开怀大笑。 Passage 10 (2017课标全国Ⅱ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Interruptions are one of the worst things to deal with while you're trying to get work done. 1????, there are several ways to handle things. Let's take a look at them now.  2????. Tell the person you're sorry and explain that you have a million things to do and then ask if the two of you can talk at a different time. When people try to interrupt you, have set hours planned and let them know to come back during that time or that you'll find them then. 3????. It can help to eliminate(消除)future interruptions. When you need to talk to someone, don't do it in your own office. 4????, it's much easier to ex- cuse yourself to get back to your work than if you try to get someone out of your space even after explaining how busy you are. If you have a door to your office, make good use of it. 5????. If someone knocks and it's not an important matter, excuse yourself and let the person know you're busy so they can get the hint(暗 示)that when the door is closed, you're not to be disturbed. A.If you're busy, don't feel bad about saying no B.When you want to avoid interruptions at work C.Set boundaries for yourself as far as your time goes D.If you're in the other person's office or in a public area E.It's important that you let them know when you'll be available F.It might seem unkind to cut people short when they interrupt you G.Leave it open when you're available to talk and close it when you're not 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文。本文介绍了在工作中避免被干扰的四种方法:一是直接拒绝打 扰者;二是让他人知道你何时有时间;三是去对方办公室或公共区域会见某人;四是学会利用 好自己办公室的门。 1.B 细节句。空格处为从句,空格后的部分为主句,只有B项和D项符合要求。主句指出“有 几种可以解决问题的方法”,B项意为“当你想在工作中避免受到干扰时”,符合语境要求。 D项意为“如果你在对方的办公室或者公共场所”,与主句所述内容不一致。 2.A 主题句。此处是文章第二段的第一句。上一句为:现在让我们看看这些应对方法。由此 可见,第二段应介绍应对打扰的第一种方法。空白处后的句子提到“告诉这个人你很抱歉并 解释……”。选项A“如果你很忙,不要为拒绝他人而感到难为情”符合语境。 3.E 过渡句。该段说的是应对打扰的第二种方法。上文指出,别人想干扰你时,要设定好时 间,让别人知道什么时候再来找你或你什么时候去找他们。下文指出,这样有助于消除后续的 干扰,解释了前一句所说内容的原因。结合上下文可知,E项“让他们知道你什么时候有空很 重要”符合语境。 4.D????细节句。这一段讲的是与他人谈话的地点的选择问题。上文指出,你需要和他人谈谈 时,不要在自己的办公室做这件事。空白处应填入从句。D项是一个if引导的从句,意为“如 果你在对方的办公室或公共区域”,此选项涉及地点,符合上下文语境和句子结构上的要求,故 D项正确。 5.G 过渡句。door为关键词。这一段主要讲述如何利用办公室的门,以避免忙时被打扰。上 文指出,如果办公室有一扇门的话,要充分利用。G项意为“有空交谈时就开着门,反之则关上 门”,it指代前一句中的door。故G项正确。 高考热词 interruption n.打扰 长难句???? 原句:If someone knocks and it's not an important matter, excuse yourself and let the person know you're busy so they can get the hint that when the door is closed, you????re not to be disturbed. 分析:if引导条件状语从句,so(that)引导目的状语从句。hint后为that引导的同位语从句,从句中 还含有when引导的时间状语从句。 译文:如果有人敲门并且不是重要的事情,那你就可以给自己找个理由,让这个人知道你很忙, 这样他们就可以得到这样的暗示:门关着时,你不想受到干扰。 Passage 11 (2017北京) 根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余 选项。 Every animal sleeps, but the reason for this has remained foggy. When lab rats are not allowed to sleep, they die within a month.  1???? One idea is that sleep helps us strengthen new memories.  2????We know that, while awake, fresh memories are recorded by reinforcing(加强) connections between brain cells, but the memory pro- cesses that take place while we sleep have been unclear. Support is growing for a theory that sleep evolved so that connections between neurons(神经元) in the brain can be weakened overnight, making room for fresh memories to form the next day.  3???? Now we have the most direct evidence yet that he is right.  4???? The synapses in the mice taken at the end of a period of sleep were 18 per cent smaller than those taken before sleep, showing that the connections between neurons weaken while sleeping. If Tononi's theory is right, it would explain why, when we miss a night's sleep, we find it harder the next day to concentrate and learn new information—our brains may have smaller room for new experiences. Their research also suggests how we may build lasting memories over time even though the synapses become thinner. The team discovered that some synapses seem to be protected and stayed the same size.  5????“You keep what matters,” Tononi says. A.We should also try to sleep well the night before. B.It's as if the brain is preserving its most important memories. C.Similarly, when people go for a few days without sleeping, they get sick. D.The processes take place to stop our brains becoming loaded with memories. E.That's why students do better in tests if they get a chance to sleep after learning. F.“Sleep is the price we pay for learning,” says Giulio Tononi, who developed the idea. G.Tononi's team measured the size of these connections, or synapses, in the brains of 12 mice. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文。研究表明,睡眠期间脑细胞之间的关联会减弱,从而使大脑为新 的记忆腾出空间,但是对于重要的记忆,大脑则会对其加以保护。 1.C????细节句。上句指出,当不允许实验室的老鼠睡觉时,它们在一个月之内就死去了。本句 是上句的延伸,由动物转移到了人类。C项符合语境,意为“同样,人几天不睡觉的话也会生 病”。 2.E 细节句。上句指出睡眠有助于加强新的记忆,下文对此进行了解释。本句应该是对这个 观点的回应,E项“那也就是为什么学生在学习之后如果有机会睡觉的话,他们就会考得更 好”符合语境。 3.F????过渡句。下段首句指出“现在我们有最直接的证据证明他是正确的”,由此可知本句应 指出某人的观点。结合本段提出的“睡觉期间神经元之间的关联减弱,从而为第二天要形成 的新记忆腾出空间”,可以判断F项符合语境。 4.G 过渡句。下句的synapses以及the mice为关键线索。下文指出了老鼠在睡完一觉后和睡 觉前“synapses”的不同,所以本句应该指出本次试验的内容,故G项符合语境。 5.B????细节句。上句指出,研究团队发现某些神经突触似乎得到了保护,并未发生变化,这正是 对某些重要记忆的保护,故B项正确。 高考热词 foggy adj. 模糊的;有雾的 make room for为……腾出空间 matter v. 重要;要紧; 有关系 长难句???? 原句:We know that, while awake, fresh memories are recorded by reinforcing connections be- tween brain cells, but the memory processes that take place while we sleep have been unclear. 分析:本句为并列复合句。连词but连接了两个并列分句,在前一分句中,谓语动词know后为that 引导的宾语从句,while awake作状语;在后一分句中,that为关系代词,代指先行词the memory processes,while we sleep为时间状语从句。 译文:我们知道,在醒着的时候,通过加强大脑细胞之间的关联,新的记忆被记住,但在我们睡觉 时发生的记忆过程还不清楚。 Passage 12 (2016课标全国Ⅰ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Secret codes(密码)keep messages private. Banks, companies, and government agencies use secret codes in doing business, especially when information is sent by computer. People have used secret codes for thousands of years. 1????Code breaking never lags(落后)far be- hind code making. The science of creating and reading coded messages is called cryptography. There are three main types of cryptography. 2????For example, the first letters of “My elephant eats too many eels”spell out the hidden message“Meet me.”  3????You might represent each letter with a number, for example. Let's number the letters of the alphabet, in order, from 1 to 26. If we substitute a number for each letter,the message “Meet me”would read“13 5 5 20 13 5.” A code uses symbols to replace words, phrases, or sentences. To read the message of a real code, you must have a code book. 4????For example, “bridge”might stand for “meet”and“out” might stand for “me”.The message“Bridge out”would actually mean“Meet me.” 5???? However, it is also hard to keep a code book secret for long. So codes must be changed frequently. A.It is very hard to break a code without the code book. B.In any language, some letters are used more than others. C.Only people who know the keyword can read the message. D.As long as there have been codes, people have tried to break them. E.You can hide a message by having the first letters of each word spell it out. F.With a code book,you might write down words that would stand for other words. G.Another way to hide a message is to use symbols to stand for specific letters of the alphabet. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。介绍了密码的用途、历史以及三种密码方式。 1.D 过渡句。上句提到:人们使用密码已经几千年了。下句提到:密码的破解从未太落后于 密码的设定。由此可知D项符合语境,意为“只要有密码,人们就会尽力去破解它们。” 2.E 过渡句。上句提到:有三种主要的密码设定方式。下句提到:例如,“My elephant eats too many eels”的首字母就拼出了“Meet me”这一隐藏起来的信息。由此可知本句应该为一种 密码的设定方式,根据下句举到的例子,可知E项正确,意为“你可以用每个单词的首字母拼写 出一条信息,以此来隐藏它。” 3.G 主题句。上段指出有三种主要的密码设定方式,上段已经提到了一种,本段应该指出另 外一种。下文举例说明了用数字来代替字母的密码方式,由此可知G项能起到统领本段的作 用,意为“另外一种隐藏信息的方式就是用符号来代替字母表中特定的字母。” 4.F 细节句。上句指出:要解读某个真实密码的信息,你必须要有密码本。本句是对上句的 解释说明,结合下文举到的例子,可推断出本句主要解释如何利用密码本来破解隐藏起来的信 息。F项符合语境,意为“拥有了密码本,你也许就能写出代表其他单词的单词。” 5.A 细节句。上文指出了利用密码本来破解密码的方式。A项是总结上文内容得出的结论, 意为“没有密码本就很难破解密码”,而且根据下句“...it is also hard to...”的句型结构也可 得知A项符合语境。 长难句???? Banks, companies, and government agencies use secret codes in doing business, especially when information is sent by computer.银行、公司和政府机构在办公时都使用密码,尤其是当信息是 由电脑发出的时候。 本句为主从复合句。本句中use...in...为常用结构,意为“在某方面使用……”,when引导时间 状语从句。 Passage 13 (2016课标全国Ⅱ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 A garden that's just right for you Have you ever visited a garden that seemed just right for you, where the atmosphere of the garden appeared to total more than the sum(总和)of its parts? 1????.But it doesn't happen by accident. It starts with looking inside yourself and understanding who you are with respect to the natural world and how you approach the gardening process. ● 2???? Some people may think that a garden is no more than plants, flowers, patterns and masses of color. Others are concerned about using gardening methods that require less water and fewer fertilizers (肥料). 3????.However, there are a number of other reasons that might explain why you want to garden. One of them comes from our earliest years. ●Recall(回忆) your childhood memories Our model of what a garden should be often goes back to childhood. Grandma's rose garden and Dad's vegetable garden might be good or bad, but that's not what's important. 4????—how being in those gardens made us feel. If you'd like to build a powerful bond with your garden, start by taking some time to recall the gardens of your youth. 5????.Then go outside and work out a plan to translate your childhood memories into your grown-up garden. Have fun. A.Know why you garden B.Find a good place for your own garden C.It's our experience of the garden that matters D.It's delightful to see so many beautiful flowers E.Still others may simply enjoy being outdoors and close to plants F.You can produce that kind of magical quality in your own garden, too G.For each of those gardens, write down the strongest memory you have 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。介绍了如何种植和经营好自己的花园和菜园。 1.F 过渡句。上句提到了氛围,F项中that kind of magical quality指代上句中的内容,故选F 项。 2.A 主题句。本段列举了一些人的观点之后,提到other reasons that might explain why you want to garden,由此可以推断出本段的主旨就是:你要知道自己为什么要种植花木。 3.E 细节句。根据本段中的Some people may think that...Others are concerned about...可推断 出此处应该是:Still others may...。 4.C????过渡句。上句提到:但是那并不重要。本句应为:重要的是我们自己种植花木的经历。 matters=is important,故选C项。 5.G 过渡句。上句提到:通过花费时间回想你青年时期的园子开始吧。本句应为:为记忆中 的每一个园子,写下你最深刻的记忆。引出下文:然后走出去,制订一个计划把你小时候的记忆 转化为你成年后的园子。 ??? 长难句? It starts with looking inside yourself and understanding who you are with respect to the natural world and how you approach the gardening process.它开始于深刻剖析自己,明白就自然界而言 你是个什么样的人以及你是如何处理种植花木的过程的。 第一个with后两个并列的动名词作宾语。在understanding后有who和how引导的两个宾语从 句。 Passage 14 (2016课标全国Ⅲ) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Everyone knows that fish is good for health. 1????But it seems that many people don't cook fish at home. Americans eat only about fifteen pounds of fish per person per year, but we eat twice as much fish in restaurants as at home. Buying, storing, and cooking fish isn't difficult.  2???? This text is about how to buy and cook fish in an easy way.  3???? Fresh fish should smell sweet: you should feel that you're standing at the ocean's edge. Any fishy or strong smell means the fish isn't fresh.  4????When you have bought a fish and arrive home, you'd better store the fish in the refrigerator if you don't cook it immediately, but fresh fish should be stored in your fridge for only a day or two. Frozen fish isn't as tasty as the fresh one. There are many common methods used to cook fish.  5????First, clean it and season it with your choice of spices(调料). Put the whole fish on a plate and steam it in a steam pot for 8 to 10 minutes if it weighs about one pound. (A larger one will take more time.)Then, it's ready to serve. A.Do not buy it. B.The easiest is to steam it. C.This is how you can do it. D.It just requires a little knowledge. E.The fish will go bad within hours. F.When buying fish, you should first smell it. G.The fats in fish are thought to help prevent heart disease. 答案 [语篇解读]????本文为说明文,介绍了买鱼和烹饪鱼的小窍门。 1.G 细节句。上句提到吃鱼对人的健康有益,本句是对上句的解释说明,G项符合语境,意为 “人们认为鱼的脂肪有助于预防心脏病。” 2.D????细节句。上句指出:购买、储存和烹饪鱼并不是难事。本句承接上句,D项符合语境,意 为“它只需要一点儿知识”。 3.F 主题句。下文指出了新鲜的鱼和不新鲜的鱼都有什么气味,由此可判断F项为主题句,意 为“买鱼时应该先闻闻味道”。 4.A 细节句。上句指出有腥味或者味儿很大的鱼不新鲜,本句承接上句,指出不要购买这样 的鱼,故A项正确。 5.B 过渡句。上文指出做鱼的方法有很多种,根据下文出现的steam可知此处讲述了清蒸的 方法,故B项正确,意为“最简单的方法就是清蒸”。 长难句???? When you have bought a fish and arrive home, you'd better store the fish in the refrigerator if you don't cook it immediately, but fresh fish should be stored in your fridge for only a day or two.你买 完鱼到家后,如果不立即烹饪的话,最好把它储存在冰箱里,但是鲜鱼应该在冰箱中只存放一两 天。 本句为复合句,when引导时间状语从句,if引导条件状语从句。 Passage 15 (2016四川) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选 项。 Both men and women are living longer these days in industrialized countries.  1????In general, they can expect to live six or seven years more than men. One reason for this is biological. One important biological factor that helps women live longer is the difference in hormones be- tween men and women.  2????Between the ages of about 12 and 50, women produce hormones that are involved in fertility(生育能力). These hormones also have a positive effect on the heart and the blood flow. In fact, women are less likely to have high blood pressure or to die from heart attacks.  3????They help the body defend itself against some kinds of infections. This means that women generally get sick less of

  • ID:4-6139504 (浙江专用)2020版高考英语一轮复习专题1-9课件(打包9套)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共219张PPT) 第二部分 阅读理解 专题八 细节理解阅读 高考英语 (浙江专用) A组????自主命题·浙江卷题组 五年高考 Passage 1(2019浙江6月,A)词数:359 Zachariah Fike has an unusual hobby. He finds old military(军队的)medals for sale in antique stores and on the Internet. But unlike most collectors, Zac tracks down the medals' rightful own- ers, and returns them. His effort to reunite families with lost medals began with a Christmas gift from his mother, a Pur- ple Heart with the name Corrado A.G. Piccoli, found in an antique shop. Zac knows the meaning of a Purple Heart—he earned one himself in a war as a soldier. So when his mother gave him the medal, he knew right away what he had to do. Through the Internet, Zac tracked down Corrado's sister Adeline Rockko. But when he finally reached her, the woman flooded him with questions:“Who are you?What antique shop?”How- ever, when she hung up, she regretted the way she had handled the call. So she called Zac back and apologized. Soon she drove to meet Zac in Watertown, N.Y.“At that point, I knew she meant business,”Zac says.“To drive eight hours to come to see me.” The Piccolis grew up the children of Italian immigrants in Watertown. Corrado, a translator for the Army during WWII, was killed in action in Europe. Before hearing from Zac, Adeline hadn't realized the medal was missing. Like many military medals, the one Zac's mother had found was a family treasure.“This medal was very precious to my parents. Only on special occasions(场合)would they take it out and let us hold it in our hands,”Adeline says. As a child, Adeline couldn't understand why the medal was so significant. “But as I grew old- er,”Adeline says,“and missed my brother more and more, I realized that was the only thing we had left.”Corrado Piccoli's Purple Heart medal now hangs at the Italian American Civic Associa- tion in Watertown. Zac recently returned another lost medal to a family in Alabama. Since he first reunited Corrado's medal, Zac says his record is now 5 for 5. 1.Where did Zac get a Purple Heart medal for himself? A.In the army.   B.In an antique shop. C.From his mother.  D.From Adeline Rockko. 2.What did Zac realize when Adeline drove to meet him? A.She was very impolite. B.She was serious about the medal. C.She suspected his honesty. D.She came from a wealthy family. 3.What made Adeline treasure the Purple Heart? A.Her parents' advice. B.Her knowledge of antiques. C.Her childhood dream. D.Her memory of her brother. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇记叙文,主题语境为人与社会,主题语境内容是社会交往。文章讲述 了一位获得过紫心勋章的老战士收集丢失的紫心勋章并物归原主的故事。文章侧重于对学 生文化意识的培养。 1.A 细节理解题。本题题干意为:Zac是在哪里获得自己的紫心勋章的?根据文章第二段的he earned one himself in a war as a soldier(他作为一名战士在一次战争中为自己赢得了一枚紫心 勋章)可知,A项(在军队中)正确。B:在一家古董店;C:从他妈妈那里;D:从Adeline Rockko那 里。 2.B 推理判断题。本题题干意为:当Adeline开车来见他的时候,Zac明白了什么?根据第三段 的描述,尤其是At that point, I knew she meant business(在那时,我知道她是认真的)可知,Zac明 白了Adeline非常重视那枚勋章,故答案为B项。A:她非常不礼貌;C:她怀疑他的诚实;D:她来自 一个富有的家庭。 3.D 细节理解题。本题题干意为:Adeline 珍惜紫心勋章的原因是什么?根据文章倒数第二段 的“But as I grew older,” Adeline says,“and missed my brother more and more, I realized that was the only thing we had left.”可知,Adeline珍惜这枚勋章的原因是她对哥哥的怀念,故D项正 确。A:她父母的建议;B:她的古董知识;C:她儿时的梦想。 高考热词 antique store古董店 track down追查到 hang up挂断(电话) immigrant n.移民???? precious adj.珍贵的 Passage 2 (2018浙江11月,B)词数:260 This month millions of American kids can forget about classroom bells and set off for grandparents' homes, sleep-away camps and lifeguard stands. But summer vacation hasn't always been a birthright of U.S. schoolchildren. Before the Civil War, schools operated on one of two calendars (日历), neither of which included a summer vacation. Rural(农村的)schooling was divided into summer and winter terms, leaving kids free to help with the farm work in the spring planting and fall harvest seasons. Urban students, meanwhile, regularly had as many as 48 weeks of study a year, with one break per quarter. In the 1840s, however, educational reformers like Horace Mann moved to combine the two calen- dars out of concern that rural schooling was not enough and that overusing of young minds could lead to nervous disorders. Summer appeared as the obvious time for a break:it offered a rest for teachers, fit in the farming calendar and reduced doctors' concern that packing students into hot classrooms would promote the spread of disease. But people's opinion about the modern U.S. school year, which averages 180 days, is still divided. Some experts say its pleasant but lazy summer break, which took hold in the early 20th century, is one of the reasons math skills and graduation rates of U.S. high schoolers ranked well below aver- age in two international education reports published in 2007. Others insist that with children under increasing pressure to devote their downtime to internships(实习)or study, there's still room for an institution that protects the lazy days of childhood. 1.What did the rural school calendar before the Civil War allow children to do? A.Enjoy a summer vacation. B.Take a break each quarter. C.Have 48 weeks of study a year. D.Assist their parents with farm work. 2.What did the educational reformers do in the 1840s? A.They introduced summer vacation. B.They shortened rural school terms. C.They promoted the study of farming. D.They advocated higher pay for teachers. 3.Why are some people unhappy about the modern U.S. school year? A.It pushes the teachers too hard. B.It reduces the quality of education. C.It ignores science instruction. D.It includes no time for internships. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是说明文。文章介绍了美国学校两个假期的形成及人们的观点。 1.D 细节理解题。根据文章第一段的Rural schooling was divided into summer and winter terms, leaving kids free to help with the farm work in the spring planting and fall harvest seasons. 可知,在农村地区,假期里孩子可以去农田帮忙。 2.A 细节理解题。根据文章第二段的内容可知,1840年的改革中,教育家提出了暑假的概念 和操作。 3.B 推理判断题。根据文章最后一段中Some experts say its pleasant but lazy summer break, which took hold in the early 20th century, is one of the reasons math skills and graduation rates of U.S. high schoolers ranked well below average in two international education reports published in 2007.可知,对假期制度不满的人认为,正是假期造成了美国学校教育质量的下降。 高考热词 set off 出发去…… birthright n.与生俱来的权利 regularly adv.有规律地 down- time n.休息 institution n.学校,学院,机构,制度 ? 长难句??? 原句:Some experts say its pleasant but lazy summer break, which took hold in the early 20th cen- tury, is one of the reasons math skills and graduation rates of U.S. high schoolers ranked well be- low average in two international education reports published in 2007. 分析:本句是一个比较复杂的句子,其主句是Some experts say its pleasant but lazy summer break is one of the reasons. 之后的math skills and graduation rates of U.S. high schoolers ranked well below average in two international education reports published in 2007是定语从句,修饰reasons。 译文:一些专家说,20世纪初开始的愉快但懒惰的暑假是美国高中生数学技能和毕业率在2007 年公布的两份国际教育报告中远远低于平均水平的原因之一。 Passage 3 (2018浙江6月,C)词数:300 As cultural symbols go, the American car is quite young. The Model T Ford was built at the Pi- quette Plant in Michigan a century ago, with the first rolling off the assembly line(装配线) on September 27,1908. Only eleven cars were produced the next month. But eventually Henry Ford would build fifteen million of them. Modern America was born on the road, behind a wheel. The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of American culture:the roadside diner, the billboard, the motel, even the hamburger. For most of the last century, the car represented what it meant to be American—going forward at high speed to find new worlds. The road novel, the road movie, these are the most typical American ideas, born of abundant petrol, cheap cars and a never-ending interstate highway system, the largest public works project in history. In 1928 Herbert Hoover imagined an America with“a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage.”Since then, this society has moved onward, never looking back, as the car transformed America from a farm-based society into an industrial power. The cars that drove the American Dream have helped to create a global ecological disaster. In America the demand for oil has grown by 22 percent since 1990. The problems of excessive(过度的) energy consumption, climate change and population growth have been described in a book by the American writer Thomas L. Friedman. He fears the worst, but hopes for the best. Friedman points out that the green economy(经济) is a chance to keep American strength. “The ability to design, build and export green technologies for producing clean water, clean air and healthy and abundant food is going to be the currency of power in the new century.” 1.Why is hamburger mentioned in paragraph 2? A.To explain Americans' love for travelling by car. B.To show the influence of cars on American culture. C.To stress the popularity of fast food with Americans. D.To praise the effectiveness of America's road system. 2.What has the use of cars in America led to? A.Decline of economy. B.Environmental problems. C.A shortage of oil supply. D.A farm-based society. 3.What is Friedman's attitude towards America's future? A.Ambiguous.  B.Doubtful. C.Hopeful.   D.Tolerant. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。文章介绍了美国汽车的发展及其对美国社会和文化发展的 影响。 1.B 细节理解题。从文章第二段的The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of Ameri- can culture...可知,此处提到“hamburger”的目的是证明美国的汽车对美国文化的影响。因此 B项正确。 2.B 细节理解题。从第四段的The cars that drove the American Dream have helped to create a global ecological disaster.可知,汽车的使用导致了美国的环境问题。故选B项。 3.C 推理判断题。从文章的最后一段可知,Friedman指出绿色经济是保持美国强大的机会。 因此他对美国的未来是“充满希望的”。故选C项。 高考热词 eventually adv.最终 abundant adj.大量的,丰富的 interstate adj.州际的 con- sumption n.消费 长难句???? 原句:For most of the last century, the car represented what it meant to be American—going for- ward at high speed to find new worlds. 分析:本句是一个主从复合句。what it meant...是一个宾语从句。 译文:在上个世纪的绝大部分时间,汽车代表了美国的实质——高速向前去发现新的世界。 Passage 4 (2017浙江11月,C)词数:270 There are energy savings to be made from all recyclable materials, sometimes huge savings. Recy- cling plastics and aluminum, for instance, uses only 5% to 10% as much energy as producing new plastic or smelting(提炼)aluminum. Long before most of us even noticed what we now call “the environment,” Buckminster Fuller said, “Pollution is nothing but the resources(资源)we are not harvesting. We allow them to be left around because we've been ignorant of their value.” To take one example, let's compare the throwaway economy(经济)with a recycling economy as we feed a cat for life. Say your cat weighs 5kg and eats one can of food each day. Each empty can of its food weighs 4 0g. In a throwaway economy, you would throw away 5,475 cans over the cat's 15-year lifetime. That's 219kg of steel—more than a fifth of a ton and more than 40 times the cat's weight. In a recycling economy, we would make one set of 100 cans to start with, then replace them over and over again with recycled cans. Since almost 3% of the metal is lost during reprocessing, we'd have to make an extra 10 cans each year. But in all, only 150 cans will be used up over the cat's lifetime—and we'll still have 100 left over for the next cat. Instead of using up 219kg of steel, we've used only 6kg. And because the process of recycling steel is less polluting than making new steel, we've also achieved the following significant sav- ings:in energy use—47% to 74%; in air pollution—85%; in water pollution—35%; in water use— 40%. 1.What does Buckminster Fuller say about pollution? A.It is becoming more serious. B.It destroys the environment. C.It benefits the economy. D.It is the resources yet to be used. 2.How many cans will be used up in a cat's 15-year lifetime in a recycling economy? A.50.   B.100. C.150.  D.250. 3.What is the author's purpose in writing the text? A.To promote the idea of recycling. B.To introduce an environmentalist. C.To discuss the causes of pollution. D.To defend the throwaway economy. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是说明文。文章通过养猫的食品罐的循环使用说明循环利用的好处。 1.D 细节理解题。在文章第二段中,Buckminster Fuller说“污染只是我们没有得到的资源”, 所以选D。 2.C 细节理解题。根据文章第四段的数据,尤其是最后一句话可知,在猫的一生我们要消耗 总计150个食罐。 3.A 主旨要义题。本文主要通过举例说明循环利用的好处。 高考热词 ignorant adj.无知的 recycle v.回收 replace v.代替 process n.过程 Passage 5 (2017浙江6月,C)词数:318 FLORENCE, Italy—Svetlana Cojochru feels hurt. The Moldovan has lived here seven years as a caregiver to Italian kids and the elderly, but in order to stay she's had to prove her language skills by taking a test which requires her to write a postcard to an imaginary friend and answer a fictional job ad. Italy is the latest Western European country trying to control a growing immigrant(移民) popula- tion by demanding language skills in exchange for work permits, or in some cases, citizenship. Some immigrant advocates worry that as hard financial times make it more difficult for natives to keep jobs, such measures will become more a vehicle for intolerance than integration(融合). Oth- ers say it's only natural that newcomers learn the language of their host nation, seeing it as a con- dition to ensure they can contribute to society. Other European countries laid down a similar requirement for immigrants, and some terms are even tougher. The governments argue that this will help foreigners better join the society and pro- mote understanding across cultures. Italy, which has a much weaker tradition of immigration, has witnessed a sharp increase in immi- gration in recent years. In 1990, immigrants numbered some 1.14 million out of Italy's then 56.7 million people, or about 2 percent. At the start of this year, foreigners living in Italy amounted to 4. 56 million of a total population of 60.6 million, or 7.5 percent, with immigrants' children account- ing for an ever larger percentage of births in Italy. Cojochru, the Moldovan caregiver, hoped obtaining permanent residence(居住权)would help her bring her two children to Italy; they live with her sister in Moldova, where salaries are among the lowest in Europe. She was skeptical that the language requirement would encourage integration. Italians always “see me as a foreigner,”an outsider, even though she's stayed in the country for years and can speak the local language fluently, she said. 1.Why does Cojochru have to take a language test? A.To continue to stay in Italy. B.To teach her children Italian. C.To find a better job in Italy. D.To better mix with the Italians. 2.Some people worry that the new language requirement may   ????. A.reduce Italy's population quickly B.cause conflicts among people C.lead to financial difficulties D.put pressure on schools 3.What do we know about Cojochru? A.She lives with her sister now in Italy. B.She enjoys learning the Italian language. C.She speaks Italian well enough for her job. D.She wishes to go back to her home country. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇新闻报道。文章介绍了意大利对外来移民进行语言测试以及人们对 此的不同看法。 1.A 细节理解题。从第一段的“in order to stay she's had to prove her language skills by tak- ing a test which requires...”可知她参加考试是为了继续留在意大利。 2.B 推理判断题。从第三段的“Some immigrant advocates worry that as...such measures will become more a vehicle for intolerance than integration.”可知,他们担心会造成冲突。 3.C 细节理解题。根据文章最后一段的“even though she's stayed in the country for years and can speak the local language fluently”可知,C项正确。 高考热词 fictional adj.虚构的 in exchange for作为……的交换 advocate n. 提倡者;支持者 contribute to对……做贡献 长难句???? 原句:Italy is the latest Western European country trying to control a growing immigrant population by demanding language skills in exchange for work permits, or in some cases, citizenship. 分析:本句中,Italy is the latest Western European country是主句;trying to control a growing im- migrant population是定语。by demanding language skills in exchange for work permits, or in some cases, citizenship是方式状语。 译文:意大利是最新的试图通过要求语言技能来换取工作许可或在某些情况下,公民身份,以控 制不断增长的移民的西欧国家。 Passage 6 (2016浙江10月,B)词数:267 The Crowne Plaza Hotel in Copenhagen is offering a free meal to any guest who is able to produce electricity for the hotel on an exercise bike linked to a generator (发电机). The idea is to get peo- ple fit and reduce their carbon footprint. Guests will have to produce at least 10 watt hours of elec- tricity—roughly 15 minutes of cycling for someone of average fitness. Guests staying at Plaza Ho- tel will be given meal tickets worth $36 once they have produced 10 watt hours of electricity. The bicycles will have smart phones attached to the handlebars measuring how much power is being generated for the hotel. The plan, a world-first, will start on 19 April and run for a year. Only guests staying at the hotel will be able to take part. Frederikke Toemmergaard, hotel spokeswoman, said, “Many of our visi- tors are business people who enjoy going to the gym. There might be people who will cycle just to get a free meal, but generally I don't think people will take advantage of our programme.” Copenhagen has a long-standing cycling tradition and 36% of locals cycle to work each day, one of the highest percentages in the world, according to the website visitcopenhagen.dk. US environ- mental website treehugger.com recently voted Copenhagen the world's best city for cyclists. “Because Copenhagen is strongly connected with cycling,we felt the bicycle would work well as a symbol of the hotel's green profile (形象).” If successful, the electric bicycle meal programme will be spread to all Crowne Plaza hotels in the UK, the hotel said in a statement. 1.What is the main purpose of the free meal programme? A.To promote the hotel's green concept. B.To make the city known to the world. C.To attract people to the hotel restaurant. D.To get guests to stay longer at the hotel. 2.How can a participant get a free meal? A.By becoming a professional cyclist. B.By cycling to produce some electricity. C.By linking a smart phone to a bicycle. D.By monitoring his or her carbon footprint. 3.Who are most likely to enter for the programme? A.The poor local people. B.The environment activists. C.Health-conscious hotel guests. D.Visitors fond of Copenhagen food. 4.According to paragraph 3, Copenhagen has one of the world's   ????. A.best chain hotels B.greenest natural environments C.longest bike paths D.highest rates of people cycling to work 答案 [语篇解读] 这是一篇说明文。本文介绍了哥本哈根一家宾馆为了提倡环保,鼓励入住的客 人骑自行车发电,达到一定的标准就免餐一顿。 1.A 细节理解题。从文章第一段的“The idea is to get people fit and reduce their carbon foot- print.”可以得出答案。 2.B 细节理解题。从文章第一段的“The Crowne Plaza Hotel in Copenhagen is offering a free meal to any guest who is able to produce electricity for the hotel on an exercise bike linked to a generator.”可以知道本题的答案是B。 3.C 推理判断题。从文章第二段的“Many of our visitors are business people who enjoy going to the gym. There might be people who will cycle just to get a free meal, but generally I don't think people will take advantage of our programme.”可知,参加这项活动的是宾馆的有健康意 识的客人,所以排除A、B和D。 4.D 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段的“Copenhagen has a long-standing cycling tradition and 3 6% of locals cycle to work each day, one of the highest percentages in the world”可以知道,哥本 哈根是世界上骑车上班比例最高的国家之一。 高考热词 percentage n.百分比 environmental adj.自然环境的 长难句???? 原句:The Crowne Plaza Hotel in Copenhagen is offering a free meal to any guest who is able to produce electricity for the hotel on an exercise bike linked to a generator. 分析:The Crowne Plaza Hotel in Copenhagen is offering a free meal to any guest是主句;who is able to produce electricity for the hotel...是定语从句。 译文:哥本哈根的皇冠假日酒店为任何能用与发电机相连的运动自行车为酒店发电的客人免 费提供一餐。 B组????统一命题、省(区、市)卷题组 Passage 1(2019课标全国Ⅰ,A)词数:256 Need a Job This Summer? The provincial government and its partners offer many programs to help students find summer jobs. The deadlines and what you need to apply depend on the program. Not a student?Go to the government website to learn about programs and online tools available to help people under 30 build skills, find a job or start businesses all year round. Jobs for Youth If you are a teenager living in certain parts of the province, you could be eligible(符合条件)for this program, which provides eight weeks of paid employment along with training. Who is eligible:Youth 15—18 years old in select communities(社区). Summer Company Summer Company provides students with hands-on business training and awards of up to $3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses. Who is eligible:Students aged 15—29, returning to school in the fall. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program You could apply to be a Stewardship Youth Ranger and work on local natural resource manage- ment projects for eight weeks this summer. Who is eligible:Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year. Summer Employment Opportunities(机会) Through the Summer Employment Opportunities program, students are hired each year in a variety of summer positions across the Provincial Public Service, its related agencies and community groups. Who is eligible:Students aged 15 or older. Some positions require students to be 15 to 24 or up to 2 9 for persons with a disability. 1.What is special about Summer Company? A.It requires no training before employment. B.It provides awards for running new businesses. C.It allows one to work in the natural environment. D.It offers more summer job opportunities. 2.What is the age range required by Stewardship Youth Ranger Program? A.15—18.  B.15—24.  C.15—29.  D.16—17. 3.Which program favors the disabled? A.Jobs for Youth. B.Summer Company. C.Stewardship Youth Ranger Program. D.Summer Employment Opportunities. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇应用文,主题语境是人与社会,主题语境内容为暑期工作介绍。文章 介绍了省政府及其合作伙伴为学生提供的几个暑期工作项目。本文旨在培养学生多渠道获 得信息的能力。 1.B 细节理解题。本题题干意为:Summer Company 有什么特别之处?根据Summer Company 标题下第一句(Summer Company给学生提供实际操作的商业培训和高达3,000美元的夏季自 我创业奖励)可知B 项正确(为创业者提供奖励)。A:在上岗前不要求培训;C:让一个人在自然 环境下工作;D:提供更多的夏季工作机会。 2.D 细节理解题。本题题干意为:Stewardship Youth Ranger Program要求的年龄范围是多大? 根据Stewardship Youth Ranger Program标题下第二段中的学生年龄是16或17岁,并且在今年12 月31日以前不满18岁。由此可知答案为D项。 3.D 细节理解题。本题题干意为:哪个项目对残疾人有利?根据题干中的the disabled可定位 到Summer Employment Opportunities部分最后一句话(有些职位要求学生年龄15到24岁,有残 疾的可以放宽到29岁)。由此可知答案为D项。 高考热词 provincial adj.省的 employment n.雇用 disability n.残障;残疾 Passage 2(2019课标全国Ⅰ,C)词数:261 As data and identity theft becomes more and more common, the market is growing for biometric (生物测量)technologies—like fingerprint scans—to keep others out of private e-spaces. At pre- sent, these technologies are still expensive, though. Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device(装置)that gets around this problem:a smart keyboard. This smart keyboard precisely measures the cadence(节奏) with which one types and the pressure fingers apply to each key. The keyboard could offer a strong layer of security by analyzing things like the force of a user's typing and the time between key presses. These patterns are unique to each person. Thus, the keyboard can determine people's iden- tities, and by extension, whether they should be given access to the computer it's connected to— regardless of whether someone gets the password right. It also doesn't require a new type of technology that people aren't already familiar with. Every- body uses a keyboard and everybody types differently. In a study describing the technology, the researchers had 100 volunteers type the word “touch” four times using the smart keyboard. Data collected from the device could be used to recognize dif- ferent participants based on how they typed, with very low error rates. The researchers say that the keyboard should be pretty straightforward to commercialize and is mostly made of inexpensive, plastic-like parts. The team hopes to make it to market in the near future. 1.Why do the researchers develop the smart keyboard? A.To reduce pressure on keys. B.To improve accuracy in typing. C.To replace the password system. D.To cut the cost of e-space protection. 2.What makes the invention of the smart keyboard possible? A.Computers are much easier to operate. B.Fingerprint scanning techniques develop fast. C.Typing patterns vary from person to person. D.Data security measures are guaranteed. 3.What do the researchers expect of the smart keyboard? A.It'll be environment-friendly. B.It'll reach consumers soon. C.It'll be made of plastics. D.It'll help speed up typing. 4.Where is this text most likely from? A.A diary.  B.A guidebook. C.A novel.  D.A magazine. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文,主题语境是科学与技术,主题语境内容为科技发展。文章介 绍了Georgia Tech的研究者们想出了一种低成本的装置——智能键盘,来保护私人的电子空 间,并希望这种设备能尽快进入市场,服务消费者。本文侧重培养学生的创新能力。 1.D 细节理解题。本题题干意为:研究者们为什么研发智能键盘?根据文章第一段可知,现在 一些阻止别人进入私人电子空间的技术成本仍然很高。因此,来自Georgia Tech的研究者们想 出了一种低成本的(low-cost)装置——智能键盘,来应对这个问题。所以答案为D项:减少电子 空间保护的成本。A:减轻对按键的压力;B:提升打字的精确度;C:取代密码系统。 2.C 细节理解题。本题题干意为:什么使智能键盘这项发明成为可能?根据第二段第四句 “These patterns are unique to each person.”可知,因为每个人的打字模式各不相同,所以智能 键盘能识别人的身份,保护人的隐私。所以答案为C项:打字模式因人而异。A:计算机很容易 操作;B:指纹扫描技术发展很快;D:数据安全措施有保证。 3.B 细节理解题。本题题干意为:研究者们对智能键盘期待什么?根据文章最后一段最后两 句话,研究者们说键盘应该直接商业化,智能键盘主要是由价格低廉的塑料类配件制成,团队希 望它在不久的将来进入市场。所以答案为B项(它将很快到达消费者手里)。A:它将是环保的; C:它将用塑料制造。此项为干扰项,用塑料制造是事实,但不是将来发生的事;D:它将有助于加 速打字。 4.D 推理判断题。本题题干意为:这篇文章最有可能来自哪里?文章介绍了一种新的保护电 子隐私空间的设备——智能键盘,并且希望产品能很快走进市场。本文语言客观严谨,属于科 普类文章,故答案为D项:杂志。A:日记;B:指导手册;C:小说。 高考热词 identity n. 身份;特性 unique adj. 独特的 straightforward adj. 简单的;坦率的;明 确的;径直的 commercialize v. 使商业化;使商品化 长难句???? 原句:Researchers from Georgia Tech say that they have come up with a low-cost device that gets around this problem: a smart keyboard. 分析:该句主干为Researchers say that they have come up with a low-cost device。from Georgia Tech为介词短语作后置定语,修饰Researchers;that gets around this problem是定语从句, 修饰 device。 译文:来自Georgia Tech的研究者说他们想出了一种低成本的解决这个问题的设备:智能键盘。 Passage 3(2019课标全国Ⅱ,D)词数:309 Bacteria are an annoying problem for astronauts. The microorganisms(微生物)from our bodies grow uncontrollably on surfaces of the International Space Station, so astronauts spend hours cleaning them up each week. How is NASA overcoming this very tiny big problem?It's turning to a bunch of high school kids. But not just any kids. It is depending on NASA HUNCH high school classrooms, like the one science teachers Gene Gordon and Donna Himmelberg lead at Fairport High School in Fairport, New York. HUNCH is designed to connect high school classrooms with NASA engineers. For the past two years, Gordon's students have been studying ways to kill bacteria in zero gravity, and they think they're close to a solution(解决方案). “We don't give the students any breaks. They have to do it just like NASA engineers,”says Florence Gold, a project manager. “There are no tests,”Gordon says.“There is no graded homework. There almost are no grades, other than‘Are you working towards your goal?'Basically, it's ‘I've got to produce this prod- uct and then, at the end of the year, present it to NASA.'Engineers come and really do an in-per- son review, and...it's not a very nice thing at times. It's a hard business review of your product.” Gordon says the HUNCH program has an impact(影响) on college admissions and practical life skills. “These kids are so absorbed in their studies that I just sit back. I don't teach.” And that annoying bacteria?Gordon says his students are emailing daily with NASA engineers about the problem, readying a workable solution to test in space. 1.What do we know about the bacteria in the International Space Station? A.They are hard to get rid of. B.They lead to air pollution. C.They appear in different forms. D.They damage the instruments. 2.What is the purpose of the HUNCH program? A.To strengthen teacher-student relationships. B.To sharpen students' communication skills. C.To allow students to experience zero gravity. D.To link space technology with school education. 3.What do the NASA engineers do for the students in the program? A.Check their product. B.Guide project designs. C.Adjust work schedules. D.Grade their homework. 4.What is the best title for the text? A.NASA:The Home of Astronauts B.Space:The Final Homework Frontier C.Nature:An Outdoor Classroom D.HUNCH:A College Admission Reform 答案 [语篇解读] 本文体裁为记叙文。主题语境为人与社会,主题语境内容为科技发展。美国国 家航空航天局创办了一个名为HUNCH的项目,一群高中生在项目中研究如何杀死国际空间站 的细菌。本文侧重培养学生的思维品质。 1.A 推理判断题。本题题干意为:我们对国际空间站的细菌的了解有哪些?根据题干中的关 键词bacteria in the International Space Station可定位至第一段。根据第一段中Bacteria are an annoying problem for astronauts. The microorganisms from our bodies grow uncontrollably on surfaces of the International Space Station, so astronauts spend hours cleaning them up each week. 可知,国际空间站的细菌非常难处理,所以选择A项。B:它们导致空气污染;C:它们以不同的形 式出现;D:它们毁坏仪器。 2.D 细节理解题。本题题干意为:HUNCH项目的目的是什么?第二段第一句HUNCH is de- signed to connect high school classrooms with NASA engineers.(HUNCH的设计目的是将高中教 室与NASA的工程师联系在一起。)中的high school classrooms与D选项中的school education (学校教育)对应,NASA engineers与D选项中的space technology(空间技术)对应,故选D。A:为 了加强师生关系;B:为了提升学生的交流技能;C:为了让学生体验失重。 3.A 推理判断题。本题题干意为:NASA的工程师为参加此项目的学生做了些什么?根据题 干中的NASA engineers do可定位至第三段的Engineers come and really do an in-person review, and...it';s not a very nice thing at times. It's a hard business review of your product,句中两次出现 review(检查,审查),证明NASA的工程师做的事情就是对学生做出的研究结果进行检查,所以 答案是A项。B:指导项目设计;C:调整工作时间表;D:给他们的作业打分。 4.B????主旨要义题。本题题干意为:最适合本文的标题是什么?本文主要介绍HUNCH项目,这 个项目是有关太空研究的,而且研究者都是高中生。根据以上要点可知,最佳选项是B项 (Space: The Final Homework Frontier),Space对应太空研究,Homework对应高中教育,Frontier (前沿)突出了这个项目的领先性。A:NASA:The Home of Astronauts,文章并非重点介绍 NASA;C:Nature: An Outdoor Classroom,Nature并不聚焦太空领域;D:HUNCH: A College Ad- mission Reform,HUNCH项目不是大学入学改革。 高考热词 a bunch of 一群 present v. 提出,提交 review n. 检查,审查 be absorbed in 专心 于…… 长难句???? 原句:Gordon says his students are emailing daily with NASA engineers about the problem, ready- ing a workable solution to test in space. 分析:句子的主干是:Gordon says his students are emailing daily,says后是宾语从句,省略了引导 词that。readying a workable solution to test in space作状语。 译文:戈登说,他的学生每天都给NASA的工程师们发关于这个问题的电子邮件,为在太空中进 行测试准备一个可行的解决方案。 Passage 4(2019课标全国Ⅲ,A)词数:204 OPENINGS AND PREVIEWS Animals Out of Paper Yolo! Productions and the Great Griffon present the play by Rajiv Joseph, in which an origami(折 纸术)artist invites a teenage talent and his teacher into her studio. Merri Milwe directs. In pre- views. Opens Feb. 12. (West Park Presbyterian Church, 165 W. 86th St. 212-868-4444.) The Audience Helen Mirren stars in the play by Peter Morgan, about Queen Elizabeth II of the UK and her pri- vate meetings with twelve Prime Ministers in the course of sixty years. Stephen Daldry directs. Al- so starring Dylan Baker and Judith Ivey. Previews begin Feb. 14. (Schoenfeld, 236 W. 45th St. 212 -239-6200.) Hamilton Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musical about Alexander Hamilton, in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story. Thomas Kail directs. In previews. Opens Feb. 17. (Public, 425 Lafayette St. 212-967-7555.) On the Twentieth Century Kristin Chenoweth and Peter Gallagher star in the musical comedy by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, about a Broadway producer who tries to win a movie star's love during a cross-country train journey. Scott Ellis directs, for Roundabout Theatre Company. Previews begin Feb. 12. (American Airlines Theatre, 227 W. 42nd St. 212-719-1300.) 1.What is the play by Rajiv Joseph probably about? A.A type of art.   B.A teenager's studio. C.A great teacher.  D.A group of animals. 2.Who is the director of The Audience? A.Helen Mirren.   B.Peter Morgan. C.Dylan Baker.   D.Stephen Daldry. 3.Which play will you go to if you are interested in American history? A.Animals Out of Paper.   B.The Audience. C.Hamilton.   D.On the Twentieth Century. 答案 [语篇解读]????本文是一篇应用文。主题语境为人与社会,主题语境内容为戏剧。文章介绍了 几个演出,侧重学生艺术素养的培养。 1.A????细节理解题。本题题干意为:Rajiv Joseph的戏剧可能是关于什么的?根据文章第一部分 的“in which an origami artist invites a teenage talent and his teacher into her studio(在戏剧中,一 位折纸艺术家邀请一位十几岁的天才和他的老师来到她的工作室)”可知,它与一种艺术有 关。B:一个青少年的工作室;C:一位伟大的老师;D:一群动物。 2.D 细节理解题。本题题干意为:The Audience的导演是谁?根据文章The Audience部分的 Stephen Daldry directs可知,The Audience的导演是Stephen Daldry, 故D项正确。 3.C 细节理解题。本题题干意为:如果你对美国历史感兴趣,你将会去看哪出戏剧?根据文章 Hamilton部分的“in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story”可知,该戏剧 是和美国的诞生有关的,所以,如果你对美国历史感兴趣,就应该去看这出戏剧。 高考热词 preview n. 预演 star v. 主演 musical comedy音乐喜剧 长难句???? 原句:Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musical about Alexander Hamilton, in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story. 分析:本句是一个包含定语从句的主从复合句,其中主句是Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musi- cal about Alexander Hamilton,而in which引导的定语从句修饰先行词musical。 译文:Lin-Manuel Miranda写了这一部关于Alexander Hamilton的音乐剧。在这部音乐剧中,美 国的诞生以一个移民故事的形式被呈现。 Passage 5(2019北京,A)词数:391 Want to explore new cultures, meet new people and do something worthwhile at the same time? You can do all the three with Global Development Association (GDA). Whatever stage of life you're at, wherever you go and whatever project you do in GDA, you'll create positive changes in a poor and remote community(社区). We work with volunteers of all ages and backgrounds. Most of our volunteers are aged 17—24. Now we need volunteer managers aged 25—75. They are extremely important in the safe and ef- fective running of our programmes. We have such roles as project managers, mountain leaders, and communication officers. Depending on which role you choose, you could help to increase a community's access to safe drinking water, or help to protect valuable local cultures. You might also design an adventure chal- lenge to train young volunteers. Not only will you help our young volunteers to develop personally, you'll also learn new skills and increase your cultural awareness. You may have chances to meet new people who'll become your lifelong friends. This summer we have both 4-week and 7-week programmes:   GDA ensures that volunteers work with community members and local project partners where our help is needed. All our projects aim to promote the development of poor and remote communi- ties. There is no other chance like a GDA programme. Join us as a volunteer manager to develop your own skills while bringing benefits to the communities. Find out more about joining a GDA programme: Country Schedule 4-week programmes 7-week programmes Algeria 5 Jul.—1 Aug. 20 Jun.—7 Aug. Egypt 24 Jul.—20 Aug. 19 Jun.—6 Aug. Kenya 20 Jul.—16 Aug. 18 Jun.—5 Aug. South Africa 2 Aug.—29 Aug. 15 Jun.—2 Aug. Website:www.glodeve.org Email:humanresources@glodeve.org 1.What is the main responsibility of volunteer managers? A.To seek local partners. B.To take in young volunteers. C.To carry out programmes. D.To foster cultural awareness. 2.The programme beginning in August will operate in  ????. A.Egypt   B.Algeria C.Kenya   D.South Africa 3.The shared goal of GDA's projects is to  ????. A.explore new cultures   B.protect the environment C.gain corporate benefits  D.help communities in need 答案 [语篇解读] 本文体裁为应用文,主题语境为人与自我,主题语境内容为社会责任。文章介绍 了一个名为Global Development Association的志愿者项目。本文侧重培养学生的思维品质。 1.C 细节理解题。本题题干意为:志愿者经理的主要职责是什么?根据题干中的volunteer managers可锁定答案在第二段。根据第二段第四句They are extremely important in the safe and effective running of our programmes.可知答案为C项(执行项目)。A:寻找当地的合作者;B:吸 纳年轻志愿者;D:培养文化意识。 2.D 细节理解题。本题题干意为:在八月份启动的项目将会在  ????运作。根据题干中的 beginning in August可知,答案在表格中,对应日期为2 Aug.—29 Aug.,对应的国家是South Africa,所以答案是D项。 3.D 细节理解题。本题题干意为:GDA项目的共同目标是  ????。根据题干中的关键词 shared goal of GDA's projects可知,答案在第六段。根据第六段的最后一句All our projects aim to promote the development of poor and remote communities.(我们所有的项目旨在促进贫困偏 远社区的发展。)可知本题选择D项(帮助有需要的社区)。A:探索新文化;B:保护环境;C:获得 企业效益。 高考热词 worthwhile adj. 值得做的 access n. 使用权 promote v. 促进 remote adj. 遥远 的;偏远的 长难句???? 原句: GDA ensures that volunteers work with community members and local project partners where our help is needed. 分析:句子主干是GDA ensures that volunteers work,其中that引导的是宾语从句;and连接并列成 分community members和local project partners;where our help is needed是状语从句。 译文:GDA确保志愿者们在需要我们帮助的地方与社区成员们和当地的项目伙伴们一起工 作。 Passage 6(2019天津,A)词数:342 History Fair Competition Understanding history is vital to understanding ourselves as a people and as a nation. History is much more than the study of dusty old objects and events long past. It is an essential part of who we are today and who we will become. Thornton Middle School History Fair Competition makes understanding history exciting, engaging, and fun! This Year's Theme All participants must address how communication or transportation technology has promoted the quality of life for Americans throughout history. To many people, technology means computers, hand-held devices, or vehicles that travel to distant planets. However, technology is also the appli- cation of scientific knowledge to solve a problem, touching lives in countless ways. Individuals or groups may enter one of the following categories: ·Performance ·Documentary(纪实作品) ·Essay Writing Category Requirements Performance:A dramatic presentation of the topic no more than 10 minutes long. If special clothes are used, they should truly represent a given period. Documentary:A visual presentation(such as a video, slide show, or computer project)no more than 10 minutes long. A desktop computer, screen, projector, and loudspeakers will be available. Stu- dents must provide their presentations on CDs before Friday, March 23. Essay Writing:An academic paper of 2,000 to 2,500 words. No illustrations(图解) are allowed. Please do not include covers. A list of references must be included. Important Dates January 5  Submit a topic proposal to your history teacher. The teacher may require a second proposal if the first is off-topic or unclear. February 5  Submit a first draft of your essay, performance script(剧本), or documentary high- lights. February 19  A committee of teachers will evaluate materials and give opinions. Students then have an opportunity to improve their products. March 9   Submit a final draft of your essay. March 15  Performance and documentary committee preview March 24  Thornton Middle School History Fair Competition 7:00 A.M.—9:00 A.M. Participants signing in at the gym 10:00 A.M.—6:00 P.M. Competition and judges' review 7:00 P.M. Awards ceremony and picnic 1.According to Paragraph 1, what is the major goal of understanding history? A.To preserve national traditions. B.To prepare for a history competition. C.To better know the present and future. D.To further explore historical mysteries. 2.What is the theme of this year's competition? A.Technology advances science. B.Science interacts with technology. C.Science has made the study of history easy. D.Technology has improved the life of Americans. 3.Among the items provided by the school for a visual presentation are   ????. A.special clothes and a screen B.a desktop computer and a CD C.a projector and special clothes D.a desktop computer and loudspeakers 4.What would a participant have to do with an essay of 1,500 words to meet the category require- ment? A.Include more information in the essay. B.Remove the references. C.Provide a cover for the essay. D.Explain the details with illustrations. 5.What will the committee of teachers do on February 19? A.Preview performances and documentaries. B.Make comments on the materials. C.Improve the participant's first draft. D.Collect a second proposal from the participant. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为应用文,主题语境为人与自我,主题语境内容为个人、家庭、社区及学校 生活。本文主要介绍了今年在Thornton Middle School 举行的History Fair Competition的相关 信息。本文有助于培养学生的文化意识。 1.C 细节理解题。本题题干意为:根据第一段内容,理解历史的主要目的是什么?根据文章第 一段第三句“It is an essential part of who we are today and who we will become.”可知,答案为 C项:为了更好地了解现在和未来。A项:为了保护民族传统;B项:为一场历史竞赛做准备;D项: 为了进一步探索历史奥秘。 2.D 细节理解题。本题题干意为:今年竞赛的主题是什么?根据“This Year's Theme”中的 “All participants must address how communication or transportation technology has promoted the quality of life for Americans throughout history.”可知,答案为D项:科技已经改善了美国人的 生活。A项:技术推动科学;B项:科学与技术相互影响;C项:科学使历史研究变得简单。 3.D 细节理解题。本题题干意为:学校提供的物品中,用于视觉展示的是  ????。根据 “Category Requirements”中“Documentary”部分中的“A desktop computer, screen, projec- tor, and loudspeakers will be available.”可知,答案为D项:一台台式电脑和扬声器。A项:特殊 服装和屏幕;B项:一台台式电脑和一张光盘;C项:一台投影仪和特殊服装。 4.A 细节理解题。本题题干意为:一个参与者为了满足分类要求需要如何处理一篇1,500词 的文章?根据“Category Requirements”中“Essay Writing”部分中的“An academic paper of 2,000 to 2,500 words.”可知,答案为A项:在文章中加入更多的信息。B项:除去参考书目;C项: 提供文章封面;D项:用插图解释细节。 5.B 细节理解题。本题题干意为:教师委员会在2月19日会做什么?根据“Important Dates” 中“February 19”中的“A committee of teachers will evaluate materials and give opinions.”可 知,答案为B项:对材料做出评论。A项:为表演和纪实作品写预评;C项:改进参与者的初稿;D项: 从参与者那里再收集一个建议。 高考热词 essential adj.极其重要的,必不可少的 participant n.参加者;参与者 technology n.技术 长难句???? 原句:All participants must address how communication or transportation technology has promoted the quality of life for Americans throughout history. 分析:本句为主从复合句。句子主语为All participants,谓语动词为must address,how引导宾语 从句。 译文:所有的参与者都必须陈述通信或运输技术在整个历史上是如何提高美国人的生活质量 的。 Passage 7(2019江苏,A)词数:178 Whatever your age or interests, Buxton has something to see or do to make your visit truly memorable. High energy If you desire physical activities, you can choose activities from swimming to horse riding. Explore the heights with Go Ape, the high wire forest ad-venture course, or journey beneath the earth at Poole's Cavern. And don't forget:we are surrounded by a natural playground just perfect for walking, caving, climbing and cycling. High minded Buxton is justifiably proud of its cultural life and you'll find much to suit all tastes with art, music, opera and the performing arts at Buxton Opera House & Pavilion Arts Centre and Green Man Gallery. There are plenty of opportunities for the creative person to become involved, includig workshops and events. Keeping the kids happy Children love the small train and playgrounds in the Pavilion Gardens and there's plenty more to explore at the Buxton Museum. There's a new indoor play centre, plus the spec- ial events and workshops, and others during school holiday periods. 1.If you want to take an underground journey, which place is the best choice? A.Poole's Cavern.  B.Pavilion Gardens. C.Buxton Museum.  D.Green Man Gallery. 2.Buxton Opera House & Pavilion Arts Centre is special because it offers   ????. A.rides in small trains B.courses in modern arts C.artistic and cultural activities D.basic courses in horse riding 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇应用文,主题语境是人与社会,旨在提高学生的文化意识。文章图文 并茂地介绍了英国的巴克斯顿,到此地游览会让你有难忘的记忆。 1.A 细节理解题。本题题干意为:如果你想进行地下旅游,哪个地方是最好的选择?根据High energy标题下的journey beneath the earth at Poole's Cavern可知,A项正确。 2.C????细节理解题。本题题干意为:Buxton Opera House &Pavilion Arts Centre之所以特殊是因 为它提供  ????。根据High minded 标题下第一句话...you'll find much to suit all tastes with art, music, opera and the performing arts at Buxton Opera House & Pavilion Arts Centre...可知,C 项(艺术和文化活动)正确。A:坐小火车;B:现代艺术课程;D:骑马基础课程。 高考热词 justifiably adv.言之有理地, 无可非议地 taste n.口味,爱好 长难句???? 原句:Buxton is justifiably proud of its cultural life and you'll find much to suit all tastes with art, music,opera and the performing arts at Buxton Opera House &Pavilion Arts Centre and Green Man Gallery. 分析:此句是并列复合句,由第一个and连接两个分句。第一个分句是Buxton is justifiably proud of its cultural life,第二个分句是you'll find much to suit all tastes with art,music,opera and the performing arts at Buxton Opera House &Pavilion Arts Centre and Green Man Gallery。 译文:巴克斯顿对它的文化生活感到自豪无可非议。你将在Buxton Opera House &Pavilion Arts Centre和Green Man Gallery发现很多适合各种口味的艺术、音乐、歌剧和表演艺术。 Passage 8 (2018课标全国Ⅰ,A)词数:260 Washington, D.C. Bicycle Tours Cherry Blossom Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. Duration:3 hours This small group bike tour is a fantastic way to see the world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C. Your guide will provide a history lesson about the trees and the fa- mous monuments where they blossom. Reserve your spot before availability—and the cherry blos- soms—disappear! Washington Capital Monuments Bicycle Tour Duration:3 hours(4 miles) Join a guided bike tour and view some of the most popular monuments in Washington, D.C. Ex- plore the monuments and memorials on the National Mall as your guide shares unique facts and history at each stop. Guided tour includes bike, helmet, cookies and bottled water. Capital City Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. Duration:3 hours Morning or Afternoon, this bike tour is the perfect tour for D.C. newcomers and locals looking to experience Washington, D.C. in a healthy way with minimum effort. Knowledgeable guides will entertain you with the most interesting stories about Presidents, Congress, memorials, and parks. Comfortable bikes and a smooth tour route(路线)make cycling between the sites fun and relaxing. Washington Capital Sites at Night Bicycle Tour Duration:3 hours(7 miles) Join a small group bike tour for an evening of exploration in the heart of Washington, D.C. Get up close to the monuments and memorials as you bike the sites of Capitol Hill and the National Mall. Frequent stops are made for photo taking as your guide offers unique facts and history. Tour in- cludes bike, helmet, and bottled water. All riders are equipped with reflective vests and safety lights. 1.Which tour do you need to book in advance? A.Cherry Blossom Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. B.Washington Capital Monuments Bicycle Tour. C.Capital City Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. D.Washington Capital Sites at Night Bicycle Tour. 2.What will you do on the Capital City Bike Tour? A.Meet famous people. B.Go to a national park. C.Visit well-known museums. D.Enjoy interesting stories. 3.Which of the following does the bicycle tour at night provide? A.City maps.  B.Cameras. C.Meals.   D.Safety lights. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文的题材为旅游类。文章为那些自行车爱好者介绍了四个骑自行车探索美国 首都华盛顿的项目。 1.A 细节理解题。根据第一个项目中的Reserve your spot before availability可知,第一个游玩 项目需要预订,所以答案为A项。其他三个项目都没有提及需要预订。 2.D 细节理解题。根据第三个游玩项目中的第二句话(知识渊博的导游会给你讲关于总统、 国会、纪念碑和公园的最有趣的故事,让你开心。)可知,在这个游玩项目中你会享受到有趣 的故事,所以答案为D项。 3.D 细节理解题。根据文章最后一段的最后一句话(所有的骑手都配备了反光背心和安全 灯。)可知答案为D项。 高考热词 blossom n.花朵 vi.开花 reserve vt.预订;预约 unique adj.独特的;独一无二的???? minimum adj.最小的 Passage 9 (2018课标全国Ⅱ,A)词数:284 Summer Activities Students should read the list with their parents/carers, and select two activities they would like to do. Forms will be available in school and online for them to indicate their choices and return to school. Before choices are finalised, parents/carers will be asked to sign to confirm their child's choices. Activity Description Member of staff Cost Outdoor Adventure (OUT) Take yourself out of your comfort zone for a week, discover new personal qualities, and learn new skills. You will be able to take part in a number of activities from ca-noeing to wild camping on Dartmoor. Learn rock climbing and work as a team,and enjoy the great outdoor environment. Mr. Clemens £140 WWⅠ Battlefields and Paris(WBP) On Monday we travel to London. After staying overnight in London, we travel on Day 2 o northern France to visit the World War Ⅰ battlefields. On Day 3 we cross into Belgium. Thursday sees us make the short journey to Paris where we will visit Disneyland Paris park, staying until late to see the parade and the fireworks. Our final day, Friday, sees us visit central Paris and tour the main sights. Mrs. Wilson £425 Crafty Foxes(CRF) Four days of product design centred around textiles. Making lovely objects using recycled and made materials. Bags, cushions and decorations...Learn skills and leave with modern and unusual textiles. Mrs. Goode £30 Potty about Potter (POT) Visit Warner Bros Studio, shop stop to buy picnic, stay overnight in an approved Youth Hostel in Streatley-on-Thames, guided tour of Oxford to see the film locations, picnic lunch outside Oxford's Christchurch, boating on the River Cherwell through the University Parks, before heading back to Ex- eter. Miss Drake £150 1.Which activity will you choose if you want to go camping? A.OUT.  B.WBP.  C.CRF.  D.POT. 2.What will the students do on Tuesday with Mrs. Wilson? A.Travel to London. B.See a parade and fireworks. C.Tour central Paris. D.Visit the WWⅠ battlefields. 3.How long does Potty about Potter last? A.Two days.  B.Four days. C.Five days.  D.One week. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇应用文,介绍了四项供学生选择的暑期活动。 1.A 细节理解题。题干句意:如果你想去野营,你将选择哪项活动?根据camping一词直接定 位表格中第一项活动OUT。根据OUT中第二句(在达特穆尔你可以参加从划独木舟到野营的 很多活动。)可知A项正确。 2.D 细节理解题。题干句意:在周二,学生们将和Wilson女士在一起做什么?根据Mrs. Wilson 直接定位表格中第二项活动WBP。根据WBP中第一、二句(星期一,我们去伦敦旅行。在伦 敦待一晚上后,第二天我们去法国北部参观一战战场。)可知D项正确。 3.A 细节理解题。题干句意:Potty about Potter持续多长时间?由Potty about Potter直接定位表 格中第四项活动POT。根据POT中第一句中关键信息stay overnight可知该项活动持续两天的 时间,故选择A项。 Passage 10 (2018课标全国Ⅲ,A)词数:192 Welcome to Holker Hall & Gardens Visitor Information How to Get to Holker By Car:Follow brown signs on A590 from J36, M6. Approximate travel times:Windermere—20 minutes, Kendal—25 minutes, Lancaster—45 minutes, Manchester—1 hour 30 minutes. By Rail: The nearest station is Cark-in-Cartmel with trains to Carnforth, Lancaster and Preston for connections to major cities & airports. Opening Times Sunday—Friday(closed on Saturday)11:00 am—4:00 pm, 30th March—2nd November. Admission Charges       Hall & Gardens      Gardens Adults:   £12.00  £8.00 Groups:   £9.00  £5.50 Special Events Producers' Market 13th April Join us to taste a variety of fresh local food and drinks. Meet the producers and get some excellent recipe ideas. Holker Garden Festival 30th May The event celebrates its 22nd anniversary with a great show of the very best of gardening, making it one of the most popular events in gardening. National Garden Day 28th August Holker once again opens its gardens in aid of the disadvantaged. For just a small donation you can take a tour with our garden guide. Winter Market 8th November This is an event for all the family. Wander among a variety of shops selling gifts while enjoying a live music show and nice street entertainment. 1.How long does it probably take a tourist to drive to Holker from Manchester? A.20 minutes.  B.25 minutes. C.45 minutes.  D.90 minutes. 2.How much should a member of a tour group pay to visit Hall & Gardens? A.£12.00.  B.£9.00.  C.£8.00.  D.£5.50. 3.Which event will you go to if you want to see a live music show? A.Producers' Market. B.Holker Garden Festival. C.National Garden Day. D.Winter Market. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇应用文,介绍了到达Holker的方式、参观时间、参观费用和特殊活 动。 1.D 细节理解题。根据题干中的from Manchester直接定位到文章How to Get to Holker部分 中的Manchester—1 hour 30 minutes,故选D项。 2.B 细节理解题。根据题干中的a tour group和Hall & Gardens直接定位到文章Admission Charges部分中的Groups:£9.00,故选B项。 3.D 细节理解题。根据题干中的see a live music show直接定位到文章Winter Market部分中 的enjoying a live music show,故选D项。 高考热词 approximate adj.大致的,大约的 a variety of各种各样的 recipe n.食谱 anniver- sary n.周年纪念日 Passage 11 (2018北京,B)词数:284 Find Your Adventure at the Space and Aviation(航空) Center If you';re looking for a unique adventure, the Space and Aviation Center(SAC) is the place to be. The Center offers programs designed to challenge and inspire with hands-on tasks and lots of fun. More than 750,000 have graduated from SAC, with many seeking employment in engineering, aviation, education, medicine and a wide variety of other professions. They come to camp, wanting to know what it is like to be an astronaut or a pilot, and they leave with real-world applications for what they';re studying in the classroom. For the trainees, the programs also offer a great way to earn merit badges(荣誉徽章). At Space Camp, trainees can earn their Space Exploration badge as they build and fire model rockets, learn about space tasks and try simulated(模拟) flying to space with the crew from all over the world. The Aviation Challenge program gives trainees the chance to earn their Aviation badge. They learn the principles of flight and test their operating skills in the cockpit(驾驶舱) of a variety of flight simulators. Trainees also get a good start on their Wilderness Survival badge as they learn about water-and land-survival through designed tasks and their search and rescue of a “downed” pilot. With all the programs, teamwork is key as trainees learn the importance of leadership and being part of a bigger task. All this fun is available for ages 9 to 18. Families can enjoy the experience together, too, with Fam- ily Camp programs for families with children as young as 7. Stay an hour or stay a week—there is something here for everyone! For more details, please visit us online at www.oursac.com. 1.Why do people come to SAC? A.To experience adventures. B.To look for jobs in aviation. C.To get a degree in engineering. D.To learn more about medicine. 2.To earn a Space Exploration badge, a trainee needs to   ????. A.fly to space B.get an Aviation badge first C.study the principles of flight D.build and fire model rockets 3.What is the most important for trainees? A.Leadership.   B.Team spirit. C.Task planning.  D.Survival skills. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇应用文, 介绍在太空航空中心的一些活动,人们在这里可以通过动手 操作和团队合作体验冒险。 1.A 细节理解题。根据第一段第一句话(如果你想寻求独特的冒险,太空航空中心是一个好 地方。)可知答案选A。 2.D 细节理解题。根据第三段第二句话(在太空训练营,参加培训的人员在建造和发射火箭 模型,了解太空任务并和来自世界各地的工作人员一起尝试太空模拟飞行时,能够赢得太空探 索徽章。)可知选D。 3.B 细节理解题。根据第四段(在所有的课程中,当参加培训的人员在学习领导能力的重要 性和参与更大的任务时,团队合作是很关键的。)可知选B。 高考热词 unique adj.独特的 hands-on adj. 亲身实践的 trainee n.接受培训的人 teamwork n.团队合作,协作 Passage 12 (2018天津,A)词数:332 Fire Prevention Information The University of Adelaide employs a full-time staff of fire prevention professionals. They inspect all campus buildings and test and maintain all sprinkler(喷水灭火装置)systems, fire alarms, and fire extinguishers(灭火器). They also provide educational programs on fire safety in the residence halls. Whenever you move to a new area, you should locate the fire alarm pull stations and the two exits nearest your room. Fire Alarms The floors of all campus buildings are equipped with manual(手动的)fire alarm systems which in- clude fire alarm pull stations and pipes. Most are also equipped with automatic fire alarm systems consisting of heat detectors, smoke detectors and sprinklers. For your safety, never tamper with(胡 乱摆弄)these systems. False fire alarms are illegal and may lead to imprisonment. Fire Drills A fire drill will be conducted in your residence hall every semester. During a fire drill, please do the following: ·Take your room key and ID, close and lock the door to your room. ·Exit immediately from the nearest emergency exit; do not use a lift. ·Meet outside of your residence hall and wait for further instructions. Fire Extinguishers Fire extinguishers are located on each floor and in each apartment. Use a fire extinguisher only if you have been trained to do so. Irresponsible use of a fire extinguisher can create a dangerous situ- ation for other residents and could result in damage to personal property. Misuse of a fire extin- guisher will result in fines. Smoke Detectors A smoke detector is on the ceiling in your room. Some buildings also have heat detectors on the ceilings. Do the following to ensure the safe operation of your smoke detector: ·If your smoke detector is working properly, the red light should be on. If the red light is not blink- ing(闪动),contact residence hall staff immediately. ·Do not cover or block your smoke detector in any way. ·If a smoke detector sets off an alarm and there is no fire or smoke, inform your hall staff. 1.What is the main duty of the fire prevention professionals? A.To provide part-time jobs for students. B.To lead the students to the nearest exits. C.To check and maintain fire prevention equipment. D.To train teachers to be fire prevention professionals. 2.What do the automatic fire alarm systems include? A.Pipes and smoke detectors. B.Smoke detectors and sprinklers. C.Fire alarm pull stations and pipes. D.Sprinklers and fire alarm pull stations. 3.In a fire drill, the students should  ????. A.rush quickly to a lift B.gather at the nearest exit C.shut the door and leave at once D.wait for instructions in the hall 4.What do we know about the use of fire extinguishers? A.Using them wrongly results in punishment. B.Irresponsible use of them can damage them. C.Improper use of them can destroy the apartment. D.Using them without a trainer present is forbidden. 5.To ensure the safe operation of the smoke detector, one should  ????. A.contact the hall staff regularly B.cover the things that burn easily C.start the smoke detector in a fire D.make certain the red light is working 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。题材为消防安全类。本文就学生宿舍楼如何预防火灾从五 个方面做了详尽的说明。 1.C 细节理解题。题干句意:预防火灾的专业人员的主要职责是什么?根据第一部分中的第 二句话(他们巡查所有的校园建筑,检验并维护所有的喷水灭火装置、火警报警器和灭火器) 可知,C项(检查并维护火灾预防设备)描述的就是他们的主要职责。A项:为学生提供兼职工 作。B项:带领学生到最近的通道。D项:把老师培训成预防火灾的专业人员。这三项在文章 中均没有提及。 2.B 细节理解题。题干句意:自动火警报警系统包括什么?根据第二部分中的第二句话(大多 数校园大楼内还配备了自动火警报警系统,包括热探测器、烟雾探测器和喷水灭火装置)可知 答案为B项。A项中的 “pipes”不包含在内。C项中的两个都没有包括在内。D项中的“fire alarm pull stations”不包含在内。 3.C 细节理解题。题干句意:在火灾演练中,学生们应该  ????。根据第三部分中的前两个 黑点提示部分(带上钥匙和你的身份证,关上并锁上你的房间门。从离你最近的紧急出口马上 离开,不要用电梯),可知,这时候学生们应该关上门马上离开,这与C项描述一致。A项:迅速跑 向电梯。这与“不要用电梯”恰好相反。B项:在最近的通道集合。让你从这里马上离开,而 不是在这里集合。D项:在宿舍楼里等候指令。由第三部分中的第三个黑点后的内容可知,是 让你离开宿舍楼在外面等候指令。 4.A 细节理解题。题干句意:我们对于使用灭火器了解些什么?根据第四部分最后一句话(错 误地使用灭火器会导致罚款)可知A项正确。B项:不负责任地使用灭火器会毁坏它们。本部 分第三句话指出不负责任地使用灭火器会对在楼内居住的其他人带来危险,故排除B项。C 项:不正确地使用灭火器会毁掉整栋公寓。这个危害文章没有提及。D项:没有指导人员在现 场是禁止使用灭火器的。这一点文章也没有提及。 5.D 推理判断题。题干句意:为了保证烟雾探测器安全运转,我们应该  ????。根据第五部 分中第一个黑点后的提示(如果你的烟雾探测器正常工作的话,上面的红灯应该是亮着的。如 果红灯不闪烁了,立即联系宿舍管理员)可推断出,为了让烟雾探测器正常运转,一定要确保上 面的红灯是工作的。这与D项的描述相符。A项中的regularly与原文的immediately不符。其 他两项均未提及。 高考热词 staff n. 全体职员;员工 inspect vt. 检查;查看 automatic adj.自动的 detector n.探测器 drill n.演习 emergency exit 紧急出口 resident n.居民 result in 导致;带来 Passage 13 (2018江苏,A) The Metropolitan Museum of Art ?????   1000 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10028 211-535-7710 www.metmuseum.org Entrances Fifth Avenue at 82nd Street Hours Open 7 days a week. Sunday—Thursday 10:00—17:30 Friday and Saturday 10:00—21:00 Closed Thanksgiving Day, December 25, January 1, and the first Monday in May. Admission $25.00 recommended for adults, $12.00 recommended for students, includes the Main Building and The Cloisters(回廊)on the same day;free for children under 12 with an adult. Free with Admission All special exhibitions, as well as films, lectures, guided tours, concerts, gallery talks, and family/children's programs are free with admission.????? Ask about today's activities at the Great Hall Information Desk. The Cloisters Museum and Gardens The Cloisters museum and gardens is a branch of The Metropolitan Museum of Art devoted to the art and architecture of Europe in the Middle Ages. The extensive collection consists of master-works in sculpture, colored glass, and precious objects from Europe dating from about the 9th to the 15th century.     ????? 1.How much may they pay if an 11-year-old girl and her working parents visit the museum? A.$12.  B.$37.  C.$50.  D.$62. 2. The attraction of the Cloisters museum

  • ID:4-6139477 (江苏专用)2020届高考英语一轮复习专题10-16课件(打包6套)

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    (共343张PPT) 专题十二 推理判断 高考英语 (江苏专用) Passage 1(2019江苏,C)词数:444 Who cares if people think wrongly that the internet has had more important influences than the washing machine?Why does it matter that people are more impressed by the most recent changes? It would not matter if these misjudgments were just a matter of people's opinions. However, they have real impacts, as they result in misguided use of scarce resources. The fascination with the ICT(Information and Communication Technology)revolution, represented by the internet, has made some rich countries wrongly conclude that making things is so “yester- day” that they should try to live on ideas. This belief in “post-industrial society” has led those countries to neglect their manufacturing sector(制造业), with negative consequences for their e- conomies. Even more worryingly, the fascination with the internet by people in rich countries has moved the international community to worry about the “digital divide”between the rich countries and the 五年高考 A组 自主命题·江苏卷题组 poor countries. This has led companies and individuals to donate money to developing countries to buy computer equipment and internet facilities. The question, however, is whether this is what the developing countries need the most. Perhaps giving money for those less fashionable things such as digging wells, extending electricity networks and making more affordable washing machines would have improved people's lives more than giving every child a laptop computer or setting up internet centres in rural villages. I am not saying that those things are necessarily more important, but many donators have rushed into fancy programmes without carefully assessing the relative long-term costs and benefits of alternative uses of their money. In yet another example, a fascination with the new has led people to believe that the recent changes in the technologies of communications and transportation are so revolutionary that now we live in a “borderless world”. As a result, in the last twenty years or so, many people have come to be- lieve that whatever change is happening today is the result of great technological progress, going against which will be like trying to turn the clock back. Believing in such a world, many govern- ments have put an end to some of the very necessary regulations on cross-border flows of capital, labour and goods, with poor results. Understanding technological trends is very important for correctly designing economic policies, both at the national and the international levels, and for making the right career choices at the indi- vidual level. However, our fascination with the latest, and our under-valuation of what has already become common, can, and has, led us in all sorts of wrong directions. 1.Misjudgments on the influences of new technology can lead to  ????. A.a lack of confidence in technology B.a slow progress in technology C.a conflict of public opinions D.a waste of limited resources 2.The example in Paragraph 4 suggests that donators should  ????. A.take people's essential needs into account B.make their programmes attractive to people C.ensure that each child gets financial support D.provide more affordable internet facilities 3.What has led many governments to remove necessary regulations? A.Neglecting the impacts of technological advances. B.Believing that the world has become borderless. C.Ignoring the power of economic development. D.Over-emphasizing the role of international communication. 4.What can we learn from the passage? A.People should be encouraged to make more donations. B.Traditional technology still has a place nowadays. C.Making right career choices is crucial to personal success. D.Economic policies should follow technological trends. 答案 [语篇解读]????本文为说明文,主题语境为人与社会,主题语境内容为社会进步与人类文明。本 文告诉我们应正确认识科技发展趋势并顺势而为。本文有助于培养学生的思维品质。 1.D 推理判断题。本题题干意为:对于新科技的影响的错误判断会导致  ????。根据文章第 二段第二句话However, they have real impacts, as they result in misguided use of scarce re- sources. (然而,它们有实实在在的影响,因为它们导致了对稀缺资源的错误使用。)可知答案为 D项(对有限资源的浪费)。A项:对科技缺乏信心;B项:科技的缓慢进步;C项:舆论的冲突。 2.A 推理判断题。本题题干意为:第四段中的例子建议捐赠者应该  ????。根据第四段第三 句话可知答案为A项(考虑人们的基本需求)。B项:让他们的计划吸引人;C项:确保每一个孩子 都能得到经济资助;D项:提供更多负担得起的互联网设施。 3.B 推理判断题。本题题干意为:是什么导致许多政府取消了必要的管制?根据文章第五段 第一、三句可知答案为B项(相信世界已经变得无国界)。A项:忽略了科技进步的影响;C项:忽 视了经济发展的力量;D项:过度强调国际交往的作用。 4.B 推理判断题。本题题干意为:从文章中我们可以推断出什么?根据文章最后一段第二句 话可知答案为B项(传统科技在今天仍然占有一席之地)。A项:应该鼓励人们多捐款;C项:正确 的职业选择对个人成功至关重要;D项:经济政策的制定应该遵循科技发展趋势。 长难句???? 原句:As a result, in the last twenty years or so, many people have come to believe that whatever change is happening today is the result of great technological progress, going against which will be like trying to turn the clock back. 译文:因此,在过去的二十年左右,许多人开始相信,无论今天发生什么变化,都是伟大的科技进 步的结果,而不顺应它将会像试图把时钟转回来一样。 分析:本句中主句主语为many people, 谓语为have come to believe, 宾语为that引导的宾语从 句。 重点词汇 misjudgment n.错误判断 fascination n.迷恋,着迷 revolution n.革命 facility n.设 施,设备 Passage 2 (2018江苏,D)词数:704 Children as young as ten are becoming dependent on social media for their sense of self-worth, a major study warned. It found many youngsters (少年) now measure their status by how much public approval they get online, often through “likes”. Some change their behaviour in real life to improve their image on the web. The report into youngsters aged from 8 to 12 was carried out by Children's Commissioner (专员) Anne Longfield. She said social media firms were exposing children to major emotional risks, with some youngsters starting secondary school ill-equipped to cope with the tremendous pressure they faced online. Some social apps were popular among the children even though they supposedly require users to be at least 13. The youngsters admitted planning trips around potential photo-opportunities and then messaging friends—and friends of friends—to demand “likes” for their online posts. The report found that youngsters felt their friendships could be at risk if they did not respond to so- cial media posts quickly, and around the clock. Children aged 8 to 10 were “starting to feel happy” when others liked their posts. However, those in the 10 to 12 age group were “concerned with how many people like their posts”, sug- gesting a “need” for social recognition that gets stronger the older they become. Miss Longfield warned that a generation of children risked growing up “worried about their ap- pearance and image as a result of the unrealistic lifestyles they follow on platforms, and increasing- ly anxious about switching off due to the constant demands of social media”. She said: “Children are using social media with family and friends and to play games when they are in primary school. But what starts as fun usage of apps turns into tremendous pressure in real social media interaction at secondary school.” As their world expanded, she said, children compared themselves to others online in a way that was “hugely damaging in terms of their self-identity, in terms of their confidence, but also in terms of their ability to develop themselves”. Miss Longfield added: “Then there is this push to connect—if you go offline, will you miss some -thing, will you miss out, will you show that you don't care about those people you are following, all of those come together in a huge way at once.” “For children it is very, very difficult to cope with emotionally.”The Children's Commissioner for England's study—Life in Likes—found that children as young as 8 were using social media platforms largely for play. However, the research—involving eight groups of 32 children aged 8 to 12—suggested that as they headed toward their teens, they became increasingly anxious online. By the time they started secondary school—at age 11—children were already far more aware of their image online and felt under huge pressure to ensure their posts were popular, the report found. However, they still did not know how to cope with mean-spirited jokes, or the sense of incompe- tence they might feel if they compared themselves to celebrities (名人) or more brilliant friends on- line. The report said they also faced pressure to respond to messages at all hours of the day—espe- cially at secondary school when more youngsters have mobile phones. The Children's Commissioner said schools and parents must now do more to prepare children for the emotional minefield (雷区) they faced online. And she said social media companies must also “take more responsibility”. They should either monitor their websites better so that children do not sign up too early, or they should adjust their websites to the needs of younger users. Javed Khan, of children's charity Barnardo's, said: “It's vital that new compulsory age-appro- priate relationship and sex education lessons in England should help equip children to deal with the growing demands of social media.” “It's also hugely important for parents to know which apps their children are using.” 1.Why did some secondary school students feel too much pressure? A.They were not provided with adequate equipment. B.They were not well prepared for emotional risks. C.They were required to give quick responses. D.They were prevented from using mobile phones. 2.Some social app companies were to blame because   ????. A.they didn't adequately check their users' registration B.they organized photo trips to attract more youngsters C.they encouraged youngsters to post more photos D.they didn't stop youngsters from staying up late 3.Children's comparing themselves to others online may lead to   ????. A.less friendliness to each other B.lower self-identity and confidence C.an increase in online cheating D.a stronger desire to stay online 4.According to Life in Likes, as children grew, they became more anxious to   ????. A.circulate their posts quickly B.know the qualities of their posts C.use mobile phones for play D.get more public approval 5.What should parents do to solve the problem? A.Communicate more with secondary schools. B.Urge media companies to create safer apps. C.Keep track of children's use of social media. D.Forbid their children from visiting the web. 6.What does the passage mainly talk about? A.The influence of social media on children. B.The importance of social media to children. C.The problem in building a healthy relationship. D.The measure to reduce risks from social media. 答案 [语篇解读] 研究发现,青少年变得依赖社交媒体来找到自我价值。他们中很多人都以网上 的点赞量来衡量自己的地位,这在很多方面带来了不利影响。因此家长、学校和媒体应该肩 负起更多的责任。 1.B 推理判断题。根据第三段第二句的social media firms were exposing children to major e- motional risks, with some youngsters starting secondary school ill-equipped to cope with the tremendous pressure they faced online可知,社交媒体公司使孩子们在情感方面面临危险,因为 这些开始上中学的年轻人并未做好准备去应对网络带来的巨大压力。即他们并没有为情感 方面的危险做好充分准备。故选B项。 2.A 推理判断题。根据第四段第一句Some social apps were popular among the children even though they supposedly require users to be at least 13.可知,尽管有些社交应用程序应该要求用 户至少满13岁,但是这些应用程序还是受到孩子们的欢迎。由此可见,社交应用程序公司并没 有充分检查用户的注册是否符合要求, 所以这些公司应该受到谴责。故选A项。 3.B 细节理解题。根据第九段第一句中的children compared themselves to others online in a way that was “hugely damaging in terms of their self-identity可知,随着孩子交际圈的扩大,他们 会与他人在网上进行比较,这会严重损害他们的自我认同、自信心以及发展自我的能力。故 选B项。 4.D 推理判断题。根据第十一、十二和十三段可知,这项研究发现8岁的孩子利用社交媒体 平台主要是为了玩儿,而到10岁左右时,他们上网就开始变得焦虑了,到了11岁时,他们更加关 注自己的网络形象,他们要确保自己发布的内容受到别人欢迎。由此判断,随着孩子的成长,他 们上网更加渴望得到他人的赞同。 故选D项。 5.C 推理判断题。根据倒数第一段It's also hugely important for parents to know which apps their children are using.可知,要解决这个问题,家长们要清楚自己的孩子在用什么社交媒体,即 要跟踪孩子们对社交媒体的使用。故选C项。 6.A 主旨大意题。通读全文可概括得知,文章主要介绍了一项研究发现:随着孩子们的成长, 社交媒体给他们带来了不利影响,故选A项。 长难句???? 原句:Miss Longfield warned that a generation of children risked growing up “worried about their appearance and image as a result of the unrealistic lifestyles they follow on platforms, and increas- ingly anxious about switching off due to the constant demands of social media”. 译文:Longfield女士警告说一代孩子的成长面临着风险——因为他们在社交平台上追求不切 实际的生活方式,所以很担心自己的外貌和形象,而且由于社交媒体持续不断的要求,他们对于 关闭社交媒体变得越来越焦虑了。 分析:warned后为that引导的宾语从句,形容词短语worried about...和anxious about...作状语,they follow on platforms为定语从句,修饰先行词lifestyles,as a result of和due to均为表示原因的介 词短语。 重点词汇 expose...to...使暴露于;使接触 at risk处于危险中 tremendous adj.极大的;巨大的  in terms of在……方面;就……而言 compulsory adj.义务的;强制的 Passage 3 (2017江苏,C)词数:452 A new commodity brings about a highly profitable, fast-growing industry, urging antitrust(反垄断) regulators to step in to check those who control its flow. A century ago, the resource in question was oil. Now similar concerns are being raised by the giants(巨头)that deal in data, the oil of the digital age. The most valuable firms are Google, Amazon, Facebook and Microsoft. All look un- stoppable. Such situations have led to calls for the tech giants to be broken up. But size alone is not a crime. The giants' success has benefited consumers. Few want to live without search engines or a quick delivery. Far from charging consumers high prices, many of these services are free(users pay,in ef- fect, by handing over yet more data). And the appearance of new-born giants suggests that new- comers can make waves, too. But there is cause for concern. The internet has made data abundant, all-present and far more valu- able, changing the nature of data and competition. Google initially used the data collected from users to target advertising better. But recently it has discovered that data can be turned into new services:translation and visual recognition, to be sold to other companies. Internet companies' con- trol of data gives them enormous power. So they have a“God's eye view”of activities in their own markets and beyond. This nature of data makes the antitrust measures of the past less useful. Breaking up firms like Google into five small ones would not stop remaking themselves:in time, one of them would be- come great again. A rethink is required—and as a new approach starts to become apparent, two ideas stand out. The first is that antitrust authorities need to move from the industrial age into the 21st century. When considering a merger(兼并), for example, they have traditionally used size to determine when to step in. They now need to take into account the extent of firms' data assets(资产)when as- sessing the impact of deals. The purchase price could also be a signal that an established company is buying a new-born threat. When this takes place, especially when a new-born company has no revenue to speak of, the regulators should raise red flags. The second principle is to loosen the control that providers of on-line services have over data and give more to those who supply them. Companies could be forced to reveal to consumers what in- formation they hold and how much money they make from it. Governments could order the shar- ing of certain kinds of data, with users' consent. Restarting antitrust for the information age will not be easy. But if governments don't want a data economy controlled by a few giants, they must act soon. 1.Why is there a call to break up giants? A.They have controlled the data market. B.They collect enormous private data. C.They no longer provide free services. D.They dismissed some new-born giants. 2.What does the technological innovation in Paragraph 3 indicate? A.Data giants' technology is very expensive. B.Google's idea is popular among data firms. C.Data can strengthen giants' controlling position. D.Data can be turned into new services or products. 3.By paying attention to firms' data assets, antitrust regulators could   ????. A.kill a new threat ???? B.avoid the size trap C.favour bigger firms ???? D.charge higher prices 4.What is the purpose of loosening the giants' control of data? A.Big companies could relieve data security pressure. B.Governments could relieve their financial pressure. C.Consumers could better protect their privacy. D.Small companies could get more opportunities. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文,属于社科类文章。文章说明了人们在受益于大数据的同时,还成 就了一些通过数据发财的商业巨头。为了防止这些巨头控制某一领域和市场,政府需要采取 行动。 1.A 推理判断题。第二段第一句中的Such situations指向第一段所描述的情况。根据第一段 最后三句Now similar concerns are being raised by the giants that deal in data, the oil of the digital age. The most valuable firms are Google, Amazon, Facebook and Microsoft. All look unstop- pable.可知,正是因为商业巨头们掌控大数据市场,人们才提出要分化它们。故选A项。 2.C 细节理解题。根据第三段最后两句Internet companies' control of data gives them enor- mous power. So they have a“God's eye view”of activities in their own markets and beyond.可 知,应选C项。 3.B 细节理解题。根据第四段第一句This nature of data makes the antitrust measures of the past less useful.及第五段内容可知,在这样一个数据时代,以前的反垄断措施已经不怎么有用 了,而在兼并公司时,传统的做法是通过考虑公司的规模来决定何时介入,现在他们需要考虑这 些公司有多少数据资产了。这样,关注数据资产就可以帮助监管者避开仅看公司规模的陷 阱。故选B项。 4.D 推理判断题。根据第六段内容可知,放松巨头对数据的控制的目的是让一些小公司从中 获得更多的机会。故选D项。 长难句 原句:A new commodity brings about a highly profitable, fast-growing industry, urging antitrust(反垄断)regulators to step in to check those who control its flow. 译文:一种新商品促成了一个利润丰厚、增长迅速的行业,这迫使反垄断监管人员介入此事,严 查控制这一商品流动的人。 分析:本句为复合句。句子主干为A new commodity brings about a highly profitable, fast-grow- ing industry,urging...为现在分词短语作结果状语,其中who引导的是定语从句,先行词是those。 重点词汇 bring about 导致,引起 Passage 4 (2016江苏,C)词数:443 El Ni?o, a Spanish term for “the Christ child”, was named by South American fishermen who noticed that the global weather pattern, which happens every two to seven years, reduced the amount of fishes caught around Christmas. El Ni?o sees warm water, collected over several years in the western Pacific, flow back eastwards when winds that normally blow westwards weaken, or sometimes the other way round. The weather effects, both good and bad, are felt in many places. Rich countries gain more from powerful Ni?os, on balance, than they lose. A study found that a strong Ni?o in 1997-98 helped America's economy grow by$15 billion, partly because of better agricultural harvests:farmers in the Midwest gained from extra rain. The total rise in agricultural incomes in rich countries is greater than the fall in poor ones. But in Indonesia extremely dry forests are in flames. A multi-year drought(干旱)in south-east Brazil is becoming worse. Though heavy rains brought about by El Ni?o may relieve the drought in California, they are likely to cause surface flooding and other disasters. The most recent powerful Ni?o, in 1997-98, killed around 21,000 people and caused damage worth $36 billion around the globe. But such Ni?os come with months of warning, and so much is known about how they happen that governments can prepare. According to the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), however, just 12% of disaster-relief funding in the past two decades has gone on reducing risks in advance, rather than recovery and rebuilding afterwards. This is despite evidence that a dollar spent on risk-reduction saves at least two on reconstruction. Simple improvements to infrastructure(基础设施)can reduce the spread of disease. Better sewers (下水道)make it less likely that heavy rain is followed by an outbreak of the disease of bad stom- ach. Stronger bridges mean villages are less likely to be left without food and medicine after floods. According to a paper in 2011 by Mr Hsiang and co-authors, civil conflict is related to El Ni ?o's harmful effects—and the poorer the country, the stronger the link. Though the relationship may not be causal, helping divided communities to prepare for disasters would at least reduce the risk that those disasters are followed by killing and wounding people. Since the poorest are least likely to make up for their losses from disasters linked to El Ni?o, reducing their losses needs to be the priority. 1.What can we learn about El Ni?o in Paragraph 1? A.It is named after a South American fisherman. B.It takes place almost every year all over the world. C.It forces fishermen to stop catching fish around Christmas. D.It sees the changes of water flow direction in the ocean. 2.What may El Ni?os bring about to the countries affected? A.Agricultural harvests in rich countries fall. B.Droughts become more harmful than floods. C.Rich countries' gains are greater than their losses. D.Poor countries suffer less from droughts economically. 3.The data provided by ODI in Paragraph 4 suggest that  ????. A.more investment should go to risk reduction B.governments of poor countries need more aid C.victims of El Ni?o deserve more compensation D.recovery and reconstruction should come first 4.What is the author's purpose in writing the passage? A.To introduce El Ni?o and its origin. B.To explain the consequences of El Ni?o. C.To show ways of fighting against El Ni?o. D.To urge people to prepare for El Ni?o. 答案 [语篇解读]????本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了厄尔尼诺现象名称的由来、发生的时间、造成 的影响,敦促人们加强风险前资金的投入,改进基础设施,为厄尔尼诺现象的发生做好准备。 1.D 细节理解题。根据文章第一段第二句El Ni?o sees warm water, collected over several years in the western Pacific, flow back eastwards when winds that normally blow westwards weaken, or sometimes the other way round.可知,厄尔尼诺现象见证了大海中水流方向的变化。 故选D项。 2.C 细节理解题。根据第二段第二句Rich countries gain more from powerful Ni?os, on bal- ance, than they lose.可知,总的来说富裕国家收获的比失去的多,故选C项。 3.A 推理判断题。根据第四段第三句According to the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), however, just 12% of disaster-relief funding in the past two decades has gone on reducing risks in advance...可知,在过去20年里仅有12%的灾难救济资金用于提前降低风险,因此第四段旨在说 明应该投入更多的资金来降低风险。故选A项。 4.D 推理判断题。综合全文内容并结合文章最后一段可知,本文旨在敦促人们为厄尔尼诺现 象做好准备。故选D项。 长难句 原句:El Ni?o, a Spanish term for “the Christ child”, was named by South American fishermen who noticed that the global weather pattern, which happens every two to seven years, reduced the amount of fishes caught around Christmas. 译文:厄尔尼诺在西班牙语中是“圣婴”的意思,南美洲的渔夫们注意到了这种全球天气模式, 每两年到七年就发生一次,它减少了在圣诞期间捕鱼的数量,从而将其命名为厄尔尼诺。 分析:本句为复合句,含有两个定语从句和一个宾语从句。主句El Ni?o was named by South American fishermen;a Spanish term for “the Christ child”为同位语,补充说明主语El Ni?o;第 一个定语从句由who引导,其中that 引导的从句作noticed的宾语;其中which引导非限制性定语 从句。 高级语块 1.in advance提前,预先 2.be likely to do sth. 可能做某事 3.make up for弥补 Passage 1(2019课标全国Ⅲ,C)词数:313 Before the 1830s, most newspapers were sold through annual subscriptions in America, usually $8 to $10 a year. Today $8 or $10 seems a small amount of money, but at that time these amounts were forbidding to most citizens. Accordingly, newspapers were read almost only by rich people in politics or the trades. In addition, most newspapers had little in them that would appeal to a mass audience. They were dull and visually forbidding. But the revolution that was taking place in the 1 830s would change all that. The trend, then, was toward the “penny paper”—a term referring to papers made widely avail- able to the public. It meant any inexpensive newspaper; perhaps more importantly it meant news- papers that could be bought in single copies on the street. This development did not take place overnight. It had been possible(but not easy) to buy single copies of newspapers before 1830, but this usually meant the reader had to go down to the printer' s office to purchase a copy. Street sales were almost unknown. However, within a few years, street sales of newspapers would be commonplace in eastern cities. At first the price of single copies was B组 统一命题、其他省(区、市)卷题组 seldom a penny—usually two or three cents was charged—and some of the older well-known pa- pers charged five or six cents. But the phrase “penny paper” caught the public's fancy, and soon there would be papers that did indeed sell for only a penny. This new trend of newspapers for “the man on the street” did not begin well. Some of the early ventures(企业) were immediate failures. Publishers already in business, people who were owners of successful papers, had little desire to change the tradition. It took a few youthful and daring businessmen to get the ball rolling. 1.Which of the following best describes newspapers in America before the 1830s? A.Academic.  B.Unattractive. C.Inexpensive.  D.Confidential. 2.What did street sales mean to newspapers? A.They would be priced higher. B.They would disappear from cities. C.They could have more readers. D.They could regain public trust. 3.Who were the newspapers of the new trend targeted at? A.Local politicians.  B.Common people. C.Young publishers.  D.Rich businessmen. 4.What can we say about the birth of the penny paper? A.It was a difficult process. B.It was a temporary success. C.It was a robbery of the poor. D.It was a disaster for printers. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。主题语境为人与社会,主题语境内容是社会进步。文章介 绍了报纸走向街头,走向大众的过程。文章侧重对学生历史和社会文化素养的培养。 1.B 细节理解题。本题题干意为:下面哪个选项对19世纪30年代之前美国报纸状况的描述是 最准确的?根据文章第一段的描述可知,当时的报纸很昂贵,只有富人才能买得起。同时,当时 的很多报纸对大众没有吸引力。因此B项(没有吸引力的)符合题意。A:学术的;C:便宜的;D: 机密的。 2.C 推理判断题。本题题干意为:街头销售对报纸来说意味着什么?根据文章第二段的描述, 当报纸开始在街头销售之后,价格很低,容易买到,所以C项(它们会有更多的读者)符合题 意。A:它们的定价将会更高;B:它们将从城市消失;D:它们将重获公众的信任。 3.B 细节理解题。本题题干意为:新趋势下报纸的目标群体是哪些人?根据文章第二段和第 三段对报纸改革的描述,尤其是第二段的The trend,then, was toward the “penny paper”—a term referring to papers made widely available to the public.可知,新的趋势为报纸大众化。故B 项(普通人)符合题意。 4.A 推理判断题。本题题干意为:我们可以如何评价“一分报纸”的诞生?根据文章对“一 分报纸”发展历程的描述,尤其是最后一段的This new trend of newspapers for “the man on the street” did not begin well.(这种面向街头普通人的报纸的新趋势一开始发展得并不好。) 可知,A项(这是一个艰难的过程)符合题意。B:这是暂时的成功;C:这是对贫穷者的掠夺;D:这 对印刷工人来说是灾难。 长难句???? 原句:In addition, most newspapers had little in them that would appeal to a mass audience. 译文:此外,大多数报纸几乎没有吸引大众读者的内容。 分析:本句是一个包含定语从句的主从复合句。其中主干是most newspapers had little in them。that would appeal to a mass audience是定语从句,修饰little。 重点词汇 annual adj.一年的 subscription n.订阅 accordingly adv.因此,于是 appeal to 吸 引 overnight adv.一夜之间 Passage 2(2019课标全国Ⅲ,D)词数:329 Monkeys seem to have a way with numbers. A team of researchers trained three Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 clearly different symbols con- sisting of numbers and selective letters with 0~25 drops of water or juice as a reward. The re- searchers then tested how the monkeys combined—or added—the symbols to get the reward. Here's how Harvard Medical School scientist Margaret Livingstone, who led the team, described the experiment: In their cages the monkeys were provided with touch screens. On one part of the screen, a symbol would appear, and on the other side two symbols inside a circle were shown. For example, the number 7 would flash on one side of the screen and the other end would have 9 and 8. If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of wa- ter or juice; if they went for the circle, they would be rewarded with the sum of the numbers—17 in this example. After running hundreds of tests, the researchers noted that the monkeys would go for the higher values more than half the time, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memo- rizing the value of each combination. When the team examined the results of the experiment more closely, they noticed that the monkeys tended to underestimate(低估) a sum compared with a single symbol when the two were close in value—sometimes choosing, for example, a 13 over the sum of 8 and 6. The underestimation was systematic: When adding two numbers, the monkeys always paid attention to the larger of the two, and then added only a fraction(小部分) of the smaller number to it. “This indicates that there is a certain way quantity is represented in their brains,” Dr. Living- stone says.“But in this experiment what they're doing is paying more attention to the big number than the little one.” 1.What did the researchers do to the monkeys before testing them? A.They fed them.  B.They named them. C.They trained them.  D.They measured them. 2.How did the monkeys get their reward in the experiment? A.By drawing a circle.  B.By touching a screen. C.By watching videos.  D.By mixing two drinks. 3.What did Livingstone's team find about the monkeys? A.They could perform basic addition. B.They could understand simple words. C.They could memorize numbers easily. D.They could hold their attention for long. 4.In which section of a newspaper may this text appear? A.Entertainment.  B.Health. C.Education.  D.Science. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文体裁为说明文。主题语境为人与自然,主题语境内容为自然科学研究成 果。科学家对猴子进行测试后发现猴子有一定的数字计算能力。本文侧重培养学生的语言 能力。 1.C 细节理解题。本题题干意为:研究人员在对猴子进行测试之前对它们做了什么?根据题 干中的before testing them以及第二段第二句中的The researchers then tested how the monkeys combined定位至第二段,再根据第一句中的A team of researchers trained three Rhesus monkeys 可知答案为C项。A:他们给它们喂食;B:他们给它们起名字;D:他们测量它们。 2.B 细节理解题。本题题干意为:在实验中,猴子们如何得到奖励?根据题干中的reward定位 至第三段的后半部分。根据第三段最后一句If the monkeys touched the left side of the screen they would be rewarded with seven drops of water or juice...可知答案为B项。A:通过画一个圆 圈;C:通过观看视频;D:通过将两种饮料混合。 3.A 推理判断题。本题题干意为:Livingstone的团队从对猴子的研究中发现了什么?根据第 四段中the monkeys would go for the higher values more than half the time, indicating that they were performing a calculation可知,答案为A项(它们可以做基本的加法)。B:它们可以理解简单 的文字;C:它们可以轻松地记住数字;D:它们可以长时间保持注意力。 4.D 推理判断题。本篇文章出现了研究人员(researchers)、实验(experiment)、实验结果(the results of the experiment)等关键词,向读者展示了自然科学研究成果,因此本篇文章在报纸中应 放在科学版块,故答案为D项。A:娱乐;B:健康;C:教育。 长难句???? 原句:After running hundreds of tests, the researchers noted that the monkeys would go for the higher values more than half the time, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. 译文:在进行了数百次测试后,研究人员注意到,猴子有一半以上的时间会选择更高的值,这表 明它们在进行计算,而不仅仅是记住每个组合的值。 分析:noted后面是that引导的宾语从句。After running hundreds of tests 作时间状语;indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination是非谓 语动词短语作状语,indicating后是that引导的宾语从句。 重点词汇 associate v.联系 consist of 由……构成 sum n.总数,总和 indicate v.表明???? quantity n.数量 represent v.表现 Passage 3(2019北京,B)词数:381 Alice Moore is a teenager entrepreneur(创业者), who in May 2015 set up her business AilieCandy. By the time she was 13, her company was worth millions of dollars with the invention of a super- sweet treat that could save kids' teeth, instead of destroying them. It all began when Moore visited a bank with her dad. On the outing, she was offered a candy bar. However, her dad reminded her that sugary treats were bad for her teeth. But Moore was sick of missing out on candies. So she desired to get round the warning, “Why can't I make a healthy candy that's good for my teeth so that my parents can't say no to it?”With that in mind, Moore asked her dad if she could start her own candy company. He recommended that she do some re- search and talk to dentists about what a healthier candy would contain. With her dad's permission, she spent the next two years researching online and conducting trials to get a recipe that was both tasty and tooth-friendly. She also approached dentists to learn more about teeth cleaning. Consequently, she succeeded in making a kind of candy only using natural sweeteners, which can reduce oral bacteria. Moore then used her savings to get her business off the ground. Afterwards, she and her father se- cured their first business meeting with a supermarket owner, who finally agreed to sell Moore's product—CanCandy. As CanCandy's success grows, so does Moore's credibility as a young entrepreneur. Moore is en- thusiastic about the candy she created, and she's also positive about what the future might bring. She hopes that every kid can have a clean mouth and a broad smile. Meanwhile, with her parents' help, Moore is generally able to live a normal teenage life. Although she founded her company early on in life, she wasn't driven primarily by profit. Moore wants to use her unique talent to help others find their smiles. She donates 10% of AilieCandy's profits to Big Smiles. With her talent and determination, it appears that the sky could be the limit for Alice Moore. 1.How did Moore react to her dad's warning? A.She argued with him. ???? B.She tried to find a way out. C.She paid no attention. ???? D.She chose to consult dentists. 2.What is special about CanCandy? A.It is beneficial to dental health. B.It is free of sweeteners. C.It is sweeter than other candies. D.It is produced to a dentists' recipe. 3.What does Moore expect from her business? A.To earn more money. B.To help others find smiles. C.To make herself stand out. D.To beat other candy companies. 4.What can we learn from Alice Moore's story? A.Fame is a great thirst of the young. B.A youth is to be regarded with respect. C.Positive thinking and action result in success. D.Success means getting personal desires satisfied. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文体裁为记叙文,主题语境为人与自我,主题语境内容为创新与创业意识。Al- ice是一个青少年创业者,她用她独有的智慧帮助了其他爱吃糖果的孩子并成就了自己的事 业。本文侧重培养学生的思维品质。 1.B 细节理解题。本题题干意为:对于她爸爸的警告,Moore是如何回应的?根据题干中的关 键词dad's warning可以锁定答案在第二段。根据第二段第五句So she desired to get round the warning, “Why can't I make a healthy candy that's good for my teeth so that my parents can't say no to it?”可知,Moore希望找到解决办法,因此答案为B项(她试图找到出路)。A:她与他争 论;C:她没有给予关注;D:她选择咨询牙医。 2.A 细节理解题。本题题干意为:CanCandy有什么特别之处?根据文章第三段第一句With her dad's permission, she spent the next two years researching online and conducting trials to get a recipe that was both tasty and tooth-friendly.可知答案为A项(它对牙齿健康有益处)。B:它没有 甜味剂;C:它比其他糖果都甜;D:它是按照牙医处方做的。 3.B 细节理解题。本题题干意为:Moore对她的事业有什么期待?根据文章倒数第二段的最后 一句She hopes that every kid can have a clean mouth and a broad smile.可知,答案为B项(帮助其 他人找到笑容)。A:赚更多的钱;C:让她自己脱颖而出;D:打败其他糖果公司。 4.C 推理判断题。本题题干意为:我们从Alice Moore的故事当中能够学到什么?Alice的初衷 是为了让更多喜欢糖果的小孩既能享用糖果又能使牙齿健康,有了积极的想法并积极地去行 动,最终她的事业获得了成功,因此本题选C项(积极的想法和行动成就了成功)。 长难句???? 原句:By the time she was 13, her company was worth millions of dollars with the invention of a super-sweet treat that could save kids' teeth, instead of destroying them. 译文:在她13岁的时候,她的公司价值数百万美元,发明了一种超级甜食,这种甜食可以保护孩 子们的牙齿,而不是破坏它们。 分析:本句为主从复合句。句子的主干是her company was worth millions of dollars。By the time she was 13是时间状语;that could save kids' teeth是定语从句,修饰a super-sweet treat;in- stead of destroying them也是状语。 重点词汇 trial n.试验 consequently adv.因此 secure v.(尤指经过努力)获得,取得 credibil- ity n.可信度 be enthusiastic about热衷于 unique adj.独特的 Passage 4(2019天津,C)词数:379 How does an ecosystem(生态系统) work? What makes the populations of different species the way they are? Why are there so many flies and so few wolves? To find an answer, scientists have built mathematical models of food webs, noting who eats whom and how much each one eats. With such models, scientists have found out some key principles operating in food webs. Most food webs, for instance, consist of many weak links rather than a few strong ones. When a predator (掠食动物) always eats huge numbers of a single prey(猎物), the two species are strongly linked; when a predator lives on various species, they are weakly linked. Food webs may be dominated by many weak links because that arrangement is more stable over the long term. If a predator can eat several species, it can survive the extinction(灭绝)of one of them. And if a predator can move on to another species that is easier to find when a prey species becomes rare, the switch allows the o- riginal prey to recover. The weak links may thus keep species from driving one another to extinc- tion. Mathematical models have also revealed that food webs may be unstable, where small changes of top predators can lead to big effects throughout entire ecosystems. In the 1960s, scientists proposed that predators at the top of a food web had a surprising amount of control over the size of popula- tions of other species—including species they did not directly attack. And unplanned human activities have proved the idea of top-down control by top predators to be true. In the ocean, we fished for top predators such as cod on an industrial scale, while on land, we killed off large predators such as wolves. These actions have greatly affected the ecological bal- ance. Scientists have built an early-warning system based on mathematical models. Ideally, the system would tell us when to adapt human activities that are pushing an ecosystem toward a breakdown or would even allow us to pull an ecosystem back from the borderline. Prevention is key, scientists say, because once ecosystems pass their tipping point(临界点), it is remarkably difficult for them to return. 1.What have scientists discovered with the help of mathematical models of food webs? A.The living habits of species in food webs. B.The rules governing food webs of the ecosystems. C.The approaches to studying the species in the ecosystems. D.The differences between weak and strong links in food webs. 2.A strong link is found between two species when a predator  ????. A.has a wide food choice B.can easily find new prey C.sticks to one prey species D.can quickly move to another place 3.What will happen if the populations of top predators in a food web greatly decline? A.The prey species they directly attack will die out. B.The species they indirectly attack will turn into top predators. C.The living environment of other species will remain unchanged. D.The populations of other species will experience unexpected changes. 4.What conclusion can be drawn from the examples in Paragraph 4? A.Uncontrolled human activities greatly upset ecosystems. B.Rapid economic development threatens animal habitats. C.Species of commercial value dominate other species. D.Industrial activities help keep food webs stable. 5.How does an early-warning system help us maintain the ecological balance? A.By getting illegal practices under control. B.By stopping us from killing large predators. C.By bringing the broken-down ecosystems back to normal. D.By signaling the urgent need for taking preventive action. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文,主题语境为人与自然,主题语境内容为自然环境。地球上的生态 系统是如何运转的呢?物种之间有的关系非常紧密,有的关系疏远,科学家用数学模型来弄清 生态系统运转的奥秘。本文有助于培养学生的思维品质。 1.B 细节理解题。本题题干意为:在食物网数学模型的帮助下科学家们已经发现了什么?第 二段第一句话(利用这种模型,科学家们已经发现了一些在食物网运行过程中的关键原则)与B 项(影响生态系统食物网的规则)相符,故选B项。A:在食物网中物种的生活习惯。C:研究生态 系统中物种的方法。D:食物网中关系疏远和关系紧密的区别。 2.C 细节理解题。本题题干意为:当一个捕食者  ????,我们会从两个物种之间找到一个紧 密的关系。第二段第三句话(当一个捕食者总是大量吃一种猎物的时候,这两个物种之间就建 立起了紧密的关系)与C项(坚持吃一个物种的猎物)相符,故选C项。A:有广泛的食物选择。B: 能很容易找到新的猎物。D:能很快迁徙到另一个地方。 3.D 推理判断题。本题题干意为:如果食物网顶端的捕食者数量大量减少,会发生什么事?根 据第三段第一句(数学模型也揭示出食物网可能不稳定,顶端的捕食者的小小变化都会给整个 生态系统带来巨大影响)可知,当食物网顶端的捕食者数量大幅度减少时,食物网中的其他物 种的数量会受到意想不到的影响,故选D项。A:它们直接捕食的猎物物种会灭绝。文中没有 提及会灭绝,排除A项。B:它们不直接捕食的物种会变成顶端捕食者。C:其他物种的生活环 境会保持不变。 4.A 推理判断题。本题题干意为:从第四段的例子中我们可以得出什么结论?第四段中以人 类在海洋中捕食顶端捕食者鳕鱼和在陆地上大量杀死顶端捕食者狼为例来解释说明第一句 话。结合These actions have greatly affected the ecological balance.可知A项(不受控制的人类活 动极大地打乱了生态系统)与此相符,故选A项。B:快速的经济发展威胁到了动物的栖息地。 C:具有商业价值的物种控制了其他物种。D:工业活动有助于保持食物网稳定。这三项文中 均没有信息提及。 5.D 推理判断题。本题题干意为:一个早期的警报系统会如何帮助我们保持生态平衡?根据 最后一段的描述:这套预警系统可以告诉我们什么时候调整将生态系统推向崩溃的人类活动 或甚至能将生态系统从崩溃边缘拉回。预防是关键,一旦生态系统超过了临界点那就非常难 恢复了。D项(这套系统通过发出紧急信号来让我们采取预防措施)与此相符,故选D项。A:通 过控制非法行为。B:通过阻止我们捕杀大型捕食者。这两项文中没有信息提及。C:通过把 遭到破坏的生态系统拉回到正常状态。 预警系统本身不能做到这一点,它只能给人类发出信 号。 长难句???? 原句:Mathematical models have also revealed that food webs may be unstable, where small changes of top predators can lead to big effects throughout entire ecosystems. 译文:数学模型也揭示出食物网可能是不稳定的。在食物网中顶端捕食者的小小的变化会对 整个生态系统产生巨大的影响。 分析:本句是一个主从复合句。逗号前面部分是句子的主句。逗号后是关系副词where引导的 非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词food webs。 重点词汇 key principles 关键原则 dominate v.控制;支配 stable adj.稳定的 ideally adv.理想地 Passage 5 (2018课标全国Ⅰ,D)词数:351 We may think we're a culture that gets rid of our worn technology at the first sight of something shiny and new, but a new study shows that we keep using our old devices(装置) well after they go out of style. That's bad news for the environment—and our wallets—as these outdated devices consume much more energy than the newer ones that do the same things. To figure out how much power these devices are using, Callie Babbitt and her colleagues at the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York tracked the environmental costs for each product throughout its life—from when its minerals are mined to when we stop using the device. This method provided a readout for how home energy use has evolved since the early 1990s. Devices were grouped by generation. Desktop computers, basic mobile phones, and box-set TVs defined 19 92. Digital cameras arrived on the scene in 1997. And MP3 players, smartphones, and LCD TVs entered homes in 2002, before tablets and e-readers showed up in 2007. As we accumulated more devices, however, we didn't throw out our old ones. “The living-room television is replaced and gets planted in the kids' room, and suddenly one day, you have a TV in every room of the house,”said one researcher. The average number of electronic devices rose from four per household in 1992 to 13 in 2007. We're not just keeping these old devices—we con- tinue to use them. According to the analysis of Babbitt's team, old desktop monitors and box TVs with cathode ray tubes are the worst devices with their energy consumption and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions(排放) more than doubling during the 1992 to 2007 window. So what's the solution(解决方案)?The team's data only went up to 2007, but the researchers also explored what would happen if consumers replaced old products with new electronics that serve more than one function, such as a tablet for word processing and TV viewing. They found that more on-demand entertainment viewing on tablets instead of TVs and desktop computers could cut energy consumption by 44%. 1.What does the author think of new devices? A.They are environment-friendly. B.They are no better than the old. C.They cost more to use at home. D.They go out of style quickly. 2.Why did Babbitt's team conduct the research? A.To reduce the cost of minerals. B.To test the life cycle of a product. C.To update consumers on new technology. D.To find out electricity consumption of the devices. 3.Which of the following uses the least energy? A.The box-set TV.  B.The tablet. C.The LCD TV.  D.The desktop computer. 4.What does the text suggest people do about old electronic devices? A.Stop using them.  B.Take them apart. C.Upgrade them.  D.Recycle them. 答案 [语篇解读] 我们也许认为当新的科技产品出现时,人们会将已经落后、过时的东西抛弃,但 研究发现事实并非如此。陈旧的产品仍然被使用着,但是使用起来消耗的能源多、污染大,的 确应该及时淘汰。 1.A 推理判断题。根据第一段最后一句中的as these outdated devices consume much more en- ergy than the newer ones that do the same things可知,与新装置相比,做相同的事情时过时的装 置会消耗更多的能源。由此可判断,作者认为新装置有利于环保。故选A项。 2.D 细节理解题。根据第二段第一句的To figure out how much power these devices are using, Callie Babbitt and her colleagues...tracked the environmental costs for each product throughout its life可知,为了弄清楚这些设备消耗多少电量,Babbitt和同事们持续跟踪每个产品在其使用周 期内的环境成本,即为了查清这些装置耗费的电量,故选D项。 3.B 细节理解题。根据第一段可知,新装置耗费的能量较少,而第二段则指出与其他几种装 置相比,tablets出现的时间最晚,为最新的科技产品,而且最后一段指出,tablets具有多种功能,比 电视和台式电脑消耗的能量少,故选B项。 4.A 推理判断题。本题题干意为:文章建议人们如何处理陈旧的电子设备?最后一段讲到了 解决方案,本段指出,研究人员探索了消费者用有多种功能的电子产品替换陈旧产品后的结 果。根据最后一句中的more on-demand entertainment viewing on tablets instead of TVs and desktop computers could cut energy consumption by 44%可知,用平板电脑代替电视和台式电脑 来收看娱乐节目,会减少44%的能源消耗。由此可知,文章建议人们不要再使用陈旧的电子设 备,故选A项。 长难句???? 原句:We may think we're a culture that gets rid of our worn technology at the first sight of some- thing shiny and new, but a new study shows that we keep using our old devices well after they go out of style. 译文:我们也许认为,在我们的文化中,一看到闪光的新东西,就会淘汰陈旧的科技。但是一项 新研究表明,在陈旧装置早就过时之后,我们仍在继续使用它们。 分析:but连接两个并列的分句,在but前的分句中,think后为宾语从句,在该宾语从句中that引导 定语从句,修饰先行词culture;在but后的分句中, that引导的宾语从句作shows的宾语,after引导 时间状语从句。 重点词汇 shiny adj.闪光的;有光泽的 evolve v.逐渐发展 define v.给……下定义;界定???? accumulate v.积聚;积累cathode ray tube 阴极射线管 consumption n.消费;消耗 Passage 6 (2018课标全国Ⅲ,C)词数:368 While famous foreign architects are invited to lead the designs of landmark buildings in China such as the new CCTV tower and the National Center for the Performing Arts, many excellent Chinese architects are making great efforts to take the center stage. Their efforts have been proven fruitful. Wang Shu, a 49-year-old Chinese architect, won the 2012 Pritzker Architecture Prize—which is often referred to as the Nobel Prize in architecture—on February 28. He is the first Chinese citizen to win this award. Wang serves as head of the Architecture Department at the China Academy of Art(CAA). His of- fice is located at the Xiangshan campus(校园) of the university in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Many buildings on the campus are his original creations. The style of the campus is quite different from that of most Chinese universities. Many visitors were amazed by the complex architectural space and abundant building types. The curves(曲线) of the buildings perfectly match the rise and fall of hills, forming a unique view. Wang collected more than 7 million abandoned bricks of different ages. He asked the workers to use traditional techniques to make the bricks into walls, roofs and corridors. This creation attracted a lot of attention thanks to its mixture of modern and traditional Chinese elements(元素). Wang's works show a deep understanding of modern architecture and a good knowledge of tradi- tions. Through such a balance, he had created a new type of Chinese architecture, said Tadao An- do, the winner of the 1995 Pritzker Prize. Wang believes traditions should not be sealed in glass boxes at museums. “That is only evidence that traditions once existed,”he said. “Many Chinese people have a misunderstanding of traditions. They think tradition means old things from the past. In fact, tradition also refers to the things that have been developing and that are still being created,”he said. “Today, many Chinese people are learning Western styles and theories rather than focusing on Chinese traditions. Many people tend to talk about traditions without knowing what they really are,”said Wang. The study of traditions should be combined with practice. Otherwise, the recreation of traditions would be artificial and empty, he said. 1.Wang's winning of the prize means that Chinese architects are   ????. A.following the latest world trend B.getting international recognition C.working harder than ever before D.relying on foreign architects 2.What impressed visitors to the CAA Xiangshan campus most? A.Its hilly environment. B.Its large size. C.Its unique style. D.Its diverse functions. 3.What made Wang's architectural design a success? A.The mixture of different shapes. B.The balance of East and West. C.The use of popular techniques. D.The harmony of old and new. 4.What should we do about Chinese traditions according to Wang? A.Spread them to the world. B.Preserve them at museums. C.Teach them in universities. D.Recreate them in practice. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇记叙文。题材为人物故事类。文章介绍了中国建筑设计师王澍将传 统与现代结合,将中国传统元素融入自己的建筑设计中,荣获了2012年普利兹克建筑奖。 1.B 推理判断题。根据第二段内容可知,王澍获得了普利兹克建筑奖,他是第一个获得这一 奖项的中国公民,他的获奖意味着中国的建筑设计师正在获得世界的认可,故选B项。 2.C 细节理解题。根据第四段内容,尤其是最后一句The curves of the buildings perfectly match the rise and fall of hills, forming a unique view.可知,这些建筑物的曲线与山的起伏完美 搭配,形成了独特的风景。故选C项。 3.D 推理判断题。根据第五段最后一句This creation attracted a lot of attention thanks to its mixture of modern and traditional Chinese elements.可知,现代元素与中国传统元素的完美结合 使王澍的这一建筑设计吸引了很多关注。故选D项。 4.D 细节理解题。根据最后一段第一句The study of traditions should be combined with prac- tice.可知,王澍认为,对传统的研究应该和实践相结合。故选D项。 长难句???? 原句:Wang Shu, a 49-year-old Chinese architect, won the 2012 Pritzker Architecture Prize— which is often referred to as the Nobel Prize in architecture—on February 28. 译文:王澍,一位49岁的中国建筑设计师,在2012年2月28日获得了普利兹克建筑奖,这一奖项经 常被称为“建筑界的诺贝尔奖”。 分析:句子的主干为Wang Shu won the 2012 Pritzker Architecture Prize,句中a 49-year-old Chi- nese architect为同位语; which引导定语从句,先行词为Pritzker Architecture Prize,which在从句 中作主语。 重点词汇 landmark building地标建筑 fruitful adj.富有成效的 Passage 7 (2018天津,D)词数:367 Give yourself a test. Which way is the wind blowing?How many kinds of wildflowers can be seen from your front door?If your awareness is as sharp as it could be, you'll have no trouble answering these questions. Most of us observed much more as children than we do as adults. A child's day is filled with fas- cination, newness and wonder. Curiosity gave us all a natural awareness. But distinctions that were sharp to us as children become unclear;we are numb(麻木的)to new stimulation(刺激), new ideas. Relearning the art of seeing the world around us is quite simple, although it takes practice and re- quires breaking some bad habits. The first step in awakening senses is to stop predicting what we are going to see and feel before it occurs. This blocks awareness. One chilly night when I was hiking in the Rocky Mountains with some students, I mentioned that we were going to cross a mountain stream. The students began complaining about how cold it would be. We reached the stream, and they unwillingly walked a- head. They were almost knee-deep when they realized it was a hot spring. Later they all admitted they'd felt cold water at first. Another block to awareness is the obsession(痴迷)many of us have with naming things. I saw bird watchers who spotted a bird, immediately looked it up in field guides, and said, a “ruby-crowned kinglet”and checked it off. They no longer paid attention to the bird and never learned what it was doing. The pressures of “time”and“destination”are further blocks to awareness. I encountered many hikers who were headed to a distant camp-ground with just enough time to get there before dark. It seldom occurred to them to wander a bit, to take a moment to see what's around them. I asked them what they'd seen. “Oh, a few birds,”they said. They seemed bent on their destinations. Nature seems to unfold to people who watch and wait. Next time you take a walk, no matter where it is, take in all the sights, sounds and sensations. Wander in this frame of mind and you will open a new dimension to your life. 1.According to Paragraph 2, compared with adults, children are more  ????. A.anxious to do wonders B.sensitive to others' feelings C.likely to develop unpleasant habits D.eager to explore the world around them 2.What idea does the author convey in Paragraph 3? A.To avoid jumping to conclusions. B.To stop complaining all the time. C.To follow the teacher's advice. D.To admit mistakes honestly. 3.The bird watchers' behavior shows that they  ????. A.are very patient in their observation B.are really fascinated by nature C.care only about the names of birds D.question the accuracy of the field guides 4.Why do the hikers take no notice of the surroundings during the journey? A.The natural beauty isn't attractive to them. B.They focus on arriving at the camp in time. C.The forest in the dark is dangerous for them. D.They are keen to see rare birds at the destination. 5.In the passage, the author intends to tell us we should  ????. A.fill our senses to feel the wonders of the world B.get rid of some bad habits in our daily life C.open our mind to new things and ideas D.try our best to protect nature 答案 [语篇解读] 研究发现,与孩子相比,成人对周围事物的感知能力更差。如何才能唤醒这种感 知能力呢?文章举例说明并对此给出了答案。 1.D 推理判断题。根据第二段中孩子和成年人的对比可知,大部分人在孩提时代更善于观 察,每天都充满魅力、新奇与惊奇,好奇心使我们每个人都具有一种天生的感知能力。但是那 些对小时候的我们来说很明显的差别变得模糊了,我们对新刺激、新观点变得麻木了。由此 可推断,与成年人相比,在好奇心的驱使下,孩子更渴望去探索周围的世界。故选D项。 2.A 推理判断题。本段第一句The first step in awakening senses is to stop predicting what we are going to see and feel before it occurs.指出,要唤醒关注周围环境的意识首先不要预测自己会 看到什么、会感受到什么,这会妨碍我们的感知能力。接着作者用实际的例子证明了这个观 点:不要草率下结论,故选A项。 3.C 细节理解题。根据第四段内容,尤其是最后一句They no longer paid attention to the bird and never learned what it was doing.可知,野鸟观察者只关心鸟的名字,不再关注鸟本身和鸟的 行为。故选C项。 4.B 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段第一句The pressures of “time”and“destination”are fur- ther blocks to awareness.可知,“时间”和“目的地”的压力进一步阻止人们去关注周围的环 境;再根据本段最后一句They seemed bent on their destinations.可知选B项。 5.A 推理判断题。根据最后一段最后两句Next time you take a walk, no matter where it is, take in all the sights, sounds and sensations. Wander in this frame of mind and you will open a new dimension to your life.可知,下次你散步时,无论在什么地方,都应该欣赏各种景色,倾听各种声 音,接受各种感觉,带着这种心境漫步,你会为生活开辟新领域。由此可推断,作者建议我们充 实感官来感受世界的奇妙。故选A项。 长难句???? 原句:Relearning the art of seeing the world around us is quite simple, although it takes practice and requires breaking some bad habits. 译文:重新学习观察周围世界的技能十分简单,虽然那需要实践并摒除一些坏习惯。 分析:although引导让步状语从句;在主句中动名词短语Relearning the art of...作主语。从句中 主语为it,and连接的两个谓语动词为takes和requires。 重点词汇 awareness n.感悟能力 sharp adj.敏锐的 fascination n.魅力;入迷 distinction n. 区别;差别 frame of mind心境;心情;情绪;思想状态 dimension n.维度;方面 Passage 8 (2018北京,C)词数:345 Plastic-Eating Worms Humans produce more than 300 million tons of plastic every year. Almost half of that winds up in landfills(垃圾填埋场), and up to 12 million tons pollute the oceans. So far there is no effective way to get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms. Researchers in Spain and England recently found that the worms of the greater wax moth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40% of plastics. The team left 100 wax worms on a commercial polyethylene shopping bag for 12 hours, and the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, or almost 3% of it. To confirm that the worms' chewing alone was not re- sponsible for the polyethylene breakdown, the researchers made some worms into paste(糊状物) and applied it to plastic films. 14 hours later the films had lost 13% of their mass—apparently bro- ken down by enzymes(酶)from the worms' stomachs. Their findings were published in Current Biology in 2017. Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms' ability to break down their everyday food—beeswax—also allows them to break down plastic. “Wax is a complex mixture, but the basic bond in polyethylene, the carbon-carbon bond, is there as well,”she explains. “The wax worm evolved a method or system to break this bond.” Jennifer DeBruyn, a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, who was not involved in the study, says it is not surprising that such worms can break down polyethylene. But compared with previous studies, she finds the speed of breaking down in this one exciting. The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)? Bertocchini agrees and hopes her team's findings might one day help employ the enzyme to break down plastics in landfills. But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process— not simply“millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic.” 1.What can we learn about the worms in the study? A.They take plastics as their everyday food. B.They are newly evolved creatures. C.They can consume plastics. D.They wind up in landfills. 2.According to Jennifer DeBruyn, the next step of the study is to  ????. A.identify other means of the breakdown B.find out the source of the enzyme C.confirm the research findings D.increase the breakdown speed 3.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the chemical might  ????. A.help to raise worms B.help make plastic bags C.be used to clean the oceans D.be produced in factories in future 4.What is the main purpose of the passage? A.To explain a study method on worms. B.To introduce the diet of a special worm. C.To present a way to break down plastics. D.To propose new means to keep eco-balance. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为说明文。文章介绍了大蜡螟的幼虫,它胃中的酶可以降解塑料。 1.C 细节理解题。根据第二段第一句中the worms of the greater wax moth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40% of plastics以及第二句中and the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, or almost 3% of it可知,本题选C项。 2.B 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段最后两句The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes?可 知,研究的下一步将是找到酶的来源。故选B项。 3.D 推理判断题。根据最后一段最后一句But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process...可推断出,将来这种化学物质可能会在工厂被生产,故选D项。 4.C 推理判断题。文章第一段最后一句提出有一种降解塑料的方法,下文一直围绕这种方法 展开说明,故选C项。 长难句???? 原句:To confirm that the worms' chewing alone was not responsible for the polyethylene break- down, the researchers made some worms into paste and applied it to plastic films. 译文:为了证实只有幼虫的咀嚼是不会使聚乙烯降解的,研究人员将一些幼虫弄成糊状物并涂 在塑料薄膜上。 分析:To...breakdown是目的状语,confirm后接that引导的宾语从句,从句中the worms' chewing alone是主语。 重点词汇 wind up 以……告终 apply sth. to sth. 把某物涂在某物上 film n.薄膜 词汇积累 polyethylene n.聚乙烯 evolve v.进化,进化形成 Passage 9 (2017课标全国Ⅲ,B)词数:274 Minutes after the last movie ended yesterday at the Plaza Theater, employees were busy sweeping up popcorn and gathering coke cups. It was a scene that had been repeated many times in the the- ater's 75-year history. This time, however, the cleanup was a little different. As one group of workers carried out the rubbish, another group began removing seats and other theater equipment in preparation for the building's end. The film classic The Last Picture Show was the last movie shown in the old theater. Though the movie is 30 years old, most of the 250 seats were filled with teary-eyed audience wanting to say good-bye to the old building. Theater owner Ed Bradford said he chose the movie because it seemed appropriate. The movie is set in a small town where the only movie theater is preparing to close down. Bradford said that large modern theaters in the city made it impossible for the Plaza to compete. He added that the theater's location(位置)was also a reason.“This used to be the center of town,”he said.“Now the area is mostly office buildings and warehouses.” Last week some city officials suggested the city might be interested in turning the old theater into a museum and public meeting place. However, these plans were abandoned because of financial problems. Bradford sold the building and land to a local development firm, which plans to build a shopping complex on the land where the theater is located. The theater audience said good-bye as Bradford locked the doors for the last time. After 75 years the Plaza Theater had shown its last movie. The theater will be missed. 1.In what way was yesterday's cleanup at the Plaza special? A.It made room for new equipment. B.It signaled the closedown of the theater. C.It was done with the help of the audience. D.It marked the 75th anniversary of the theater. 2.Why was The Last Picture Show put on? A.It was an all-time classic. B.It was about the history of the town. C.The audience requested it. D.The theater owner found it suitable. 3.What will probably happen to the building? A.It will be repaired. B.It will be turned into a museum. C.It will be knocked down. D.It will be sold to the city government. 4.What can we infer about the audience? A.They are disappointed with Bradford. B.They are sad to part with the old theater. C.They are supportive of the city officials. D.They are eager to have a shopping center. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇记叙文。经营了75年的一家影院在放映完最后一场电影后关门了, 观众们眼含热泪依依不舍。老板为什么做出这个决定呢? 1.B 推理判断题。根据第一段最后一句中的another group began removing seats and other theater equipment in preparation for the build

  • ID:4-6139469 (江苏专用)2020届高考英语一轮复习专题1-9课件(打包9套)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共23张PPT) 专题八 特殊句式 高考英语 (江苏专用) 1.(2019江苏,22)The musician along with his band members   ???? ten performances in the last three months. A.gives  B.has given  C.have given  D.give 五年高考 A组 自主命题·江苏卷题组 答案????B 句意:在过去的三个月里,这位音乐家和他的乐队成员已经进行了十场演出。本题 结合时态考查主谓一致。along with连接两个并列结构作主语时,谓语动词与前面的主语保持 一致,故排除C项和D项。根据时间状语in the last three months可知,谓语动词应该用现在完成 时。 2.(2017江苏,24)The publication of Great Expectations, which  ????both widely reviewed and highly praised, strengthened Dickens' status as a leading novelist. A.is  B.are  C.was  D.were 答案????C 句意:《远大前程》这本书被广泛地评价和高度地赞扬,它的出版巩固了狄更斯作 为最杰出的小说家的地位。本题结合时态考查主谓一致。分析句子结构可以确定,which引导 非限制性定语从句,先行词为Great Expectations这本书,因此定语从句中的be动词应是单数形 式。根据题干中的strengthened可知,语境为过去,因此设空处的时态应为一般过去时,故选C 项。 评析 本题把定语从句、时态和主谓一致等知识点结合在了一起,是属于比较典型的考查考 生相关语法知识综合运用能力的试题。各环节息息相关,其中一个环节出问题,就会导致误 选。 3.(2016江苏,34)Not until recently  ???? the development of tourist-related activities in the rural areas. A.they had encouraged  B.had they encouraged C.did they encourage  D.they encouraged 答案????C 句意:直到近期,他们才开始鼓励农村地区与旅游有关的活动的发展。本题结合时 态考查倒装句。not until位于句首时,句子用部分倒装结构,排除A、D两项;根据recently可知, 此处并非指“过去的过去”,排除B项。此处指过去所发生的动作,应用一般过去时态。故选 C项。 评析 本题结合动词时态考查倒装结构,体现了高考强调不同知识的综合运用的考查方向。 1.(2019天津,8)Amy, as well as her brothers,   ???? a warm welcome when returning to the vil- lage last week. A.is given  B.are given  C.was given  D.were given B组 统一命题、其他省(区、市)卷题组 答案????C 本题结合时态考查主谓一致。句意:上周埃米和她的哥哥们回到村庄时,受到了热 烈的欢迎。根据句中时间状语last week可知,此处需用一般过去时;当主语后面出现as well as, with, together with, along with, instead of, rather than等词时句子的谓语动词的数与主语保持一 致。本句的主语为Amy且与动词give构成被动关系,故答案为was given。 2.(2018天津,14)It was only when the car pulled up in front of our house  ????we saw Lily in the passenger seat. A.which   B.that  C.when  D.where 答案????B 句意:直到汽车停在我们家房前时,我们才看到Lily坐在乘客座位上。本题考查强 调句型。强调句型的结构是:It is/was+被强调部分+that/who+其他成分。本句强调时间状语 only when the car pulled up in front of our house,故选B项。 3.(2018北京,8)In any unsafe situation, simply   ???? the button and a highly-trained agent will get you the help you need. A.press  B.to press   C.pressing  D.pressed 答案????A 句意:在任何危险的情况下,只要按下按钮,一个训练有素的特工就会为你提供你所 需要的帮助。本题考查特殊句式。分析句子结构可知,此句为“祈使句+and+陈述句”,设空 处应用动词原形,故选A项。 4.(2016天津,13)You are waiting at a wrong place.It is at the hotel  ????the coach picks up tourists. A.who  B.which   C.where  D.that 答案????D 句意:你等错地方了。长途客车是在宾馆接游客。本题考查强调句。强调句型的 结构为“It is/was+被强调部分+that/who+其余部分”。强调句型中,被强调部分是人且作主语 时,可用who或that,强调状语时用that。此句正常句式为:The coach picks up tourists at the hotel. 由此可知,被强调部分为地点状语,故选D项。 易错提醒 此题易错选C项,考生误以为此处是where引导的定语从句,分析句子结构可知,如 是定语从句,此句应为It is the hotel where the coach picks up tourists. 5.(2015天津,3)Only when Lily walked into the office  ????that she had left the contract at home. A.she realized   B.has she realized C.she has realized  D.did she realize 答案????D 句意:直到Lily走进办公室她才意识到她把合同落在家里了。本题考查倒装句。 “only+状语从句”置于句首时,主句需用部分倒装形式,排除A、C两项;根据题干中的had left 可知,此处应用一般过去时,故选D项。 6.(2015重庆,9)Bach died in 1750,but it was not until the early 19th century  ????his musical gift was fully recognized. A.while  B.though  C.that  D.after 答案????C 句意:巴赫死于1750年,但是直到19世纪初他的音乐天赋才得到完全认可。本题考 查强调句。句中关键句型为It is/was not until...that...。正常句式为...but his musical gift wasn't fully recognized until the early 19th century.此处对时间状语进行强调,故选C项。 7.(2015北京,31)If  ????for the job,you'll be informed soon. A.to accept   B.accept  C.accepting  D.accepted 答案????D????句意:如果你被录取做这个工作,你将很快被通知。本题考查省略句。完整的句子 为:If you are accepted for the job,you'll be informed soon.当主从句主语一致且从句谓语含有be 动词时,从句部分可省略主语及be动词,故选D项。 8.(2015湖南,31)Always  ????in mind that your main task is to get this company running smooth- ly. A.to keep  B.to have kept C.keep   D.have kept 答案????C 句意:永远记住:你的主要任务就是让这个公司顺利运作。本题考查祈使句。句子 没有主语但独立成句,另外根据说话者的语气可以判断出本句是祈使句,故选C项。 1.(2017天津,11)It was when I got back to my apartment  ????I first came across my new neigh- bors. A.who  B.where   C.which  D.that C组 教师专用题组 答案????D 句意:就在我返回我的公寓的时候,我第一次遇到了我的新邻居。本题考查强调 句。强调句型的基本形式为“It is/was+被强调部分+that/who+其余部分”。强调句型中,被强 调部分是人且作主语时,可用who或that,强调状语时用that。本句正常句式为:When I got back to my apartment, I first came cross my new neighbors.本句强调when引导的时间状语从句,故选 D项。 2.(2015湖南,21)It was when we were returning home  ????I realized what a good feeling it was to have helped someone in trouble. A.which   B.that  C.where  D.how 答案????B 句意:正是当我们返回家的时候,我意识到帮助了处于困境中的人的感觉是多么 好。本题考查强调句型。强调句的基本形式是:It is/was+被强调部分+that/who+句子的余下 部分。被强调部分可以是句子的主语、宾语和状语,本题中被强调的部分是when引导的时间 状语从句。故选B 项。 3.(2015湖南,23)Only after talking to two students  ????that having strong motivation is one of the biggest factors in reaching goals. A.I did discover  B.did I discover C.I discovered   D.discovered I 答案????B????句意:直到跟两个学生谈过之后,我才意识到有强大的动机是达成目标最关键的因 素之一。本题考查倒装句。“only+介词短语”放在句首,句子用部分倒装,故选B项。 1.(2019江苏南京、盐城一模,33)He was still full of optimism for the future despite many prob- lems, and never once   ???? him get worried or upset. A.I saw  B.I would see C.did I see  D.would I see 三年模拟 A组 2017—2019年高考模拟·考点基础题组 答案????C 句意:尽管有很多问题,他仍对将来非常乐观,并且我从没见过他担心或难过。本题 考查倒装句。否定词never置于句首,引起部分倒装;and连接了两个并列分句,根据前一个分句 的时态可知,第二个分句也应用一般过去时,故选C项。 2.(2019江苏南通一模,33)It was announced that only after the candidates' papers were collected   ???? to leave the room. A.had they been permitted B.would they be permitted C.that they would be permitted D.that they had been permitted 答案????B 句意:据宣布,只有在候选人的试卷被收起来后,他们才被允许离开房间。本题考查 倒装句。only+状语从句置于句首,引起部分倒装;整个句子以过去作为语境,after引导的时间 状语从句用一般过去时,主句用过去将来时,故选B项。 思路点拨????本句包含一个主语从句,it为形式主语,that从句为真正的主语。“only+after引导的 状语从句”在主语从句的句首,这一点考生容易忽视,以为“only+状语”不在句首。 3.(2018江苏扬州上学期期末,26) The climate in Kunming is quite pleasant, the temperature rarely,   ????, reaching 35°C in summer. A.if not   B.if any C.if ever  D.if so 答案????C  句意:昆明的气候宜人,夏季气温就算有过的话,也很少达到35摄氏度。本题考查省 略句。if not如果不是的话;if any如果有的话;if ever如果曾经有过的话;if so如果这样的话。根 据句意可知,昆明的夏天就算气温曾经有过35摄氏度,那也是很少的。故选C项。 4.(2018江苏镇江一模,23) Towering over the surrounding buildings   ???? the Suning skyscrap- er, which reaches nearly 400 meters in height, making it a new landmark of Zhenjiang. A.are   B.has  C.is  D.have 答案????C 句意:苏宁大厦高耸于周边建筑之上,达到了近400米高,成了镇江的一个新地标。 本题考查主谓一致。本句为倒装句。主语是the Suning skyscraper,be动词应用单数is,故选C 项。 5.(2018江苏苏北四市一模,28) Several melon stalls were below the window and above them  ???? ???? with a big clock on top of it. A.was the telecom tower  B.were the telecom tower C.the telecom tower was  D.the telecom tower were 答案????A 句意:窗户下面有几家香瓜摊,香瓜摊上面是一座顶部有大钟的电讯塔。本题结合 主谓一致考查倒装句。above them是表示方位的介词短语,置于句首时,构成完全倒装,主语the telecom tower是单数名词,故选A项。 6.(2018江苏常州一模,32)—I don't see any reason why I sacrifice myself so much. —Never forget why you started so that you can accomplish your mission,  ????? A.will you  B.won't you C.may you  D.can't you 答案????A 句意:——我不明白我如此自我牺牲的原因。——不要忘记你为什么开始,这样的 话你就能完成你的任务,对吧?本题考查反意疑问句。陈述部分是否定祈使句,反意疑问部分 用will you,故选A项。 7.(2017江苏苏北六市3月联考,31)—How impressive John's painting is! —Actually, it was 2 years after he retired   ???? he started to learn drawing. A.before  B.since    C.until   D.that 答案????D 句意:——John的画给人的印象好深刻啊!——事实上,他退休两年后才开始学画画 的。本题考查强调句。根据句子结构可知,此句为强调句。强调句的基本结构为It is/was+被 强调部分+that+句子剩余部分。还原后句子为:He started to learn drawing 2 years after he re- tired.此处强调了时间状语2 years after he retired,故选D项。 8.(2017江苏苏锡常镇一模,30)One has reason to believe that China's anticorruption over the past few years,   ????, has achieved inspiring progress. A.tough as it is   B.as tough as is it C.so tough it is   D.as it is tough 答案????A 句意:人们有理由相信中国的反腐败在过去的这些年里已经取得了鼓舞人心的进 步,尽管很艰难。本题考查倒装句。as引导让步状语从句时,用部分倒装结构,即名词(单数时 零冠词)/形容词/副词+as+主语+谓语(动词),故选A项。 试题分析 命题者对题干精心设置,句子结构被有意调整,宾语从句中的主谓之间插入了一个 让步状语从句,这无疑增加了考题的难度。 9.(2017江苏苏北四市第一次调研,29)—Have you got any plans for the New Year's Day holi- day? —Yes.   ????, I'm going to travel in Beijing. A.Though possible  B.If impossible C.Unless possible   D.If possible 答案????D 句意:——元旦假期你有什么计划吗?——有的。如果可能,我打算去北京旅游。本 题考查省略句。根据句子结构及句意可知,设空处是一个省略结构。though possible尽管可 能;if impossible如果不可能;unless possible除非有可能;if possible=if it is possible,如果有可能 的话,符合语境,故选D项。本题看似考查省略句,实际上还是要判断连词和形容词的含义。 1.(2019江苏苏锡常镇教情调查二,29)Adding to their happiness, he says,   ???? some similari- ties between the two test papers. A.is  B.are  C.has  D.have B组 2017—2019年高考模拟·专题综合题组 答案????B 句意:他说,这两份试卷的相似点增加了他们的幸福感。本题考查特殊句式。本句 是一个倒装句,其正常结构应该是Some similarities between the two test papers are adding to their happiness. 现在分词短语提前到句首,引起倒装,句子的主语是similarities,为复数形式,故 选B项。 2.(2019江苏扬州一模,24)Never   ???? a greater, or more beautiful, or a calmer or nobler thing than you before. A.did I see   B.have I seen C.I saw    D.I have seen 答案????B 句意:我以前从来没有见过比你更了不起、更漂亮、更冷静或更高贵的东西。本 题考查倒装句。否定词never置于句首,引起部分倒装;以前到现在一直没见过,应用现在完成 时,故选B项。 3.(2019江苏泰州一模,32)With the application of 5G technology   ???? profound changes in al- most all fields throughout the world. A.will come   B.are coming C.comes    D.come 答案????D????句意:随着5G技术运用,全世界几乎所有领域意义深远的变化到来。本题考查倒装 句。本句是with介词短语置于句首,引起的全部倒装,句子的主语是profound changes,根据语 境,此处应用一般现在时,故选D项。 4.(2018江苏常州一模,34)—Has ISIS, the most shameful terrorist group, already been wiped off the face of the earth? —I guess not, but I think it ought to  ????. A.be done  B.have been C./   D.have 答案????B 句意:——ISIS,那个最可耻的恐怖组织,已经从地球上被彻底毁灭了吗?——我想还 没有,但是我认为它本应该已经被毁灭的。本题考查省略句。句子完整的形式为...I think it ought to have been wiped off the face of the earth.不定式符号to后面出现have/be/have been时,不 可省略,其他前文提及的实意动词可省略。故选B项。 5.(2018江苏扬州中学下学期开学检测, 29) The employee might have been dismissed by the em- ployer last month,   ????? A.hasn't he  B.didn't he C.wasn't he  D.mightn't he 答案????C 句意:上个月这个雇员可能被雇主开除了,是吗?本题考查反意疑问句。句子的陈述 部分用might have been dismissed表示对过去的推测,结合时间状语last month可知,反意疑问部 分应为wasn't he。故选C项。 6.(2018江苏常州一模,24) It is the gap year before going to university   ???? students can make friends and work on meaningful projects   ???? may help them understand college life better. A.when;that   B.which;that C.when;which  D.where;which 答案????A 句意:上大学前的空缺年可能帮助学生更好地了解大学生活,在那一年里他们可以 交朋友,从事有意义的项目。本题结合定语从句考查强调句。本句可还原主干句为:The gap year before going to university may help them understand college life better.被强调的是句子的主 语the gap year;gap year还被一个定语从句修饰,从句缺少时间状语,用when引导,故选A项。 7.(2018江苏苏锡常镇3月教学情况调研,34) We won't think of human clones and   ???? any reason to suggest that we are closer to producing them now than we were in the past. A.neither there is  B.neither there was C.nor is there   D.nor was there 答案????C 句意:我们不会考虑克隆人类,也没有任何理由表明我们现在比以往更可能制造他 们。本题考查倒装句。and后面的分句表示“(另一个主语)也不……”,可用“neither/nor+系 动词be/助动词/情态动词+主语”,且根据语境可知用一般现在时,故选C项。 8.(2018江苏南通、泰州一模,34) It was only when his health broke down and he was sent to hos- pital for treatment   ???? fully aware of the value of health. A.did he become  B.that he became C.had he become  D.that he had become 答案????B 句意:只有当他身体垮了被送往医院治疗时,他才完全意识到健康的价值。本题考 查强调句。强调句的基本句式是“It is/was+被强调部分+that+其余部分”。句子可还原为: He became fully aware of the value of health only when his health broke down and he was sent to hospital for treatment.此强调句强调了句子的状语,主从句谓语的动作同时发生,都用一般过去 时,故选B项。 9.(2017江苏苏锡常镇一模,29)Years may wrinkle the skin, but it is to give up enthusiasm   ???? wrinkles the soul. A.who  B.which  C.that  D.when 答案????C 句意:岁月流逝只令容颜苍老,但是激情不再却能使心灵枯萎。本题考查强调句。 强调句的基本句式是“It is/was+被强调部分+that+其余部分”。本句可还原为...but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul.本句对主语to give up enthusiasm进行了强调,故选C项。 思路点拨 本题被强调部分是作主语的动词不定式,不太容易辨别出来,另外,强调句还很容易 和含定语从句的复合句混淆。做题时,只需把句子还原就能看出到底是什么句式。如本句成 分齐全,句意完整,应为强调句。 10.(2017江苏镇江一模,34)Anne lost her wallet and her mother wasn't surprised that   ???? as she was too careless. A.she was so  B.so was she C.so did she   D.she did so 答案????D????句意:Anne丢了钱包,她妈妈对此一点都不惊讶,因为她太粗心了。本题考查省略 句。she was so她是这样的;so was she她也是;so did she她也……;she did so相当于she lost her wallet,为了避免重复,用此结构,故选D项。 11.(2017江苏南通一模,32)  ???? to the gift was a note on which he expressed his appreciation for our reception during his stay here. A.Being attached  B.Attached C.Attaching   D.Having attached 答案????B 句意:贴在礼物上的是一张便条,在便条上他表达了对我们的感激之情,感谢我们在 他待在这里时对他的招待。本题考查倒装句。其正常语序为:A note on which...was attached to the gift. on which引导定语从句,修饰先行词a note,故选B项。 解题技巧 解决倒装句相关考题的时候,考生一定要把倒装句还原成正常语序的句型,这也是 解题的一个方法。 (共36张PPT) 专题二 形容词和副词 高考英语 (江苏专用) 五年高考 A组 自主命题·江苏卷题组 1.(2019江苏,28)Unlike traditional gyms, app-backed gyms offer people   ???? options to exer- cise. A.casual  B.regular  C.flexible  D.tight 答案????C 句意:不同于传统健身房,应用程序支持的健身房给人们提供了灵活的健身选择。 本题考查形容词词义辨析。A:随便的,漫不经心的;B:有规律的,定期的;C:灵活的,可弯曲的,有 弹性的;D:紧的,严厉的。根据句意可知C项符合语境,修饰名词options。 2.(2018江苏,34)Despite the poor service of the hotel, the manager is   ????to invest in sufficient training for his staff. A.keen  B.reluctant  C.anxious  D.ready 答案????B 句意:尽管这家宾馆的服务很糟糕,但是宾馆经理还是不愿意在给员工足够的培训 方面投资。本题考查形容词词义辨析。keen 热切的,着迷的;reluctant 勉强的,不愿意的;anx- ious 焦急的,焦虑不安的;ready 准备好的,愿意的。宾馆服务质量差,应该对员工培训,但经理不 愿意,前后句存在转折关系,故选B项。 3.(2017江苏,29)Only five years after Steve Jobs' death, smart-phones defeated  ????PCs in sales. A.controversial  B.contradictory C.confidential  D.conventional 答案????D 句意:仅仅在史蒂夫·乔布斯去世5年后,智能手机在销量上就打败了传统的个人电 脑。本题考查形容词词义辨析。controversial有争议的;contradictory矛盾的;confidential机密 的;conventional传统的。与智能手机相比,形容个人电脑应用conventional,故选D项。 4.(2017江苏,34)The disappearance of dinosaurs is not necessarily caused by astronomical inci- dents. But   ????explanations are hard to find. A.alternative  B.aggressive  C.ambiguous  D.apparent 答案????A 句意:恐龙灭绝未必是由天体事故造成的,但是也很难找到其他能替代的解释。本 题考查形容词词义辨析。alternative可供替代的;aggressive好斗的,有进取心的;ambiguous模棱 两可的;apparent显而易见的。天体事故可能是造成恐龙灭绝的原因,之所以有这种认识,是因 为还没找到可替代的解释。故选A项。 评析 本题语境比较简单,四个备选的形容词尽管拼写比较复杂,但都是模拟题中的“老面 孔”,考生应该比较熟悉。 5.(2016江苏,31)His comprehensive surveys have provided the most   ???? statements of how, and on what basis, data are collected. A.explicit   B.ambiguous   C.original   D.arbitrary 答案????A 句意:他的全面的调查就数据收集的方式和依据做出了最清楚明白的描述。本题 考查形容词词义辨析。explicit易于理解的,清楚明白的;ambiguous模棱两可的;original原先的, 最初的;arbitrary武断的,任意的。四个备选项都能和空格后的名词statements搭配,但通观全句, 尤其是修饰主语的comprehensive,可做出合理推断:全面的调查提供清晰的描述符合逻辑。故 选A项。 6.(2015江苏,31)The police officers decided to conduct a thorough and  ????review of the case. A.comprehensive  B.complicated C.conscious   D.crucial 答案????A 句意:警察决定对这个案子进行一次彻底的、全面的审查。本题考查形容词词义 辨析。comprehensive全面的;complicated复杂的;conscious有意识的,清醒的;crucial至关重要 的。根据句意及并列连词and可知,此处要填的形容词应和thorough并列,故选A项。 思路点拨 本题的解题关键是利用并列连词and推断语境所需的形容词。命题者利用备选项 中四个形容词词形相近,考查考生对单词的识辨能力。 B组 统一命题、其他省(区、市)卷题组 1.(2019天津,15)A dog's eating habit requires regular training before it is   ???? established. A.properly  B.widely  C.originally  D.temporarily 答案????A 本题考查副词词义辨析。句意:狗的饮食习惯在正确建立之前需要定期训练。B: 广泛地;C:最初,起初;D:临时。 2.(2017天津,3)—I want to see Mr. White. We have an appointment. —I'm sorry, but he is not  ????at the moment, for the meeting hasn't ended. A.busy  B.active  C.concerned  D.available 答案????D 句意:——我想见White先生,我们约好了。——很抱歉,他现在没有时间,因为会议 还没有结束。本题考查形容词词义辨析。busy忙的;active活跃的;concerned担心的;available 有空的。根据语境可知,White先生还在开会,现在没有时间,故选D项。 3.(2016浙江,13)A sudden stop can be a very frightening experience,  ????if you are travelling at high speed. A.eventually  B.strangely  C.merely  D.especially 答案????D 句意: 突然停止会是很可怕的经历,尤其是你在高速行驶的时候。本题考查副词词 义辨析。eventually最后;strangely奇怪地;merely仅仅;especially尤其。根据语境可知,急刹车在 高速行驶的时候尤其可怕,故选D项。 4.(2016浙江,16)In this article, you need to back up general statements with  ????examples. A.specific  B.permanent C.abstract  D.universal 答案????A 句意:在这篇文章中,你需要用具体的事例来支持一般性叙述。本题考查形容词词 义辨析。specific具体的,特定的;permanent永久的;abstract抽象的;universal普遍的。此处需用 specific与general对应。故选A项。 5.(2015浙江,13)Most of us,if we know even a little about where our food comes from,understand that every bite put into our mouths was  ????alive. A.steadily  B.instantly C.formerly  D.permanently 答案????C 句意:但凡我们知道一点我们食物的来源,我们大多数人就会明白,进入我们嘴里的 每一口食物,之前都是有生命的。本题考查副词词义辨析。steadily稳定地,稳固地;instantly立 即,立刻;formerly以前,原来;permanently永久地。be formerly alive 之前有生命,符合题意,故选 C项。 6.(2015安徽,31)They gave money to the old people's home either   ???? or through their com- panies. A.legally  B.sincerely C.personally  D.deliberately 答案????C 句意:他们要么是亲自给敬老院钱,要么是通过公司给敬老院钱。本题考查副词词 义辨析。legally合法地;sincerely真诚地;personally亲自;deliberately故意地。此处所填副词应 与through their companies构成选择关系,都是指给钱的方式,故选C项。 7.(2015湖北,28)I don't think what he said is  ????to the topic we are discussing.He has missed the point. A.faithful  B.parallel  C.relevant  D.similar 答案????C 句意:我认为他说的与我们正在讨论的话题无关,他没抓住重点。本题考查形容词 词义辨析。faithful忠实的;parallel平行的;relevant有关的,切题的;similar相似的,类似的。根据 He has missed the point可知,他说的与正在讨论的话题无关,故选C项。 1.(2015安徽,26)I'm so   ???? to all those volunteers because they helped my terrible day end happily. A.special  B.superior  C.grateful  D.attractive C组 教师专用题组 答案????C 句意:我是如此感激那些志愿者,因为他们帮助我快乐地结束了令人极不愉快的那 一天。本题考查形容词词义辨析。special特殊的;superior有优越感的;grateful感激的;attractive 有吸引力的。根据后半句内容可知他们帮助我,我应该感激,故选C项。 2.(2015福建,23)It was  ????of Michael to inform us of his delay in case we got worried. A.careless  B.considerate  C.patient  D.generous 答案????B 句意:Michael考虑得非常周到,他告诉我们他将耽搁一些时间,以防我们担心。本题 考查形容词辨析。careless粗心的;considerate考虑周到的;patient有耐心的;generous慷慨的。 根据in case we got worried“以免我们担心”可知Michael考虑非常周全,故选B项。 3.(2015湖北,27)Even though the conference hall is near his apartment,he has to hurry a little if he wants to be  ????. A.accurate  B.punctual  C.efficient  D.reasonable 答案????B 句意:尽管会议厅在他的公寓附近,可是如果他想准时的话也要稍微快一点。考查 形容词辨析。accurate精确的,准确的;punctual准时的;efficient效率高的;reasonable合情合理 的。根据语境可知答案为B项。 4.(2015湖北,29)The girl used to be shy,but is  ????getting active in group work and is more will- ing to express herself. A.gradually  B.usually  C.previously  D.merely 答案????A 句意:这个女孩过去很腼腆,但是她逐渐变得积极参加集体活动了,也更愿意表达自 己了。本题考查副词词义辨析。gradually慢慢地,逐渐地;usually通常,常常;previously先前,事 先;merely仅仅,只不过。根据语境可知选A项。 5.(2015浙江,14)Listening is thus an active,not a  ????,behavior consisting of hearing,understand- ing and remembering. A.considerate  B.sensitive C.reliable  D.passive 答案????D????句意:因此听力是一种由倾听、理解和记忆共同组成的主动而非被动的行为。本 题考查形容词词义辨析。considerate体贴的,考虑周到的;sensitive敏感的,善解人意的;reliable 可靠的,可信赖的;passive消极的,被动的。此处应用passive来对应句中的active,故选D项。 思路点拨 单就词义而言,本题可能会给考生造成一定的困扰,但分析题干可知,由not和active 这两个信息词,考生可顺利选出D项。 1.(2019江苏南京、盐城三模,24)—Look! Mary is crazily looking for something again! —  ????, she can't find her keys. A.Typically  B.Occasionally C.Accordingly  D.Particularly 三年模拟 A组 2017—2019年高考模拟·考点基础题组 答案????A 句意:——看!Mary 又在疯了一样地找东西了!——她经常找不到她的钥匙。本题 考查副词词义辨析。typically 典型地,通常;occasionally偶尔地;accordingly相应地;particularly 特别地,尤其地。根据again可知,Mary又在找东西,说明她经常是这样的,故选A项。 2.(2019江苏南京、盐城三模,34)Our team is world-class and it was no surprise that we won by such a   ???? margin. A.low  B.high C.wide  D.narrow 答案????C 句意:我们队是世界级的,我们以如此大的分差获胜一点都不奇怪。本题考查形容 词词义辨析。margin是指(选票或得分上的)差数,用wide或narrow修饰,排除A、B两项;根据语 境,我们是世界级队伍,以大的分差获胜不奇怪,故选C项。 3.(2019江苏南京、盐城二模,27)The conditions in the local school were fairly   ????, no elec- tricity and no basic teaching facilities available. A.unique   B.typical C.primitive   D.stable 答案????C 句意:当地学校的条件相当落后,没有电,也没有基本的教学设备可用。本题考查形 容词词义辨析。unique独特的,唯一的;typical典型的;primitive落后的,原始的;stable稳定的。故 选C项。 4.(2019江苏苏州学业质量阳光指标调研,22)The vase was quite   ???? so we had to wrap it in soft material before we send it by post. A.fragile  B.flexible C.fragrant  D.false 答案????A 句意:这个花瓶很易碎,因此在邮寄之前我们得用柔软的材料把它包起来。本题考 查形容词词义辨析。fragile脆弱的,易碎的;flexible灵活的,易弯曲的;fragrant芳香的;false错误 的。故选A项。 5.(2019江苏无锡一模,22)—It's amazing that an Australian girl sailed round the world alone in about 200 days. —That's an inspiring story. Her courage is really   ???? . A.acceptable   B.adjustable C.admirable   D.accessible 答案????C 句意:——一名澳大利亚的女孩用了大约200天的时间独自航行全球,这让人惊叹。 ——这是个鼓舞人心的故事。她的勇气令人钦佩。本题考查形容词词义辨析。acceptable可 接受的;adjustable可调节的;admirable令人钦佩的;accessible易得到的。故选C项。 试题分析 本题四个备选项意义相去甚远,但都是以a-开头、以-ble结尾的形容词。命题者试 图以形似来混淆考生的判断。 6.(2019江苏扬州一模,34)I wish you wouldn't be so   ????: you make faces at everything I say. A.weird   B.polite C.reluctant   D.serious 答案????A????句意:我希望你不要如此的怪诞:我说什么你都做鬼脸。本题考查形容词词义辨 析。weird怪诞的;polite有礼貌的;reluctant不情愿的;serious严肃的,认真的。空格后的冒号说 明后面的句子是对设空处的进一步解释“我说什么你都要做鬼脸,是不是有点怪诞”。故选 A项。 7.(2019江苏泰州中学、宜兴中学等校4月联合调研,30)Judging from the message they convey, these two chapters are   ???? independent of each other, that is, they are not in connection with the other at all. A.indeed  B.similarly C.randomly  D.optionally 答案????A 句意:从他们表达的信息来判断,这两章事实上是相互独立的,也就是说它们之间根 本没有联系。本题考查副词词义辨析。indeed事实上;similarly相似地;randomly随机地;op- tionally随意地。两个章节之间没有联系也就是说它们实际上是独立的,故选A项。 8.(2019江苏徐州第一次质检,34)The large passenger aircraft C919 AC101, independently de- signed and developed by China, turned out to be a huge   ???? success. A.controversial   B.contradictory C.commercial   D.compulsory 答案????C 句意:由中国独立自主设计和开发的大型客机C919 AC101证明是一次巨大的商业 成功。controversial有争议的;contradictory相互矛盾的;commercial商业的;compulsory义务 的。C919 AC101是客机,所以说是商业的成功,故选C项。 9.(2018江苏南京、盐城二模,32)—What do you think of her suggestion? —  ????, it would be much more sensible to talk about it later. A.Usually  B.Generally   C.Actually  D.Exactly 答案????C 句意:——你觉得她的建议怎么样?——事实上,稍后再谈论这件事情会更明智一 些。本题考查副词词义辨析。usually通常地,平常地;generally 普遍地,广泛地;exactly 恰好,精 确地;actually 事实上,实际上,一般用于说明个人观点或者纠正他人观点,表示不同意或者抱怨, 故C项符合语境。 10.(2018江苏苏州学业质量阳光指标调研,28) A pilot qualified for the aircraft carrier Liaoning has to be mentally and physically strong, possess   ???? flying skills and be fully dedicated to his career. A.arbitrary  B.confidential  C.extraordinary  D.voluntary 答案????C 句意:有资格作为辽宁号航空母舰的飞行员必须身心强壮,拥有非凡的飞行技术并 且完全献身于自己的职业。本题考查形容词词义辨析。arbitrary任意的,武断的;confidential机 密的;extraordinary非凡的;voluntary志愿的,自愿的。根据语境可知选C项。 11.(2018江苏南京、盐城一模,25)—What about a self-drive trip to Tibet this winter vacation? —It sounds   ???? marvelous, but I won't be available at that time. A.simply  B.equally  C.firmly  D.merely 答案????A 句意:——今年寒假去西藏自驾游怎么样啊?——这听起来简直太棒了,但是那时我 没有空啊。本题考查副词词义辨析。simply实在,简直;equally相等地,同样地;firmly坚定地,紧 紧地;merely仅仅,只是。simply可以表示简直,用来加强语气,simply marvelous简直太棒了,故 选A项。 12.(2018江苏镇江一模,34) To be   ????, they have to think about the future and deal with the problems involving waste water. A.sustainable  B.authentic  C.critical  D.innocent 答案????A 句意:为了可持续(发展),他们必须考虑未来,并且处理涉及废水的问题。本题考查 形容词词义辨析。sustainable可持续的,不破坏环境的;authentic真实的,真正的;critical关键的, 批评的;innocent天真无邪的,无辜的。根据句意可知选A项。 13.(2018江苏苏北六市3月联考,30) Professor Stanley didn't agree with all my points but wrote a very   ???? assessment of my paper. A.critical  B.ambiguous C.subjective  D.generous 答案????D 句意:Stanley教授并非同意我所有的观点,但他对我的论文写的评价还是非常仁慈 的。本题考查形容词词义辨析。critical批评的,批判的;ambiguous模棱两可的,不明确的;sub- jective主观的;generous慷慨的,宽宏大量的,仁慈的。根据but可知前后是转折关系,故选D项。 14.(2017江苏苏北四市第一次调研,26)Many companies make it   ???? for job applicants to pass a medical examination before they are allowed to work. A.compulsory   B.comprehensive C.controversial   D.contradictory 答案????A 句意:很多公司使得工作应聘者在被允许工作前通过体检成为强制性的(规定)。本 题考查形容词词义辨析。compulsory必须做的,强制性的;comprehensive全面的,详尽的,彻底 的;controversial有争议的;contradictory矛盾的。句中it为形式宾语,to pass...是真正的宾语。所 填形容词作宾补。根据句意可知入职前通过体检是强制性的规定,故选A项。 15.(2017江苏镇江一模,33)More employers now offer students fresh from college  ???? jobs, hoping to seek out experienced candidates. A.contemporary   B.temporary C.permanent   D.primitive 答案????B 句意:现在更多的雇主给刚毕业的大学生提供临时性的工作,希望能找到有经验的 候选人。本题考查形容词词义辨析。contemporary现代的,当代的;temporary暂时的,临时的; permanent永久的;primitive原始的。由于雇主希望找到有经验的应聘者,刚毕业的大学生没有 经验,只能为他们提供临时的工作,故选B项。 16.(2017江苏南通如皋第一次联考,21)The screenplay of The Great Gatsby manages to be  ???? ???? to the spirit of the original, which is appreciated by most of the audience. A.faithful  B.similar  C.responsible  D.vital 答案????A 句意:电影剧本《了不起的盖茨比》设法忠于原著的精神,这被大多数观众所欣 赏。本题考查形容词词义辨析。faithful如实的,丝毫不变的;similar相似的;responsible负责的; vital至关重要的。be faithful to忠于……,符合句意,故选A项。similar也可与介词to搭配,但不 符合句意。 1.(2019江苏苏锡常镇教情调查二,35)—Which classical Chinese poem do you like best? —Don't laugh if we lay drunken on the battleground; how many soldiers ever came back   ????? A.old and young  B.up and down C.safe and sound  D.right and wrong B组 2017—2019年高考模拟·专题综合题组 答案????C 句意:——你最喜欢哪首中国古典诗词?——醉卧沙场君莫笑,古来征战几人回?本 题考查形容词词义辨析。古来征战几人回,即有多少人平安回家,safe and sound安然无恙,故选 C项。 试题分析 本题利用了中国古诗词作为单选的题干,非常新颖,结合古诗词考查英语,体现了考 查学生跨学科综合能力的理念。 2.(2019江苏苏北七市三模,23)As visitors from a different culture, the least we can do is being ????  ???? to the people in their own land. A.distant  B.civil C.allergic  D.cruel 答案????B 句意:作为来自不同文化的游客,我们至少要做到在别人的地盘上对他们有礼貌。 本题考查形容词词义辨析。distant遥远的,疏远的;civil平民的,有礼貌的;allergic过敏的;cruel残 酷的。根据常识,作为游客,我们应该礼貌对待当地人,be civil to对……礼貌,符合语境,故选B 项。 3.(2019江苏南师附中、天一中学、海门中学、淮阴中学期初调研,26)With all the wars, fight- ing and sadness in the world today, it's   ???? to have a good sense of humor just to help us get through each day. A.essential   B.confidential C.substantial  D.potential 答案????A 句意:由于当今世界上所有的战争、打斗和悲伤,为帮助我们度过每一天,拥有较强 的幽默感是极其重要的。本题考查形容词词义辨析。essential极其重要的;confidential机密的, 秘密的;substantial大量的,结实的;potential 潜在的,有可能的。故选A项。 4.(2019江苏南京、盐城二模,22)Molly finally agreed,   ???? reluctantly, to go and see a doctor. A.afterwards   B.almost C.otherwise    D.somewhat 答案????D 句意:Molly虽然有点不情愿,但最终还是同意去看医生了。本题考查副词词义辨 析。afterwards后来;almost几乎;otherwise否则;somewhat稍微,有点。故选D项。 5.(2019江苏苏锡常镇教情调查一,33)Being so athletic and courageous, Hua Mulan wasn't  ???? ???? of most young women of her time. A.guilty   B.cautious C.typical   D.skeptical 答案????C 句意:由于花木兰如此健壮且勇敢,她并不是她那个时代多数年轻女性的典型。本 题考查形容词词义辨析。guilty有罪的,感到内疚的;cautious小心的,谨慎的;typical典型的,有代 表性的;skeptical怀疑的。根据常识,古代的女性应该是娇小胆怯的,花木兰的情况在当时不具 有代表性,故选C项。 6.(2019江苏南京、盐城一模,24)Computer-controlled robots are taking over jobs in many indus- tries, which used to be done   ????. A.artificially  B.manually C.comprehensively  D.gradually 答案????B 句意:在很多行业,电脑控制的机器人正在接管过去的体力活。本题考查副词词义 辨析。artificially人造地;manually手工地;comprehensively彻底地;gradually逐渐地。故选B 项。 7.(2019江苏南通、泰州七市第一次调研,28)To make a breakthrough in his scientific research, the scientist has been making a(n)   ???? amount of effort. A.modest   B.miserable C.optional   D.tremendous 答案????D 句意:为了在他的科学研究中取得突破,这个科学家一直在付出巨大的努力。本题 考查形容词词义辨析。modest不太大的,些许的;miserable痛苦的;optional可选择的;tremendous 巨大的。故选D项。 8.(2019江苏泰州一模,30)The autobiography Becoming by Michelle Obama,   ???? about her life in the White House, sold well once on the market. A.definitely   B.essentially C.initially   D.accurately 答案????B 句意:米歇尔·奥巴马的自传《成为》一上市就很热销,内容基本上是关于她在白宫 的生活。本题考查副词词义辨析。definitely肯定地;essentially本质上,基本上;initially最初;ac- curately准确地。故选B项。 解题技巧 由于考生对Michelle Obama的自传《成为》并不熟悉,也不了解它的主要内容,因 此本题可用排除法来解题。definitely和accurately单从意义上来说太绝对了,可排除;语境没有 比较最初的内容和最终的内容,可排除C项;根据常识,自传会突出某一方面的内容,故B项符合 语境。 9.(2018江苏苏北七市5月联考,27) Sue was greatly inspired though she made   ????improve- ments in her English writing. A.modest  B.brilliant C.tremendous  D.considerable 答案????A 句意:尽管Sue在英语写作方面取得不太大的进步,但是她还是很受鼓舞。本题考查 形容词词义辨析。modest谦逊的,不太大的;brilliant才华横溢的,明亮的;tremendous巨大的; considerable相当大的。根据主从句之间的逻辑关系可知,应该是虽然她的进步不太大,但是她 依然很受鼓舞。故选A项。 10.(2018江苏南京、盐城二模,31) Guanghua Bookshop as a stand-alone bookshop may face a loss, because profits from selling printed books are   ???? and rents in central London are high. A.slippy  B.handsome  C.adequate  D.slim 答案????D 句意:作为一家独立的书店,光华书店可能会面临亏损,因为出售印刷书的利润很微 薄,而且伦敦市中心的租金也很高。本题考查形容词词义辨析。slippy滑的;handsome 英俊的, (钱)可观的;adequate充足的,足够的;slim苗条的,微薄的。根据句意可知,印刷书的利润微薄,故 选D项。 11.(2018江苏苏锡常镇3月教学情况调研,30) Although values may be   ????, it's helpful to share them with your partner for additional support. A.terminal  B.personal  C.crucial  D.practical 答案????B 句意:尽管价值观可能带有私人性,但是和你的伙伴分享这些价值观来获得额外的 支持也是很有帮助的。本题考查形容词词义辨析。terminal末端的,终点的;personal 个人的,私 人的;crucial关键性的,至关重要的;practical实际的,实用的。be personal与后半句中的share对 应,故选B项。 12.(2018江苏南京、盐城一模,22) The movie Coco has two   ???? themes—pursuing dreams, and how we remember loved ones—in a colorful, culturally specific package. A.contemporary  B.religious C.historical  D.universal 答案????D 句意:电影《寻梦环游记》有两个普遍的主题——在一个多彩的和文化有关的特 殊的包裹状况中追梦和我们如何记住我们的挚爱。本题考查形容词词义辨析。contemporary 当代的,现代的;religious宗教的;historical历史的;universal全世界的,普遍的。根据语境可知,追 梦和记住挚爱是两个普遍的主题,故选D项。 13.(2017江苏联盟2月联考,32)—David is a newcomer to such things. —But I believe he is quite   ???? to the task. A.relevant  B.accessible  C.equal  D.unique 答案????C 句意:——David在这种事情上是个新手。——但是,我相信他能胜任这项任务。本 题考查形容词词义辨析。relevant有关的,切题的;accessible易接近的,可进入的;unique独特的, 特有的;equal相等的,平等的,能胜任的,be equal to sth.能胜任某事,符合语境,故选C项。 14.(2017江苏南通如皋第一次联考,22)The expanding population will form a heavy burden to ed- ucation and public welfare, and   ???? to the social stability. A.frequently  B.significantly C.occasionally  D.consequently 答案????D 句意:不断扩大的人口会对教育、公共福利,最终是对社会稳定性形成很重的负 担。本题考查副词词义辨析。frequently频繁地;significantly意义重大地;occasionally偶然地; consequently结果。根据常识可知,不断扩大的人口先是影响教育和公共福利等方面,最后的结 果就是影响整个社会的稳定,应用consequently表明逻辑关系。故选D项。 15.(2017江苏苏北四市三模,30)What made them miss the deadline was not their lack of funding, but   ???? their lack of planning. A.even  B.still   C.rather  D.ever 答案????C 句意:使他们错过最后期限的不是他们缺少资金,而是他们缺少规划。本题考查副 词词义辨析。not...but rather...不是……而是……,为固定结构,故选C项。not...but rather...结构 不太常用。又如:His success lies not in his knowledge, but rather in his hard work.他的成功并不 在于他的学识,而在于他的勤奋。 (共53张PPT) 专题九 情景交际 高考英语 (江苏专用) 1.(2019江苏,35)—Let's take a coffee break. —  ???? We've been working for hours. A.Why bother?   B.What for? C.You got me there.  D.You said it. 五年高考 A组 自主命题·江苏卷题组 答案????D 句意:——让我们喝杯咖啡休息一会儿吧。——你算说对了。我们已经工作好几 个小时了。本题考查情景交际。A:何苦呢?B:为什么呢?C:你难倒我了。D:正合我心意。根据 语境可知D项正确。 2.(2018江苏,28)—You know what?I've got a New Year concert ticket. —Oh,  ????You're kidding. A.so what?  B.go ahead.   C.come on.  D.what for? 答案????C 句意:——你知道吗?我得到了一张新年音乐会的门票。——哦,算了吧。你在开玩 笑。本题考查情景交际。come on在此处意为“算了吧;得了吧”。故选C项。So what?那又 怎样?Go ahead.可以。What for?为什么? 评析 题干简单明了,容易理解。四个备选项也都是比较常用的交际用语。但是come on适用 语境较多,含义较广泛,需要考生注意仔细辨析,才能得出正确答案。 3.(2018江苏,35)—What happened? Your boss seems to   ????. —Didn't you know his secretary leaked the secret report to the press? A.be over the moon  B.laugh his head off C.be all ears  D.fly off the handle 答案????D 句意:——发生什么事了?你们的老板好像大发雷霆了。——难道你不知道他的秘 书把那份秘密报告泄露给了新闻媒体吗?本题考查英语习语在情景交际中的运用。be over the moon 高兴极了;laugh one's head off大笑;be all ears全神贯注地听;fly off the handle大发雷 霆。根据语境可知,秘书把那份秘密报告泄露给了新闻媒体这件事使得老板大发雷霆。故选 D项。 4.(2017江苏,35)—Going to watch the Women's Volleyball Match on Wednesday? —  ????!Will you go with me? A.You there   B.You bet C.You got me  D.You know better 答案????B 句意:——周三去看女排比赛吗?——当然啦!你和我一起去吗?本题考查情景交 际。根据语境可知,第二人周三去看女排比赛,并邀请第一人一同前往,答语应是对问句的肯定 回答,应用You bet!故选B项。 答案????B 句意:——你T恤上的东西是什么意思啊?——没什么,只是随便写上去的而已。本 题考查英语习语在情景交际中的运用。as clear as day一清二楚;off the top of one's head不假 思索,即兴;under one's nose在眼皮子底下;公然;beyond one's wildest dreams做梦也想不到 的。根据题干中的nothing可知,T恤上的那些东西没有特别含义,是我随便弄出来的。故选B 项。 评析 尽管语境比较清晰明了,但是部分备选项略显冷僻,也与字面含义相关度较小,如:off the top of my head。本题有一定的难度,考生在复习备考过程中还应该注意常用习语的积累。 5.(2017江苏,33)—What does the stuff on your T-shirt mean? —It's nothing. Just something  ????. A.as clear as day  B.off the top of my head C.under my nose  D.beyond my wildest dreams 6.(2016江苏,32)—Only those who have a lot in common can get along well. —  ????. Opposites sometimes do attract. A.I hope not   B.I think so C.I appreciate that  D.I beg to differ 答案????D 句意:——只有那些有很多共同之处的人才能相处得很好。——恕我不能同意。 有时候对立的事物确实也很有吸引力。本题考查情景交际。I hope not但愿不是这样; I think so和I appreciate that都表示赞同; I beg to differ恕我不能同意。根据Opposites sometimes do at- tract.可知,后者不同意前者的看法,故选D项。情景交际的考查体现了英语的交际功能。考生 在解题时必须充分理解语境,另外还不能受到母语的影响,所选交际用语必须符合英语习惯。 7.(2016江苏,35)—Jack still can't help being anxious about his job interview. —Lack of self-confidence is his   ????, I am afraid. A.Achilles' heel  B.child's play C.green fingers   D.last straw 答案????A 句意:——Jack还是忍不住对工作面试感到紧张。——恐怕不自信是他的致命弱 点。本题考查习语在情景交际中的用法。Achilles' heel致命的弱点;child's play轻而易举的 事;green fingers园艺技能;the last straw导致失败的最后一击。根据语境lack of self-confidence 以及第二个人说话的语气可知,Jack的致命弱点不自信导致他面试紧张。故选A项。 8.(2015江苏,23)—Jim,can you work this Sunday? —  ?????I've been working for two weeks on end. A.Why me  B.Why not C.What if   D.So what 答案????A 句意:——Jim,本周日你能上班吗?——为什么是我呢?我已经连续工作两个星期 了。本题考查情景交际。Why not为什么不呢,表示同意对方的建议;What if...要是……会怎么 样呢,用于提出假设;So what那又怎么样,是无所谓或不屑的态度;Why me为什么是我呢,符合 语境,故选A项。 评析 本题语境贴近生活,富有生活气息,四个备选项都是日常交际中的常用语,使用场合区分 较大,考生比较容易做出正确的判断。 1.(2019天津,1)—I guess you want to go play tennis. —  ????. That's exactly what I was thinking too. A.I didn't get it   B.It's up to you C.You never know  D.You read my mind B组 统一命题、其他省(区、市)卷题组 答案????D 本题考查情景交际。句意:——我猜你想去打网球。——你猜中了我的心思。那 也正是我在想的事情。根据答语中的“That's exactly what I was thinking too.”可知,“我” 被对方猜中了心思,故选D项。A:我不明白;B:由你做决定;C:你永远不知道。 2.(2019天津,6)—My son got a full scholarship to his dream university! —Wow,   ????! What's he going to study? A.good for him   B.go for it C.what a coincidence  D.all the best 答案????A 本题考查情景交际。句意:——我的儿子获得了他梦想大学的全额奖学金!——哇, 他真棒!他打算学什么? B:努力争取,加油;C:真是巧合;D:祝一切顺利,万事如意。 3.(2018天津,1)—Wasn't Joan supposed to be here by now? —  ????. She will be here in about twenty minutes. A.All right   B.Don't worry C.No wonder  D.Enjoy yourself 答案????B 句意:——难道琼现在不应该在这里吗? ——别担心。她大约20分钟后就会到这里 了。本题考查情景交际。All right好吧;Don't worry 别担心;No wonder难怪;Enjoy yourself玩 得高兴。根据答语中She will be here in about twenty minutes.可知,说话者在劝对方不要担心, 故选B项。 4.(2018天津,5)—I'm moving in a few days and I wonder if you could help. —  ????.Just let me know when, and I'll be there. A.You bet  B.It depends  C.Forget it  D.No kidding 答案????A 句意:——过几天我要搬家。我想知道你是否能帮我一下。——当然了。告诉我 你什么时候搬家就行,我肯定会到。本题考查情景交际。You bet当然。It depends视情况而 定;Forget it算了吧;No kidding不骗你。根据语境可知,第二个人答应帮忙,故选A项。 5.(2017天津,1)—Albert's birthday is on next Saturday, and I'm planning a surprise party for him. —  ????. I'll bring some wine. A.Sounds like fun   B.It depends C.Just a minute   D.You are welcome 答案????A 句意:——艾伯特的生日在下周六,我打算为他策划一个惊喜聚会。——听起来很 有趣,到时候我带些酒过来。本题考查情景交际。Sounds like fun.听起来很有意思; It depends. 那得看情况;Just a minute.稍等一会儿;You are welcome.不客气。根据语境可知,答话者赞同提 议者的想法,故选A项。 6.(2017天津,7)—Michael was late for Mr. Smith's chemistry class this morning. —  ?????As far as I know, he never came late to class. A.So what   B.Why not  C.Who cares  D.How comee 答案????D 句意:——迈克尔今天早晨在上史密斯老师的化学课时迟到了。——怎么会这样 呢?据我所知,他上课从来没有迟到过。本题考查情景交际。So what那又怎样;Why not为什么 不呢;Who cares谁会介意;How come怎么会这样呢。在第一个人表述了Michael迟到后,第二个 人对此情况表示吃惊和不解,故选D项。 7.(2016天津,6)—I'm thinking of going back to school to get another degree. —Sounds great!  ????. A.It all depends  B.Go for it C.Never mind   D.No wonder 答案????B 句意:——我正考虑返回学校再获取一个学位。——听起来好极了!努力去实现 吧。本题考查交际用语。It all depends视情况而定;Never mind没关系;No wonder难怪;Go for it努力去实现吧,符合句意。故选B项。 8.(2016浙江,1)—Are you sure you're ready for the test? —  ????.I'm well prepared for it. A.I'm afraid not  B.No problem C.Hard to say   D.Not really 答案????B 句意: ——你确信你准备好考试了吗?——没问题。我为此有充分的准备。本题考 查情景交际。I'm afraid not恐怕没有;No problem没问题; Hard to say很难说;Not really不完全 是。根据空格后的答语可知,我已经做好了应考的准备,故选B项。 9.(2016天津,1)—It was a wonderful trip. So, which city did you like better, Paris or Rome? —  ????. There were good things and bad things about them. A.It's hard to say   B.I didn't get it C.You must be kidding  D.Couldn't be better 答案????A 句意:——这是极好的旅行。那么,你更喜欢哪座城市,巴黎还是罗马?——很难 说。它们都有好的和不好的东西。本题考查情景交际。It's hard to say很难说;I didn't get it 我不明白;You must be kidding你一定是在开玩笑;Couldn't be better再好不过了。根据There were good things and bad things about them.可知选A项。 10.(2016浙江,20)—The movie starts at 8:30, and we can have a quick bite before we go. —  ????. See you at 8:10. A.So long   B.Sounds great C.Good luck  D.Have a good time 答案????B 句意: ——电影8:30开始,走之前我们可以匆匆吃点东西。——听起来好极了。8:1 0见。本题考查情景交际。So long再见;Sounds great听起来好极了; Good luck祝你好运;Have a good time玩得开心。此处表示赞同对方的提议,故选B项。 11.(2015天津,1)—Sorry,Liz.I think I was a bit rude to you. —  ????,but don't do that again! A.Go ahead   B.Forget it C.It depends  D.With pleasure 答案  B 句意:——对不起,Liz。我想刚才我对你有点粗鲁。——没关系,但不要再那么做 了!本题考查情景交际。Go ahead.可以,干吧,可用于同意对方的请求,或鼓励对方;Forget it.算 了,没关系,常用于回答感谢或道歉;It depends.看情况吧;With pleasure.乐意效劳,表示愿意帮对 方的忙。此处表示原谅对方,故选B项。 12.(2015天津,4)—Jack,you seem excited. —  ?????I won the first prize in the English speech contest. A.Guess what   B.So what  C.Pardon me  D.Who cares 答案????A????句意:——Jack,你似乎很激动。——你猜怎么着?我在英语演讲竞赛中获得了一等 奖。本题考查情景交际。So what?那又怎么样呢?表示不屑或无所谓;Pardon me?请再说一遍, 要求对方重复;Who cares?谁会在乎呢?反问句,表示不在乎。Guess what?你猜怎么着?是告诉 对方某件事之前常用的口语,符合此处的情境,故选A项。 13.(2015安徽,35)—How is your table tennis these days? Still playing? —  ????.I just don't seem to find the time these days. A.That's right  B.No,not much C.That's great  D.Don't worry 答案????B 句意:——这些天你的乒乓球打得怎么样了?还在打吗?——不,不怎么打了,我这些 天似乎就是找不到时间了。本题考查情景交际。That's right.对的;No,not much.不,不多;That' s great.太好了;Don't worry.别着急。根据I just don't seem to find the time these days可知,我因 没时间不打或打得不多了,故选B项。 14.(2015陕西,16)—Sir,could I hand in my homework a bit late? —  ????,since you've been unwell these days. A.You can't be serious  B.I'm afraid not C.Good idea   D.Well,all right 答案????D 句意:——老师,我可不可以晚点交作业?——嗯,好吧,因为这些天你身体不太舒 服。本题考查情景交际。You can't be serious.你别开玩笑了;I'm afraid not.恐怕不行;Good idea.好主意;Well,all right.嗯,好吧。根据since后的内容可知,老师同意了他的请求,故选D项。 15.(2015浙江,20)—Why don't you consider a trip to,say,Beijing or Hangzhou? —  ????. A.I wouldn't mind that B.Then we'll get there quickly C.Let's call it a day D.It's not a requirement 答案????A????句意:——你为什么不考虑去旅行呢,比方说去北京或杭州?——我不介意考虑一 下。本题考查情景交际。Then we'll get there quickly.那么我们会很快到那儿的;Let's call it a day.今天到此为止;It's not a requirement.这不是个要求;I wouldn't mind that.我不介意考虑一 下,表示不反对对方的建议,根据语境可知上句是建议,故选A项。 16.(2015福建,35)—Hi,Dr Brown!I'm a little early.Should I wait outside? —No.  ????. A.That's right  B.My pleasure C.Come on in  D.Take it easy 答案????C 句意:——你好,Brown医生!我来得有点早了。我是不是应该在外面等?——不必, 进来吧。本题考查情景交际。That's right.那是对的;My pleasure.不用谢;Come on in.进来吧; Take it easy.别急。根据语境可知对方让他进去,故选C项。 1.(2015浙江,1)—Hi,John.Are you busy? —  ???? A.Yes.I do agree.   B.Yes.That would be nice. C.No.Are you sure?  D.No.What's up? C组 教师专用题组 答案????D 句意:——嗨,约翰,你忙吗?——不忙,怎么了?本题考查情景交际。A:是的,我的确 同意;B:是的,那样会很不错;C:不,你确定吗?根据对话的情境可知No.What's up?“不忙,怎么 了?”符合语境。 2.(2015安徽,21)—Can you come to a party on Saturday,Peter? —Oh,  ????I'm already going out,I'm afraid. A.what a pity!  B.don't ask! C.how come?   D.so what? 答案????A 句意:——你可不可以周六来参加一个派对,彼得?——哦,真遗憾!恐怕我已经外出 了。本题考查情景交际。what a pity真遗憾;how come怎么会,表示说话者感到很迷惑不解;so what那又怎么样呢,表示不屑或无所谓。设空处表示因不能接受对方的邀请而感到抱歉和遗 憾,故选A项。 3.(2015四川,1)—Sorry,I forgot to lock the door. —  ????.Mike can do it later. A.No way   B.Take your time C.Nothing serious  D.You're welcome 答案????C 句意:——抱歉,我忘了锁门了。——没关系,Mike稍后会锁上的。本题考查情景交 际。No way.没门儿;Take your time.慢慢来,别着急;Nothing serious.不要紧,没关系;You're welcome.不客气。根据后文内容Mike can do it later.可知,第二个说话者对没锁门这件事情并 不介意,故选C项。 4.(2015重庆,5)—I can drive you home. —  ????,but are you sure it's not too much trouble? A.That would be great  B.Don't bother C.I'm afraid not   D.Take care 答案????A 句意:——我可以开车送你回家。——那太好了,不过你确定这不会给你带来太多 麻烦吗?本题考查情景交际。That would be great.那太好了;Don't bother.别麻烦了;I'm afraid not.恐怕不会;Take care.小心。根据语境可知,前者主动提出开车送后者回家,后者感到非常高 兴,故选A项。 5.(2015陕西,11)—Let's go to the New Year's Eve party,shall we? —  ????I guess it will be fun. A.Forget it!   B.No way!  C.Why not?  D.What for? 答案????C 句意:——我们一起去除夕夜派对,好吗?——好啊,我猜想那一定很有趣。本题考 查情景交际。Forget it!忘了吧!常用于回答感谢或道歉;No way!没门儿!表示坚决反对或拒绝; What for?为何目的?询问目的或原因;Why not?为什么不呢?好啊,表示赞同前者的提议,符合语 境,故选C项。 1.(2019江苏南京、盐城三模,32)—Is there any chance of my being promoted? —If you want a promotion, you'd better   ???? rather than get your way. A.play the game   B.cross your fingers C.raise the red flag  D.kill the fatted calf 三年模拟 A组 2017—2019年高考模拟·考点基础题组 答案????A 句意:——我有被提拔的机会吧?——如果你想要晋升,你得遵守规则,而不是随心 所欲。本题考查情景交际。play the game遵守规则,规规矩矩;cross your fingers乞求好运;raise the red flag发出警示;kill the fatted calf设宴款待。故选A项。 2.(2019江苏江都中学、扬中高级中学、溧水高级中学期初联考,35)—I'm going to Syria. Would you please tell me your experiences there? —  ???? . Let's discuss it over dinner. A.Never mind   B.Go ahead C.By all means  D.It just depends 答案????C 句意:——我将去叙利亚。你能告诉我你在那里的经历吗?——当然可以。吃饭的 时候我们讨论一下。本题考查情景交际。never mind不要紧,没关系,回答道歉时的用语;go a- head去吧,用吧;by all means当然可以;it just depends 视情况而定。根据后面内容可知,对方同 意了,故选C项。 3.(2019江苏苏锡常镇教情调查一,29)—What would you like to do this weekend? —  ????. It's up to you. A.Whatever   B.Definitely C.Go ahead    D.Good idea 答案????A 句意:——你这周末想做什么?——都可以,由你决定。本题考查情景交际。defi- nitely当然;go ahead去吧,用吧;good idea好主意;whatever随便什么,此处为省略的说法,完整结 构为whatever you like,故选A项。 4.(2019江苏南京、盐城二模,35)—There are probably aliens living here on earth. —  ???? ! I can't believe you said that. A.Come on    B.Forget it C.Go ahead   D.Allow me 答案????A 句意:——可能有外星人生活在地球上。——得了吧!我不相信你说的。本题考查 情景交际。come on得了吧,快,加油;forget it没关系;go ahead 去吧,用吧;allow me让我来。根据 I can't believe...可知,答者并不相信,故选A项。 5.(2019江苏南通、泰州七市第一次调研,35)—Kelly, what do you think of the guy who has a sweet voice? —To be frank, he is   ????. A.not the salt of the earth B.not my cup of tea C.a person of interest D.the man in the street 答案????B 句意:——Kelly,你觉得那个嗓音甜美的小伙子怎么样啊?——说实话,他不是我的 菜。本题考查英语习语在情景交际中的运用。the salt of the earth诚实可信的人;my cup of tea 我的菜;a person of interest相关人员;the man in the street普通人。根据语境可知,第一人用了 sweet voice,说明喜欢这个小伙子,但第二人不喜欢,故选B项。 6.(2019江苏扬州一模,28)—Are you going to Tom's birthday party? —  ???? I've got a present for him. A.It depends.    B.Don't bother! C.Are you kidding?   D.Definitely! 答案????D 句意:——你要去Tom的生日晚会吗?——当然!我已经为他买好礼物了。本题考查 情景交际。It depends. 视情况而定;Don't bother!不麻烦了!Are you kidding?你开玩笑吗?Defi- nitely!当然!根据语境可知,第二个人已经买好了礼物,说明肯定会去,故选D项。 7.(2019江苏苏锡常镇教情调查一,35)—Should I ask the boss if he's upset at my coming late in the morning? —If he hasn't said anything about it, just   ????. A.let sleeping dogs lie B.strike while the iron is hot C.put yourself in his shoes D.kill two birds with one stone 答案????A 句意:——我应该问一下老板他是否对于我今天早上迟到的事感到生气吗?——如 果他什么都没说,不要自找麻烦。let sleeping dogs lie不要自找麻烦;strike while the iron is hot 趁热打铁;put yourself in one's shoes设身处地;kill two birds with one stone一石二鸟。根据语 境可知如果老板没说什么,就没必要自找麻烦,故选A项。 8.(2019江苏镇江一模,28)—Excuse me, but why am I not allowed to use the gym? —  ????, but your room price doesn't cover it. A.No hurry    B.No wonder C.No offence   D.No problem 答案????C 句意:——请问,我为什么不能用健身房?——无意冒犯,但是你的房价不含健身房 的费用。本题考查情景交际。no hurry不急;no wonder难怪;no offence无意冒犯;no problem没 问题。no offence后通常是些可能会引起对方不快的话,故选C项。 9.(2019江苏第二次百校联考,14)—That's the third time you've done that! —Yeah,   ????? A.what of it    B.what's on C.what about   D.what for 答案????A 句意:——这是你第三次这么做了!——是啊,那又怎么样?本题考查情景交际。 what of it那又怎么样;what's on什么在发生,什么在上映; what about……怎么样; what for为何 目的。根据Yeah可知,答者承认某事属实,但对此感到无所谓,故选A项。 10.(2019江苏第二次百校联考,15)It is unwise to disturb one who is devoted to his work. Just ????  ????. A.face the music   B.fly off the handle C.eat your words   D.bite your tongue 答案????D 句意:打扰一个专心工作的人是不明智的。闭上你的嘴。本题考查英语谚语在情 景中的运用。face the music面对(各种处境);fly off the handle勃然大怒;eat your words承认说 错; bite your tongue忍住不说。故选D项。 11.(2018江苏苏锡常镇3月教学情况调研,33)—Could you pass me the sugar, please? —OK,  ????. A.never mind   B.sounds great C.here you go  D.there it is 答案????C 句意:——你能把糖递给我吗?——好的,给你。本题考查情景交际。never mind没 关系;sounds great听起来不错;here you go=here you are给你;there it is情况就是这样。根据语境 可知,应选C项。 12.(2018江苏苏州学业质量阳光指标调研,34)—It's very important for us to clarify the owner- ship of the house. —  ????. There won't be any problem with the ownership. It's the price that bothers us. A.I can't agree more B.You can say that again C.I beg to differ D.I appreciate that 答案????C 句意:——明确这所房子的所有权对我们来说很重要。——恕我不敢苟同。所有 权不会有什么问题。让我们困扰的是价格。本题考查情景交际。I can't agree more.我非常同 意,同意某人观点时的用语;You can say that again.的确如此,同意某人观点时的用语;I beg to differ.恕我不能苟同,不同意别人观点时的用语;I appreciate that.我很感激。根据语境可知,第 二个人并不同意第一个人的说法,故选C项。 13.(2018江苏苏北四市一模,35)—My colleague is always trying to persuade me to buy goods I dislike on the Internet. —Sounds terrible. I mean,  ????. A.life is a horse, and either you ride it or it rides you B.the car will find its way round the hill when it gets there C.take care of the pence, and the pounds will take care of themselves D.you can take a horse to the water, but you cannot make it drink 答案????D 句意:——我的同事总是想说服我在网上买我不喜欢的商品。——听起来很可 怕。我的意思是,牵马近水易,逼马饮水难。本题考查英语习语在情景交际中的运用。Life is a horse, and either you ride it or it rides you.人生就像一匹马,你要么驾驭它,要么被它驾驭;The car will find its way round the hill when it gets there.车到山前必有路;Take care of the pence, and the pounds will take care of themselves.积少自然成多;You can take a horse to the water, but you cannot make it drink.牵马近水易,逼马饮水难。根据语境可知选D项。 14.(2018江苏南京、盐城一模,31)—David has been   ???? since he got the offer in this compa- ny. —He has to. You know, the boss is a faultfinder. A.facing the music   B.crying for the moon C.walking on eggshells  D.waking a sleeping dog 答案????C 句意:——自从得到这家公司提供的工作后,David一直如履薄冰。——他不得不这 样啊。你知道,这个老板是个吹毛求疵的人。本题考查英语习语在情景交际中的运用。face the music承担自己言行的后果;cry for the moon 想要得不到的东西;walk on eggshells如履薄冰; wake a sleeping dog招惹是非。由于老板总是找茬,所以David必须小心翼翼,如履薄冰,故选C 项。 15.(2018江苏镇江一模,35)—If he does you a favor, you should do him a favor. —Sure.   ????. A.Two heads are better than one B.Short accounts make long friends C.Many hands make light work D.One good turn deserves another 答案????D 句意:——如果他帮了你的忙,你就应该帮他的忙。——当然。以德报德嘛。本题 考查英语习语在情景交际中的运用。Two heads are better than one.两人智慧胜一人;Short ac- counts make long friends. 好朋友勤算账;Many hands make light work.人多好办事;One good turn deserves another.以德报德,善须善报。根据语境可知,别人帮助自己,自己也帮助别人,这是 以德报德。故选D项。 16.(2018江苏丹阳中学等三校联考,31)—I thought we were going bankrupt, but my partner  ???? ???? and we landed a major contract. —He is really mighty. A.pulled a rabbit out of the hat B.sank or swam together C.let the chips fall where they may D.got to the bottom of it 答案????A 句意:——我原认为我们要破产了,但是我的合伙人突然提出解决方法,然后我们签 了一份大合同。——他真的很厉害。本题考查英语习语在情景交际中的运用。pull a rabbit out of the hat突施妙计;sink or swim together同舟共济;let the chips fall where they may顺其自 然;get to the bottom of it找到根源。根据语境可知是我的合伙人突然想出了办法,故选A项。 17.(2018江苏海安中学下学期开学考试,35)—Must I stay at home reviewing lessons even at weekends? —Last time you did pass the exam unexpectedly, but don't   ???? this time because it is much more difficult. A.pull your weight  B.seal your fate C.push your luck   D.break your back 答案????C 句意:——难道我甚至在周末都必须待在家里复习功课吗?——上次你出人意料地 通过了考试,但是不要继续碰运气了,这次考试难多了。本题考查英语习语在情景交际中的运 用。pull one's weight尽本分;seal one's fate决定命运;push one's luck再次冒险,继续碰运气; break one's back拼命工作。根据语境可知,答话者认为对方上次通过考试是靠运气,所以在提 醒对方要认真复习而不能再凭运气,故选C项。 18.(2017江苏苏北四市第一次调研,27)—Can you believe Kim's got fired from work? —  ????. She was always late or calling in sick. But I hope she will find a new job. A.God bless her   B.It can't hurt C.It serves her right   D.No worries 答案????C 句意:——你会相信Kim被开除了吗?——她活该。她总是迟到或打电话请病假。 但是我希望她能找到新工作。本题考查情景交际。God bless her 愿上帝保佑她;It can't hurt to do sth. 做某事也无妨;It serves sb. right 某人活该;No worries不用担心。根据语境选C项。 19.(2017江苏镇江一模,35)—How come Joan hasn't typed the report yet? —Oh, my dear lady, take it easy. She is   ???? in computer operation. A.a green hand   B.a black sheep C.a dark horse    D.a bluestocking 答案????A 句意:——Joan怎么还没把报告打出来?——哦,亲爱的女士,别急。她在电脑操作方 面不怎么熟练。本题考查英语习语在情景交际中的运用。a green hand 新手;a black sheep 害 群之马;a dark horse 出人意料的获胜者;a bluestocking才女。根据语境可知,Joan还是个新手, 故选A项。 20.(2017江苏南通第一次调研,35)—Will Mr. Black allow us to bring mobile phones to school? —He is   ???? and I don't think he'll give us permission. A.a tough nut   B.our great rock C.the best fish   D.an early bird 答案????A 句意:——Black先生会允许我们带手机到学校吗?——他是个难对付的人,我想他 不会允许我们的。本题考查英语习语在情景交际中的运用。one's great rock主心骨;the best fish比喻珍贵的、难得的、有价值的人或物;an early bird早起的鸟,比喻勤奋的人;a tough nut 一个难以对付的人,符合题意,故选A项。 1.(2019江苏南师附中、天一中学、海门中学、淮阴中学期初调研,34)If you really want to co- operate with me, you'll have to   ???? and negotiate. A.have too many irons in the fire B.lay all your cards on the table C.have butterflies in your stomach D.put the cart before the horse B组 2017—2019年高考模拟·专题综合题组 答案????B 句意:如果你真的想跟我合作,你得开诚布公并进行协商。本题考查情景交际。 have too many irons in the fire同时做很多事情;lay all your cards on the table摊牌,开诚布公;have butterflies in your stomach忐忑不安;put the cart before the horse本末倒置。根据语境可知,如果 真的想要合作,就得开诚布公进行协商,故选B项。 2.(2019江苏南师附中、天一中学、海门中学、淮阴中学期初调研,35)—Do you want to watch the news or the late night film? —  ????. It's up to you. A.Never mind   B.There you are C.No bother at all  D.I'm easy 答案????D 句意:——你想看新闻还是看晚场电影?——我随便。你决定。本题考查情景交 际。never mind不要紧;There you are. 这就是你要的东西,就是这样;No bother at all.根本不麻 烦;I'm easy. 我都行,相当于I'm easy (to please). 根据It's up to you.可知选D项。 3.(2019江苏南通、泰州七市第一次调研,35)—What a mess! You're always throwing things about. —Don't be   ????, Mum. I will tidy it up now. A.hot under the collar B.on cloud nine C.off the top of your head D.down in the dumps 答案????A 句意:——真是一团糟!你总是到处乱扔东西。——不要生气,妈妈。我马上整理 好。本题考查英语习语在情景交际中的运用。hot under the collar 生气;on cloud nine 乐不可 支;off the top of your head 信口地,不假思索地;down in the dumps沮丧。根据上句妈妈说的话 可知,妈妈非常生气,故选A项。 4.(2019江苏扬州一模,35)Raising a child can be   ????, but it is well worth it. A.over the moon   B.a piece of cake C.on its last legs   D.a herculean task 答案????D 句意:抚养孩子可能是一项艰巨的任务,但又是非常值得的。本题考查英语谚语在 情景交际中的运用。over the moon欣喜若狂;a piece of cake 小菜一碟;on its last legs奄奄一息; a herculean task一项艰巨的任务。根据but可知,前后分句存在转折关系,故选D项。 5.(2019江苏南京、盐城一模,34)I was telling a joke and Sam just interrupted me to tell a different one. He always  ????! A.bites his tongue   B.saves his skin C.steals my thunder  D.pulls my leg 答案????C 句意:我在说笑话的时候,Sam打断我说了另一个笑话。他总是抢我风头!本题考查 情景交际。bite one's tongue忍住不说;save one's skin使某人摆脱困境;steal one's thunder抢某 人的风头;pull one's leg 开某人玩笑。根据语境可知选C项。 6.(2019江苏南京、盐城一模,35)—I've heard a lot about you. You got promoted, right?  ????. —Many thanks. A.Good for you  B.You asked for it C.There you are  D.You've gone too far 答案????A 句意:——我听说了很多关于你的事情。你得到了提拔,对吗?你真了不起。——谢 谢。本题考查情景交际。good for you(称赞某人)真棒;you asked for it你自找的;there you are 这就是你要的东西,就是这样;you've gone too far你太过分了。得知对方得到提拔,应该称赞对 方,故选A项。 7.(2019江苏南京、盐城二模,32)—Nowadays, buyers accustomed to prices moving upward just adopt a wait-and-see attitude. —If they continue to   ????, then our company is closing down. A.fish in the air    B.sit on the fence C.fly off the handle   D.beat around the bush 答案????B 句意:——现在,习惯价格上涨的买家采用了观望态度。——如果他们继续犹豫不 决,我们公司将会倒闭。本题考查英语谚语在情景交际中的运用。fish in the air白费劲;sit on the fence观望,犹豫不决;fly off the handle 勃然大怒;beat around the bush转弯抹角地说。根据a wait-and-see attitude可知,他们是犹豫不决的,故选B项。 8.(2019江苏苏州学业质量阳光指标调研,35)—The steak soun

  • ID:4-6137835 (天津专用)2020届高考英语一轮复习专题11-19课件(打包9套)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共179张PPT) 专题十八 阅读表达 高考英语 (天津市专用) 五年高考 A组 自主命题·天津卷题组 Group 1 Passage 1(2019天津夏) Haze Mabry, who has worked as a school keeper for thirteen years, walks into the school building every day and empties garbage cans, wipes down bathrooms and mops wet messes in the hallways. Last Friday, after he arrived at the school, instead of finding garbage to clean up, he found almost 8 00 students lining the hallways with handmade cards, blowing noisemakers and singing a full- throated happy birthday to him. It was his 80th. As he walked the long hallway, some popped out of line to hug him. They handed him so many cards that they filled several large boxes. Touched by their enthusiastic expression of affection, Mabry thanked them all. “They're like my chil- dren,” Mabry said. On a regular day, students at the school sometimes come up to him to say they're not feeling well or other times to tell him about something that happened at break. He knows most of the kids at the school, but can't name each one. Some of them make him know them. Like Faith, who often for- gets her backpack in the cafeteria, and Lucy, who just wants a hug. “He won't brag(夸耀) on himself, but it doesn't matter what he's doing or where he is, he will al- ways stop what he's doing to take care of a child if that child is having a bad day. If a child ap- proaches him, he will pause to give that child his undivided attention. He's the most loved one in this building,”said Lori Gilreath, a reading teacher. Mabry works circles around all the students, cleaning up messes others don't want to touch. He doesn't expect a lot. Mabry said he hadn't planned to do much for his milestone birthday, so he was happy the students had prepared the surprise celebration. Over the weekend, he worked through the piles of handmade cards at his house. One card from a student stood out to him. It read:“Mr. Haze, you are my sunshine.” 1.What is Mabry's daily work as a school keeper?(no more than 5 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.How did the students celebrate Mabry's birthday?(no more than 15 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.What does the underlined word in Paragraph 2 probably mean?(1 word) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.Why is Mabry's presence at the school important?(no more than 10 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.Who is the “sunshine” in your life?Please explain.(no more than 20 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文,主题语境为人与自我,主题语境内容为优秀品行和积极的生活态 度。文章主要介绍了学校管理员Haze Mabry由于热爱学生、忠于职守而受到学生爱戴的故 事。文章有助于引导学生学会做人、做事,使他们成长为有文明素养和社会责任感的人。 1.Cleaning the (school) building. Or: Doing (the) cleaning. Or: He cleans the (school) building. Or: He does (the) cleaning. 本题题干意为:作为学校管理员,Mabry的日常工作是什么?根据题干中“daily work as a school keeper”可定位到文章第一段。根据文中关键信息walks into the school building、empties garbage cans、wipes down bathrooms and mops wet messes可概括出Haze Mabry的日常工作是 打扫学校的卫生。回答问题时,考生要对文中的事实细节进行归纳概括,避免简单的列举。 2.By lining the hallways, blowing noisemakers, singing a song, handing him cards, and hugging him. Or: By lining the hallways with (handmade) cards, blowing noisemakers, singing a song, and hug- ging him. Or: They lined the hallways, blew noisemakers, sang a song, handed him cards, and hugged him. Or: They lined the hallways with (handmade) cards, blew noisemakers, sang a song, and hugged him. 本题题干意为:学生们是如何庆祝Mabry的生日的?根据题干可定位到文章第二段。根据文中 对学生具体行动的描述可确定答案。回答问题时,考生要确保答案包括学生所有的庆祝方式, 不要遗漏要点,确保答案的完整性。 3.Love. Or: Liking. Or: Fondness. 本题题干意为:第二段中画线单词可能是什么意思?上文学生们的行为体现了他们对Mabry的 爱戴,再结合句中关键词enthusiastic可推断画线单词affection的意思可能为“喜爱”。回答问 题时,考生要保证答案与affection词性相同,即均为名词。 4.(Because) he loves/cares about (the) students and works hard. Or: (Because) he loves (the) students and is devoted to his work. Or: (Because) he is kind/caring/helpful to the students, and hard-working. Or: (Because) he is regarded as a kind/warm-hearted/helpful/caring and hard-working man. 本题题干意为:Mabry在学校的存在为什么很重要?文章第一段介绍了Mabry在学校的日常工 作;第二段介绍了学生们庆祝他80岁生日的方式;第三段和第四段介绍了Mabry对学生的关 爱。由此可知,Mabry在学校重要的原因是他关爱学生、爱岗敬业。回答问题时,考生要注意 从爱护学生和热爱工作两个方面进行总结,确保答案的完整性,不要以偏概全。 5.My father/mother. (Because) he/she loves me and encourages me when I'm faced/confronted with difficulties. Or: My teacher. (Because) he/she cares about me and prepares me for my future career. Or: My friend. (Because) he/she brings me joy/happiness and gives me a lot of comfort/help/en- couragement. 本题题干意为:谁是你生活中的“阳光”?请说明原因。本题为开放式问题,答案要体现正能 量,并给出合情合理的解释,但要注意词数的限制。 高级语块???? garbage n.垃圾 pop v.突然出现 undivided adj.专注的 milestone n.里程碑 难句分析 原句:On a regular day, students at the school sometimes come up to him to say they're not feeling well or other times to tell him about something that happened at break. 分析:本句为主从复合句,句子的主干为students come up to him。句中they're not feeling well为 宾语从句,作say的宾语;that happened at break为定语从句,先行词为something。 译文:在平常的日子里,学校的学生有时会来找他,说他们感觉不舒服,或者在其他时候告诉他 一些在课间休息时发生的事情。 Passage 2 (2019天津春) My teacher Pet er Bullock proved that science wasn't boring and made physics great fun.In every lesson he would produce one of those worksheets in purple ink that smelled fresh from the ma- chine.Every sheet contained a poem or a joke and we looked forward to them being handed out.I've kept them all to show to my own children.There was one poem in particular that's stayed in my memory, which went: In early days Man measured Time By sunrise and sunset sublime As well as being able to turn physics into poetry, Peter had energy and passion and conveyed the sense that science was part of the world around you and not a dull academic discipline.I'm sure he was sticking pretty much to the standard topics—waves did so in a clever and imaginative way. Peter Bullock was not only an energetic teacher,but also the man who founded the debate club in my school.He encouraged me to join it and express myself in a forceful way that I've been doing ever since—and getting paid for it.That made me what I am today—a commercial lawyer. Peter Bullock taught me throughout my secondary schooling and I took physics, chemistry and maths at A-level.Everyone in his class enjoyed learning.He was inspiring.He turned me on to the idea that the things you are interested in might seem dull on the surface, but you can still excite others.For example, when I tell people I'm interested in law, they may think:“How boring.”I guess being a physics teacher is much the same. Peter showed me that what matters is how you convey your own passion so that you excite other people. 1.Why did the students expect to get the worksheets in Peter's class?(no more than 10 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.What is the meaning of the underlined word in Para.2?(1 word) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.What does Para.3 mainly tell us?(no more than 15 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.How did Peter make his students interested in the things that seem dull?(no more than 10 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.What do you think is the most important quality of a good teacher? Please explain.(no more than 20 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文。作者讲述了自己的物理老师Peter Bullock。Peter不仅能把物理 学变成诗歌,他还充满活力和激情,传达出科学是你周围世界的一部分而不是枯燥乏味的学术 学科的感觉。Peter Bullock深深激励和影响了作者。 1.(Because) every sheet contained/had a poem or a joke. Or:(Because) there was a poem/a joke on every sheet. Or:(Because)the worksheets were interesting/amusing. 细节表达题。由第一段中的Every sheet contained a poem or a joke and we looked forward to them being handed out.可知,looked forward to 是题干中expect的同义表达,再结合连词and 语义 中所具有的因果先后逻辑可知答案。 2.Subject. Or:Field. Or:Area. 猜词表达题。由第一段可知,Peter老师是一个物理老师,他的课堂从不沉闷无聊,是因为他善用 诗歌或笑话来调动学生们的学习兴趣。而第二段指出,Peter 老师向学生们传达的就是科学是 你所处的这个世界的一部分,并不是一种沉闷的学术discipline。结合“学术的”的搭配以及 物理学科的前文背景,此处的discipline一词指的应该是学科,或者是领域、区域。 3.The author's experience in the debate club contributed to his career. Or:The author benefited from his experience in the debate club. Or:Peter influenced the author's career. Or:Peter played a very important role in the author's life. Or:Peter founded the debate club, which helped the author to become a lawyer. 主旨表达题。由第三段可知,Peter老师创办了校内辩论俱乐部并在他的鼓励下作者也加入了, 并且得到回报,如今作者成了律师。故本段段意中含有以下意向即可算是正确的:影响/收获/ 有助于/职业/未来工作/人生。 4.By conveying his own passion to the students. Or:He used poems, jokes and stories in his teaching. Or:By using creative teaching methods. 细节表达题。由倒数第二段中的He turned me on to the idea...can still excite others.以及最后一 段中的you convey your own passion so that you excite other people可知,Peter老师是通过传递激 情来影响学生的。 观点态度题。根据第一段内容,作者的物理老师用紫色墨水在第一张纸上写上一首诗或一个 笑话发给学生可知,老师是热情的、有爱心的;物理老师在讲述枯燥的科学原理的时候,尽可能 用笑话或故事的形式来讲,这说明老师是幽默的、知识渊博的;根据老师创办了辩论俱乐部可 知,老师是热情的、有创造力的。 5.A good teacher should be passionate.This is important because a passionate teacher could excite the students. Or:A good teacher should be humorous.This is important because a humorous teacher makes learn- ing easy and fun. Or:A good teacher should be knowledgeable.This is important because students could learn a lot from him/her. Or:Creativity is the most important quality to keep students interested and motivated. Or:A good teacher is supposed to love his/her students.Only those who are loved can learn how to love others. Passage 3 (2018天津夏) Some people live to climb the highest mountains.Some people live only dreaming about it while others live to avoid ever climbing at all.But one thing is certain, all people encounter mountains in their life. When I was a little girl, my family moved to a tiny town at the bottom of a big mountain.One day after school, while exploring the green woods of this magnificent mountain, I almost fell on a set of stairs.What could these steps lead to?Curiosity got the best of me as I knew it would be starting to get dark soon.I started climbing up those strangely mysterious steps. I climbed and climbed.There was nothing but just green bushes and these steps.I had to reach the top!But it was now getting real dark.If I kept going I might not be able to see my way back.My mum would be worried sick if I didn't come home soon.So I ran back home almost in the dark while trying not to get too scared. Anxiously I went to bed dreaming about what I would find at the top of this magical mountain. Could there be a castle up there?Maybe I would find a monster(怪物).Maybe I was taking the risk of never coming back home.Or, maybe all I would find was absolutely nothing! But something in- side me was going to climb that mountain at all cost.I could hardly wait to try this adventure again. Now we live in a world surrounded by the“can't do”attitudes.We all fall down.We all have doubts and regrets.Still we must climb and dream about what's at the top of our mountain.Monsters may appear or the night will fall.But never ever give up on your dream! Never let anyone tell you, “You can't.”Dream big and climb high! 1.What made the author start to climb up the stairs to the mountain top?(no more than 5 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.Why did the author hurry back home without reaching the top of the mountain?Give two reasons. (no more than 15 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.How would you describe the author in terms of personalities according to Paragraph 4?(no more than 10 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.How do you understand the underlined sentence in the last paragraph?(no more than 5 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.What's your attitude towards the“mountain”in your life?Please explain.(no more than 20 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为夹叙夹议文。每个人的一生中都会遇到“高山”,即“困难、障碍、失 败、挑战等”,我们究竟应该采取什么样的态度来面对它呢? 1.Curiosity made her do so. Or:The desire to explore. 细节表达题。由第二段最后两句可知,在好奇心的驱使下,“我”开始爬山。 2.Because it was getting dark, and she didn't want her mother to worry about her. Or:Because she was scared, and might not be able to find her/the way back home. 细节表达题。由第三段最后三句“如果我继续攀登,我可能会看不见回去的路。如果我不能 很快回到家,妈妈会极度担心的。因此我几乎是在黑暗中跑回家的,努力不让自己感到太害 怕。”可知答案。 3.She had rich imagination and she was brave. Or:She was a brave and determined girl with rich imagination. Or:She was imaginative and determined, and she dared to explore. Or:She was imaginative, adventurous and determined. 推断表达题。由第四段内容“我急切地躺在床上想象着我会在神奇的山顶发现什么。那儿 会有城堡吗?或许我会发现一个怪物。或许我在冒着永远回不了家的风险。或许我什么也发 现不了!但是我内心深处的某种东西让我打算不惜任何代价去攀登那座山。我几乎等不及再 次冒险”可知答案。 4.We all sometimes fail. Or:We face failure/defeat/hardships/challenges in life. Or:There are difficulties/barriers/obstacles in life. Or:We run into trouble sometimes. Or:We have trouble in life. 猜词表达题。由画线句前一句“现在我们生活在一个被‘不能做'态度包围着的世界”和画 线句后面两句“我们都有怀疑和遗憾。我们必须依然攀登并想象山顶有什么。”可推知,此 处应为“生活中我们有时都会面临失败和困难”。 5.I will try to reach my goal because I want to live an exciting life. Or:I will try to reach/get to the top of the“mountain”because I want to be successful in life. 观点态度题。答案见仁见智,但态度必须是积极向上的。我们从文章中学到的应是:无论我们 在生活中遇到什么样的困难,都应该积极面对,勇敢地去克服它们,努力实现自己的目标,成就 积极的人生。 高级语块???? dream about想象 magnificent adj.壮丽的,宏伟的 mysterious adj.神秘的 take the risk of冒……风险 absolutely adv.绝对地, 完全地 at all cost不惜任何代价 难句分析 原句:Anxiously I went to bed dreaming about what I would find at the top of this magical moun-tain. 分析:现在分词短语dreaming about...作went to bed的伴随状语, what引导的名词性从句作介词 about的宾语。 译文:我急切地躺在床上想象着我会在神奇的山顶发现什么。 Passage 4 (2018天津春) For many teenagers, a job is a way to earn a little extra money.For me, it is more than that. At the age of 16, I was offered my very first job as a shopgirl in a clothing store.On the first day, my manager was training me how to fold and organize platform after platform of clothes.The work seemed overwhelming, and everything had to be done in an accurate way.I got so impatient be- cause I couldn't get it right the first couple of times.After about ten tries, I had the clothes folded perfectly.Then it took me thirty minutes to get them all looking uniform.Now, I fold and organize clothes every day, and I'm able to do them well.Through this experience, I've learned to be patient. Helping customers and establishing connections with them is one of the things I love most about my job.About two months ago, I helped a woman who was looking for a dress.She told me exactly what she was picturing—a blue dress with long sleeves and a lace neck.We didn't have any such dress, and when I explained that to her, she wasn't very happy.Instead of getting annoyed, I tried getting to know her a bit better and asked what the dress was for, so I could find other items in her size that could work.We shared our love of the Netflix fashion show, and she ended up buying $20 0 worth of new clothes, having found other items she liked.This experience has taught me to be more open with strangers. Every job has its share of frustrations and challenges;to do well you must learn to deal with them.I' ve learned this from my own experience, and it has helped me in other aspects of my life as well. 1.What was the author's first job?(no more than 5 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.What is the meaning of the underlined word in Para.2?(no more than 3 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.How did the author manage to meet the customer's needs in Para.3?(no more than 15 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.How has the author's work experience changed her in personality?(no more than 10 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.What job would you like to do?How can you help people in your work?(no more than 20 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为夹叙夹议文。文章是关于作者的工作经历及对生活的感悟的。主要讲述 了作者在服装店当售货员的第一次工作经历,讲述了自己在店内整理衣服和与顾客沟通这两 项工作内容。通过这次工作经历,作者学会了耐心做事以及如何与陌生人进行沟通。 1.Selling clothes.Or:She sold clothes.Or:She worked as a shopgirl.Or:Working in a clothing store. Or:Working as a shopgirl.Or:She was a shopgirl. 细节表达题。由题干中的关键词“first job”,定位到第二段。由第二段首句At the age of 16, I was offered my very first job as a shopgirl in a clothing store.可知,作者在服装店当售货员。 2.Huge and difficult.Or:Too much/Beyond me.Or:Difficult/Tough/Hard/Frustrating.Or:Challeng- ing/Demanding.Or:Great in amount. 猜词表达题。“overwhelming”为形容词,用来描述名词work。由下一句的内容可知,这份工 作“不容易”。 3.She learned about the customer's interest and helped her get the clothes that suited her.Or:By learning about the customer's taste and what her dress was for.Or:She helped the customer to get the clothes she liked. 推断表达题。由第三段的Instead of getting annoyed, I tried getting to know her a bit better and asked what the dress was for, so I could find other items in her size that could work.可知,作者试 着去了解顾客的品位,帮助顾客买到满意的衣服。 4.It has made her patient and more open with people/strangers. Or:She is (more) patient and more open with people/strangers.Or:She has become (more) patient and more open with people/strangers.Or:She is more patient and open facing frustrations and chal- lenges. 推断表达题。由第二段尾句和第三段尾句可推知,这份工作改变了作者的性格,使她更有耐心, 面对陌生人时也更加坦诚。 5.I'd like to be a teacher.I can help children acquire knowledge and grow up. Or:I'd like to be a doctor so that I can improve people's health and save their lives. Or:I'd like to be a policeman.I can protect people from danger and create a safe living environment. 观点态度题。结合文章中作者的经历及感受,设想自己想做的工作及能为他人做些什么。回 答只要言之有理即可。 高级语块???? extra adj.额外的 accurate adj.精确的,准确的 frustration n.挫折,失败 aspect n.方面 难句分析 原句:Instead of getting annoyed, I tried getting to know her a bit better and asked what the dress was for, so I could find other items in her size that could work. 分析:本句为复合句。tried 和 asked为并列谓语;what引导宾语从句;so引导目的状语从句。 译文:我没有生气,而是尝试稍微多了解一下她并且问她买那条裙子是在什么场合穿的,以便我 能找到其他大小合适且也适合在那种场合穿的裙子。 Group 2 Passage 1 (2017天津夏) In the years of my growing up, Dad was strict with me.He made sure I made my bed and did my homework.He would call in advance to make sure there was no alcohol at the party.I got so angry with him for laying down the law.I would scream, “I hate you!”Dad would yell back, “Good!I don't care!”Deep down I knew he did. One time at a party, I drank too much alcohol and got so sick.I said, “Call my dad.” Next thing, Dad was carrying me to the car.I woke up the next morning, thinking I would definitely be criti- cised.As expected, I got a roasting, but I now understand why I needed discipline. Dad was 29 when he got his big roles in films.I had an early start at the age of nine with a role in a 1990s TV series, but it wasn't until I finished film studies that I pursued my career as an actress. Like those early days for Dad, I faced lots of rejections.Working in such a competitive industry, I' ve sometimes thought, “I can't do this any more.” Once, after a trip to Hollywood, I returned to Australia so depressed and spent months in my bed- room painting, listening to Eckhart Tolle's music and trying to find myself again.Dad sat me down and said, “Alice, I know it's hard, but it's all about persistence(坚持不懈).” Now I get to work with Dad a lot, which I love.We are both passionate about acting, which comes from us being so interested in people.If it weren't for Dad, I wouldn't be where I am today.He's my biggest fan, and when you have that in your life you can go a long way. 1.What rules did Alice's father set for her when she was growing up?(no more than 15 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.What does the underlined part in Paragraph 2 mean?(no more than 5 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.What did Alice's father do when she felt depressed?(no more than 5 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.According to the last paragraph, what do Alice and her father have in common?(no more than 10 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.What do you think of Alice's father?Please explain.(no more than 20 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文,题材为个人经历类。作者讲述了成长过程中父亲对自己的影 响。 1.She should make her bed, do her homework and drink no alcohol.Or:Making her bed,doing her homework and drinking no alcohol. 根据首段第一、二、三句中的In the years of my growing up...He made sure I made my bed and did my homework.He would call in advance to make sure there was no alcohol at the party.可知答 案。 2.I got/was criticised/scolded. 根据前面的...thinking I would definitely be criticised.和As expected的暗示可知答案。 3.He encouraged/comforted/inspired her. 根据第四段的内容可知答案。 4.They are both passionate about acting and interested in people. 根据尾段第二句We are both passionate about acting, which comes from us being so interested in people.可知答案。 5.He is a good/devoted/caring/loving father because he was strict with his daughter and encour- aged her when she was in trouble. Or:He is always supportive/a source of strength.Whenever she is in trouble, he is there for her. 可结合文中体现父亲品质的细节来表达。 高级语块???? in advance预先,事先 pursue v.追求,致力于 competitive adj.竞争性强的 难句分析 原句:We are both passionate about acting, which comes from us being so interested in people. 分析:本句为复合句。主句为We are both passionate about acting。be passionate about对……狂 热。which引导非限制性定语从句。come from源自;be interested in对……感兴趣。介词from 后接be动词的动名词形式,且动名词带有自己的逻辑主语(此处为宾格代词us)。 译文:我们两个人都对表演极度热爱,这源自我们对人的兴趣。 Passage 2 (2017天津春) Walter was always sitting in the same chair when I came to visit.He would look up and smile when he saw me and pat the chair next to him for me to sit down.He loved to tell me about his lost gold- en years when he was an excellent baseball player.I was a good listener.After a couple of hours of talking, I would shake his hand and say goodbye to him.I hoped that I brought a little sunshine into Walter's life. I met Walter when I was a high school student participating in a volunteer program with elderly people in a nursing home.It was the first of many such activities, ranging from playing with dis- abled children to sitting with cancer patients in a hospital.These activities seemed to satisfy my de- sire to be useful and to feel a meaningful connection to the lives of others. My parents inculcated me with a belief that there was no greater human value than kindness, and encouraged me to make helping others and contributing to society important goals in life.Volunteer work provided a way of attempting to realize the truth of these messages. I learned that volunteerism is not a one-way act of helping someone less fortunate.Involvement in the life of another person has enriched my life as well.Seeing how people deal with the challenges of their lives has taught me valuable lessons in courage and dignity.Many of the people whom I have met as a volunteer are an unforgettable part of my life.Perhaps I received far more than I ever gave. This is why volunteerism works—each of us has so much need for human connection and so much to give to others. 1.What did the author do every time he visited Walter? (no more than 10 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.What was the first activity the author got involved in as a volunteer? (no more than 10 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.What is the meaning of the underlined word in Paragraph 3? (1 word) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.What is the main idea of Paragraph 4? (no more than 10 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.If you are to be a volunteer, what will you do? What can you benefit from the volunteer work? (no more than 20 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 作者结合自己的志愿服务经历说了一些自己对志愿服务的看法。 1.He listened to Walter talking about his lost golden years. Or:He acted as Walter's listener. 细节表达题。由首段第三、四句He loved to tell me about his lost golden years when he was an excellent baseball player.I was a good listener.可知答案。 2.Visiting elderly/old people in a nursing home. Or:He visited elderly/old people in a nursing home. Or:A volunteer program with elderly people in a nursing home. 细节表达题。由第二段第一、二句...participating in a volunteer program with elderly people in a nursing home.It was the first of many such activities...可知答案。 3.Taught/Instructed/Educated. 猜词表达题。由画线词后面的内容可推知,此处应是“教导”的意思。 4.The author learned that volunteerism is not a one-way act. Or:The author learned that volunteerism is a two-way act. Or:The author has benefited a lot from volunteerism/his volunteer work. 主旨表达题。由段落首句I learned that volunteerism is not a one-way act of helping someone less fortunate.可知答案。 5.I will look after elderly people in a nursing home.I can learn a lot from their past experience. Or:I will help disabled children.It can satisfy my desire to be useful. Or:I will sit with cancer patients.I can learn to deal with the challenges of life. Or:I will be a volunteer to protect the environment.We can live in a better and cleaner world. Or:I will be a volunteer in an important event.It can broaden my horizons. 观点态度题。可结合文章细节来表达。 高级语块???? look up抬头看 next to紧挨着,紧邻 deal with处理,应对 难句分析 原句:This is why volunteerism works—each of us has so much need for human connection and so much to give to others. 分析:本句为复合句。why引导表语从句;破折号后面的内容是对前面内容的进一步解释。 译文:这就是志愿服务工作的意义所在——我们每个人都如此需要有人情味的联系并且有如 此多可以给予他人的东西。 Passage 3 (2016天津) I'm a 34-year-old man, married, live in a nice house, and have a successful career as an educational consultant.But my life was not always so great.I had a learning disability from an early age.I went to a special school where I got plenty of extra help.Still, I suffered the rest of my school days in public schools. My life improved remarkably when I discovered art.The art world gave me a chance to express myself without words.I went to a workshop and gradually got good at making things with clay(黏 土).Here I learned my first important lesson:disabled as I was in language, I could still be smart and well express myself with clay.And my confidence came along. I got my next lesson from rock climbing.It was a fun thing but I was scared from the start.I soon noticed it wasn't a talent thing; it was practice.So I did it more.After about five years of climbing, I found myself in Yosemite Valley on a big wall.I learned that if you fall in love with something and do it all the time, you will get better at it. Later I decided to apply my previous experience to learning how to read and write.Every day I practiced reading and writing, which I used to avoid as much as possible.After two hard years, I was literate. Having gone through the long process with art, rock climbing, and reading and writing, now I've got to a point in my life where I know I am smart enough to dive into an area that is totally un- known, hard, but interesting. 1.What made the author's school days difficult?(No more than 5 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.Why did art give the author confidence?(No more than 10 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.What lesson did the author learn from rock climbing?(No more than 15 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.What is the meaning of the underlined part in Paragraph 4?(No more than 5 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.How does the author's story inspire you to overcome difficulties in life?Put it in your own words. (No more than 20 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 本文讲述作者通过学习艺术、攀岩得到了生活启示,并利用从艺术、攀岩中获 得的启示来逐步克服读写障碍,随时准备投入到一个未知、艰难但有趣的领域当中。 1.(His) Learning disability.Or:Having a learning disability.Or:That he was learning disabled.Or:He had a learning disability. 根据第一段第三句话可知答案。 2.He could be smart and express himself with clay. Or:Art could help him express himself without words. Or:He could well express himself with clay/art. 根据第二段第四句话可知答案。 3.If you enjoy something and keep doing it, you will get better at it.Or:The more you practice something, the better at it you will become.Or:Practice makes perfect.Or:Practice leads to success. 根据第三段可知,如果你喜欢一件事情,不断练习之后,你就会更加擅长这件事。 4.I could read and write. 根据第四段可知,作者想要利用之前学习艺术与攀岩的经验来学习读写。经过两年的刻苦努 力,我终于变得literate,即我学会了读写。 5.We should not lose heart in the face of difficulties.If we work hard, we will find a way out. Or:The author's story tells me that I should be confident and practice hard to overcome difficulties in my life. Or:We should overcome our weaknesses and fears with courage and determination. 根据全文可知,作者有读写障碍,但通过学习艺术、攀岩得到了自信和毅力,进而克服了读写障 碍。因此,面对困境,我们需要自信和决心才能取得成功。 高级语块???? remarkably adv.引人注目地,显著地 an educational consultant教育咨询顾问 plenty of大量的 难句分析 原句:Having gone through the long process with art, rock climbing, and reading and writing, now I 've got to a point in my life where I know I am smart enough to dive into an area that is totally un- known, hard, but interesting. 分析:分词短语Having gone through...作时间状语;where引导定语从句,修饰point;that 引导定语 从句,修饰an area。 译文:在经历了漫长的对艺术、攀岩、阅读和写作的探索历程之后,现在我到了我人生中的一 个阶段,在这个阶段我知道我足够聪明可以潜入一个完全未知、艰难但有趣的领域。 Passage 4 (2015天津) Six days a week,up and down the red hills of northeast Georgia,my grandfather brought the mail to the folks there.At age 68,he retired from the post office,but he never stopped serving the commu- nity. On his 80th birthday,I sent him a letter,noting the things we all should be thankful for—good health,good friends and good outcomes.By most measurements he was a happy man.Then I sug- gested it was time for him to slow down.At long last,in a comfortable home,with a generous pen- sion,he should learn to take things easy. “Thank you for your nice words,”he wrote in his letter back,“and I know what you meant,but slowing down scares me.Life isn't having it made;it's getting it made.” “The finest and happiest years of our lives were not when all the debts were paid,and all difficult experiences had passed,and we had settled into a comfortable home.No.I go back years ago,when we lived in a three-room house,when we got up before daylight and worked till after dark to make ends meet.I rarely had more than four hours of sleep.But what I still can't figure out is why I never got tired,never felt better in my life.I guess the answer is,we were fighting for survival,protecting and providing for those we loved.What matters are not the great moments,but the partial victories, the waiting,and even the defeats.It's the journey,not the arrival,that counts.” The letter ended with a personal request:“Boy,on my next birthday,just tell me to wake up and get going,because I will have one less year to do things—and there are ten million things waiting to be done.” Christina Rossetti,an English poet,once said:“Does the road wind uphill all the way?Yes,to the very end.”Today,at 96,my grandfather is still on that long road,climbing. 1.What was the author's grandfather before he retired?(no more than 5 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.What did the author advise his grandfather to do in his letter?(no more than 10 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.What is the grandfather's view on life according to his letter back?(no more than 10 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.How do you understand the underlined sentence in the last paragraph?(no more than 10 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.Do you agree with the grandfather's view on life?Give reasons in your own words.(no more than 20 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] “我”爷爷退休后仍然给社区寄送邮件,这样的生活一直持续着。在他80岁生 日时“我”给他写了一封信,信中建议他把生活节奏放慢。可是爷爷的回信让“我”明白了 人生最有意义的事不是我们到达了目的地,而是去往目的地的过程。 1.He was a postman.根据第一段中的brought the mail to the folks和he retired from the post office 可知,作者的爷爷在退休前在邮局工作。 2.He advised him to slow down(and take things easy)./He advised he/his grandfather(should)slow down.根据第二段中的Then I suggested it was time for him to slow down.可知,作者建议爷爷该 把生活节奏放慢。 答案 [语篇解读] “我”爷爷退休后仍然给社区寄送邮件,这样的生活一直持续着。在他80岁生 日时“我”给他写了一封信,信中建议他把生活节奏放慢。可是爷爷的回信让“我”明白了 人生最有意义的事不是我们到达了目的地,而是去往目的地的过程。 1.He was a postman.根据第一段中的brought the mail to the folks和he retired from the post office 可知,作者的爷爷在退休前在邮局工作。 2.He advised him to slow down(and take things easy)./He advised he/his grandfather(should)slow down.根据第二段中的Then I suggested it was time for him to slow down.可知,作者建议爷爷该 把生活节奏放慢。 3.The process is more important than the result. Or:A man should not slow down however old he is. Or:It's the journey,not the arrival,that counts. 第四段中,爷爷在回信中阐述了他对生活的理解,最后一句为结论:“It's the journey,not the ar- rival,that counts.”。 评析 这道题需要对爷爷在信中说的话进行分析和充分理解,从中提炼出他生活观的精髓,结 合文章中的句子运用合理句式进行回答。 4.My/His/The grandfather is still busy doing meaningful things. Or:The grandfather is still living an active life. Or:The grandfather is still involved in whatever he can do. 画线句子的意思是:我爷爷仍然在那条长长的路上攀登着。结合上文“爷爷退休后还继续为 社区服务”可以推断出:我爷爷仍然在忙碌地做着那些有意义的事情。 5.Yes.One should always be full of passion in his life no matter how old he is. Or:Yes.People should make full use of their time to do something meaningful. No.It is more sensible for people to slow down and enjoy an easy life in their old age. Or:No.Slowing down contributes to better health and longer life for people in old age. 同意这种生活观点的,需从爷爷的身上和话语中提炼出答案,运用正确的句式表达出来。不同 意这种观点的,需根据自己对生活的理解,运用正确的句式把自己的观点表达出来。 高级语块???? up and down来回;往复 be thankful for感谢……;对……感激 slow down慢下来 make ends meet使收支相抵 figure out弄明白 wake up醒来 to the very end至死,拼到底;直到终点 难句分析 原句:But what I still can't figure out is why I never got tired,never felt better in my life. 分析:本句为复合句。what引导主语从句;why引导表语从句。 译文:但我仍然不明白的是为什么我从不会感到厌倦,觉得生活不能再好了。 B组 统一命题、省(区、市)卷题组 Group 1 Passage 1 (2015四川) It was a hot summer day that found me running down the street with a dollar in my sweaty hand. The closer I got to Sam & Joe's Stationery Store,the more excited I was.After all,a dollar was a tidy sum for an 11-year-old boy in 1961. Out of breath,I swung open the door and got a blast of cold air that instantly cooled me off.I was in a place of pure happiness.Sam & Joe's had it all—books,candy,toys,baseball cards,puzzles and games.I went directly to the bar and ordered a bottle of soda.There I sat,considering my next move. Books always came first.I picked out five titles.Next came the candy,rows and rows of it.I chose five candy bars,which brought my total to 75 cents.Then a bottle of cold orange juice,a bag of chips and a pack of Ted Williams baseball cards.After paying the clerk,I still had 5 cents. I hurried directly to my backyard,where an apple tree patiently waited for me.There,sitting in the shade against its strong trunk,I read my books,ate my candy and drank my orange juice. As I sat in my own personal heaven,I started thinking about having more.That's when a fantastic, life-changing idea popped into my head:If I could get more money,I could buy more books I liked, buy anything I wanted.That's how it all started. 1.How did the boy feel on his way to Sam & Joe's?(no more than 5 words) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.What does“a tidy sum”mean in Paragraph 1?(no more than 5 words) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.What did the boy consider doing first after he ordered soda?(no more than 5 words) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.What did the boy do while reading?(no more than 5 words) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.Where was the boy's“personal heaven”?(no more than 9 words) ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文。描述了作者11岁时的一次购物体验和感悟。 1.He felt excited. 由“The closer I got to Sam & Joe's Stationery Store,the more excited I was.” 可知答案。 2.A lot of money. 由“I chose five candy bars,which brought my total to 75 cents.Then...I still had 5 cents.”可知,在1961年对于一个11岁的男孩而言,那是一大笔钱。 3.He considered buying books. 由“Books always came first.I picked out five titles.”可知答 案。 4.He ate and drank. 根据“There,sitting in the shade against its strong trunk,I read my books,ate my candy and drank my orange juice.”可知答案。 5.It was under the apple tree in his backyard. 根据“I hurried directly to my backyard,where an apple tree patiently waited for me.There,sitting in the shade against its strong trunk...”可知答 案。 高级语块???? instantly adv.立即,马上 stationery store文具店 after all毕竟 pick out挑选出 pop into one's head突然出现在某人的脑海里 难句分析 原句:That's when a fantastic,life-changing idea popped into my head:If I could get more money,I could buy more books I liked,buy anything I wanted. 分析:本句为复合句。when引导表语从句;if引导条件状语从句。 译文:就在那时,一个了不起的、改变人生的主意突然出现:如果我能得到更多的钱,我就可以 买更多我喜欢的书,买我想要的任何东西。 Passage 2 (2015湖南) Walk Out of the Comfort Zone and Try New Things For most high school students,free periods are useless.From what I have seen,few do homework; instead many are on their phones and talking,making it impossible for those who actually want to do work to complete any.As a senior next year,I think extra periods should be used to take optional subjects. Our school offers many classes.Now is the time to experiment in different fields of study.We will never know if we are interested or talented in a subject if we don't try it. In my 8th grade,I was told that I had to take an art class as a graduation requirement;so in the 9th grade I took Studio and Art.One of the projects was to build a clay pot,but I built mine incorrectly, so it broke in the kiln(窑).I found out that I have no artistic ability at all,and now I know for sure that I do not want to be an artist.However,the class was one of my favorites that year.I was able to try new activities and test my ability. Walk out of our comfort zone and try new things!College is when we should focus on a specific major,but high school is when we have to figure it out. Half of all college students change their major at some point.By doing that hundreds of dollars are wasted on classes that they would have never needed to take.So use our extra periods to find out what we want to do in college.The classes we choose can impact us in the future.Taking optional subjects will enrich our mind.It will also show colleges we are diverse students. 1.How should we use our extra periods in the author's opinion?(No more than 9 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.Why does the author think we should experiment in different fields of study?(No more than 17 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.Why did the clay pot show the author's lack of artistic ability?(No more than 10 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.According to the author,how will taking optional subjects impact us in the future?(No more than 13 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是夹叙夹议的文章,题材为学校生活类。文章从一个学生的角度说明了我 们要在中学阶段做各种不同的尝试,从而发现自己的优势和兴趣所在。 1.We should use them to take optional subjects. 根据第一段中的As a senior next year,I think extra periods should be used to take optional subjects.可知答案。 2.We will never know if we are interested or talented in a subject without trying it. 根据第二段 第三句可知答案。 3.It was built incorrectly and broke in the kiln.根据第三段第二句 One of the projects was to build a clay pot,but I built mine incorrectly,so it broke in the kiln.可知答案。 4.It will enrich our mind and show colleges we are diverse students. 根据最后一段中的Taking optional subjects will enrich our mind.It will also show colleges we are diverse students.可知答 案。 高级语块???? be talented in在某方面有天赋 focus on把(注意力、精力等)集中在……上 find out弄清,查明 难句分析 原句:College is when we should focus on a specific major,but high school is when we have to fig- ure it out. 分析:本句为复合句。两个when都引导表语从句。 译文:大学是我们应该集中精力在一个特定的专业上的时候,但高中是我们必须弄清我们喜欢 的专业是什么的时候。 三年模拟 A组 2017—2019年高考模拟·考点基础题组 Group 1 Passage 1 (2019天津部分区质调一) During the years working in a peacekeeping force(维和部队), I was sent abroad.As a senior analyst, my workdays were routinely twelve to sixteen hours long.Like all the old soldiers, we looked forward to receiving mail from home. We soldiers received many “To any service member” mail from the States.Those mail were sent by the general public in our mother country to soldiers far away from home, as an expression of support.I never took any of those letters, since I wrote to my wife on a daily basis, as well as occa- sionally wrote notes to my daughter Jenny's classroom, and I didn't feel I had time to write to any- one else. After five or six months of hearing from the mail—announcing the availability of “To any service member” mail, I decided to take a few of the letters, because I planned, if time permitted, to drop them a line telling them“Thanks” for their support. I picked up three letters, and placed them in my cargo pocket and went back to work.Over the next week or so, I started responding to the letters.When it came time to answer the third letter, I no- ticed it had no return address, but a California postmark, which made me think of home.I had missed spending Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year's with my family.Homesickness seized me. I opened the card and started to read the letter attached,which was a short one. About the third or fourth sentence down,it read,“My daddy is a soldier over there; if you see him, say hi to him and tell him I love and miss him.” This statement really touched me and made me miss my family even more.Looking down to the name of the sender, I sat in silence as tears filled my eyes. 1.Who will usually write“To any service member” mail?(No more than 8 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.Why did the author decide to answer some“To any service member” mail later?(No more than 10 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.What set the author missing his own family?(No more than 5 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.How do you understand the underlined sentence in Paragraph 4?(No more than 6 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.At the end of the story, why did the writer sit in silence and cry?Please explain.(No more than 20 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 作者在国外的维和部队工作,在给祖国人民写回信表示感谢时,意外读到了女儿 寄来的信。 1.The general public./The general public in the mother country.根据第二段第二句可知答案。 2.Because he planned to appreciate their support./Because he wanted to say thanks for their sup- port. 根据第三段第二句可知答案。 3.A California postmark./A letter from California./The letter from his hometown. 根据第四段第 三句可知答案。 4.I suddenly felt homesick./I suddenly missed my family./I suddenly thought of my family. 根据 上文可知,家乡的邮戳引起了作者对家人的思念。 5.Probably the sender was the writer's daughter and he was really moved./He was moved by his daughter's love and support./He realized it was from his own daughter./He found that Jenny wrote the letter. 根据最后一段信件所述内容以及看到写信人的名字时作者热泪盈眶可知,写信人 应该是作者的女儿。 Passage 2 (2019天津河北一模) Bethany Hamilton has become a source of inspiration for millions of people through her story of faith, determination and hope.And now her story has become a major movie which is entitled Soul Surfer. On October 31,2003, at the age of 13, Bethany was attacked by a 15-foot tiger shark while surfing just off the shore of Hawaii.Bethany said,“It came out of the blue.I had no warning at all; not even the slightest sign of danger on the horizon.The waves were small and inconsistent, and I was just kind of rolling along with them,relaxing on my board with my left arm dangling(悬摆) in the cool water.I remember thinking,‘I hope the surf picks up soon...'” “That's all it took: a split second.I felt a lot of pressure and a couple of lightning fast tugs(拽). Then I watched in shock as the water around me turned bright red.Somehow, I stayed calm.My left arm was gone along with a huge piece of my surfboard...” Her friends had to get her to the beach, which took 20 minutes of paddling.After losing more than 40 percent of her blood and making it through several surgeries, Bethany was well on her way to recovery due to an unbelievably positive attitude.In January 2004, Bethany made her return to the surf competition and with no intention of stopping, Bethany continued to enter and shine in compe- titions.Initially, she adopted a custom-made board that was longer and slightly thicker than the standard and had a handle for her right arm, making it easier to paddle, and she learned to kick more to make up for the loss of her left arm. Just over a year after the attack, she took first place—winning her first National Title.Now she competes with the world's best and travels the globe. 1.What kind of story does the author want to tell us?(No more than 10 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.What is the meaning of the underlined part in Paragraph 2? (No more than 10 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.According to the passage, how did Bethany make a recovery?(No more than 10 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.Why did Bethany learn to kick more when she started surfing again?(No more than 10 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.How does Bethany's story inspire you to overcome difficulties in life? Put it in your own words. (No more than 25 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 文章讲述了Bethany的励志故事。她在冲浪时被虎鲨咬伤致残,恢复后继续参加 冲浪比赛并获取成功。 1.The author wants to tell us an encouraging/inspirational/ inspiring story. 根据第一段第一句可 知,Bethany通过自己充满信念、决心以及希望的故事鼓舞人们。 2.It came unexpectedly/by surprise. 根据下一句I had no warning at all. 可知,虎鲨来得突然, 毫无预兆。 3.She made a recovery due to an unbelievably positive attitude.根据第四段第二句可知,正是由于 她积极的态度使她得以恢复。 4.To make up for the loss of her left arm. 根据第四段最后一句可知答案。 5.Bethany's story tells me that faith and determination can help overcome difficulties in life. Or: We should not lose heart in the face of difficulties, and we can overcome them with courage and strong determination.通过这个故事,我们可以体会到Bethany对自己喜爱的冲浪事业很执 着,面对困难时的勇敢、坚强和乐观向上的优秀品质都给读者以启迪。 高级语块???? a source of inspiration 灵感的源泉 out of the blue 出乎意料地,突然地 due to 由于 make up for the loss of...弥补……的损失 Passage 3 (2019天津和平一模) Dear James, It is a beautiful day here and I am sitting under the big tree at the end of the garden.I have just re- turned from a long bike ride to an old castle.It seems amazing that at my age I am still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometers in an afternoon.It's my birthday in two weeks' time and I'll be 82 years old! I think my long and active life must be due to the healthy life I live. This brings me to the real reason for my letter, my dear grandson.Your mother told me that you started smoking some time ago and now you are finding it difficult to give it up.Believe me, I know how easy it is to begin smoking and how tough it is to stop.You see, during adolescence I al- so smoked and became addicted to cigarettes. By the way, do you know that this is because you become addicted in three different ways? Firstly, you can become physically addicted to nicotine(尼古丁), which is one of the hundreds of chemi- cals in cigarettes.This means that after a while your body becomes accustomed to having nicotine in it.So when the drug leaves your body, you get withdrawal symptoms.Secondly, you become ad- dicted through habit.As you know, if you do the same thing over and over again, you will begin to do it automatically.Lastly, you can become mentally addicted.I believed I was happier and more re- laxed after having a cigarette, so I began to think that I could only feel good when I smoked.Quit- ting smoking was really difficult because I was addicted in all three ways.But I did finally manage. When I was young, I didn't know much about the harmful effects of smoking.I didn't know, for ex- ample, that it could do terrible damage to your heart and lungs or that it was more difficult for smoking couples to become pregnant.Neither did I know that my cigarette smoke could affect the health of non-smokers. However, what I did know was that my girlfriend thought I smelt terrible. She told me that she wouldn't go out with me again unless I stopped! I also noticed that I became breathless quickly, and that I wasn't enjoying sport as much. When I was taken off the school foot- ball team because I was unfit, I knew it was time to quit smoking. I am sending you some advice I found on the Internet.It might help you to stop and strengthen your resolve.I do hope so because I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I have. Love from Grandpa 1.Why did the writer mention the long bike ride and his age in the letter?(No more than 15 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.What's the purpose of writing the letter?(No more than 10 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.What does the underlined sentence in Paragraph 3 mean?(No more than 5 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.Why did the grandpa decide to quit smoking?(No more than 20 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.Do you think it easy or difficult to quit smoking? Please give James some possible advice to help him.(No more than 15 words) ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读]????外公以自己的亲身经历来劝诫外孙James戒烟。 1.To tell his grandson that he has benefited from the healthy life he lives. 根据第一段所述内容 可知,作者的长寿得益于健康的生活方式,这为下文劝说James戒烟做铺垫。 2.He wanted to persuade James to quit smoking. 根据第二段中的This brings me to the real rea- son for my letter...give it up.可知,作者写这封信是为了劝诫James 戒烟。 3.He succeeded in quitting smoking. 根据画线句子中的manage 以及全文内容可知,作者成功 戒烟。 4.Because his girlfriend left him, he began to have some healthy problems and even was taken off the football team. 根据第四段后半部分所述可知,由于女友反对吸烟,吸烟使作者气喘吁吁,还 被足球队除名,因此作者决定戒烟。 5.Open.(I think it difficult to quit smoking.To take exercise and keep away from smokers.)本题应 回答两个问题:一、你认为戒烟困难还是容易。二、给出建议。 高级语块???? become addicted to 对……上瘾 become accustomed to doing sth.习惯于做某事 strengthen one's resolve增强某人的决心 Passage 4 (2019天津红桥一模) When we were growing up in our grandparents' home, Jack, my grandfather, was always in his room sitting in the chair and listening to the radio.The voices speaking from the metal box day and night, taught us that there was a larger world outside.He would roll the black dial(调节盘) back and forth until the signal was clear.Then he would listen. Now he is old and falls ill.When I went to visit him, he said to me, “I dislike the Internet.The problem is that we're losing primary contact with each other.No more shaking hands.Everyone is so busy.We want too much and in the process of getting it we miss so much.” He stopped for a while.“It makes me lonely and sad.”Then he looked at me, “I just want to hear your voice.” I think of all the voices on the radio he has spent a lifetime listening to. I asked, “How did you become interested in radio?”“I don't know,”he said. “It was another way to reach people. I was always interested in searching for a better signal, a clearer, more powerful signal that could communicate with someone somewhere.” “And I'll tell you another funny thing: you can electronically eliminate all kinds of noises from the signal, but you can't get rid of natural noises caused by thunder and lightning, rainstorms, or snowstorms.” He closed his eyes and smiled.“I was just thinking that in spite of all our technologies, maybe we haven't progressed that far as human beings.We shouldn't forget we still have the same basic needs.” 1.What did Jack use to do in his room?(No more than 12 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.Why did Jack roll the black dial back and forth?(No more than 5 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.How is Jack feeling now?(No more than 8 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 4.What does the underlined word“eliminate” in Paragraph 4 mean?(1 word) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 5.What should you do to solve the problem of losing direct contact with others?(No more than 20 words) ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 答案 [语篇解读] 作者回忆祖父渴望与人接触,经常坐在屋里听收音机,调节信号以去除噪音。然 而,自然界的声音是无法去除的。因此,正如祖父所言:科技再发展也不能忘记人们的基本需 求。 1.He used to sit in the chair, listening to his radio./He sat in the chair and listened to his radio. 根 据第一段中的Jack, my grandfather, was always in his room sitting in the chair and listening to the radio可知答案。 2.To find a clear signal. 根据第一段中的He would roll the black dial back and forth until the signal was clear.可知,调节频道是为了找到清晰的信号。 3.He is feeling lonely and sad. 根据第二段中的Now he is old and falls ill.以及Everyone is so busy...It makes me lonely and sad.可知答案。 4.Remove. 根据画线句子上下文意思可知,你可以除去信号中的各种噪音,但除不去自然界 的噪音,如雷电等。 5.Open.(We should reduce the time we spend on the Internet and find more time to communicate with others.) 本题应考虑作者的写作意图,减少科技产品的应用,增加人跟人之间的接触,进行 面对面的交流。 高级语块???? back and forth 来回地 primary contact 基本的联系 get rid of 除去 Group 2 Passage 1 (2019天津滨海新区七校一联) One out of many important things for the whole family to do is to have dinner together.Researchers began reporting the benefits of family dinner about a decade ago, focusing mainly on how it af- fects children.Studies show that those families who eat dinner at least 3 or 4 times a week together, benefit in many ways. Eating together helps families achieve open communication and build stronger and healthier rela- tionships.Children have better grades at school and are better adjusted as teens and adults, and the entire family enjoys healthier nutrition.For many families,eating dinner together proves to be a good and effective way to reduce the risk of youth rates of addiction, and helps to nurture healthier children.It is also a great time to share the events of the day, discuss news and ideas and just be to- gether and enjoy each other's company. During dinner time parents have a better opportunity to show that they are the prior to their chil- dren.Sitting at the same table and sharing meals is where and when parents can find more about their children's school performance, daily activities and attitudes toward life.When parents have all this information they can better direct their kids.They also have a better chance to reduce the pos- sibility that children will get involved with alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs. However, family researchers say that the benefits of family dinner by no means can be considered as automatic.Parents can sit down to dinner with their kids every day and achieve nothing.Family dinner may not benefit them if there is too much argument going on, if there is no meaningful con- versation or,what is even worse, if there is just plain silence during gathering. 1.What may be the best title for this passage?(No more than 8 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2.What benefits can children get from eating together?(No more than 15 words) ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3.How do you explain the under

  • ID:4-6137832 (天津专用)2020届高考英语一轮复习专题1-10课件(打包10套)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共116张PPT) 专题八 情态动词和虚拟语气 高考英语 (天津市专用) 考点一 情态动词 五年高考 1.(2019天津春,13)Paul did a great job in the speech contest.He   ???? many times last week. A.need have practised  B.might practise C.must have practised  D.could practise 答案 C 句意:保罗在演讲比赛中表现得很好。他上周一定练习了很多次。本题考查情态动 词。must have done 是对过去发生的事情非常肯定的推测,故C项正确。 2.(2018天津夏,10)I can't find my purse.I  ????it in the supermarket yesterday, but I'm not sure. A.should leave  B.must have left C.might leave   D.could have left 答案 D 句意:我找不到我的钱包了。我可能昨天把它落在超市了,但我不确定。本题考查 情态动词。设空处表示对过去事情的推测,故排除A、C两项;根据题干中的“but I'm not sure”可推知答案为D项。must have done sth.过去一定做了某事,与“I'm not sure”不符,故排 除B项。 3.(2018天津春,3)—What's wrong with the door? —The key has got stuck in it and   ????come out. A.shouldn't  B.mustn't  C.needn't  D.won't 答案 D 句意:——这扇门怎么啦?——钥匙卡在里面了,怎么也拔不出来。考查情态动词。 A:不应该;B:禁止;C:不必,不需要。will表示某事在某种情况下是真实或可能的,won't表示“不 能”。 4.(2018北京,12)In today's information age, the loss of data   ???? cause serious problems for a company. A.need  B.should  C.can  D.must 答案 C 句意:在当今的信息时代,对于一个公司来说,数据的丢失会造成严重的后果。本题 考查情态动词。根据句意可知,语境要体现的是一种客观的可能性,因此用can符合语境。 5.(2018江苏,24)It's strange that he  ????have taken the books without the owner's permission. A.would  B.should  C.could  D.might 答案 B 句意:简直是太奇怪了,他竟然未得到主人的允许就把这些书拿走了。考查情态动 词。“It's strange that...”句型中,that引导的主语从句的谓语部分用should+动词原形,属于 should的用法之一,所以答案为B项。 6.(2017天津夏,2)My room is a mess, but I  ????clean it before I go out tonight.I can do it in the morning. A.daren't  B.shouldn't  C.needn't  D.mustn't 答案 C 句意:我的房间很乱,但是在今晚外出之前我不需要打扫它。我可以早晨打扫。本 题考查情态动词。根据语境可知,我不需要打扫或没必要打扫房间,用needn't符合题意。daren' t不敢,shouldn't不应该,mustn't表禁止,均不符合题意。 7.(2017天津春,8)Someone   ???? the tap on, for the water was running over and flooding the bathroom. A.could leave  B.must have left C.might leave  D.should have left 答案 B 句意:有人肯定忘关水龙头了,水溢了出来把浴室淹了。考查情态动词。由for引出 的分句中的was running可推知,是对过去发生的事情的肯定推测,故选B。 8.(2017北京,21)Samuel, the tallest boy in our class,  ????easily reach the books on the top shelf. A.must  B.should  C.can  D.need 答案 C 句意:塞缪尔是我们班里最高的男孩,他可以轻松地够到书架顶层的书。本题考查 情态动词。根据语义可知应用情态动词can“可以,能够”表示能力。must必须,should应该, need需要,均不符合句意。 9.(2016天津,5)It was really annoying;I  ????get access to the data bank you had recommended. A.wouldn't  B.couldn't  C.shouldn't  D.needn't 答案 B 句意:真令人恼火。我不能进入你推荐的数据库。根据It was really annoying可知 应用couldn't。wouldn't不愿意;shouldn't不应该;needn't不必。 10.(2016北京,31)I love the weekend, because I  ????get up early on Saturdays and Sundays. A.needn‘t  B.mustn't C.wouldn't  D.shouldn't 答案 A????句意:我爱周末,因为我不需要在周六和周日早起。本题考查情态动词。根据句意 可知用needn't表示不需要。 11.(2016浙江,17)George  ????too far.His coffee is still warm. A.must have gone  B.might have gone C.can‘t have gone  D.needn't have gone 答案 C 句意:乔治不可能走太远。他的咖啡还是热的。考查情态动词。can't have done sth. 不可能做过某事;must have done sth.过去一定做过某事;might have done sth.可能做过某事; needn't have done sth.本不必做某事。 12.(2015天津,7)I  ????have worried before I came to the new school,for my classmates here are very friendly to me. A.mightn't  B.mustn't C.needn‘t  D.couldn't 答案 C 句意:在进入这所新学校之前我本没必要担心,因为这里的同学对我很友好。考查 情态动词。根据语境可知此处表达“过去对某事担心过,但现在看来这种担心没有必要”,应 该用needn't have done,故答案为C项。 评析????情态动词是一个语法难点,尤其是 “情态动词+have done”的用法。要准确掌握几个 常见的情态动词与完成时连用时所表达的含义:是肯定推测还是否定推测,是可能性还是必要 性,是抱怨批评还是遗憾后悔。 13.(2015北京,29)—Can't you stay a little longer? —It's getting late.I really  ????go now.My daughter is home alone. A.may  B.can  C.must  D.dare 答案 C 句意:——难道你不能再多待一会儿吗?——时间不早了。现在我确实得走了。我 的女儿独自一人在家。本题考查情态动词。A:可能,可以;B:能够,可能;C:必须,一定;D:敢。故 选C项。 14.(2015重庆,12)You  ????be Carol.You haven't changed a bit after all these years. A.must  B.can  C.will  D.shall 答案 A 句意:你一定是卡萝尔,这么多年过去了你一点也没变。考查情态动词。根据语境 可知此处表示对现在情况的肯定推测,所以要用must。 考点二 虚拟语气 1.(2019天津夏,14)The workers were not better organized, otherwise they   ???? the task in half the time. A.accomplished   B.had accomplished C.would accomplish  D.would have accomplished 答案????D 考查虚拟语气。句意:工人们没有被更好地组织起来,否则他们用一半的时间就能 完成这项任务。表示对过去的虚拟,需用would/could/might/should have done sth.的形式,故选D 项。 2.(2019天津春,15)Marry's description of the party was so vivid that I felt as if I   ???? there. A.would be   B.might have been C.would have been  D.had been 答案 D 句意:玛丽对这次聚会的描述是如此生动,以至于我觉得我好像去过那里一样。本 题考查虚拟语气。根据句意及句中felt可知,此处描述的是与过去事实相反的情况,应使用过 去完成时。故D选项正确。 3.(2019江苏,31)What a pity!You missed the sightseeing, or we   ???? a good time together. A.had   B.will have C.would have had  D.had had 答案????C 句意:真遗憾啊!你错过了这次游览,否则我们就可以一起度过一段愉快的时光了。 考查虚拟语气。根据语境可知,并列连词or在句中意为“否则,要不然”,为含蓄条件的一种表 达方式,后面的部分与过去的事实相反,故用“would have done”的形式。 4.(2018天津夏,15)If we  ????the flight yesterday, we would be enjoying our holiday on the beach now. A.had caught   B.caught C.have caught  D.would catch 答案 A 句意:如果昨天我们赶上那趟航班了,我们现在就会在沙滩上享受我们的假期了。 本题考查虚拟语气。If引导的条件状语从句表示与过去事实相反的假设,其谓语动词需用 “had+过去分词”形式,故答案为A项。 5.(2018天津春,14)Jane wishes that she  ????foreign trade instead of literature when she was in college. A.studied   B.had studied C.would study  D.might have studied 答案 B 句意:简希望她上大学的时候学习的是对外贸易而不是文学。考查虚拟语气。由 时间状语when she was in college可知,wish后的宾语从句表示对过去的虚拟,谓语动词应用had done形式,故选B。 6.(2018北京,13)They might have found a better hotel if they   ???? a few more kilometers. A.drove   B.would drive C.were to drive  D.had driven 答案 D 句意:如果行驶的路途再远一些,他们或许就会找到一个更好的宾馆了。本题考查 虚拟语气。根据题干中主句的谓语might have found可知语境是对过去的虚拟,因此if引导的 从句中谓语动词形式应为had done,故选择D项。 7.(2018江苏,27)There is a good social life in the village, and I wish I  ????a second chance to become more involved. A.had   B.will have C.would have had  D.have had 答案 A 句意:这个村子里的人们有良好的社交生活,我希望自己还能有机会去更多地参与 其中。考查虚拟语气。wish后面的宾语从句中往往用虚拟语气,此处表达现在的一个愿望,谓 语动词要用过去式,所以答案为A项。 8.(2017天津夏,15)—Do you have Betty's phone number? —Yes.Otherwise, I  ????able to reach her yesterday. A.hadn't been  B.wouldn't have been C.weren‘t   D.wouldn't be 答案 B 句意:——你有贝蒂的电话号码吗?——有。否则,昨天我就不能联系到她了。本题 考查虚拟语气。根据题干中的yesterday可知,此处是对过去发生的事情进行虚拟,设空处应为 would have done的形式,根据语义选择B项。 9.(2017天津春,15)Ten days are devoted to this training program and   ????it be unsuccessful, it could be repeated later. A.should  B.could  C.might  D.would 答案 A 句意:这项培训项目用了十天的时间。如果不能成功的话,之后会重复进行该项 目。考查虚拟语气和倒装。should假如,万一,要是,常用在if条件句中。此处为省略if的虚拟条 件句,把should提到句首省略了if。Should it be...=If it should be...。 10.(2017北京,34)If the new safety system  ????to use, the accident would never have happened. A.had been put   B.were put C.should be put  D.would be put 答案 A????句意:如果新的安全系统投入使用的话,这起事故就不会发生了。本题考查虚拟语 气。根据题干中的主句谓语部分would never have happened可知语境是对过去发生的事进行 虚拟,因此if引导的从句谓语部分应为had done,故选择A项。 11.(2017江苏,22)  ????not for the support of the teachers, the student could not overcome her difficulty. A.It were  B.Were it  C.It was  D.Was it 答案 B 句意:没有老师们的支持,这个学生不可能克服她的困难。本题考查虚拟语气。根 据题干中的the student could not overcome可知,语境是对现在事实的虚拟,be动词在虚拟语气 中通常用were。当虚拟语气中if引导的从句省略了if时,从句部分应使用倒装结构,故选择B 项。 12.(2016天津,15)I was wearing a seat belt.If I hadn't been wearing one,I  ????. A.were injured   B.would be injured C.had been injured  D.would have been injured 答案 D 句意:我系着安全带了。要不是系着安全带的话,我可能就受伤了。考查虚拟语 气。与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,if从句用了had done,主句应用would/could/should/might+have done。 13.(2016北京,34)Why didn't you tell me about your trouble last week? If you  ????me, I could have helped. A.told   B.had told C.were to tell  D.would tell 答案 B 句意:你上周为什么不告诉我你遇到的麻烦?如果你告诉我,我本可以帮你的。本题 考查虚拟语气。根据could have helped和last week可知,此处表示与过去事实相反的假设,故选 择B项。 14.(2016浙江,15)Had the governments and scientists not worked together, AIDS-related deaths????  ????since their highest in 2005. A.had not fallen  B.would not fall C.did not fall   D.would not have fallen 答案 D 句意:要不是政府和科学家齐心协力的话,与艾滋病有关的死亡人数就不会在2005 年达到顶峰后下降了。考查虚拟语气。此处表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,省略了if的从 句用了had done,主句应用would/could/should/might+have done。 15.(2016江苏,27)If it   ???? for his invitation the other day,I should not be here now. A.had not been   B.should not be C.were not to be  D.should not have been 答案 A 句意:如果不是因为那天他的邀请,我现在是不会在这里的。考查虚拟语气。根据 语境可知,本题用了虚拟语气,又根据主句中的now和从句中的the other day可知本句是一个错 综时间条件句,主句和现在的事实相反,从句和过去的事实相反,故从句用had done。 16.(2015天津,13)I wish I  ????at my sister's wedding last Tuesday,but I was on a business trip in New York then. A.will be   B.would be C.have been   D.had been 答案 D 句意:我要是上周二能参加我姐姐的婚礼就好了,可是那时我正在纽约出差。考查 虚拟语气。此处表示与过去事实相反的假设,故设空处要用had done,故选D项。 17.(2015重庆,7)Without his wartime experiences,Hemingway  ????his famous novel A Farewell to Arms. A.didn‘t write   B.hadn't written C.wouldn't write  D.wouldn't have written 答案 D 句意:如果没有战时经历的话,海明威就不会写出他著名的小说《永别了,武器》。 考查虚拟语气。without构成的介词短语相当于条件状语从句,根据语境可知此处表达“与过 去事实相反的假设”,谓语动词要用would have done结构,故选D项。 18.(2015江苏,28)It might have saved me some trouble  ????the schedule. A.did I know  B.have I known C.do I know   D.had I known 答案 D 句意:要是我知道安排的话,可能会省去一些麻烦。本题考查虚拟语气。“  ???? the schedule”为省略了if的从句,该从句表示与过去事实相反的假设,故答案为D项。had I known the schedule=if I had known the schedule。 19.(2015陕西,23)Ellen is a fantastic dancer.I wish I  ????as well as her. A.dance   B.will dance C.had danced  D.danced 答案 D 句意:Ellen是一个非常优秀的舞者,我希望我能跳得像她一样好。本题考查虚拟语 气。wish后面的从句用过去式表示对现在的虚拟,故选D项。 20.(2015安徽,32)It is lucky we booked a room,or we  ???? nowhere to stay now. A.had   B.had had C.would have  D.would have had 答案 C 句意:很幸运,我们预订了一个房间,要不然我们现在就没有地方可以住了。本题考 查虚拟语气。or前面是真实的情况,or后面表示对现在的虚拟,用would do的形式,故选C项。 A组 2017—2019年高考模拟·考点基础题组 三年模拟 考点一 情态动词 1.(2019天津和平一模,8)—Did Jim come? —I don't know.He   ???? while I was out. A.might have come  B.might come C.must have come   D.should have come 答案????A 句意:——吉姆来了吗?——我不知道,我出去的时候他可能来过。考查情态动词。 由while I was out可知,此处表示对过去情况的推测;由“I don't know.”可知,他有可能来过,但 不肯定,故选A。 2.(2019天津河东一模,6)—Where is my Chinese book? I remember I put it here yesterday. —You   ???? it in the wrong place. A.must put   B.should have put C.must have put   D.might put 答案????C 句意:——我的中文书在哪儿?我记得昨天把它放在这儿了。——你肯定是放错地 方了。考查情态动词。此处表示对过去情况的肯定推测,故用must have done 。 3.(2019天津河西质调一,8)Days later, my brother called to say he was all right, but   ???? say where he was. A.mustn't  B.shouldn't  C.wouldn't  D.mightn't 答案????C 句意:几天后,我的哥哥打来电话说他一切都好,但是不愿意说他在哪里。考查情态 动词。mustn't 禁止;shouldn't 不应该;wouldn't 不愿意;mightn't 可能不。故选C。 4.(2019天津红桥一模,9)—What's wrong with you? —Oh,I am sick.I  ???? so much ice cream just now. A.shouldn‘t eat    B.mustn't eat C.couldn't have eaten  D.shouldn't have eaten 答案????D 句意:——你怎么了?——噢,我不舒服,刚才不应该吃那么多冰激凌。考查情态动 词。shouldn't have done 表示过去本不应该做某事却做了,符合语境,故选D。 5.(2019天津十二校二模,13)He is a bad-tempered fellow, but he   ???? be quite charming when he wishes. A.shall  B.should  C.can  D.must 答案????C 句意:他是个脾气糟糕的家伙,但是当他祝愿别人的时候可能很讨人喜欢。考查情 态动词。shall 与第二、三人称连用,在陈述句中表示命令、规定等;must 必须,肯定;can 可能, 可以;should 应该,或表推测。根据语境选择C。 6.(2019天津二模,7)The room is so clean.He   ???? have cleaned it yesterday evening. A.will  B.need  C.can  D.must 答案????D 句意:这个房间很干净,他昨天晚上肯定打扫过了。考查情态动词。此处表示对过 去情况的肯定推测,应用must have done,故D项正确。 7.(2019天津南开一模,14)—What does the sign over there read? —“No person   ???? smoke or carry a lighted cigarette, cigar or pipe in this area.” A.will  B.shall  C.may  D.must 答案????B 句意:——那边的标牌上写着什么呢?——“此地禁止吸烟或携带点燃的香烟、雪 茄、烟斗等。”考查情态动词。will与各种人称连用,在陈述句中表意愿、意志;shall 与第 二、三人称连用,在陈述句中表命令、指示、规定等;may可能;must肯定,必须。 8.(2018天津红桥二模,7)The two walls are to bear the weight of the room.You   ????remove them. A.needn't  B.couldn't  C.mustn't  D.daren't 答案????C 句意:这两堵墙是承重墙。你不能把它们移走。考查情态动词。mustn't“禁止,千 万不能”符合语境;needn't不必;couldn't不能;daren't不敢。 9.(2018天津和平一模,9)Some people who don't like to talk much are not necessarily shy;they ????  ????just be quiet people. A.may  B.must  C.should  D.would 答案????A 句意:有些不太喜欢说话的人不一定害羞,他们可能只是安静的人。考查情态动 词。语境表示“有可能”,且语气不太肯定,故选may。 10.(2018天津十二校一联,11)I'm not sure of the reason for the dog's illness, but it  ????by eating too much. A.may have been caused    B.need have been caused C.should have been caused  D.must have been caused 答案????A 句意:我不确定这只狗生病的原因,但可能是吃得太多的缘故。考查情态动词。此 处表示对过去情况不太肯定的推测,需用may have done,故选A。should have done过去本应该 做……而没有做……;must have done(过去一定做了……)表示对过去情况的肯定推测。 11.(2018天津滨海新区七校联考,17)—Are you coming to Jeff's party? —I'm not sure.I  ????go to the concert instead. A.must  B.would  C.should  D.might 答案????D 句意:——你来参加杰夫的聚会吗?——我不确定。我可能去听音乐会。考查情态 动词。此处表示较小的可能性或不太肯定的语气,故选might(也许,可能)。must必须;would将 要;should应该。 12.(2018天津部分区质调一,7)Although passing the driving test   ???? be difficult now, it's worth the efforts. A.need  B.shall  C.can  D.should 答案????C 句意:尽管现在通过驾照考试很难,但是付出的努力是值得的。考查情态动词。此 处表示一种客观的可能性,故选can(可能)。need需要;shall将要;should应该。 13.(2018天津一中5月月考,8)No student  ????go out of school after eleven o'clock at night without the teacher's permission. A.will  B.must  C.may  D.shall 答案????D 句意:未经老师许可,学生在晚上十一点以后不得离校。考查情态动词。shall“应 该,必须”,表条约、规章、法令等文件中的义务或规定。故选D。 14.(2018北京海淀一模,14)You   ????something great, otherwise you wouldn't have got the promotion. A.should do   B.must do C.should have done  D.must have done 答案????D 句意:你一定做了什么很棒的事,否则你不会得到晋升。考查情态动词。此处表示 对过去情况的肯定推测,故用must have done,选D。 15.(2017天津十二校一模,2)—Can I go now, sir? —If you   ???? leave, do it quietly. A.should  B.must  C.shall  D.may 答案????B 句意:——我现在可以走吗,先生?——如果你非要离开,悄悄地走。考查情态动 词。must偏要,非得。 考点二 虚拟语气 1.(2019天津和平一模,15)The suggestion came from the chairman   ???? the new rule   ????. A.what;was developed  B.that;was developed C.what;be developed   D.that;be developed 答案????D 句意:主席建议新的规定应该得到改进。考查虚拟语气。在表示建议时,suggestion 后的同位语从句要用虚拟语气,其构成是“should+动词原形”,should 可以省略。本题中de- velop 与the new rule 之间为被动关系,故选D。 2.(2019天津河西二模,13)I'm sorry to say I failed to meet the deadline.With better equipment, I ????  ???? the task on schedule. A.would accomplish   B.could accomplish C.must have accomplished  D.might have accomplished 答案????D 句意:很抱歉,我不能如期完工。如果能有更好的设备,我可能会按预定时间完成任 务的。考查虚拟语气。with better equipment 表示含蓄虚拟条件,相当于If I had had better e- quipment,则设空处所在的句子应用“I would/should/might/could+have done”的形式。故 选D。 3.(2019天津十二校二模,15)You didn't let me drive.If we   ???? by turns, you   ???? so tired. A.drove;didn't get B.drove;wouldn't get C.were driving;wouldn't get D.had driven;wouldn't have got 答案????D 句意:你没有让我开车,如果我们轮流开的话,你就不会这么累了。考查虚拟语气。 此处是对过去情况的虚拟。if 引导的条件状语从句应用“if+主语+had+过去分词”,主句应 用“主语+should/would/could/might+have+过去分词”,故选D。 4.(2019天津二模,15)If he   ???? his teacher's suggestion, he would have won the English Speech Contest. A.had followed   B.should follow C.was to follow  D.followed 答案????A 句意:如果他听从了老师的建议,他会在英语演讲比赛中获胜的。考查虚拟语气。 根据主句的结构和题意可知,此处是对过去情况的虚拟,if引导的条件状语从句应用“if+主语 +had+过去分词”,故选A。 5.(2019天津质调一,15)If the weather had been better, we   ???? a picnic yesterday. A.must have had   B.would have C.could have had   D.will have 答案????C 句意:如果昨天天气好些,我们可能就去野餐了。考查虚拟语气。根据题干中的yes- terday 可知,此处是对过去情况的虚拟。设空处所在的句子为主句,应用“should/would/could/ might+have+过去分词”的形式,故选C。 6.(2018天津十二校二联,15)—I forgot all about the party yesterday. —If my secretary hadn't reminded me, I   ????, too. A.did  B.had  C.should  D.would have 答案????D 句意:——昨天的聚会我全忘了。——要不是我的秘书提醒我的话,我也会的。考 查虚拟语气。由时间状语yesterday及从句中的hadn't reminded可知,此处是对过去情况的虚拟, 故用“would+have done”,选D。此处为省略形式,省去了have后的done。 7.(2018天津南开一模,5)We were delayed at the airport.Otherwise, we   ????here by lunch. A.must have been  B.could be C.should be   D.would have been 答案????D 句意:我们在机场被耽搁了。否则,我们就能在午餐前到这里了。考查虚拟语气。 We were delayed at the airport.是过去发生的事情;otherwise相当于“If we hadn't been delayed at the airport”,故此处用would have done,选D。 8.(2018天津河西一模,15)Without our team's great effort, the art exhibition last week   ????such a great success. A.wouldn‘t be   B.won't be C.wouldn't have been  D.won't have been 答案????C 句意:没有我们团队的巨大努力,上周的艺术展就不会取得如此大的成功。考查虚 拟语气。由without短语及last week可知,此处表示对过去情况的虚拟,故用“would+have done”结构,故选C。 9.(2018天津十二校一联,15)My mother  ????angry with me, but I couldn't shut my mouth before I shouted at her! A.wasn‘t   B.wouldn't be C.wouldn't have been   D.hadn't been 答案????C 句意:我母亲本来不会生我的气的,但在我对她大喊大叫之前,我没闭上嘴!考查虚拟 语气。由but后的句子可知,此处是对过去情况的虚拟,故选C。 10.(2018天津河东一模,14)I was caught in a traffic jam for over an hour;otherwise, I  ????you waiting for such a long time. A.had not kept   B.will not keep C.would not have kept  D.have not kept 答案????C 句意:我在路上堵了一个多小时,否则就不会让你等这么长时间了。考查虚拟语 气。由语境可知,此处是对过去事实的虚拟,故用“would+have+过去分词”,选C。 11.(2018天津部分区质调一,15)Without your help, I   ???? the first prize in the English Speech Contest. A.won‘t get   B.didn't get C.wouldn't get  D.wouldn't have got 答案????D 句意:没有你的帮助,我不可能在英语演讲比赛中获得一等奖。考查虚拟语气。 without介词短语相当于一个if引导的虚拟条件状语从句,语境表明此处是对过去情况的虚拟, 且为否定意义,故选D。 12.(2018天津一中第四次月考,15)—Why didn't you buy an iPhone 8s?It's the most amazing phone. —I   ????, but I didn't have the money. A.must  B.must have  C.would  D.would have 答案????D 句意:——你为什么不买一部iPhone 8s?这是最棒的手机。——我本来想买来着,但 我没有钱。考查虚拟语气。but引出的句子相当于“if I had had the money”;此处表示对过去 的虚拟,用would have done,D项为其省略形式,省去了have后的过去分词。 13.(2018天津滨海新区七校联考,30)But for your instruction, I  ????such great progress in so short a time.Thanks a lot. A.wouldn't make  B.hadn't made C.won‘t make    D.wouldn't have made 答案????D 句意:要不是你的指导,我不会在这么短的时间内取得这么大的进步。非常感谢。 考查虚拟语气。由语境可知此处表示对过去情况的虚拟,应用“would/might/could+have done”形式,故选D。 14.(2018江苏通考,6)The manager suggested that all the employees   ???? name tags in the com- pany. A.to wear   B.should wear C.must wear  D.wearing 答案????B 句意:经理建议所有员工在公司里都要戴上胸佩。考查虚拟语气。表建议的动词 suggest后的宾语从句中用虚拟语气,从句中谓语动词用“(should)+动词原形”;故选B。 15.(2018北京东城一模,15)Can you imagine what the modern world  ????like without smart- phones? A.were   B.would be C.had been  D.would have been 答案????B 句意:你能想象当今世界如果没有智能手机会是什么样子吗?考查虚拟语气。此处 without短语表示含蓄虚拟条件,此处是对现在情况的虚拟,需用“would+动词原形”,故选B。 16.(2017天津十二校二模,14)The movie couldn't be more boring.I wish I  ????to it. A.had not been  B.have not been C.did not go   D.have not gone 答案????A 句意:这部电影无聊透了。我希望我没有去看它。考查虚拟语气。wish后的宾语 从句表示对过去事情的虚拟,故谓语动词用过去完成时,选A。 17.(2017 天津红桥二模,14)If I   ????time, I would certainly go to the movies with you, but I have a lot of work to do. A.had  B.have   C.will have   D.had had 答案????A 句意:如果我有时间的话,我肯定会和你一起去看电影,但是我有很多工作要做。考 查虚拟语气。对现在情况的虚拟,条件句谓语动词需用动词的过去式,故选A。 18.(2017北京海淀一模,35)Waiters are requested to treat every customer as if they   ???? guests in their own house. A.are   B.were  C.would be  D.had been 答案????B 句意:服务员被要求要像对待自己家里的客人一样对待每一位顾客。考查虚拟语 气。as if引导的方式状语从句是对现在情况的假设,故需用动词的过去式,选B。 B组 2017—2019年高考模拟·专题综合题组 1.(2019天津河北一模,9)—It's really great to have a computer to store my photos. —Don't count on it too much.It   ???? break down and you'd better make a copy of them. A.must  B.can  C.should  D.will 答案????B 句意:——能有一台电脑来储存我的照片真是太棒了。——别太指望它了,电脑也 有可能出故障,你最好还是留个备份。考查情态动词。must 肯定;can 可能;should 应该;will 愿 意。故选B。 2.(2019天津河北一模,11)—What a pity! You missed my birthday party. —Terribly sorry!  ???? my uncle not visited me unexpectedly. A.Should  B.Would  C.Had  D.Did 答案????C 句意:——太遗憾了!你错过了我的生日聚会。——真抱歉!如果我叔叔没有突然间 来访,我就不会错过你的生日聚会的。考查虚拟语气。此处是对过去情况的虚拟,故设空处所 在的句子应为:If my uncle had not visited me unexpectedly.此处省略if,将had提前,变为:Had my uncle not visited me unexpectedly.故选C。 3.(2019天津河东一模,14)—I went to see The Wandering Earth last night.It was fantastic! —You were so lucky! How I wish I   ???? the ticket too. A.get  B.got  C.had got  D.would get 答案????C 句意:——昨晚我去看《流浪地球》了,太精彩了!——你好幸运!我多么希望也有 一张电影票啊!考查虚拟语气。wish后的宾语从句表示一种不可能实现的愿望,应用虚拟语 气。由于设空处表示的动作先于wish,所以应用had done的形式,故选C。 4.(2019天津红桥二模,12)The weather turned out to be fine.I   ???? the trouble to carry the um- brella with me. A.should have taken  B.must have taken C.couldn't have taken  D.needn't have taken 答案????D 句意:天气结果很晴朗,我本不必不辞辛劳地带着伞的。考查情态动词。should have done 表示过去本应该做某事而实际上未做;must have done 表示过去肯定做过某事; couldn't have done 表示过去不可能做过某事;needn't have done 表示过去本没必要做某事却做 了。 5.(2019天津红桥一模,15)I regret not having taken your advice.Otherwise, I   ???? this mistake at the moment. A.didn't make  B.wouldn't make C.hadn't make  D.wouldn't have made 答案????B 句意:我真后悔没采纳你的意见,否则,我此刻不会犯这个错误的。考查虚拟语气。 otherwise 表示含蓄虚拟条件,相当于If I had taken your advice,再根据at the moment 可知,此处 相当于一个错综时间条件句,故设空处所在的句子应用“主语+should/would/could/might+动 词原形”,故选B。 6.(2019天津南开一模,15)They were abroad during the months when we were carrying out the in- vestigation, or they   ???? to our help. A.would have come  B.could come C.have come   D.had come 答案????A 句意:在我们实施调查的那几个月,他们在国外。否则,他们会来帮助我们的。考查 虚拟语气。or表示含蓄虚拟条件,相当于If they hadn't been abroad,对应的主句为:They would have come to our help。 故选A。 7.(2019天津十二校一模,10)—I have something important to tell John.But I can't find him. —His cell phone is here, so he   ???? have gone too far. A.mustn't  B.needn't  C.wouldn't  D.can't 答案????D 句意:——我有一些重要的事情要告诉约翰,但是我找不到他。——他的手机在这 儿,所以他不可能走太远了。考查情态动词。can't have done 表示对过去情况的推测,表示不 可能做过某事。根据语境可知选D。 8.(2019天津十二校一模,15)There is a real possibility that these animals could be frightened,  ???? ???? a sudden loud noise. A.being there  B.should there be C.there was   D.there having been 答案????B 句意:如果突然间有响声,这些动物很有可能会受惊的。考查虚拟语气。根据语境 可知,本题是对将来的虚拟。if 引导的条件状语从句为“if+主语+should+动词原形”。本题 中的虚拟条件从句省略了If,把should 提到句首,变为倒装句式。故选B。 9.(2018天津十二校二联,11)There is a possibility that instead of cash, mobile payments   ???? become the main method of payment by 2020. A.may  B.must  C.shall  D.need 答案????A 句意:移动支付有可能在2020年之前成为主要的支付方式,而不是现金支付。考查 情态动词。由前面的possibility可知,此处表不太肯定的推测,意为“或许,可能”,故选A。 10.(2018天津和平二模,9)—I saw Mary in the library yesterday. —You   ????her.She is still abroad. A.can‘t have seen   B.mustn't see C.mustn't have seen  D.couldn't see 答案????A 句意:——我昨天在图书馆看到玛丽了。——你不可能看到她。她还在国外。考 查情态动词。此处表示对过去事情的否定性推测,表示“不可能”,故选A。 11.(2018天津河北二模,2)When camping in woodland, avoid standing by dead trees, which  ???? ????fall on a windy night. A.will  B.must  C.should  D.may 答案????D 句意:在林地野营时,避免在枯树旁宿营,枯树可能会在刮风的夜晚倒下。考查情态 动词。此处表示可能性,故选may,答案为D。 12.(2018天津南开三模,11)She would be much healthier now  ????with that much pressure from work when young. A.had she not burdened herself B.were she not burdened C.should she not burden herself D.were she not to be burdened 答案????A 句意:如果她年轻时没有承受那么大的工作压力,她现在会健康得多。考查虚拟语 气和倒装。该句为错综时间条件句,主句是对现在(now)的虚拟,从句是对过去(when young)的 虚拟,故动词需用had done形式;此处把从句谓语had done中的助动词had提到主语前,用了倒装 结构;故答案为A。 13.(2018天津部分区质调二,15)What do you think would happen if the engine   ????suddenly stop working? A.should  B.might  C.could  D.would 答案????A 句意:如果发动机突然停止工作,你认为会怎么样?此处表示可能,意为“假如,万 一”,故选A。 14.(2018天津和平二模,15)If he had spent more time practicing spoken English before, he  ???? able to speak it much better now. A.will be   B.would be C.has been  D.would have been 答案????B????句意:如果他以前花更多的时间练习英语口语,他现在就能说得更好了。考查虚拟 语气。此处为错综时间条件句,即主从句虚拟的时间不一样。从句是对过去的虚拟;由主句中 的时间状语now可知,主句是对现在情况的虚拟,需用“would/should/might/could+动词原形”, 故选B。 15.(2018天津红桥二模,15)George is going to talk about the geography of his country, but I'd rather he   ????more on its culture. A.focus   B.would focus C.focused  D.had focused 答案????C 句意:乔治打算谈论他的国家的地理,但我宁愿他更多地关注它的文化。考查虚拟 语气。表示对将来的虚拟,谓语动词用一般过去时。would rather sb.did sth.宁愿某人做某事。 16.(2018天津河北二模,14)What he said at the meeting made Mary rather embarrassed, so he felt that he   ????it differently. A.might express   B.should express C.could have expressed  D.must have expressed 答案????C 句意:他在会上说的话使玛丽颇为尴尬,所以他觉得自己本可以用不同的方式表达 的。考查情态动词。此处表示“过去本可以……,但是事实上却没有”,需用“could have done”形式,选C。 17.(2018天津河西二模,15)Thanks for your useful advice;otherwise, I   ????such rapid progress. A.didn't make  B.couldn't have made C.hadn't made  D.haven't made 答案????B 句意:谢谢你有用的建议,否则我不可能取得如此迅速的进展。考查虚拟语气。 otherwise“否则,要不然”相当于“If it hadn't been for your useful advice”。由此可知此处是 对过去的虚拟,故选B。 18.(2018天津压轴卷,10)I didn't know your mobile phone number;otherwise, I  ????you the moment I got to Canada. A.would ring  B.would have rung C.had rung   D.rang 答案????B 句意:我不知道你的手机号码,否则我一到加拿大就给你打电话了。考查虚拟语 气。由句中didn't know和the moment I got可知,说的是过去的事,此处表示对过去的虚拟,应用 “would have done”形式,故选B。 19.(2018天津南开中学4月月考,13)The suggestion our teacher  ????at the meeting is that stu- dents  ????in time after learning. A.made;review   B.make;review C.should make;reviewed  D.made;reviewed 答案????A 句意:我们老师在会上提出的建议是学生在学完后应及时复习。考查虚拟语气和 动词时态。our teacher   ????at the meeting为省去关系代词的定语从句,根据语境可知应该用 一般过去时;表示建议的名词suggestion后的表语从句用虚拟语气,其形式是“(should)+动词原 形”,故选A。 20.(2018江苏南京三模,22)Held inside for too long, regret   ????affect the immune system. A.must  B.can  C.should  D.shall 答案????B????句意:懊悔憋在心里太久会影响免疫系统。考查情态动词。can 在肯定句中表示可 能性,意为“有可能,会”。 21.(2018北京海淀二模,10)When I was small, my mom   ????read me stories at night. A.could  B.should  C.might  D.would 答案????D 句意:在我小的时候,我妈妈经常会在晚上给我读故事。考查情态动词。此处表示 “过去常常”,故选would。 22.(2017天津河东二模,11)  ????the rain stop, the crops would be saved. A.Will   B.Would   C.Should   D.Had 答案????C 句意:如果雨停了的话,庄稼就会得救了。考查虚拟语气。should“(表示可能)假如, 万一”,常用在虚拟条件句中。 23.(2017天津河西二模,9)—I'm afraid there's no good news for you, Tom.Shall I tell your parents or shall I just let them know nothing about the result of this exam? —I'd rather they   ????know, sir. A.don't   B.won't   C.didn't   D.not 答案????C 句意:——恐怕你没有什么好消息,汤姆。我是应该告诉你的父母还是让他们对这 次考试的结果一无所知呢?——我宁愿他们不知道,老师。考查虚拟语气。would rather sb.did sth.宁愿某人做某事。 24.(2017天津和平一模,15)I'm sorry.  ???? for my illness, I would have come and lent you a helping hand. A.Were it not   B.If it were not C.Had it not been  D.If it has not been 答案????C 句意:我很抱歉。要不是我病了,我会来帮你一把的。考查虚拟语气。该句为对过 去的虚拟,由主句谓语动词形式would have done以及句意可知,此处应用If it had not been或 Had it not been,故选C。 25.(2017天津南开二模,7)—I phoned you yesterday morning.A girl answered, but I didn't recog- nize the voice. —Oh, it   ???? my younger sister.She was in my room at that moment. A.must have been   B.should have been C.could have been   D.may have been 答案????A 句意:——我昨天早上给你打电话了。接电话的是一个女孩子,但我没有听出是谁 的声音。——哦,一定是我妹妹。当时她在我的房间里。考查情态动词。表示对过去的肯定 性推测,用“must+have done”结构。 考点一 情态动词 历年高考试题汇编 1.(2005天津,14)I   ????have been more than six years old when the accident happened. A.shouldn't  B.couldn't C.mustn't  D.needn't 2.(2006天津,11)We  ????have proved great adventurers,but we have done the greatest march ev- er made in the past ten years. A.needn't  B.may not  C.shouldn't  D.mustn't 3.(2010浙江,17)“You  ????have a wrong number,”she said.“There's no one of that name here.” A.need  B.can  C.must  D.would 4.(2010江苏,25)—I haven't got the reference book yet,but I'll have a test on the subject next month. —Don't worry.You  ????have it by Friday. A.could  B.shall  C.must  D.may 5.(2010山东,25)I   ????have watched that movie—it'll give me horrible dreams. A.shouldn't  B.needn't  C.couldn't  D.mustn't 6.(2010上海,29)—Sorry,Professor Smith.I didn't finish the assignment yesterday. —Oh,you  ????have done it as yesterday was the deadline. A.must  B.mustn't  C.should  D.shouldn't 7.(2010陕西,23)—May I take this book out of the reading room? —No,you  ????.You read it in here. A.mightn't  B.won't  C.needn't  D.mustn't 8.(2010江西,23)I have told you the truth.  ????I keep repeating it? A.Must  B.Can  C.May  D.Will 9.(2010全国Ⅰ,29)Just be patient.You  ????expect the world to change so soon. A.can‘t   B.needn't C.may not  D.will not 10.(2010重庆,21)You  ????park here!It's an emergency exit. A.wouldn't  B.needn't  C.couldn't  D.mustn't 11.(2010辽宁,26)Doctors say that exercise is important for health,but it  ????be regular exercise. A.can  B.will  C.must  D.may 12.(2010北京,23)—Good morning.I've got an appointment with Miss Smith in the Personnel De- partment. —Ah,good morning.You  ????be Mrs.Peters. A.might  B.must C.would  D.can 13.(2011湖南,28)—No one  ????be compared with Yao Ming in playing basketball. —Oh,you are really his big fan. A.can  B.need  C.must  D.might 14.(2011浙江,11)—How's your new babysitter? —We  ????ask for a better one.All our kids love her so much. A.should  B.might  C.mustn't  D.couldn't 15.(2012课标,30)I  ????use a clock to wake me up because at six o'clock each morning the train comes by my house. A.couldn't  B.mustn't  C.shouldn't  D.needn't 16.(2013北京,35)—You needn't take an umbrella.It isn't going to rain. —Well,I don't know.It  ????do. A.might  B.need  C.would  D.should 17.(2013陕西,21)The children  ????lost in the woods;otherwise,they would have been at the lakeside camp as scheduled. A.must have got   B.must get C.should have got  D.should get 18.(2013辽宁,31)Harry is feeling uncomfortable.He  ????too much at the party last night. A.could drink   B.should drink C.would have drunk  D.must have drunk 19.(2014重庆,3)I've ordered some pizza,so we  ????worry about cooking when we get home tired. A.can't  B.dare not  C.needn't  D.may not 20.(2014江西,30)Life is unpredictable;even the poorest  ????become the richest. A.shall  B.must  C.need  D.might 21.(2014陕西,25)My book,The House of Hades,is missing.Who  ????have taken it? A.need  B.must  C.should  D.could 22.(2014北京,27)  ????I have a word with you?It won't take long. A.Can  B.Must  C.Shall  D.Should 23.(2014湖南,25)—I've prepared all kinds of food for the picnic. —Do you mean we  ????bring anything with us? A.can't  B.mustn't  C.shan't  D.needn't 24.(2014江苏,31)It was sad to me that they,so poor themselves,  ????bring me food. A.might  B.would  C.should  D.could 答案 1—5 BBCBA 6—10 CDAAD 11—15 CBADD 16—20 AADCD 21—24 DADC 考点二 虚拟语气 1.(2010湖南,29)If he  ????my advice,he wouldn't have lost his job. A.followed   B.should follow C.had followed  D.would follow 2.(2010陕西,15)If we  ????the other road,we might have arrived here in time for the meeting. A.take  B.had taken C.took  D.have taken 3.(2010北京,34)—The weather has been very hot and dry. —Yes.If it had rained even a drop,things would be much better now!And my vegetables  ????. A.wouldn't die  B.didn't die C.hadn't died    D.wouldn't have died 4.(2010天津,15)—John went to the hospital alone. —If he  ????me about it,I would have gone with him. A.should tell  B.tells  C.told  D.had told 5.(2011福建,34)—Pity you missed the lecture on nuclear pollution. —I  ????it,but I was busy preparing for a job interview. A.attended   B.had attended C.would attend  D.would have attended 6.(2011北京,28)—Where are the children?The dinner's going to be completely ruined. —I wish they  ????always late. A.weren't     B.hadn't been C.wouldn't be D.wouldn't have been 7.(2011陕西,22)I  ????through that bitter period without your generous help. A.couldn't have gone  B.didn't go C.wouldn ' t go    D.hadn't gone 8.(2011江西,28)We  ????John's name on the race list yesterday but for his recent injury. A.will put   B.will have put C.would put  D.would have put 9.(2012浙江,19)Had they known what was coming next,they  ????second thoughts. A.may have   B.could have C.must have had  D.might have had 10.(2012安徽,31)Grace doesn't want to move to New York because she thinks if she  ????there, she wouldn't be able to see her parents very often. A.lives  B.would live  C.has lived  D.were to live 11.(2012山东,30)If we  ????adequate preparations,the conference wouldn't have been so success- ful. A.haven't made  B.wouldn't make C.didn ' t make  D.hadn't made 12.(2012陕西,17)If my car  ????more reliable,I would have driven to Lhasa instead of flying last summer. A.was   B.had been C.should be  D.would be 13.(2013江苏,30)I should not have laughed if I  ????you were serious. A.thought    B.would think C.had thought   D.have thought 14.(2013重庆,29)—It rained cats and dogs this morning.I'm glad we took an umbrella. —Yeah,we would have got wet all over if we  ????. A.hadn't  B.haven't C.didn't  D.don't 15.(2014重庆,13)It was John who broke the window.Why are you talking to me as if I  ????it? A.had done  B.have done C.did   D.am doing 16.(2014天津,15)  ????the morning train,he would not have been late for the meeting. A.Did he catch  B.Should he catch C.Has he caught  D.Had he caught 17.(2014陕西,23)We would rather our daughter  ????at home with us,but it is her choice,and she is not a child any longer. A.would stay  B.has stayed C.stayed   D.stay 18.(2014安徽,30)People are recycling many things which they  ????away in the past. A.had thrown   B.will be throwing C.were throwing  D.would have thrown 19.(2014湖南,22)If Mr.Dewey  ????present,he would have offered any possible assistance to the people there. A.were   B.had been C.should be  D.was 20.(2014浙江,16)They were abroad during the months when we were carrying out the investiga- tion,or they  ????to our help. A.would have come  B.could come C.have come   D.had come 21.(2014福建,32)  ????no modern telecommunications,we would have to wait for weeks to get news from around the world. A.Were there  B.Had there been C.If there are  D.If there have been 答案 1—5 CBDDD 6—10 AADDD 11—15 DBCAA 16—21 DCDBAA (共46张PPT) 专题二 代词 高考英语 (天津市专用) 考点一 不定代词 五年高考 1.(2015重庆,2)The meeting will be held in September,but  ????knows the date for sure. A.everybody  B.nobody C.anybody   D.somebody 答案 B 句意:会议将在9月份召开,但是没有人知道确切日期。本题考查不定代词。根据题干 中的but可知,此处应该用表示否定意义的nobody。 2.(2015四川,10)Niki is always full of ideas,but  ????is useful to my knowledge. A.nothing  B.no one  C.neither  D.none 答案????D 句意:Niki总是会有很多想法,但是据我所知没有一个是有用的。nothing没有什么, 表示泛指;no one没有一个人;neither两者都不;none没有一个。故选D项。 3.(2015陕西,13)To warm himself,the sailor sat in front of the fire rubbing one bare foot against????  ????. A.another  B.the other C.other   D.either 答案????B 句意:为了使自己暖和,那个水手坐在炉火前面光着脚互相摩擦。本题考查代词的 用法。此处指“两者中的另一个”,故选B项。 考点二 其他代词和it的用法 1.(2019天津,3)A study shows the students who are engaged in after-school activities are happier than   ???? who are not. A.ones  B.those  C.these  D.them 答案????B 考查代词。句意:研究表明参加课外活动的学生比那些不参加的学生更快乐。此 处应用those替代前面的the students,故答案为B项。 2.(2016浙江,3)In many ways, the education system in the US is not very different from  ????in the UK. A.that  B.this  C.one  D.it 答案????A 句意:在许多方面,美国的教育制度与英国的教育制度没有很大差异。本题考查代 词。此处指代the education system,故用that。that代替特指的单数可数名词或不可数名词;this 指代下文中要提到的内容;one代替泛指的可数名词单数;it代替同类同物。 3.(2015浙江,12)How would you like  ????if you were watching your favorite TV program and someone came into the room and just shut it off without asking you? A.them  B.one  C.those  D.it 答案????D 句意:如果你正在看你最喜欢的电视节目,而有人进入房间没有问你就把电视关上 了,你会怎样想?本题考查代词it的用法。it可作like、hate、dislike、love等动词的宾语,表示对 地点或情况的情绪。 考点一 不定代词 三年模拟 A组 2017—2019年高考模拟·考点基础题组 1.(2019天津河西质调一,2)Our company is seeking for a manager, especially   ???? with creativ- ity and imagination. A.the one  B.each  C.one  D.that 答案????C 句意:我们公司正在招聘一名经理,尤其是有创造力和想象力的人。考查不定代 词。此处one 指代“一个具有创造力和想象力的人”。故选C。 2.(2019天津十二校一模,5)—Excuse me, can you tell me where I can find a supermarket? —I happen to know   ???? nearby. Come on, I'll show you the way. A.one  B.it  C.that  D.some 答案????A 句意:——打扰一下,您能告诉我在哪里能找到超市吗?——我恰巧知道这附近有一 个。来吧,我给你指路。考查代词。one为泛指,表示同类事物中的一个,it指代同一事物。根据 语境可知选择A。 3.(2018天津河西三模,2)If you want to change for a double room, you'll have to pay  ????$25. A.other  B.more  C.another  D.each 答案????C 句意:如果你想换一个双人间,你得再付25美元。another“(同类的)另一, 又一”符 合语境。other其他的,其余的;more更多;each每个,各自。 4.(2018天津河东一模,5)  ???? who are able to work through the struggle are the   ???? who are going to be successful. A.Someone;one  B.Anyone;one C.He;ones   D.Those;ones 答案????D 句意:那些能够奋力拼搏到底的人是能取得成功的人。考查代词。句中缺少定语 从句的先行词,根据句中定语从句中的are可知,先行词用复数人称代词,故选D。 5.(2018江苏南京、盐城二模,24)—Metteo's new album Panama has turned out to be a hit. —Oh, he is really  ????of a lucky dog. A.nothing  B.anything  C.everything  D.something 答案????D 句意:——Metteo的新专辑《巴拿马》大获成功。——哦,他真的可以说是个幸运 儿。something of a...为固定结构,意为“可以说是一个……”。 6.(2018江苏压轴冲刺卷,30)Any writer, if concerned with  ????but what the critics think of his book, will find it a struggle to put a single word down on the paper. A.anything  B.nothing  C.something  D.everything 答案????B 句意:任何一位作家,如果只关注评论家们对他的书的看法的话,那他就会发现很难 在纸上写出一个字。nothing but(=only)只是,仅仅。 7.(2018江苏三联,30)Though a farmer, Zhu Zhiwen has become a huge success as a singer, whose story is really   ???? of great inspiration. A.everything  B.nothing C.the one   D.one 答案????D 句意:朱之文虽然是一位农民,但作为一名歌手却取得了巨大的成功。他的故事确 实非常鼓舞人心。考查不定代词。此处one指代a story,表泛指。 8.(2017北京海淀一模,21)—What do you think of the two designs? —Frankly, I like   ???? of them.Please show me a third one. A.any   B.either  C.neither  D.both 答案????C 句意:——你觉得这两个设计怎么样?——说实话,两个我都不喜欢。请给我看看另 外一个吧。考查不定代词。由答语中show me a third one可知,对两个设计都不满意,故选nei- ther(两者都不)。any三者或三者以上中任何一个;either两者中的任何一个;both两者都。 考点二 其他代词和it的用法 1.(2018天津南开一模,6)The new online library makes   ????possible for students to choose books by smartphone off campus. A.it  B.one  C.that  D.this 答案????A 句意:新的网上图书馆使学生在校园外也能通过智能手机选择书籍。考查代词。 固定句型make+it+adj.+for sb.+to do sth.意为“使做某事对于某人来说……”,其中it为形式宾 语,真正的宾语为不定式短语。one泛指可数名词单数;that特指前面的可数名词单数或不可数 名词;this表近指,“这个”。 2.(2018江苏南京三模,24)We come from different cultures, and carry with  ???? different histo- ries. A.it  B.that  C.us  D.them 答案????C 句意:我们来自不同的文化,身上承载着不同的历史。理顺后半句语序:and carry different histories with  ????,由此可得知,设空处在此处作介词宾语,故需用人称代词we的宾 格形式,选C。 3.(2017天津十二校一模,8)You look very beautiful in this dress and there is only one of this kind left here.I wonder if you would buy   ????. A.one  B.it  C.some  D.any 答案????B 句意:你穿这件连衣裙看上去很漂亮,这儿只剩下一件这样的了。不知您是否会买 它。考查代词。此处特指上句中提到的那件连衣裙,故用it。 B组 2017—2019年高考模拟·专题综合题组 1.(2019天津河东一模,5)The economy in big cities has continued to rise thanks to the local gov- ernments to increase   ????. A.that  B.them  C.it  D.those 答案????C 句意:幸亏当地政府对经济的促进,一些大城市的经济才得以持续增长。考查代 词。it指代前句中提到的economy。 2.(2019天津南开一模,13)That's an unpleasant thing to say about your father after   ???? he's done for you. A.something  B.anything  C.all  D.that 答案????C 句意:你的父亲为你做了那么多,而你那样说他是不礼貌的。考查不定代词。all指 代所有的事。 3.(2019天津和平一模,2)—Which driver was to blame? —Why,   ???? ! It was the child's fault,clear and simple.He suddenly came out between two parked cars. A.both  B.each  C.either  D.neither 答案????D 句意:——哪个司机该受到责备?——为什么,两个都不该。很简单明了,是那个孩 子的错。他突然出现在两辆停着的车之间。考查不定代词。根据句意可知,两位司机都不该 受到责备,故选择D。 4.(2018天津红桥二模,2)—Did you have any trouble with the western customs? —  ????to speak of. A.None  B.Anything  C.Nobody  D.No one 答案????A 句意:——你对西方风俗习惯有什么不了解的地方吗?——很少。none/nothing to speak of很少,没什么值得提的。 5.(2018天津部分区质调二,1)I like   ????when my classmates and I go to a karaoke bar and sing together crazily. A.this  B.one  C.that  D.it 答案????D 句意:我喜欢和同学们去卡拉OK酒吧,一起疯狂地唱歌。固定句型:I like/hate it+ when...,其中it为形式宾语,真正的宾语是when引导的从句。 6.(2018天津滨海新区七校联考,23)“Made in China 2025” aims to transform China from a product-making factory into a product-making power,  ????driven by innovation and emphasiz- ing quality over quantity. A.the one that  B.one that C.one   D.the one 答案????C 句意:《中国制造2025》旨在将中国从一个制造工厂转变为一个由创新驱动、重 质量而非数量的制造强国。考查不定代词作同位语。此处用代词one作同位语,替代名词短语 a product-making power。 7.(2018江苏苏锡常镇四市二模,21)—What do you think of Steven Hawking? —Well, despite his disabled body, he was a man of scientific nature,  ????worthy of admiration. A.one  B.who  C.that  D.this 答案????A 句意:——你认为斯蒂芬·霍金怎么样?——噢,尽管他身体残疾,但他是一个具有科 学天赋的人,值得敬佩。考查不定代词作同位语。one指代前面所述的a man of scientific na- ture,在句中作同位语。若选who来构成非限制性定语从句,设空处后缺少谓语。 8.(2018天津南开三模,2)—The little boat is  ????safe.Don't you think so, Mike? —No worries! I've been on this boat dozens of times. A.something but   B.nothing but C.anything but    D.everything but 答案????C 句意:——这条小船一点也不安全。难道你不这么认为吗,迈克?——不用担心!我 已经乘坐过这条船很多次了。anything but“绝不,根本不”符合语境。nothing but仅仅,只有, 只不过。 9.(2018江苏苏北四市一调,30)During the Singles' Day in 2017, the sales of Chinese e-commerce giants such as Alibaba outnumbered  ????of Black Friday and Cyber Monday in the US. A.that  B.those  C.this  D.it 答案????B 句意:在2017年“双十一”,诸如阿里巴巴之类的中国电子商务巨头的销售额超过 了美国的黑色星期五和网络星期一。考查代词。设空处替代前面的the sales,故选B。 10.(2017天津南开二模,12)How could they reach an agreement? Some said one thing, but others   ????. A.other   B.another  C.the other  D.others 答案????B 句意:他们怎么能达成一致意见呢?一些人说的是一件事,但其他人说的是另一件 事。考查不定代词。one thing与another对应。 11.(2017天津河西一模,11)My close friends, after they heard about my experiences in South America,   ????said it was totally out of their imagination. A.which  B.them  C.all  D.who 答案????C 句意:在听说了我在南美的经历后,我的亲密的朋友们都说这完全超出了他们的想 象。考查代词。此题易误认为设空处引导非限制性定语从句而错选D项。分析句子结构可 知,after引导时间状语从句,若选who的话,主句不完整,只有主语。故只能用代词all作主语My close friends的同位语。 12.(2017天津南开三模,5)A variety of solutions have been provided for us to solve the problem. We can choose   ????to start with. A.it  B.that  C.each  D.one 答案????D 句意:这个问题的各种解决方案已经提供给我们了。我们可以选择其中一种开 始。考查不定代词。此处one指代a solution,表示泛指。 13.(2017北京海淀二模,23)—Do you have   ???? ready for the spring outing? —No, I still have to buy some fruit. A.everything  B.anything C.something   D.nothing 答案????A 句意:——你准备好春游的一切了吗?——没有,我还得买些水果。考查不定代词。 由答句“没有,我还得买些水果”可知,问的是“有没有做好一切准备”,故选A。 考点一 不定代词 历年高考试题汇编 1.(2005天津,15)I prefer a flat in Inverness to   ???? in Perth,because I want to live near my mom' s. A.one  B.that  C.it  D.this 2.(2008天津,5)To know more about the British Museum,you can use the Internet or go to the li- brary,or  ????. A.neither  B.some  C.all  D.both 3.(2010全国Ⅱ,12)Neither side is prepared to talk to  ????unless we can smooth things over be- tween them. A.others  B.the other  C.another  D.one other 4.(2010安徽,21)You are a team star!Working with  ????is really your cup of tea. A.both  B.either  C.others  D.the other 5.(2010全国Ⅰ,23)I'll spend half of my holiday practising English and  ????half learning draw- ing. A.another  B.the other C.other's   D.other 6.(2010浙江,14)  ????that's important is that you are doing your best and moving in the right di- rection. A.One  B.All  C.Everything  D.Anything 7.(2011上海,26)To stay awake,he finished a cup of coffee and ordered  ????. A.the other  B.other  C.the others  D.another 8.(2011湖南,24)I knew that  ????would ever discourage him;he would never give up wanting to be a director. A.something  B.anything  C.everything  D.nothing 9.(2011重庆,27)—Silly me!I forget what my luggage looks like. —What do you think of  ????over there? A.the one  B.this  C.it  D.that 10.(2012辽宁,28)If you're buying today's paper from the stand,could you get  ????for me? A.one  B.such  C.this  D.that 11.(2012重庆,21)—John,when shall we meet again,Thursday or Friday? —  ????.I'll be off to London then. A.Either  B.Neither  C.Both  D.None 12.(2012江苏,23)Sophia waited for a reply,but  ????came. A.either  B.another  C.neither  D.none 13.(2012江西,23)My brother would like to buy a good watch but  ????was available from that shop. A.nothing  B.none  C.no one  D.neither 14.(2013陕西,22)Although Rosemary had suffered from a serious illness for years,she lost  ???? of her enthusiasm for life. A.some  B.neither  C.none  D.all 15.(2014重庆,1)A smile costs  ????,but gives much. A.anything  B.something C.nothing   D.everything 16.(2014四川,1)She'd lived in London and Manchester,but she liked  ????and moved to Cam- bridge. A.both  B.neither  C.none  D.either 17.(2014江西,32)—When shall I call,in the morning or afternoon? —  ????.I'll be in all day. A.Any  B.None  C.Neither  D.Either 18.(2014安徽,24)You can ask anyone for help.  ????here is willing to lend you a hand. A.One  B.No one C.Everyone  D.Someone 19.(2014福建,21)In some countries,people eat with chopsticks,while in  ????,knives and forks. A.another  B.others  C.both  D.all 20.(2014江苏,34)Good families are much to all their members,but  ????to none. A.something  B.anything C.everything  D.nothing 答案 1—5 ADBCB 6—10 BDDDA 11—15 BDBCC 16—20 BDCBC 考点二 其他代词和it的用法 1.(2012全国Ⅱ,9)Sarah made  ????to the airport just in time to catch her plane this morning. A.herself  B.this  C.that  D.it 2.(2012四川,2)New technologies have made  ????possible to turn out new products faster and at a lower cost. A.that  B.this  C.one  D.it 3.(2012陕西,13)No matter where he is,he makes  ????a rule to go for a walk before breakfast. A.him  B.this  C.that  D.it 4.(2013四川,2)The traffic on the main streets has a longer green signal than  ????on the small ones. A.one  B.this  C.that  D.it 5.(2013浙江,11)Half of  ????surveyed in 16 countries say they go first to their closest friend to share their deepest wishes and darkest fears. A.these  B.some  C.ones  D.those 6.(2014陕西,21)I'd appreciate  ????if you could let me know in advance whether or not you will come. A.it  B.you  C.one  D.this 7.(2014山东,4)Susan made  ????clear to me that she wished to make a new life for herself. A.that  B.this  C.it  D.her 8.(2014浙江,3)An average of just 18.75cm of rain fell last year,making  ????the driest year since California became a state in 1850. A.each  B.it  C.this  D.one 9.(2014大纲全国,25)—Who's that at the door? —  ????is the milkman. A.He  B.It  C.This  D.That 答案 1—5 DDDCD 6—9 ACBB (共151张PPT) 专题九 定语从句和名词性从句 高考英语 (天津市专用) 考点一 定语从句 五年高考 1.(2019天津夏,11)Their child is at the stage   ???? she can say individual words but not full sen- tences. A.why  B.where  C.which  D.what 答案????B 考查定语从句。句意:他们的孩子处于能说一些单个的单词但不能说完整句子的 阶段。定语从句的先行词为stage, 将先行词代入定语从句后为:She can say individual words but not full sentences at the stage. 由此可见,先行词在句中与介词at一起作地点状语,故用关系 副词where。 2.(2019天津春,14)The course normally attracts about 100 students per year,   ???? up to half will be from abroad. A.who   B.of which C.when  D.of whom 答案 D 句意:该课程通常每年吸引约100名学生,其中多达一半会来自国外。本题考查“介 词+关系代词”引导的定语从句。先行词是100 students,指人,排除B、C项;将先行词代入定语 从句应是:Up to half of the 100 students will be from abroad.故D项正确。 3.(2019江苏,21)We have entered into an age   ???? dreams have the best chance of coming true. A.which  B.what  C.when  D.that 答案????C 句意:我们已经进入一个梦想最有可能实现的时代。考查定语从句。先行词为an age,定语从句中缺少时间状语,故用关系副词when。 4.(2018天津春,7)There was a long wait at the reception desk,  ????everyone was checking in. A.why  B.which  C.whom  D.where 答案????D 句意:接待处排起了长队,大家都正在这里办理登记手续。考查定语从句。先行词 为the reception desk,关系词在定语从句中作地点状语,故选关系副词where。 5.(2018北京,5)She and her family bicycle to work,   ???? helps them keep fit. A.which  B.who  C.as  D.that 答案????A 句意:她和家人都骑自行车上班,这有助于他们保持健康。本题考查定语从句。根 据题干可知,从句修饰的是前面的主句,“她和家人骑自行车上班”这件事充当了定语从句中 的主语成分,且此定语从句前有逗号,是非限制性定语从句,所以用which引导。 6.(2018江苏,23)Self-driving is an area  ????China and the rest of the world are on the same start- ing line. A.that  B.where  C.which  D.when 答案????B 句意:无人驾驶是一个中国和世界其他国家处在同一起跑线上的领域。考查定语 从句。设空处引导的是定语从句,修饰先行词an area。将先行词代入定语从句后为:China and the rest of the world are on the same starting line in the area.由此可知,关系词在定语从句中作地 点状语,所以要用关系副词where引导。 7.(2017天津夏,9)My eldest son,  ????work takes him all over the world, is in New York at the moment. A.that  B.whose  C.his  D.who 答案????B 句意:我最大的儿子现在在纽约,他的工作让他走遍世界各地。本题考查定语从 句。先行词是My eldest son,将先行词代入定语从句后为:My eldest son's work takes him all over the world.故用whose引导从句。 8.(2017天津春,13)I have reached a point in my career  ???? I need to decide which way to go. A.that  B.where  C.which  D.why 答案????B 句意:我的事业到了需要决定何去何从的阶段。考查定语从句。先行词point在此 处意为“发展的阶段”,表示抽象的地点,故用where。 9.(2016天津,9)We will put off the picnic in the park until next week,   ????the weather may be better. A.that  B.where  C.which  D.when 答案????D 句意:我们将把在公园的野餐推迟到下周,届时天气可能会更好。考查定语从句。 先行词为next week,非限制性定语从句中缺少时间状语,故用when。that不能引导非限制性定 语从句;where引导定语从句时,其先行词为地点,并在从句中作地点状语;which引导定语从句 时在从句中作主语或宾语。 10.(2016浙江,11)Scientists have advanced many theories about why human beings cry tears, none of  ????has been proved. A.whom  B.which  C.what  D.that 答案????B 句意:就人类为什么哭出眼泪科学家提出来许多理论,但没有一项理论得到过证 明。考查定语从句。先行词为theories,故用which引导非限制性定语从句。 11.(2016江苏,23)Many young people,most  ???? were well-educated,headed for remote regions to chase their dreams. A.of which  B.of them  C.of whom  D.of those 答案????C 句意:很多年轻人都去了偏远地区追求自己的梦想,他们中大部分都受过良好的教 育。考查定语从句。most   ????were well-educated为定语从句,先行词为many young people, 指人,故排除A项;B项和D项都不能引导从句,故选C项。 12.(2015天津,15)The boss of the company is trying to create an easy atmosphere  ????his em- ployees enjoy their work. A.where  B.which  C.when  D.who 答案????A 句意:该公司的老板在努力营造一种轻松的氛围,在这种氛围中,他的员工们可以享 受工作的乐趣。考查定语从句。该从句修饰的先行词为atmosphere,将先行词代入定语从句 后为“His employees enjoy their work in the easy atmosphere.”。由此可见关系词在定语从句 中作地点状语,故答案为where。 评析????定语从句是高考中的一个重点和难点。首先弄清从句所修饰的先行词,然后分析从句 结构,弄清从句中缺少的成分,决定用关系代词还是关系副词。 13.(2015浙江,19)Creating an atmosphere  ????employees feel part of a team is a big challenge. A.as  B.whose  C.in which  D.at which 答案????C 句意:创造出让员工感觉到自己就是团队的一员的一种氛围是极富挑战的。本题 考查定语从句。先行词为an atmosphere,将先行词代入定语从句后为“In the atmosphere em- ployees feel part of a team.”。由此可见关系词在定语从句中充当地点状语,因此用“in+ which”或where,故答案选C。 14.(2015江苏,21)The number of smokers,  ????is reported,has dropped by 17 percent in just one year. A.it  B.which  C.what  D.as 答案????D 句意:正如所报道的那样,吸烟的人数仅在一年内就已经减少了百分之十七。本题 考查非限制性定语从句。排除it和what;which和as都可以引导非限制性定语从句,但当as在从 句中作主语时,后面常接动词的被动语态,故答案为as。 15.(2015陕西,15)As the smallest child of his family,Alex is always longing for the time  ????he should be able to be independent. A.which  B.where  C.whom  D.when 答案????D 句意:作为家里最小的孩子,Alex总是期盼着他能够独立的时候。本题考查定语从 句。先行词为the time,关系词在从句中作时间状语,故答案为D项。 16.(2015四川,3)The books on the desk,  ????covers are shiny,are prizes for us. A.which  B.what  C.whose  D.that 答案????C 句意:桌上那些封面闪闪发亮的书是我们的奖品。本题考查定语从句。先行词为 The books,将先行词代入从句后为“The books' covers are shiny.”,故选C。 17.(2015福建,34)China Today attracts a worldwide readership,  ????shows that more and more people all over the world want to learn about China. A.who  B.whom  C.that  D.which 答案????D 句意:《今日中国》吸引了世界各地的读者,这表明世界上越来越多的人想了解中 国。本题考查非限制性定语从句。先行词为设空处前的一句话,关系词在定语从句中作主语, 故答案为D项。 18.(2015安徽,28)Some experts think reading is the fundamental skill upon   ???? school educa- tion depends. A.it  B.that   C.whose   D.which 答案????D????句意:有些专家认为阅读是学校教育所依赖的基本技能。本题考查定语从句。先 行词为skill,关系词which指代skill并在从句中作介词upon的宾语,故选D项。 考点二 名词性从句 1.(2019天津春,8)The opinion   ???? learning is a lifelong process has been expressed by educa- tion experts throughout the years. A.which  B.that  C.what  D.how 答案????B 句意:教育专家多年来一直认为学习是一个终生的过程。本题考查同位语从句。 分析句意及句子成分可知,设空处引导同位语从句,解释说明opinion的内容。从句句子成分齐 全、句意完整,应使用that,that无词义、不充当成分、仅起连接作用。故B项正确。 2.(2019江苏,25)Scientists have obtained more evidence   ???? plastic is finding its way into the human body. A.what  B.that  C.which  D.where 答案????B 句意:科学家们已经获得塑料正在偶然进入人体的更多证据。考查同位语从句。 根据语境可知,空格后的内容对evidence进行解释说明,且结构完整,故由that引导同位语从句。 3.(2018天津夏,9)The gold medal will be awarded to  ????wins the first place in the bicycle race. A.whomever  B.wherever C.whoever   D.whatever 答案????C 句意:这块金牌将颁发给这场自行车比赛中获得第一名的人。本题考查宾语从 句。“  ????wins the first place in the bicycle race”为宾语从句,该从句缺少主语,且设空处表 示“任何人”,故填whoever,相当于anyone who。 4.(2018天津春,10)He studied hard and later became a well-known writer, which was   ????his father had expected. A.why  B.how  C.that  D.what 答案????D 句意:他学习很努力,后来成了一位著名作家,实现了父亲的夙愿。考查名词性从 句。此处考查表语从句的引导词,引导词在从句中作宾语,故用what。 5.(2018北京,11)Without his support, we wouldn't be   ???? we are now. A.how  B.when  C.where  D.why 答案????C 句意:要是没有他的帮助,我们就不会是现在的情形了。本题考查表语从句。根据 句意可知,设空处意为“情形,情况,形势”,应用where引导,在从句中作表语。 6.(2018北京,15)This is   ???? my father has taught me—to always face difficulties and hope for the best. A.how  B.which C.that   D.what 答案????D 句意:这就是父亲教给我的——总是面对困难并寄予最大的希望。本题考查表语 从句。根据句意可知,表语从句中taught me后缺少直接宾语——“教会了我什么”,因此用 what引导。 7.(2018江苏,21)By boat is the only way to get here, which is  ????we arrived. A.where  B.when  C.why  D.how 答案????D 句意:坐船是到达这里的唯一方式,这也是我们如何到达这里的。考查表语从句。 which引导的是一个非限制性定语从句,其中设空处引导的是表语从句,结合语境和By boat可 知,此处表达的是到达这里的方式,所以要用how引导。 8.(2017天津夏,4)She asked me  ????I had returned the books to the library, and I admitted that I hadn't. A.when  B.where  C.whether  D.what 答案????C 句意:她问我是否已经把书还给图书馆了,我承认我还没有归还。本题考查名词性 从句。根据题干可知,设空处引导宾语从句。根据句意,应用whether“是否”,故选择C项。 9.(2017北京,23)Every year,  ????makes the most beautiful kite will win a prize in the Kite Festi- val. A.whatever  B.whoever  C.whomever  D.whichever 答案????B????句意:每年,在风筝节上,制作出最漂亮的风筝的人会赢得一份奖品。本题考查名词 性从句。设空处引导主语从句,从句中缺少主语成分,根据句意可知应用whoever引导,表示 “无论哪个人,无论谁”。whomever作宾语成分,故被排除。 10.(2017江苏,26)We choose this hotel because the price for a night here is down to $20, half of????  ????it used to charge. A.that  B.which  C.what  D.how 答案????C 句意:我们选择这家宾馆是因为这里住一晚上的价格降到了20美元,这是其之前要 价的一半。本题考查宾语从句。逗号后面是$20的同位语,charge后面缺少宾语,故用what引 导。 11.(2016天津,11)The manager put forward a suggestion  ????we should have an assistant.There is too much work to do. A.whether  B.that  C.which  D.what 答案????B 句意:经理提出一个建议,我们应该有个助手。有太多的工作要做。根据句意可知 此处应用that引导同位语从句说明suggestion的内容。that引导同位语从句时只起连接作用,不 作成分。 12.(2016北京,24)Your support is important to our work.  ????you can do helps. A.However  B.Whoever  C.Whatever  D.Wherever 答案????C 句意:你的支持对我们的工作很重要。无论你做什么都有帮助。本题考查主语从 句。根据语境可知,helps是谓语动词,  ????you c

  • ID:4-6137814 (山东专用)2020届高考英语一轮复习专题11-16课件(打包6套)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共35张PPT) 专题十一 名词、代词、冠词 高考英语 (山东专用) A组????2017—2019年高考模拟·考点基础题组 题组一 名词 1.(2019山东潍坊3月一模,68)The structure was finally completed on 6 February 2018 and   ???? (journalist)were subsequently given rides over the bridge. 三年模拟 答案 journalists 根据设空处后面的助动词were可知,前面需填名词的复数journalists。 2.(2019山东泰安英雄山中学期中,66)Make sure your children have something to do—a notepad and a pen for drawing or a simple game, which can help reduce   ???? (bore). 答案 boredom 考查词性转换。动词reduce后需要跟名词作宾语,故答案为boredom。 3.(2019山东荣成六中检测,61)Hello Kitty, one of the most famous imaginary   ???? (character) in the world, greets us everywhere. 答案 characters 根据one of可确定空格处需用名词的复数形式。 4.(2018山东师大附中高三五模,68)Instead, he was always searching for   ????(mean) for life. 答案 meaning 考查名词。根据前面的介词for可判断出这里用名词。故填meaning。 5.(2018山东烟台高考诊断,61)But it really causes great destruction to the environment and threat- ens the   ????(life) of our wildlife. 答案  lives 考查名词复数。life 意为“生命”,是可数名词;根据“our wildlife”可知,此处 应用复数形式。故填lives。 6.(2018山东师大附中高三五模,67)But his main concern was never with making money or even with making scientific   ???? (discover). 答案 discoveries 考查名词的数。形容词scientific修饰名词,discover的名词形式为discov- ery,在这里是可数名词,此处表泛指且前面没有不定冠词,应用复数。故填discoveries。 7.(2017山东临沂一模,62)In China, I always spend the Spring Festival with Chinese  ???? (fami- ly),eating dumplings, laughing and joking. 答案 families family意为“家庭”时为可数名词,此处表泛指且设空处前没有不定冠词,故 需用名词复数形式表示泛指。 答案 it 考查代词。When it comes to...当提到……时。 题组二 代词 1.(2019山东聊城3月一模,62) When   ???? comes to Microsoft, the first person we think of is Bill Gates, the other co-founder of the firm. 2.(2019山东莱西一中一模,66) Smart phones also have access to the Internet, and students can find answers   ????(they). 答案 themselves 考查代词。one can do sth. oneself某人能自己做某事。 3.(2019北京海淀二模,6)So when you're in a hard situation, you will believe in   ???? (you) and spend the most difficult time with confidence. 答案 yourself 考查反身代词。believe in oneself 相信自己。 5.(2019浙江高考模拟,63)I should have to teach all the subjects except art, which he taught  ???????? (him). 4.(2019北京西城二模,10)And this ambition may be due to the fact that China's young people are now more confident about   ???? (they) own culture. 答案 their one's own...某人自己的……。 答案 himself teach oneself sth. 自学……。 题组三 冠词 1.(2019山东泰安3月一模,61) China is famous for its bewildering and oftentimes confusing high- way interchanges (立体交叉道),but the Qianchun interchange in   ???? mountainous province of Guizhou is the only one that actually looks like a giant rollercoaster for cars and trucks. 答案 the 考查冠词。此处表示特指,故填定冠词the。 2.(2019山东济南一模,68) “Paper-cuts share the same function of maintaining emotional ties a- mong people,” says Yang Huizi,   ???? art teacher at Beijing Union University. 答案 an 考查冠词。此处表泛指,且art的发音以元音开头, 故填an。 4.(2018山东青岛高三统一质检, 65)As   ???? result, a few months ago, he opened a nap cafe in the center of America's capital city. 答案 a as a result 结果。 3.(2019山东邹城高三质检,61)It is an effort to focus attention on   ????fact that despite there be- ing enough food globally, some 21,000 people die every day from hunger. 答案 the 此处为特指,故填the。the fact that(……的)事实。 B组????2017—2019年高考模拟·专题综合题组 题组一 名词 1.(2019山东高三三模,68)Online, many of them argued that the show's delayed transmission broke their children's concept of   ????(punctual) 答案 punctuality 考查名词构词法。设空处在句子中作介词of的宾语,故要用名词形式。 2.(2019山东泰安4月二模,63)In the latest   ???? (develop), the city's Hongqiao Railway Station, one of Asia's biggest traffic centers, has launched a 5G network. 答案 development 考查名词构词法。设空处被the latest限定,作介词in的宾语,故要用名词 形式。 3.(2019山东师大附中五模,64)Mandarin is a category (种类) of Chinese   ???? (dialect) spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. 答案 dialects 考查名词的复数。这里表示多种地方话中的一种,故用复数形式。 4.(2019北京朝阳期中,5)For   ???? (fan) of this train, being slow is actually a good thing. 答案 fans 考查名词复数。fan是可数名词,此处泛指那列火车的“粉丝们”,故填写fans。 5.(2019山东青岛5月二模,63)They might not be used to having total   ???? (free) in how they plan their days and nights. 答案 freedom 考查名词构词法。total为形容词,修饰名词,故填freedom。 6.(2019浙江杭州质检,59) I've dined alone in fine restaurants for decades with great   ???? (sat- isfy) and no need or desire for company. 答案 satisfaction 考查名词构词法。设空处被形容词修饰,应用名词形式satisfaction。 题组二 代词 1.(2019山东师大附中五模,62)Written Chinese came out in   ???? (it) earliest form approximate- ly 6,000 years ago. 答案 its 考查代词。设空处修饰后面的名词form,故要用其形容词性物主代词形式its。 2.(2019山东安丘市、诸城市、五莲县、兰山区4月模拟,68)At that time he devoted   ???? (he) to writing and many of his works were written or published then. 答案 himself 考查反身代词。devote oneself to sth.致力于某事。 3.(2019山东滨州5月二模,67) So what is 5G supposed to bring, especially for ordinary people? For one thing,   ???? will make mobile Internet work at a speed of 1 TB per second. 答案 it 考查代词。设空处指代前面的名词5G,故用it。 4.(2019北京昌平二模,9)Being drunk, sliding on a banana peel or whispering his own failures to nobody, he made   ???? (we) feel more satisfied with our life without even having to use one word. 答案 us 考查人称代词。此处为make sb. do sth.结构,sb.为宾语,应用代词宾格。 5.(2018山东师大附中高三五模,61)Alfred Nobel was born in Sweden and then moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father made a strong position for   ????in the engineering in- dustry, but unfortunately went bankrupt few years later. 答案 himself 考查代词。此处回指主语his father,故填himself。 6.(2017山东师大附中二模,66)At that moment an attractive young lady who noticed my book came up to me and introduced  ????. 答案 herself 设空处作宾语,且指主语an attractive young lady,故用反身代词herself。 题组三 冠词 1.(2019 山东高三三模,61)“First Class for the New Semester” has become  ???? mandatory (强制的)viewing activity for parents and students on the first day of the fall semester. 答案 a 考查冠词。此处表泛指,activity是可数名词,mandatory的发音以辅音开头,故要填不 定冠词a。 2.(2019山东师大附中五模,69) Whether you are interested in basic communication, scholarly re- search, or pursuing a career in China, standard Mandarin is  ???? necessary tool for communica- tion. 答案 a 考查冠词。tool是可数名词,此处表泛指,且necessary的发音以辅音音素开头,故填不 定冠词a。 3.(2019山东青岛二中期末,66)Then he opened one of his bags and gave me   ???? handful of freshly picked cherries, explaining that he had just taken them from his orchard. 答案 a 考查冠词。a handful of表示“一把”。 4.(2019浙江宁波4月模拟,64) This gives the brightest and best Chinese students   ???? opportu- nity to move straight into the first year of our undergraduate programme. 答案 an 考查冠词。此处泛指一个机会,且opportunity的发音以元音开头,故填an。 5.(2019浙江金华十校模拟,57)The film focuses on   ???? question “Who is Peppa?” and tells a touching story. 答案 the 此处特指“Who is Peppa?”这个问题,故用定冠词the。 C组????2017—2019年高考模拟·应用创新题组 Passage 1 The 9th day of the 9th lunar month is the traditional Chongyang Festival or the Double Ninth Fes- tival in China. The Double Ninth Festival contains various 1????(activity) such as climbing moun- tains, admiring chrysanthemums(菊花), wearing the cornel(山茱萸)and eating Chongyang Cake. When I was young, it was also an occasion to remember the ancestors, the sacrifices they made and the hardships they underwent.  2???? is hard to say when these customs were created. But there are many stories which are close- ly related. Climbing mountains during the Double Ninth Festival was popular in  3???? Tang dy- nasty, and a lot of poems were devoted to this custom. The custom of climbing to a  4???? (high) to avoid epidemics(流行病)was passed down from a long time ago. Therefore, the Double Ninth Festival is also called the “Height Ascending Festival”. Folk customs like climbing a mountain during the Double Ninth Festival and cleaning the tombs during the Qingming Festival deserve to be remembered as they are important parts of the Chinese heritage. Chongyang Cake comes from the food in season in September. That is why Chongyang Cake is recommended for sacrifices to ancestors on the day of the Chongyang Festival. On this day, people will eat Double Ninth Gao (or Cake ). In Chinese, gao(cake)has the same 5????(pronounce) as gao (height). 答案 [语篇解读] 本文介绍了重阳节这一中国传统节日及其习俗。 1.activities 考查名词复数。根据空格前面的various可知,此处的名词应用复数形式,故填ac- tivities。 2.It 考查代词。分析句子结构可知,此处应为形式主语,故填It。 3.the 考查冠词。此处将the放在Tang dynasty前面,表示特指。 4.height 考查词性转换。根据空格前的不定冠词a可知,此处应用名词,high对应的名词是 height。height在这里表示“高处”。 5.pronunciation 考查词性转换。the same后应用名词。 Passage 2 “Lu Yonggen,  1???? academician(院士) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, donated all his savings of about 8.8 million yuan (about 1.34 million dollars) to educational causes,” the Xinhua News Agency reported. The 87-year-old scientist suffering from cancer said his  2????(achieve)would not have been possi- ble without the Communist Party of China, and he was willing to make his last contribution to the country. In March, Lu and his wife spent one hour and 3???? half transferring all the money saved in more than 10 bank accounts to South China Agricultural University to establish an educational fund to sponsor poverty-stricken students and talented young teachers. Lu worked as President of the former South China Agricultural College, which is now South China Agricultural University. Under his leadership,  4???? university gave priority to research and de- velopment, sometimes at Lu's own expense. Lu himself also works hard in his field of rice genetics, climbing mountains in 2001 at the age of 7 0 to find wild rice. During the past five years, Lu's team has bred 33 new  5????(variety) of rice seeds that are grown on 600,000 hectares of land. Although he is a renowned scientist, Lu lived a simple and humble life, using broken furniture dat- ing back to the 1980s in his home. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文介绍了著名科学家卢永根捐出自己一生的积蓄设立教育基金来帮助贫困学 生和有才能的年轻教师的感人事迹。 1.an 考查冠词。此处表泛指,且academician的发音以元音开头,故填an。 2.achievements 考查词性转换。在物主代词his的后面应用名词形式,且根据语境此处应用复 数,表示“成绩,成就”。 3.a 考查冠词。one hour and a half为固定词组,表示“一个半小时”。 4.the 考查冠词。这里特指上文提到的大学,故用定冠词the。 5.varieties 考查名词复数。variety在此处是可数名词,表示“种类,品种”,由前面的33可知这 里应用复数形式。 题组一 名词 1.(2018天津,6)The  ????(possible) that there is life on other planets in the universe has always inspired scientists to explore the outer space. 历年高考试题汇编 答案 possibility 句意:在宇宙中的其他行星上可能存在生命,这一直鼓舞着科学家们探索外 太空。考查名词。设空处在句中作主语,故填名词。possibility可能,可能性,其后为that引导的 同位语从句。 2.(2018江苏,32)Try to understand what's actually happening instead of acting on the  ????(as- sume) you've made. 答案 assumption 句意:要努力去弄明白实际上正在发生的事,而不要根据自己的假设就采 取行动。根据语境和设空处前的定冠词the可知此处要用所给单词的名词形式。assumption 假定;假设。 3.(2017江苏,34)The disappearance of dinosaurs is not necessarily caused by astronomical inci- dents. But alternative   ???? (explain) are hard to find. 答案 explanations 句意:恐龙灭绝未必是由天体事故造成的,但是也很难找到其他的解释。 设空处在此处作句子的主语,要用其名词形式。根据系动词are可知此处要用名词的复数形 式。 4.(2016浙江,4 )It is important to pay your   ????(electric)bill on time, as late payments may af- fect your credit. 答案 electricity 句意:按时交电费很重要,因为晚交电费可能会影响你的信誉。本题考查名 词作定语。名词作定语时,常用其单数形式,故答案为electricity。 5.(2016江苏,24)—Can you tell us your recipe for   ????(happy) and a long life? —Living every day to the full, definitely. 答案 happiness 句意:——你能告诉我们你幸福、长寿的秘诀吗?——确切地说,就是充实 地度过每一天。介词后需用名词形式,happiness作“幸福”讲,为不可数名词,故答案为happi- ness。 6.(2015江苏,32)Some schools will have to make  ????(adjust) in agreement with the national soccer reform. 答案 adjustments/adjustment 句意:有些学校将不得不作出一些调整来和国家足球改革保持 一致。设空处作动词make的宾语,故需用名词,adjustment既可为可数名词也可为不可数名词, 在本句中表示泛指,而设空处前没有冠词,故可填adjustments/adjustment。 7.(2015江苏,35)—Go and say sorry to your mom,Dave. —I'd like to,but I'm afraid she won't be happy with my  ????(apologize). 答案 apology/apologies????句意:——戴夫,去向你妈妈道歉。——我想去,但是我怕她并不会 对我的道歉感到满意。设空处前为形容词性物主代词,故设空处应为名词形式。 8.(2015浙江,15)One of the most effective ways to reduce   ????(stressful)is to talk about feelings with someone you trust. 答案 stress 句意:减轻压力最有效的方法之一就是与你信任的人谈谈感受。设空处作动词 reduce的宾语,故用名词形式。reduce stress减压。 9.(2015安徽,30)There is no need to tell me your answer now.Give it some  ????(think)and then let me know. 答案 thought 句意:现在没有必要告诉我你的答案,考虑一下然后再让我知道。some后需用 名词形式,而thought作“考虑,思索”讲时为不可数名词,故答案为thought。give sth.thought考 虑某事。 10.(2015湖北,22)He gave himself a new name to hide his   ????(identify)when he went to carry out the secret task. 答案 identity 句意:在去执行秘密任务的时候,为隐藏自己的身份,他给自己取了一个新名 字。形容词性物主代词后需用名词形式,故答案为identity。identity身份。 11.(2014安徽,29)—Why not buy a second-hand car first if you don't have enough money for a new one? —That's a good  ????(suggest). 答案 suggestion 句意:——如果你没有足够的钱买辆新车的话,为什么不先买辆二手车呢? ——那个建议不错。根据句子结构可推知设空处需用名词形式,设空处前有不定冠词,故设空 处填suggestion。 12.(2014湖北,21)Her  ????(motivate)for writing was a desire for women to get the right to high- er education. 答案 motivation 句意:她写作的动机是渴望为妇女争取接受高等教育的权利。形容词性物 主代词后需用名词形式,此外后面的系动词为was,故设空处需用名词单数形式。 题组二 代词 1.(2019天津,3)A study shows the students who are engaged in after-school activities are happier than   ???? who are not. 答案 those 句意:研究表明参加课外活动的学生比那些不参加的学生更快乐。此处用those 替代复数名词the students。 2.(2017天津,11)  ????was when I got back to my apartment that I first came across my new neighbors. 答案 It 句意:就在我返回我的公寓的时候,我第一次偶遇了我的新邻居。根据语境和结构 可知,本句考查强调句式,被强调部分为when引导的时间状语从句,根据基本结构“It is/was... that...”可知设空处填It。 3.(2016浙江,3)In many ways, the education system in the US is not very different from  ????in the UK. 答案 that 句意:在许多方面,美国的教育制度与英国的教育制度没有很大差异。考查替代 词。首先将原句改为:In many ways, the education system in the US is not very different from the education system in the UK.然后考虑用that代替特指的单数名词。 4.(2015天津,2)The quality of education in this small school is better than   ????in some larger schools. 答案 that 句意:这所小学校的教育质量比一些更大的学校的(教育质量)好。本句需用that 替代the quality of education,以避免重复。 5.(2015浙江,12)How would you like   ????if you were watching your favorite TV program and someone came into the room and just shut it off without asking you? 答案 it????句意:如果你正在看你最喜欢的电视节目,而有人进入房间没有问你就把电视关了, 你觉得怎样?表示“喜欢、热爱、憎恨”的动词后常加it再加that,if或when引导的从句。 6.(2015重庆,2)The meeting will be held in September,but   ????knows the date for sure. 答案 nobody 句意:会议将在9月份召开,但是没有人知道确切日期。根据题干中的but可知 此处应该用表示否定意义的nobody。 7.(2015陕西,13)To warm himself,the sailor sat in front of the fire rubbing one bare foot against the   ????. 答案 other 句意:为了使自己暖和,那个水手坐在炉火前面赤着脚互相摩擦。the other两者 中的另一个。 8.(2015四川,10)Niki is always full of ideas,but   ????is useful to my knowledge. 答案 none 句意:Niki总是会有很多想法,但是就我所知没有一个想法是有用的。本题考查 代词。none(三者或三者以上)都不,都没。 9.(2014大纲全国,25)—Who's that at the door? —  ????is the milkman. 答案 It 句意:——门口的那个人是谁?——是送牛奶的人。考查代词用法。it可用于明确 身份,指某人。 10.(2014山东,4)Susan made  ????clear to me that she wished to make a new life for herself. 答案 it 句意:苏珊清楚地向我表明,她希望自己开始一种新生活。句中that she wished to make...是真正的宾语,空格处应为形式宾语,故用it。 11.(2014福建,21)In some countries,people eat with chopsticks,while in  ????,knives and forks. 答案 others 句意:在一些国家,人们用筷子吃饭,而在另外一些国家,人们用刀叉吃饭。 some...others...表示“一些……,另一些……”。 12.(2014浙江,3)An average of just 18.75 cm of rain fell last year,making  ????the driest year since California became a state in 1850. 答案 it 句意:去年加利福尼亚的平均降雨量只有18.75厘米,使得这一年成为加利福尼亚自 1850年建州以来最干旱的一年。本题考查代词的用法。此处it指代前面的last year以避免重 复。 13.(2014安徽,24)You can ask anyone for help.  ????here is willing to lend you a hand. 答案 Everyone/Everybody 句意:你可以找任何人帮忙。这里的每一个人都愿意帮助你。根 据上下文逻辑可知此处表示“这里的每个人”,故答案为Everyone或Everybody。 14.(2014陕西,21)I'd appreciate  ????if you could let me know in advance whether or not you will come. 答案 it 句意:假如你提前让我知道你是否会来,我将不胜感激。考查代词。I'd appreciate it if...属于固定句式,表示“假如……我将不胜感激”。 15.(2014四川,1)She'd lived in London and Manchester,but she liked  ????and moved to Cam- bridge. 答案 neither 句意:她在伦敦和曼彻斯特居住过,但是她不喜欢这两座城市,然后搬到剑桥 了。由表示转折的连词but可知该空应该表示否定意思且指代London and Manchester,故答案 为neither。 16.(2014江西,32)—When shall I call,in the morning or afternoon? —  ????.I'll be in all day. 答案 Either 句意:——我该在上午还是在下午打电话?——上午或下午都行。我一整天都 在。根据句意,答句表示在上午或下午两个时间中任意一个时间都可以,故答案为Either(两者 中的任意一个)。 题组三 冠词 1.(2016浙江,2)  ???? prize for the winner of the competition is  ???? two-week holiday in Paris. 答案 The; a 句意:这次比赛获胜者的奖项是巴黎两周游。第一空后的名词prize在本句中表 示特指,故用the;第二空后的holiday为可数名词,在本句中表示泛指,故与不定冠词a连用。 2.(2015浙江,2)Jane's grandmother had wanted to write a children's book for many years,but one thing or another always got in   ????way. 答案 the 句意:多年以来,简的外祖母本来想写一本儿童读物,但是这样或那样的事情总是 阻碍她的计划。in the way妨碍。 3.(2015重庆,3)I just heard   ????bank where Dora works was robbed by   ????gunman wearing a mask. 答案 the;a 句意:我刚听说Dora工作的那家银行遭到了一名戴面具的持枪人抢劫。考查冠 词。第一个空后的名词后有定语从句修饰,特指Dora工作的那家银行,应该用定冠词the;第二 个空后的名词gunman在本句中表示泛指,故用不定冠词a。 4.(2015陕西,14)  ????more learned a man is,  ????more modest he usually becomes. 答案 The;the????句意:一个人学识越渊博,他通常就会越谦逊。“The more...the more...”为固 定句型,意为“越……就越……”。 5.(2015四川,5)Brian is gifted in writing music; he is very likely to be  ???? Beethoven. 答案 a 句意:Brian在作曲方面很有天赋,他很有可能会成为一个贝多芬式的人物。本题考 查冠词。a在此处表示……式的人物。 6.(2014天津,8)Life is like  ????ocean:Only the strong-willed can reach the other shore. 答案 an 句意:生活就像一片海洋,只有那些意志坚强的人才能到达彼岸。ocean为可数名 词,在本句中表示泛指,故用不定冠词,ocean以元音音素开头,故答案为an。 7.(2014重庆,6)I can't tell you  ????way to the Wilsons' because we don't have  ????Wilson here in the village. 答案 the;a 句意:我不能告诉你去威尔逊家的路,因为我们村里没有姓威尔逊的。本题考查 冠词。第一个空表示特指,故用the;第二个空用不定冠词表示“某一,一位(用于陌生人的姓名 前)”。 8.(2014浙江,2)The paper is due next month,and I am working seven days  ????week,often long into  ????night. 答案 a;the 句意:论文下个月要上交了。我现在每周工作七天,经常工作到深夜。第一空填 a相当于one;第二空是固定搭配long into the night。 9.(2014陕西,19)  ????village where I was born has grown into  ????town. 答案 The;a 句意:我出生的那个村庄已经变成一个城镇了。由village后的定语从句where I was born可知这里特指“我”出生的村庄,故第一个设空处用定冠词the。而第二个设空处泛 指一个城镇,故用不定冠词a。 (共34张PPT) 专题十二 介词和动词短语 高考英语 (山东专用) A组????2017—2019年高考模拟·考点基础题组 题组一 介词 1.(2019山东邹城高三质检,67)Over the past decade, a global push to reduce hunger and extreme poverty has marked some significant successes, partly thanks  ???? the efforts of many interna- tional organizations. 三年模拟 答案 to thanks to 幸亏,由于。 2.(2019北京海淀期末,1)It is full of cultural heritage (遗产) and famous   ???? its natural scenery. 答案 for be famous for因……而出名。 3.(2019 浙江金华十校模拟,61)  ???? the help of neighbors, the senior man made a Peppa model with iron and steel. 答案 With with the help of sb.表示“在某人的帮助下”。 题组二 动词短语 1.(2019山东泰安3月一模,67)People on social media pointed   ???? that GPS systems would be confused by the five different layers of road. 答案 out 考查动词短语。point out指出,后面可跟that从句。 2.(2019山东荣成六中检测,70)And the imaginary character does not only appeal   ????females. 答案 to 句意:这一虚构的人物不仅对女性有吸引力。appeal to 吸引。 3.(2019山东济宁北大培文实验学校期中,67)She said her name was Miss Bai and kindly offered to show me   ???? the city. 答案 around 句意:她说她是白小姐。她很热心,主动领我参观了这座城市。show sb. around 领某人参观。 4.(2019山东济宁微山二中期中,61)We used to think that comforting others was an ability that on- ly belongs   ????humans. 答案 to 句意:我们过去认为安慰别人是一种只属于人类的能力。belong to 属于。 5.(2018山东青岛高三统一质检,66)After turning   ???? all of their electronic devices, recharj customers lie down in so-called “power nap cocoons”. 答案 off 考查动词短语。此处表示关掉他们所有的电子设备。turn off 关掉。 6.(2018山东烟台高考诊断,65)Birds, whales, turtles and other animals often mistake balloons ????  ???? food, which can do damage to them because balloons contain harmful chemicals. 答案 for 考查动词短语。mistake...for...意为“把……错当成……”。 B组????2017—2019年高考模拟·专题综合题组 题组一 介词 1.(2019山东青岛二中期末,62)I said hello   ????him, smiling sweetly and then I suddenly thought, “Why not offer him a piece of chocolate?” 答案 to 考查介词。say hello to sb.向某人问好。 2.(2019北京海淀一模,5) However, there is one upside of going to school   ???? a cold winter day. 答案  on 当表示在具体某一天时用介词on。 3.(2019北京顺义二模,3)So it can go into very small spaces. An octopus weighing about 230g can pass  ???? a 2.5cm-wide hole. 答案 through 从立体的空间里穿过用介词through。 4.(2019 浙江宁波4月模拟,58)Those students with top grades can apply for direct entry into Birm- ingham degree programmes   ???? first completing a foundation year. 答案 without 此处表示“不用”,故填without。 5.(2019山东安丘市、诸城市、五莲县、兰山区4月模拟,66)He studied for one more year in the University of Paris in France, and he didn't return to China   ???? 1938. 答案 until not...until...直到……才……。 题组二 动词短语 1.(2019山东师大附中五模,70)And it often serves   ???? a bridge for communication. 答案 as 考查动词短语。serve as充当,作为。 2.(2019山东济宁5月二模,63) Sexist attitudes,including parents'tendency to teach numerical con- cepts to their sons rather than their daughters,may partly account  ???? this gender gap. 答案 for account for是……的原因。 3.(2019北京西城一模,2)Guess what? The chicken was not cooked! I started to laugh. I forgot to turn   ???? the oven! 答案 on 由前面的not cooked可知,此处表示“忘了打开烤箱的开关了”,故填on。turn on打 开。 C组????2017—2019年高考模拟·应用创新题组 Passage 1 Working in another country can be a great way of broadening your horizons. It is important to re- member from the start, however, that finding a job in another country will require determination and careful thought and planning  1????advance. If you have made the decision that you want to work outside the EU, you will have to take account  2????some important issues you may not have to consider when in the EU. For example, you may require a work visa or work permit  3???? working in your chosen country. It is also useful to bear other differences  4????mind, such as language, culture and climate. Once you have decided on a particular country, you should research the work opportunities and possibilities to find out whether you will require a work visa or work permit. You can check all this information thoroughly in ad- vance by getting in touch  5????the embassy of the country where you will be travelling. You can check the Internet and the local papers for information about jobs and accommodation. If you have an opportunity for the further education, you can find out if your qualifications will be recognized abroad. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文。 介绍了到国外工作之前需要注意的事情。 1.in 考查介词短语。in advance提前。 2.of  考查动词短语。take account of意为“考虑”。 3.before  考查逻辑关系和介词。综合分析整句话的意思,此处应该表示“在选择的国家工作 之前要取得工作签证”,故用介词before。 4.in  考查动词短语。bear...in mind记住。 5.with  考查动词短语。get in touch with与……取得联系。 Passage 2 The tea culture of China is amazing and has a long history. Tea drinking had been widespread in China for about one thousand years 1????appearing in Europe. Tea drinking enjoys wide popularity in China. However, tea drinking is very complex. Many fac- tors contribute 2????an enjoyable experience. It starts with the surroundings. In the past, tea drink- ing took place in a setting where “spring water runs on marble”. At present, in order to create such an atmosphere, teahouses are decorated  3????traditional paintings and furniture. Besides, there is always a performance of a traditional Chinese musical instrument. Water used  4????tea al- so matters. In the old days, snow water was regarded  5????the best. Today few people collect snow because  6 ???? pollution and what most people use is bottled water. Black tea, together with green tea, oolong tea and pu'er tea ranks  7????the most popular tea. The first three types of tea are processed using similar methods but pu'er tea uses a totally different method. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇说明文,介绍了中国的茶文化。 1.before 考查介词。在饮茶出现在欧洲之前,它已经在中国广泛流传了大约一千年。文章开 头提到中国的茶文化有悠久的历史,本句进一步证明了这一点,所以设空处应填before“在… …之前”。 2.to 考查动词短语。contribute to促成。 3.with 考查动词短语。be decorated with...用……装饰。 4.for 考查动词短语。be used for...被用来……。此处是过去分词短语作后置定语。 5.as  考查动词短语。be regarded as...被认为是……。 6.of 考查介词短语。设空处后为名词pollution,故前面应用of。because of因为。 7.among 考查介词。rank among表示“属于……之列”。 题组一 介词 1.(2019江苏,27)Favorable policies are  ????effect to encourage employees'professional devel- opment. 历年高考试题汇编 答案 in 句意:为了鼓励员工的职业发展,一些有利的政策开始生效。in effect生效。 2.(2018北京,14)—Good morning, Mr. Lee's office. —Good morning. I'd like to make an appointment  ????next Wednesday afternoon. 答案 for 句意:——早上好,这里是Lee先生的办公室。——早上好,我想预约下周三下午的 见面。本题考查介词的基本用法。appointment for...在此处表示“……的预约”。 3.(2018江苏,33)China's soft power grows in line  ????the increasing appreciation and under- standing of China globally. 答案 with 句意:中国软实力的增长是与全球对中国不断增长的欣赏和理解紧密相连的。 考查介词短语。in line with为固定短语,意为:与……紧密相连。 4.(2017北京,35)Many people who live along the coast make a living   ???? fishing industry. 答案 in 句意:很多居住在沿海的人都以捕鱼业谋生。本题考查介词。in表示“从事或影 响某种工作”,符合语境。 5.(2017天津,12)When you drive through the Redwood Forests in California, you will be   ???? trees that are over 1,000 years old. 答案 among 句意:当你开车穿越加利福尼亚州的红杉林时,你会置身于寿命超过一千年的 树木之中。设空处应该用介词表示“在三者或三者以上……之中”,故用among。 6.(2017天津,13)We offer an excellent education to our students.   ????return, we expect students to work hard. 答案 In 句意:我们向我们的学生提供优质的教育,作为回报,我们希望学生能够努力学习。 考查介词。in return意为“作为回报,作为报答”。 7.(2017江苏,32)Determining where we are in relation   ???? our surroundings remains an essen- tial skill for our survival. 答案 to 句意:通过对比我们周围的环境来确定我们的位置仍然是我们生存的重要技能。 本题考查介词短语。in relation to“相对某事物而言”,符合语境,故此处填to。 8.(2016浙江,6)That young man is honest, cooperative, always there when you need his help.  ???????? short, he's reliable. 答案 In 句意:那个年轻人诚实且有合作精神,当你需要他帮忙的时候,他总是在那儿。简言 之,他是值得信赖的。in short 简言之。 9.(2016浙江,7)The study suggests that the cultures we grow up  ???? influence the basic pro- cesses by which we see the world around us. 答案 in 句意:这项研究表明我们成长的文化影响我们看待周围世界的基本环节。本句采 用定语从句的形式考查介词。“we grow up  ????”为定语从句,先行词为the cultures,将先 行词代入定语从句后为:We grow up  ????the cultures.故设空处填介词in。 10.(2015浙江,10)Most people work because it's unavoidable.  ????contrast,there are some peo- ple who actually enjoy work. 答案 By 句意:大多数人工作是因为那是不可避免的,相比之下,还有一些人是真的喜欢工 作。by contrast相比之下,对比而言。 11.(2015浙江,17)These comments came in response   ????specific questions often asked by local newsmen. 答案 to 句意:对于当地新闻记者常常问起的特定问题,这些评论正好作出了回复。in re- sponse to作为对……的回应。 12.(2015浙江,3)Have you ever heard of the trees that are home   ????animals both on land and sea? 答案 to 句意:你听说过成为在陆地上和海里的动物的栖息地的树吗?be home to为固定搭 配,意为:是……的栖息地。 13.(2015重庆,10)Last year was the warmest year on record,with global temperature 0.68℃  ???? the average. 答案 above 句意:去年是有记录以来最温暖的一年,全球气温超过了平均气温0.68摄氏度。 根据语境可知此处表示“在……之上,高于”,所以要用介词above。 14.(2015江苏,34)Many of the things we now benefit from would not be around but   ???? Thomas Edison. 答案 for 句意:要不是Thomas Edison,许多现在让我们获益的东西都不会存在。根据句意 和该句中的虚拟语气可知答案为for。but for要不是。 15.(2015安徽,33)They believe that there are transport developments   ????the corner that will bring a lot of changes for the better. 答案 around 句意:他们相信交通的发展就要到来了,这将会带来很多更好的变化。around the corner就要到来。 16.(2015福建,22)A common memory they all have   ????their schooldays is the school uniform. 答案 of 句意:他们对于他们学生时代的共同记忆是校服。本句包含一个定语从句“they all have   ????their schooldays”,将先行词memory代入定语从句后为:They all have a common memory   ????their schooldays.由此可见设空处填of。of可用于说明动作的名词之后,表示动 作的对象。 17.(2015福建,32)Human life is regarded as part of nature and,as such,the only way for us to sur- vive is to live in harmony   ????nature. 答案 with 句意:人类生活被认为是大自然的一部分,严格说来,我们生存的唯一方式是与大 自然和睦相处。in harmony with与……协调。 18.(2015湖北,30)This meeting room is a non-smoking area.I would like to warn you   ????ad- vance that if you smoked here you would be fined. 答案 in 句意:这间会议室是无烟区。我想事先提醒你如果在这儿吸烟的话你会被罚款 的。in advance提前,事先。 19.(2015陕西,12)The little pupil took his grandma   ????the arm and walked her across the street. 答案 by 句意:那个小学生挽着奶奶的手臂带她过了马路。take sb.by the arm“挽着某人的 手臂”。此处的by表示“抓着(物体或身体的某个部位)”。 20.(2014重庆,7)She drove so fast at the turn that the car almost went  ????the road. 答案 off 句意:她在转弯处开得如此快,以至于车差点偏离公路。off 离开,偏离。 21.(2014福建,22)Our club is open to everyone regardless  ????age,sex or educational back- ground. 答案 of 句意:我们的俱乐部对所有人开放,不分年龄、性别和教育背景。regardless of不管, 不顾。 22.(2014浙江,10)While staying in the village,James unselfishly shared whatever he had with the villagers without asking for anything  ????return. 答案 in 句意:在村庄停留期间,James无私地和村民分享他所拥有的一切,不要求任何回 报。 23.(2014浙江,12)Facing up to your problems instead  ????running away from them is the best approach to working things out. 答案 of 句意:面对你的问题而不是逃避它们才是解决问题的最好办法。instead of 而不 是。 24.(2014陕西,14)The Scottish girl  ????blue eyes won the first prize in the Fifth Chinese Speech Contest. 答案 with 句意:在第五届汉语演讲比赛中,那位有着一双蓝色眼睛的苏格兰姑娘获得了一 等奖。with表示“具有”。 25.(2014江西,33)It is unbelievable that Mr.Lucas leads a simple life  ????his great wealth. 答案 despite 句意:令人难以置信的是,尽管很富有,Lucas先生过着简朴的生活。despite 尽 管。 题组二 动词短语 1.(2019江苏,24)More wind power stations will spring  ????to meet the demand for clean energy. 答案 up 句意:为了满足对清洁能源的需求,更多的风力发电站将会迅速出现。spring up迅 速出现;突然兴起。 2.(2018天津,3)At first Robert wouldn't let his daughter go diving, but eventually he gave  ???? as she was so confident about her skills. 答案 in 句意:起初罗伯特不让他女儿去潜水,但他最终还是妥协了,因为她对自己的(潜水) 技能很自信。本题考查动词短语。give in屈服;让步;投降。 3.(2018江苏,25)Developing the Yangtze River Economic Belt is a systematic project which calls   ????a clear road map and timetable. 答案 for 句意:开发长江经济带是一个系统化的工程,这项工程需要一个清晰的路线图和时 间表。考查动词短语。call for 需要;要求。 4.(2017江苏,25)Working with the medical team in Africa has brought   ???? the best in her as a doctor. 答案 out 句意:在非洲医疗队的工作让她作为医生的才能得到了最大限度的发挥。本题考 查动词短语。bring out意为“使显现,使表现出”。 5.(2016天津,8)Mary was silent during the early part of the discussion but finally she gave voice????  ????her opinion on the subject. 答案 to????句意:在讨论的前期玛丽一言不发,但最后她就这个话题发表了意见。give voice to 表露心声,表白心迹。 6.(2016天津,12)I'm going to take advantage  ???? this tour to explore the history of the castle. 答案 of 句意:我打算利用这次旅行去探索那座城堡的历史。take advantage of利用。 7.(2016浙江,12)When their children lived far away from them, these old people felt cut   ???? from the world. 答案 off 句意:当孩子们住得离这些老人远时,他们就觉得与世隔绝。cut off使……与外界 隔绝。 8.(2016江苏,30)Many businesses started up by college students have taken   ????thanks to the comfortable climate for business creation. 答案 off 句意:多亏宽松的创业环境,很多大学生创办的公司都已经取得成功了。take off成 功,起飞。 9.(2015江苏,27)The university started some new language programs to cater   ????the country's Silk Road Economic Belt. 答案 for 句意:这所大学开设了一些新的语言课程来满足该国丝绸之路经济带的需要。 cater for满足……的需要。 10.(2015江苏,29)The whole team count   ????Cristiano Ronaldo,and he seldom lets them down. 答案 on 句意:整个队都指望着Cristiano Ronaldo,他很少让他们失望。count on意为:指望, 依赖。 11.(2015天津,10)Tom had to turn   ????the invitation to the party last weekend because he was too busy. 答案 down 句意:因为太忙了,上周末汤姆不得不拒绝了参加聚会的邀请。turn down(= refuse)拒绝。 12.(2015浙江,11)We tend to have a better memory for things that excite our senses or appeal  ???????our emotions than for straight facts. 答案 to 句意:相比于直接事实而言,我们更倾向于记住那些令我们的感官兴奋和对我们的 情绪有感染力的事物。appeal to对……有感染力。 13.(2015浙江,7)Body language can give   ????a lot about your mood,so standing with your arms folded can send out a signal that you are being defensive. 答案????away 句意:肢体语言可能会泄露你的很多情绪,所以,抱臂而立有可能传达一种信息 ——你存有戒心。give away泄露。 14.(2015湖北,25)There is no doubt that this candidate's advantage lies   ????his ability to com- municate with foreigners in English. 答案 in 句意:毫无疑问这位候选人的优势在于他能用英语和外国人交流。lie in在于。 15.(2015陕西,25)Peter will take   ????his post as the head of the travel agency at the end of next month. 答案 up 句意:Peter将会在下个月末就职成为该旅行社的主管。take up one's post就职。 16.(2014安徽,28)When the sports hero turned  ????at our party,he was welcomed with open arms. 答案 up 句意:当这位体育健将出现在我们的聚会上时,他受到了大家的热烈欢迎。turn up 到场,出现。 17.(2014浙江,19)How could you turn  ????such a fantastic job when you have been out of work for months? 答案 down????句意:在你已经失业好几个月的时候,你怎么会拒绝这样一份绝好的工作呢?turn down意为“拒绝”。 18.(2014江西,27)Anyway,we're here now,so let's get down  ????some serious work. 答案 to 句意:反正大家现在都在这儿,那我们开始做一些重要的工作吧。get down to 开始 做。 19.(2014湖北,25)I've been trying to phone Charles all evening,but there must be something wrong with the network;I can't seem to get  ????. 答案 through 句意:整个晚上我一直都在给Charles打电话,但网络一定出现了问题,我似乎 不能打通电话。get through(用电话)打通,接通,联系上。 20.(2014湖北,26)Is this your necklace,Mary? I came  ????it when I was cleaning the bathroom this morning. 答案 across 句意:这是你的项链吗,Mary?我今天早上打扫浴室的时候偶然发现了它。come across碰到,偶然遇到。 (共23张PPT) 专题十三 形容词和副词 高考英语 (山东专用) A组????2017—2019年高考模拟·考点基础题组 题组一 形容词 三年模拟 1.(2019北京西城一模,7)Wallace's giant bee is the world's   ???? (large) bee, with a body the size of a human thumb and wings that can spread to about 2.5 inches. 答案 largest  此处表示“世界上最大的蜜蜂”,故用large的最高级largest。 2.(2019北京东城二模,7)However, for the majority of   ???? (west) people, university means freedom from home. 答案 western 本题考查构词法。此处表示“西方的”,故填western。 3.(2019浙江台州5月模拟,60)The doctor explained the situation to her little brother, and asked the little boy if he would be   ????(will) to give his blood to his sister. 答案 willing be willing to do sth.乐意做某事。 4.(2019山东德州夏津一中月考,69)“We are now thinking about development, allowing the paintings to be more  ????(create),” he said. 答案 creative 考查词性转换。系动词be后需接形容词作表语,故答案为creative。 5.(2017山东临沂一模,69)It is one of the most  ????(amaze)TV shows from an artistic point of view. 答案 amazing 此处为“one of+the+形容词最高级+名词复数”结构,应用形容词与most构 成最高级。amazing令人惊叹的。 题组二 副词 1.(2019山东青岛胶南一中月考,65)They covered themselves with grease and dirt and went to the dean's office   ????(nervous). 答案 nervously 设空处修饰谓语动词went,需用副词形式。 2.(2019山东邹城高三质检,70)But on World Hunger Day, let us not forget that with over 815,000 people still living in daily food insecurity, we still have a long way to go before we can  ???? (safe) say that no child goes to bed hungry most nights. 答案 sadly 考查词性转换。此处用副词修饰整个句子,故填sadly。 3.(2019山东荣成六中检测,64)Fans from around the world gathered   ????(cheerful) to celebrate their love of Hello Kitty. 答案 cheerfully 此处修饰谓语动词gathered需用副词形式。 4.(2018山东烟台高考诊断,64)Balloons can even travel thousands of miles and pollute the most remote and pure places. More   ????(sad),they can present a threat to many animals. 答案 safely 修饰动词say需用副词形式safely(有把握地)。 5.(2018山东济南高三一模, 66)Though it's just a snack, it's still quite filling and can   ???? (easy)satisfy your appetite. 答案 easily 考查词性转换。此处修饰动词satisfy应用副词easily。 6.(2017山东师大附中二模,70)That was definitely not an attractive idea so I   ????(polite)de- clined her invitation, closed my book and walked away. 答案 politely 设空处需用副词形式作declined的状语,故填politely。 B组????2017—2019年高考模拟·专题综合题组 题组一 形容词 1.(2019 山东济南4月二模,62) In the movie Coco, for instance, the 12-year-old Miguel and his family dance and sing to celebrate the Day of the Dead, a   ???? (tradition) festival in Mexico, when colorful paper-cuts are hung on the street. 答案  traditional 考查形容词构词法。设空处在这里修饰后面的名词festival,这里需要填形 容词形式traditional。 2.(2019山东青岛二中期末,65) He said that people didn't usually do things like this for strangers at least that was what I understood, because he was speaking a really   ???? (usual) dialect. 答案  unusual 考查形容词构词法和句子的逻辑关系。此处表达的是否定含义,故答案为 unusual。 3.(2019山东济南外国语学校二模,69) For example, if you are learning a language, try to actively remember  ???? (regular) verbs. 答案 irregular 考查形容词构词法。此处表示“努力去记忆不规则动词”,故答案是irregu- lar。 4.(2019北京海淀一模,8) A black hole is a spot in space that has   ???? (power) gravity. 答案  powerful 考查形容词构词法。设空处应用形容词作定语,表示“强大的”,因此填写 powerful。 5.(2019 浙江宁波4月模拟,65)This gives the brightest and best students an opportunity to experi- ence the benefits of studying at a   ???? (globe) Top 100 university. 答案 global 考查形容词构词法。设空处修饰后面的名词university,应用形容词,故填glob- al。 6.(2019 浙江金华十校模拟,65)After all, family connections are the most   ???? (significance) thing in Chinese people's hearts. 答案 significant 考查词性转换。由设空处后面的名词thing和前面的the most可知,此处需 填形容词形式significant。 7.(2019山东青岛5月二模,68) The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that adults need at least seven hours of sleep a night to stay   ???? (health). 答案 healthy 考查形容词构词法。stay为系动词,后接形容词作表语,故填healthy。 题组二 副词 1.(2019山东泰安4月二模,70)China Mobile's Shanghai branch tapped Huawei's 5G Digital In- door System,which is currently the industry's only   ???? (commercial)available system for 5G indoor coverage. 答案 commercially 考查副词。设空处修饰后面的形容词available,故需用其副词形式 commercially。 2.(2019山东师大附中五模,61)Chinese is the  ???? (common) used language in China and a- mong the largest languages in the world. 答案 most commonly 考查副词最高级。根据后面的in China和among the largest languages 可知,此处应用最高级。因设空处修饰过去分词used,故需填其副词形式。综合分析,应填most commonly。 3.(2019山东安丘市、诸城市、五莲县、兰山区4月模拟,61)Despite failing in mathematics, Qian   ???? (successful) entered the Department of Foreign Language under Tsinghua University in 1929. 答案 successfully 考查副词。设空处修饰后面的谓语动词entered,故需填其副词形式suc- cessfully。 4.(2019北京石景山高三期末,4)Dough figurine(捏面人), also known as dough modelling, is a kind of Chinese folk art. It is  ????(simple) made but of high artistic value. 答案 simply 考查词形转换。设空处修饰made,要用副词,故填simply。 5.(2019山东滨州5月二模,69) For another, 6G will connect our devices   ???? (efficiently) than 5 G, which makes Internet coverage much wider. 答案 more efficiently 考查副词比较级。由设空处后面的介词than可知,此处应用比较级形 式。 6.(2019山东潍坊5月二模,65) The reports  ???? (apparent) raised hopes of many Chinese stu- dents and parents. 答案 apparently 考查副词。设空处修饰后面的动词raised,故需用其副词形式apparently。 C组????2017—2019年高考模拟·应用创新题组 Passage 1 It was around half a year ago. I went to a  1????(China) restaurant with my 10-year-old daughter. As we were eating  2????(taste)Wonton(馄饨),we found that a young lady didn't have enough money when she finished ordering. My daughter and I helped her and offered her a bowl of Won- ton. A few days  3????, we met the lady again in the same restaurant. When she began to order, she saw us and came over to our table. My daughter got up to hug her happily. She said it was very  4???? (luck) to see us in the restaurant. The lady kept talking about our kindness excitedly. Later, she paid for our meal in return. I witnessed so much kindness. What I love so much is that my daughter was able to experience this, and being on the receiving end of kindness from a stranger is new to her. We now have an  5???? (extreme) favorite restaurant which is nearer our apartment than the previous restaurant and ev- ery time we go there, my plan is to pay for someone else's meal. 答案 1.Chinese a Chinese restaurant一家中餐馆。 2.tasty 设空处修饰后面的名词Wonton,作定语,故需填形容词形式tasty。 3.later “时间段+later”表示“一段时间之后”,故填later。 4.lucky 此处应该用形容词作was的表语,故填lucky。 5.extremely 此处应用副词修饰形容词,故填extremely。 Passage 2 During my first summer vacation when in high school,I was scheduled to take part in some  1???? (society) activities. With the help of my English teacher, eventually, I was offered a part-time job for the Mobike company, a bicycle-sharing company. I was asked to clean the shared bicycle in around two square kilometers  2????(frequent) for 8 hours a day, which was tiring in some way. I would do it overtime because it was my  3????part-time job in high school. I treasured it a lot al- though it was only a temporary job and I often tasted the tears of myself. I had a  4???? (strong) body after the holiday which lasted for two months or so. I didn't even earn a big salary, but I en- joyed the process itself. What I like most about my job was working in extremely hot weather. The  5????(great) success was the experience to overcome the idea that tried to persuade me to give up when I almost couldn't continue. I will treasure it forever and carry on with such work in the fu- ture if necessary. 答案 1.social 此处应用形容词, 作activities的定语,故填social。 2.frequently 设空处修饰前面的动词clean,故填frequently。 3.first 开头提到高中的第一个暑假。此处与之呼应,故填first。 4.stronger 此处表示“暑假之后,我的体格健壮多了”,故填stronger。 5.greatest 此处与前一句中的like most对应,故填greatest。 题组一 形容词 1.(2019江苏,28)Unlike traditional gyms, app-backed gyms offer people  ????(flexibility) options to exercise. 历年高考试题汇编 答案 flexible 句意:不同于传统健身房,应用程序支持的健身房给人们提供了灵活的健身选 择。设空处在句中作定语,修饰名词options,故填形容词。flexible灵活的;易弯曲的;有弹性 的。 2.(2017江苏,29)Only five years after Steve Jobs' death, smart-phones defeated   ???? (conven- tion)PCs in sales. 答案 conventional 句意:在Steve Jobs去世仅仅5年后,智能手机就在销量上打败了传统的个 人电脑。设空处应该用形容词形式修饰后面的名词。 3.(2015安徽,26)I'm so   ????(gratitude)to all those volunteers because they helped my terrible day end happily. 答案 grateful 句意:我是如此感激那些志愿者,因为他们帮助我快乐地结束了令我极不愉快 的那一天。be grateful to对……感激的。 4.(2015福建,23)It was   ????(consider)of Michael to inform us of his delay in case we got wor- ried. 答案 considerate 句意:迈克尔考虑得非常周到,他告诉我们他将耽搁一些时间,以防我们担 心。considerate考虑周到的。 5.(2015湖北,27)Even though the conference hall is near his apartment,he has to hurry a little if he wants to be   ????(punctuality). 答案 punctual 句意:尽管会议厅在他的公寓附近,可是如果他想按时到达的话也要稍微快 一点。punctual准时的。 6.(2015四川,7)Andy is content with the toy.It is the  ????(good)he has ever got. 答案 best 句意:Andy对这个玩具很满意。这是他得到过的最好的。“Sth. is+the+形容词 最高级+sb.has/have done”为固定句型。 7.(2014大纲全国,27)Raymond's parents wanted him to have the  ????(good) possible education. 答案 best 句意:Raymond的父母想让他接受最好的教育。题干中的possible可与形容词的 最高级连用表示强调,意为“最……的”,故答案为best。 8.(2014安徽,27)My good performance in the job interview left me  ????(optimism)about my fu- ture and about what I can do here. 答案 optimistic 句意:我在求职面试中的优异表现让我对我的未来和在这里可以做的工作 感到乐观。考查形容词。(be) optimistic about 为固定短语,在本句中用形容词optimistic作宾 语补足语。 9.(2014湖北,27)What was so  ????(impress)about Jasmine Westland's victory was that she came first in the marathon bare-footed. 答案 impressive 句意:Jasmine Westland的胜利给人留下如此深刻的印象是因为她光着脚 在马拉松比赛中获得了第一名。系动词be后需用形容词作表语。根据句意可知,设空处表示 “给人留下深刻印象的”,故用impressive。 10.(2014湖北,28)Instead of blaming the child who had broken the vase,she gave him a  ????(tol- erate) smile and let him go. 答案 tolerant 句意:她没有责备打破花瓶的孩子,而是宽容地对他笑了笑,然后让他走了。 修饰名词smile需用形容词,故答案为tolerant。 题组二 副词 1.(2019天津,15)A dog's eating habit requires regular training before it is   ????(proper) estab- lished. 答案 properly 句意:狗的饮食习惯在正确建立之前需要定期训练。设空处在句中作状语, 修饰过去分词established,故填副词。 2.(2016浙江,13)A sudden stop can be a very frightening experience,   ????(especial)if you are travelling at high speed. 答案 especially 句意:突然停止有时会是很可怕的经历,尤其是在你高速行进时。设空处需 用副词修饰if引导的状语从句,故答案为especially(尤其)。 3.(2015浙江,13)Most of us,if we know even a little about where our food comes from,understand that every bite put into our mouths was   ????(former)alive. 答案 formerly 句意:但凡我们知道一点我们食物的来源,我们大多数人就会明白,进入我们 嘴里的每一口食物,之前都是有生命的。formerly以前,原来。 4.(2015安徽,31)They gave money to the old people's home either   ????(personal)or through their companies. 答案 personally 句意:他们要么是亲自给敬老院钱要么是通过公司给敬老院钱。personally 亲自。 5.(2015湖北,29)The girl used to be shy,but is   ????(gradual)getting active in group work and is more willing to express herself. 答案 gradually 句意:这个女孩过去很腼腆,但是她逐渐变得积极参加集体活动了,也更愿意 表达自己了。设空处需用副词作状语。gradually慢慢地,逐渐地。 (共54张PPT) 专题十四 谓语动词 高考英语 (山东专用) A组????2017—2019年高考模拟·考点基础题组 1.(2019山东泰安英雄山中学期中, 61)We   ????(tell) to let our parents take the luggage when the customs workers asked questions. 三年模拟 答案 were told 考查时态和语态。主语We与tell构成被动关系,结合下文的asked可知时态 为一般过去时,故填were told。 2.(2019山东淄博淄川中学检测,61)Scientists in Australia declare proudly that they   ???? (de- velop)the world's first blood test to find a deadly skin cancer in its early stages. 答案 have developed 考查时态。句子主句使用了一般现在时,结合句意可知从句使用现在 完成时。 3.(2019山东荣成六中检测,62)Since she was born, she   ???? (gain) impressive popularity—she is an international fashion queen. 答案 has gained 根据时间状语从句Since she was born可知,主句谓语动词应使用现在完成 时,主语为she,故答案为has gained。 4.(2019山东泰安4月二模,67) As the 5G era   ???? (approach),one of the key concerns for tele- com operators will be how they can use 5G networks to meet the needs of high-density areas. 答案 approaches 考查动词的时态和主谓一致。从句主语是the 5G era,为第三人称单数;As 引导时间状语从句,主句谓语为will be,根据主将从现原则,设空处应用一般现在时,故填ap- proaches。 5.(2019山东济宁鱼台一中期中,62)People born during the year of dog   ????( believe) to take after some of the animal's characteristics, such as loyalty, patience, and reliability. 答案 are believed be believed to do sth.人们认为……,据信……。 6.(2019北京朝阳一模,8)But originally most of the park   ????(cover) by sand. 答案 was covered 考查时态和语态。根据originally可知,应用一般过去时态;由后面的by sand可知,应用被动语态,因此填was covered。 7.(2018山东烟台高考诊断,62)When a balloon   ????(fly)into the sky, it doesn't end up staying there. 答案 flies 考查动词的时态和主谓一致。由主句中的doesn't可知此处应用一般现在时;主 语为“a balloon”,谓语动词应用第三人称单数形式。故填flies。 8.(2018山东烟台期末,65)Feeding birds   ????(be)good for everyone. Birders enjoy watching the birds, while the birds get enough food to survive in big cities. 答案 is 考查时态和主谓一致。设空处前的主语Feeding birds为动名词短语,由此可知设空 处用单数形式;根据题干中的enjoy和get可推知设空处需用一般现在时,故填is。 B组????2017—2019年高考模拟·专题综合题组 1.(2019 山东济南4月二模,64)The difference is that most Chinese paper-cuts are red, while those in other countries   ???? (be) often made in many other colors. 答案 are 考查时态和主谓一致。根据题干中的时态可知,设空处应用一般现在时;设空处所 在分句的主语是those。故填are。 2.(2019 山东济南4月二模,69)Yang   ???? (study) and performed the art for over a decade. 答案 has studied 考查时态。根据时间状语for over a decade可知,设空处应该用现在完成 时。 3.(2019山东安丘市、诸城市、五莲县、兰山区4月模拟,63)In Tsinghua, he met his wife Yang Jiang, who was to become a successful playwright and translator, and   ???? (marry) her in 1935. 答案 married 考查时态。此处表示他在1935年与杨绛结婚。故填married。 4.(2019北京昌平二模,10)His unique sense of humor   ???? (astonish) people across the world even till this day. 答案 has astonished 考查时态。根据语境及时间状语till this day可知,谓语动词应用现在完 成时,因此填写has astonished。 5.(2019北京朝阳二模,1)I overlooked the Seine, the famous river I  ???? (read) about in so many poems. 答案  had read 本题考查时态。根据语境read这个动作发生在overlooked之前,属于过去的 过去,因此用过去完成时,填写had read。 6.(2019浙江温州2月适应性测试,57)However, people who have done related researches believe that the full moon   ???? (affect)human behaviors to some degree. 答案 affects 考查动词时态。本句叙述客观事实,应用一般现在时,且主语为第三人称单数, 故用affects。 7.(2019山东泰安4月二模,66) The railway station's 5G network   ???? (see)as a milestone in Shanghai's commercial 5G deployment to become a dual-gigaband city 答案  is seen be seen as表示“被看作是”。 8.(2019山东师大附中五模,66)The term “Mandarin” can also refer to Standard Mandarin, which  ???? (base) on the Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing. 答案 is based 考查时态和语态。根据语境设空处时态应为一般现在时。先行词Standard Mandarin与base之间为被动关系,故应该用一般现在时的被动语态。 9.(2019北京昌平二模,2) Soon, our “funny jazz” became famous and we   ???? (invite) to per- form everywhere. 答案 were invited 本题考查时态和语态。我们是被邀请的,且时间为过去,故填were invit- ed。 10.(2019北京朝阳期末,4) As the world's population grows, a lot of wild animals   ???? (force) to leave their natural home. 答案 are forced 句意:随着世界人口的增长,许多野生动物被迫离开了它们的自然家园。本 题考查时态和语态。根据语境可知用一般现在时,动物们是被迫离开家园的,因此填写are forced。 C组????2017—2019年高考模拟·应用创新题组 Passage 1 The China Shanghai International Arts Festival(CSIAF) and the Edinburgh International Festival (EIF) signed a contract on a new dance production that 1????(create) by the famous dancer, Yang Liping on April 12, 2018 in Shanghai. Yang's new production Rite of Spring will premiere(首次公演) at the 20th CSIAF in October, and it  2????(perform) at the EIF in August, 2022. “The same belief in the value of cultural exchanges 3???? (share) by the two festivals. We hope that this is just the beginning of a long and fruitful partnership,” said Joanna Baker, managing di- rector of the EIF. The EIF celebrated its 70th anniversary in 2017.The EIF is one of the most important art celebra- tions in the world, which builds a platform for performers from more than 30 countries every year. Chinese musicians such as pianist Lang Lang and Yuja Wang as well as singer Shen Yang 4???? (participate) in it by now. The CSIAF has been promoting new works from artists for years, and apart from Yang's Rite of Spring, a number of other productions have been at the global level successfully. As one of the officials of the Scottish government said, after some time, the 2018 Edinburgh Inter- national Festival program 5????(continue) to promote international partnerships, developing Scot- land's reputation as the world-leading festivals' capital. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文主要介绍了中国上海国际艺术节和爱丁堡国际艺术节的一项合作。 1.was created 考查动词的时态和语态。根据上下文可以看出设空处应用一般过去时,that引 导的定语从句的先行词是a new dance production,且与create之间是被动关系,故应该填was created。 2.will be performed 考查动词的时态和语态。根据后面的时间状语以及it与perform之间的被 动关系可知,应该用一般将来时的被动语态。 3.is shared 考查动词的时态和语态。此处是陈述客观事实,应用一般现在时;主语The same belief和share之间为被动关系,故用被动语态。 4.have participated 考查动词的时态。根据时间状语by now可知要用现在完成时态,故填have participated。 5.would continue 考查动词的时态。根据前面的said可以看出,主体时态是过去时,又根据af- ter some time可以看出来应填过去将来时。 Passage 2 Home of the copper drum Hechi's copper drum culture goes back as far as the Han dynasty(206 BC—AD 220), when the people living in the area considered copper drums sacred and Hechi is still one of China's largest copper drum sites. A 2003 survey by cultural heritage departments 1????(find) more than 1, 400 copper drums in the area, and at least 1,300 copper drums  2????(use) by local folk artists. In this way, ethnic groups in Hechi have produced a uniquely rich and diverse cultural form and customs for festivals, wedding, celebrations, funerals, and religious activities of local people, with ballads and for rice-planting and frogs. That same year, it was suggested that a copper drum conservation project along the Hongshui River basin  3????(join) the Culture Ministry's Top 10 conservation project list for ethnic and folk cultures. In 2006, the Zhuang People's Copper Drum Practices was added to the national cultural heritage list by the State Council. In 2008, the Culture Ministry declared Donglan County and the city of Hechi the “Home of Chinese Copper Drum Art” and in 2009, its “Copper Drum Practices” became a candidate for the Human Cultural Heritage. There  4????(be) now more than 2,400 cop- per drums in the world, at least 1,400 of them in Hechi, which  5????(make) it a Copper Drum Cul- tural and Ecological Reserve with recognition across Guangxi. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文介绍了铜鼓之乡——河池。 1.found 考查时态。由A 2003 survey可知,句子用一般过去时,故答案为found。 2.were used 考查时态和语态。由and前面的分句的时态可知此处用一般过去时;copper drums与use之间为被动关系,故答案为were used。 3.join/should join 考查虚拟语气。在It be suggested that...结构中,that从句谓语应该用虚拟语 气“should+do”,其中should可以省略。故填join/should join。 4.are 考查动词的时态和主谓一致。此处为there be句型,空后为复数名词且设空后有时间状 语now,故填are。 5.makes 考查定语从句中的主谓一致。which指代前面的那种情况,谓语应用单数。 题组一 动词的时态和主谓一致 1.(2019江苏,22)The musician along with his band members  ????(give)ten performances in the last three months. 历年高考试题汇编 答案 has given 句意:在过去的三个月里,这位音乐家和他的乐队成员们已经进行了十场演 出。along with连接两个并列结构作主语时,谓语动词与前面的主语(The musician)保持一致; 根据时间状语in the last three months,可知谓语动词应该用现在完成时,故填has given。 2.(2019江苏,29)A few months after he had arrived in China, Mr. Smith  ????(fall) in love with the people and culture there. 答案 fell 句意:史密斯先生到中国几个月后,就喜欢上了那里的人和文化。根据时间状语A few months after he had arrived in China,可知谓语动词应该为一般过去时。 3.(2019天津,2)I   ????(hope) to send Peter a gift to congratulate him on his marriage, but I couldn't manage it. 答案 had hoped 句意:我本希望送给彼得一个礼物祝贺他结婚了,但我没能做到。hope所表 示的动作发生在couldn't manage之前,属于过去的过去,应用过去完成时。 4.(2018北京,1)—Hi, I'm Peter. Are you new here?I haven't seen you around. —Hello, Peter. I'm Bob. I just  ????(start) on Monday. 答案 started 句意:——嗨,我是Peter,你是新来的吗?我在附近没见过你。——你好,Peter,我 是Bob,我是周一刚来的。本题考查动词的时态。根据Peter所说的话可知现在Bob已经在这里 了, Bob针对Peter的提问解释他是周一来的,所以设空处用一般过去时。 5.(2018北京,4)Susan had quit her well-paid job and  ????(work) as a volunteer in the neighbor- hood when I visited her last year. 答案 was working 句意:我去年去看望Susan的时候,她已经辞去了高薪工作,正在社区做志 愿者。本题考查动词的时态。从题干when引导的时间状语从句可知整句话描述的都是过去 发生的事情,看望Susan的时候她正从事志愿者服务工作,应用过去进行时表示。 6.(2018北京,7)China's high-speed railways  ????(grow) from 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers in the past few years. 答案 have grown 句意:在过去的几年里,中国的高铁已经从9,000千米发展到了25,000千 米。本题考查动词的时态。根据题干中的时间状语in the past few years可知,句中谓语动词的 时态用现在完成时。 7.(2017北京,24)—  ???? (do)you call that company to see how they think of our product yester- day? —Yes. They are happy with it. 答案 Did 句意:——你昨天给那家公司打电话了解他们对我们的产品的看法了吗?——打 了,他们很满意。考查一般疑问句。根据时间状语yesterday可知,谓语动词要用一般过去时,所 以要用助动词do的过去式did。 8.(2017天津,8)I   ????(drive) down to London when I suddenly found that I was on the wrong road. 答案 was driving 句意:我正在开车前往伦敦的路上,就在那时我突然发现走错路了。根据 句意可知此处是be doing...when...句型,表示“正在做……这/那时……”。根据语境可知用过 去进行时。 9.(2017江苏,31) He's been informed that he  ????(do)not qualify for the scholarship because of his academic background. 答案 does 句意:他被告知由于他的学术背景,他没有资格获得奖学金。本题考查动词的时 态。根据语境可知,宾语从句中所陈述的是现在的情况,故用一般现在时态。 10.(2016北京,21)Jack   ????(work)in the lab when the power cut occurred. 答案 was working 句意:杰克正在实验室工作这时停电了。本题考查“be doing sth. when...”句型。根据题干中的occurred(一般过去时)可知,设空处用过去进行时。 11.(2016北京,23)—Excuse me, which movie are you waiting for? —The new Star Wars. We   ????(wait)here for more than two hours. 答案 have been waiting 句意:——打扰了,你们在等哪部电影?——新拍的《星球大战》。 我们已经在这儿等了两个多小时了。本题考查动词的时态。设空处表示该动作从两个多小 时前一直持续到说话时,而且还在进行,因此用现在完成进行时。 12.(2016北京,25)I   ????(read)half of the English novel, and I'll try to finish it at the weekend. 答案 have read 句意:这本英文小说我已经读了一半了,我将尽力在周末把它读完。根据句 意可知,动作read发生在过去,对现在产生了影响,故用现在完成时。 13.(2016江苏,29)Dashan, who   ????(learn)crosstalk, the Chinese comedic tradition, for decades, wants to mix it up with the Western stand-up tradition. 答案 has been learning 句意:大山学习中国传统喜剧形式——相声已经几十年了,他想把它 与西方的单口喜剧传统结合起来。根据句意以及for decades可知,学习这一动作从过去一直 延续到了现在,并且现在还在进行,故用现在完成进行时;主语Dashan为第三人称单数,故答案 为has been learning。 14.(2016浙江,9)Silk   ????(become)one of the primary goods traded along the Silk Road by about 100 BC. 答案 had become 句意:到大约公元前100年丝绸已成为沿丝绸之路交易的主要货物之一。 根据句中的时间状语by about 100 BC可知“become”动作发生在“过去的过去”,故用过去 完成时。 15.(2015北京,26)In the last few years,China   ????(make)great achievements in environmental protection. 答案 has made 句意:在过去的几年里,中国在环境保护方面已经取得了巨大的成就。根据 时间状语In the last few years可知用现在完成时。 16.(2015北京,27)—Did you have difficulty finding Ann's house? —Not really.She   ????(give)us clear directions and we were able to find it easily. 答案 had given 句意:——你们找到Ann的家有困难吗?——没什么困难。她已经清楚地告 诉我们怎么走了,我们很容易就找到她家了。动词give表示的动作发生在“were able to find” 之前,表示“过去的过去”,故用过去完成时。 17.(2015北京,30)—Dr.Jackson is not in his office at the moment. —All right.I   ????(call)him later. 答案 will call 句意:——杰克逊博士现在不在办公室。——好的。我稍后给他打电话。本 句表示“临时决定”,故用 “will+动词原形”。 18.(2015江苏,30)The real reason why prices   ????(be),and still are,too high is complex,and no short discussion can satisfactorily explain this problem. 答案 were 句意:物价过去是,现在仍然是那么高的真正原因是复杂的,短短的讨论不可能对 此问题作出令人满意的解释。根据题目中 “and still are(现在仍然是)”可知过去也是一样的 情形,故用were。 19.(2015安徽,24)Just as I got to the school gate,I realized I   ????(leave)my book in the cafe. 答案 had left 句意:就在我到达校门口的时候,我才意识到我把书落在咖啡馆里了。根据语 境可知leave的动作发生在realized之前,所以用过去完成时态。 20.(2015福建,30)—Where is Peter?I can't fi

  • ID:4-6137811 (山东专用)2020届高考英语一轮复习专题1-10课件(打包10套)

    高中英语/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共220张PPT) 专题一 事实细节 高考英语 (山东专用) A组????山东省卷、课标Ⅰ卷题组 Group 1 Passage 1(2019课标全国Ⅰ,A)词数:256 Need a Job This Summer? The provincial government and its partners offer many programs to help students find summer jobs. The deadlines and what you need to apply depend on the program. Not a student?Go to the government website to learn about programs and online tools available to help people under 30 build skills, find a job or start businesses all year round. Jobs for Youth If you are a teenager living in certain parts of the province, you could be eligible(符合条件)for this program, which provides eight weeks of paid employment along with training. Who is eligible:Youth 15—18 years old in select communities(社区). 五年高考 Summer Company Summer Company provides students with hands-on business training and awards of up to $3,000 to start and run their own summer businesses. Who is eligible:Students aged 15—29, returning to school in the fall. Stewardship Youth Ranger Program You could apply to be a Stewardship Youth Ranger and work on local natural resource manage- ment projects for eight weeks this summer. Who is eligible:Students aged 16 or 17 at time of hire, but not turning 18 before December 31 this year. Summer Employment Opportunities(机会) Through the Summer Employment Opportunities program, students are hired each year in a variety of summer positions across the Provincial Public Service, its related agencies and community groups. Who is eligible:Students aged 15 or older. Some positions require students to be 15 to 24 or up to 2 9 for persons with a disability. 1.What is special about Summer Company? A.It requires no training before employment. B.It provides awards for running new businesses. C.It allows one to work in the natural environment. D.It offers more summer job opportunities. 2.What is the age range required by Stewardship Youth Ranger Program? A.15—18.  B.15—24.  C.15—29.  D.16—17. 3.Which program favors the disabled? A.Jobs for Youth. B.Summer Company. C.Stewardship Youth Ranger Program. D.Summer Employment Opportunities. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇应用文,主题语境是人与社会,主题语境内容为暑期工作介绍。文章 介绍了省政府及其合作伙伴为学生提供的几个暑期工作项目。本文旨在培养学生多渠道获 得信息的能力。 1.B 事实细节题。本题题干意为:Summer Company 有什么特别之处?根据Summer Company 标题下第一句(Summer Company给学生提供实际操作的商业培训和高达3,000美元的夏季自 我创业奖励)可知B 项正确(为创业者提供奖励)。A:在上岗前不要求培训;C:让一个人在自然 环境下工作;D:提供更多的夏季工作机会。 2.D 事实细节题。本题题干意为:Stewardship Youth Ranger Program要求的年龄范围是多大? 根据Stewardship Youth Ranger Program标题下第二段中的学生年龄是16或17岁,并且在今年12 月31日以前不满18岁。由此可知答案为D项。 3.D 事实细节题。本题题干意为:哪个项目对残疾人有利?根据题干中的the disabled可定位 到Summer Employment Opportunities部分最后一句话(有些职位要求学生年龄15到24岁,有残 疾的可以放宽到29岁)。由此可知答案为D项。 高考热词 Passage 1 1.provincial [pr??v?n??l] adj.省的 2.employment [?m?pl??m?nt] n.雇用 3.disability [?d?s??b?l?ti] n.残障;残疾 Passage 2 (2018课标全国Ⅰ,A)词数:260 Washington, D.C. Bicycle Tours Cherry Blossom Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. Duration:3 hours This small group bike tour is a fantastic way to see the world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C. Your guide will provide a history lesson about the trees and the fa- mous monuments where they blossom. Reserve your spot before availability—and the cherry blos- soms—disappear! Washington Capital Monuments Bicycle Tour Duration:3 hours(4 miles) Join a guided bike tour and view some of the most popular monuments in Washington, D.C. Ex- plore the monuments and memorials on the National Mall as your guide shares unique facts and history at each stop. Guided tour includes bike, helmet, cookies and bottled water. Capital City Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. Duration:3 hours Morning or Afternoon, this bike tour is the perfect tour for D.C. newcomers and locals looking to experience Washington, D.C. in a healthy way with minimum effort. Knowledgeable guides will entertain you with the most interesting stories about Presidents, Congress, memorials, and parks. Comfortable bikes and a smooth tour route(路线)make cycling between the sites fun and relaxing. Washington Capital Sites at Night Bicycle Tour Duration:3 hours(7 miles) Join a small group bike tour for an evening of exploration in the heart of Washington, D.C. Get up close to the monuments and memorials as you bike the sites of Capitol Hill and the National Mall. Frequent stops are made for photo taking as your guide offers unique facts and history. Tour in- cludes bike, helmet, and bottled water. All riders are equipped with reflective vests and safety lights. 1.Which tour do you need to book in advance? A.Cherry Blossom Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. B.Washington Capital Monuments Bicycle Tour. C.Capital City Bike Tour in Washington, D.C. D.Washington Capital Sites at Night Bicycle Tour. 2.What will you do on the Capital City Bike Tour? A.Meet famous people. B.Go to a national park. C.Visit well-known museums. D.Enjoy interesting stories. 3.Which of the following does the bicycle tour at night provide? A.City maps.  B.Cameras. C.Meals.  D.Safety lights. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文的题材为旅游类。文章为那些自行车爱好者介绍了四个骑自行车探索美国 首都华盛顿的项目。 1.A 事实细节题。根据第一个项目中的Reserve your spot before availability可知,第一个游玩 项目需要预订,所以答案为A项。其他三个项目都没有提及需要预订。 2.D 事实细节题。根据第三个游玩项目中的第二句话(知识渊博的导游会给你讲关于总统、 国会、纪念碑和公园的最有趣的故事,让你开心。)可知,在这个游玩项目中你会享受到有趣 的故事,所以答案为D项。 3.D 事实细节题。根据文章最后一段的最后一句话(所有的骑手都配备了反光背心和安全 灯。)可知答案为D项。 难句分析 原句:Morning or Afternoon, this bike tour is the perfect tour for D.C. newcomers and locals look- ing to experience Washington, D.C. in a healthy way with minimum effort. 分析:主句是this bike tour is the perfect tour, Morning or Afternoon作状语修饰整个句子,现在分 词短语looking to experience Washington, D.C.作定语修饰newcomers and locals,介词短语in a healthy way with minimum effort作状语修饰动词experience。 译文:无论上午还是下午,无论是初来乍到还是当地居民,如果想要以一种健康舒适的方式体验 华盛顿,这个自行车游览项目是最佳选择。 Passage 2 1.fantastic [f?n?t?st?k] adj.极好的 2.availability [??ve?l??b?l?ti] n.可利用(性) 3.knowledgeable [?n?l?d??bl] adj.博学的 4.get up close to接近,靠近 高考热词 Passage 3 (2017课标全国Ⅰ,A)?词数:225 Pacific Science Center Guide ◆Visit Pacific Science Center's Store Don't forget to stop by Pacific Science Center's Store while you are here to pick up a wonderful science activity or souvenir to remember your visit. The store is located(位于)upstairs in Building 3 right next to the Laser Dome. ◆Hungry? Our exhibits will feed your mind, but what about your body?Our café offers a complete menu of lunch and snack options, in addition to seasonal specials. The café is located upstairs in Building 1 and is open daily until one hour before Pacific Science Center closes. ◆Rental Information Lockers are available to store any belongings during your visit. The lockers are located in Building 1 near the Information Desk and in Building 3. Pushchairs and wheelchairs are available to rent at the Information Desk and Denny Way entrance. ID required. ◆Support Pacific Science Center Since 1962, Pacific Science Center has been inspiring a passion(热情)for discovery and lifelong learning in science, math and technology. Today, Pacific Science Center serves more than 1.3 mil- lion people a year and brings inquiry-based science education to classrooms and community events all over Washington State. It's an amazing accomplishment and one we cannot achieve without generous support from individuals, corporations, and other social organizations. Visit pacific- sciencecenter.org to find various ways you can support Pacific Science Center. 1.Where can you buy a souvenir at Pacific Science Center? A.In Building 1.  B.In Building 3. C.At the Laser Dome.  D.At the Denny Way entrance. 2.What does Pacific Science Center do for schools? A.Train science teachers. B.Distribute science books. C.Inspire scientific research. D.Take science to the classroom. 3.What is the purpose of the last part of the text? A.To encourage donations. B.To advertise coming events. C.To introduce special exhibits. D.To tell about the Center's history. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为应用文。文中介绍了太平洋科学中心的几个功能区,包括纪念品商店、 咖啡厅和租用储物柜及轮椅的场所,并介绍了该中心的贡献,鼓励人们为其捐款。 1.B 事实细节题。根据第一段中的“The store is located upstairs in Building 3 right next to the Laser Dome.”可知,在3号楼可以买到纪念品,故答案为B项。C项为干扰项,考生如果没有注 意到“right next to...”会误选C项。 2.D 事实细节题。文章最后一段提及太平洋科学中心在多个方面的贡献,故本题的答案在最 后一段;根据最后一段中的“Today, Pacific Science Center...and brings inquiry-based science e- ducation to classrooms and...(当今,太平洋科学中心……并把探索式的科学教育带入课堂)”可 知答案为D项。本题C选项的干扰性较大,因为“鼓励科学研究”并非针对学校而言,故不是 正确答案。 3.A 推理判断题。最后一段中的“...one we cannot achieve without generous support from...” 强调了社会捐助的重要性,最后一句号召读者通过访问该中心的网站了解捐助形式,由此可知 本文最后一部分的写作目的是鼓励人们为太平洋科学中心捐款,故答案为A项。 难句分析 原句:It's an amazing accomplishment and one we cannot achieve without generous support from individuals, corporations, and other social organizations. 分析:第一个and后面的one替代an accomplishment。one后面是一个省略that的定语从句,修饰 限定先行词one。 译文:这是惊人的成就,是一种如果没有来自个体、公司和其他的社会团体的慷慨支持我们就 不能取得的成就。 高考热词 Passage 3 1.souvenir [?su?v??n??(r)] n.纪念品 2.passion [?p??n] n.热情,热爱 3.community [k??mju?n?ti] n.社区 4.individual [??nd??v?d?u?l] n.个人 adj.个人的 Passage 4 (2016课标全国Ⅰ,B)?词数:292 Grandparents Answer a Call As a third-generation native of Brownsville, Texas, Mildred Garza never planned to move away. Even when her daughter and son asked her to move to San Antonio to help with their children, she politely refused. Only after a year of friendly discussion did Ms. Garza finally say yes. That was four years ago. Today all three generations regard the move as a success, giving them a closer rela- tionship than they would have had in separate cities. No statistics show the number of grandparents like Garza who are moving closer to adult children and grandchildren. Yet there is evidence suggesting that the trend is growing. Even President Obama's mother-in-law, Marian Robinson, has agreed to leave Chicago and move into the White House to help care for her granddaughters. According to a study by grandparents.com, 83 percent of the people said Mrs. Robinson's decision will influence grandparents in the American family. Two-thirds believe more families will follow the example of Obama's family. “In the 1960s we were all a little wild and couldn't get away from home far enough or fast e- nough to prove we could do it on our own,”says Christine Crosby, publisher of Grand, a maga- zine for grandparents. “We now realize how important family is and how important it is to be near them, especially when you're raising children.” Moving is not for everyone. Almost every grandparent wants to be with his or her grandchildren and is willing to make sacrifices, but sometimes it is wiser to say no and visit frequently instead. Having your grandchildren far away is hard, especially knowing your adult child is struggling, but giving up the life you know may be harder. 1.Why was Garza's move a success? A.It strengthened her family ties. B.It improved her living conditions. C.It enabled her to make more friends. D.It helped her know more new places. 2.What was the reaction of the public to Mrs. Robinson's decision? A.17% expressed their support for it. B.Few people responded sympathetically. C.83% believed it had a bad influence. D.The majority thought it was a trend. 3.What did Crosby say about people in the 1960s? A.They were unsure of themselves. B.They were eager to raise more children. C.They wanted to live away from their parents. D.They had little respect for their grandparents. 4.What does the author suggest the grandparents do in the last paragraph? A.Make decisions in the best interests of their own. B.Ask their children to pay more visits to them. C.Sacrifice for their struggling children. D.Get to know themselves better. 答案 [语篇解读]????文章主要讲述了老人搬家和子孙辈一起居住的一种新趋势,并且作者在叙述的 同时也表达了自己的观点。 1.A 事实细节题。根据文章第一段最后一句中的giving them a closer relationship可知选择A 项。 2.D 推理判断题。根据文章第二段第四句可知,83%的人们说Robinson夫人的决定将会影响 美国家庭的祖父母们,由此可判断这些人认为这是一个趋势,故选D项,注意C项错在bad,文中 未提及是坏的影响。 3.C 事实细节题。根据文章第三段第一句可知,在20世纪60年代,我们有点野,总想离家更远 更快来证明自己可以独立,由此可判断选择C项。A项,根据他们想离家来证明自己可判断是 非常自信的,因此可排除。B项和原文不符。D项,文中未提到对祖父母不尊敬的内容。 4.A 推理判断题。根据文章最后一段第二句Almost every...it is wiser to say no...和最后一 句...especially knowing your adult child is struggling...可判断选A项。 难句分析 原句:We now realize how important family is and how important it is to be near them, especially when you're raising children. 分析:本句是主从复合句。realize后有两个how引导的并列的宾语从句。especially when you' re raising children为时间状语从句,其中especially为句子副词。 译文:现在我们意识到家人是多么重要,亲近他们是多么重要,尤其是在抚养孩子的时候。 高考热词 Passage 4 1.statistic [st??t?st?k] n.统计数据(常用复数) 2.evidence [?ev?d?ns] n.证据 3.trend [trend] n.流行,趋势 4.sacrifice [?s?kr?fa?s] n.牺牲 Passage 5 (2015课标全国Ⅰ,A)词数:218 Monthly Talks at London Canal Museum Our monthly talks start at 19:30 on the first Thursday of each month except August. Admission is at normal charges and you don't need to book. They end around 21:00. November 7th The Canal Pioneers, by Chris Lewis. James Brindley is recognized as one of the leading early canal engineers.He was also a major player in training others in the art of canal planning and build- ing. Chris Lewis will explain how Brindley made such a positive contribution to the education of that group of early“civil engineers”. December 5th Ice for the Metropolis, by Malcolm Tucker. Well before the arrival of freezers, there was a demand for ice for food preservation and catering. Malcolm will explain the history of importing natural ice and the technology of building ice wells, and how London's ice trade grew. February 6th An Update on the Cotswold Canals, by Liz Payne. The Stroudwater Canal is moving towards re- opening. The Thames and Severn Canal will take a little longer. We will have a report on the pre- sent state of play. March 6th Eyots and Aits—Thames Islands, by Miranda Vickers. The Thames has many islands. Miranda has undertaken a review of all of them. She will tell us about those of greatest interest. Online bookings:www.canalmuseum.org.uk/book More info:www.canalmuseum.org.uk/whatson London Canal Museum 12—13 New Wharf Road,London NI 9RT www.canalmuseum.org.uk www.canalmuseum.mobi Tel:020 7713 0836 1.When is the talk on James Brindley? A.February 6th.  B.March 6th. C.November 7th.  D.December 5th. 2.What is the topic of the talk in February? A.The Canal Pioneers. B.Ice for the Metropolis. C.Eyots and Aits—Thames Islands. D.An Update on the Cotswold Canals. 3.Who will give the talk on the islands in the Thames? A.Miranda Vickers.  B.Malcolm Tucker. C.Chris Lewis.  D.Liz Payne. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为应用文,介绍了伦敦运河博物馆四天的讲座。 1.C 事实细节题。由The Canal Pioneers,by Chris Lewis.James Brindley is recognized...可知C 项正确。 2.D 事实细节题。根据February 6th下面的内容可知2月6日讲座的主题是“An Update on the Cotswold Canals”,故D项正确。 3.A 事实细节题。根据March 6th下面的Eyots and Aits—Thames Islands,by Miranda Vickers. 可知A项正确。 难句分析 原句:Chris Lewis will explain how Brindley made such a positive contribution to the education of that group of early “civil engineers”. 分析:本句为主从复合句。how引导的名词性从句作explain的宾语。the education of对……的 教育。 译文:Chris Lewis将解释Brindley是如何对早期“土木工程师”的培养做出如此积极的贡献的。 高考热词 Passage 5 1.admission [?d?m??n] n.入场费 2.canal [k??n?l] n.运河 3.freezer [?fri?z?(r)] n.冰柜,冷冻柜 4.update [??pde?t] n.最新进展 Group 2 Passage 1 (2014山东,A)词数:277 One morning,Ann's neighbor Tracy found a lost dog wandering around the local elementary school.She asked Ann if she could keep an eye on the dog.Ann said that she could watch it only for the day. Tracy took photos of the dog and printed off 400 FOUND fliers(传单),and put them in mailboxes. Meanwhile,Ann went to the dollar store and bought some pet supplies,warning her two sons not to fall in love with the dog.At the time,Ann's son Thomas was 10 years old,and Jack,who was recov- ering from a heart operation,was 21 years old. Four days later Ann was still looking after the dog,whom they had started to call Riley.When she arrived home from work,the dog threw itself against the screen door and barked madly at her.As soon as she opened the door,Riley dashed into the boys' room where Ann found Jack suffering a heart attack.Riley ran over to Jack,but as soon as Ann bent over to help him the dog went silent. “If it hadn't come to get me,the doctor said Jack would have died,”Ann reported to a local newspaper.At this point,no one had called to claim the dog,so Ann decided to keep it. The next morning Tracy got a call.A man named Peter recognized his lost dog and called the num- ber on the flier.Tracy started crying,and told him,“That dog saved my friend's son.” Peter drove to Ann's house to pick up his dog,and saw Thomas and Jack crying in the window.Af- ter a few moments Peter said,“Maybe Odie was supposed to find you,maybe you should keep it.” 1.What did Tracy do after finding the dog? A.She looked for its owner. B.She gave it to Ann as a gift. C.She sold it to the dollar store. D.She bought some food for it. 2.How did the dog help save Jack? A.By breaking the door for Ann. B.By leading Ann to Jack's room. C.By dragging Jack out of the room. D.By attending Jack when Ann was out. 3.What was Ann's attitude to the dog according to Paragraph 4? A.Sympathetic.  B.Doubtful. C.Tolerant.  D.Grateful. 4.For what purpose did Peter call Tracy? A.To help her friend's son. B.To interview Tracy. C.To take back his dog. D.To return the flier to her. 5.What can we infer about the dog from the last paragraph? A.It would be given to Odie. B.It would be kept by Ann's family. C.It would be returned to Peter. D.It would be taken away by Tracy. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文,题材为人物故事类。Ann 的邻居Tracy在当地的小学附近发现了 一条狗,没想到这条狗给Ann一家人带来了那么多的东西。那它到底做了些什么呢? 1.A 事实细节题。根据第二段开头的“Tracy给这条狗拍了照片还打印了400份招领传单” 可知Tracy是在寻找这条狗的主人,所以答案为A项。B、C两项与原文事实不符,D项是Ann在 Tracy寻找主人的同时做的事情,与问题不符。 2.B 事实细节题。根据第三段中的相关内容可知答案选B。 3.D 推理判断题。根据第四段中Ann说的话“要不是它过来叫我的话,医生说Jack就死了” 可推断出Ann对这条狗充满了感激之情,故答案为D项。sympathetic同情的,怜悯的;doubtful怀 疑的;tolerant容忍的,宽恕的;grateful感激的,感谢的。 4.C 事实细节题。根据第五段中的描述“第二天早上Tracy接到了一个叫Peter的人打来的电 话,他认出了传单上的狗是自己的”和最后一段的第一句话Peter drove to Ann's house to pick up his dog...可知Peter打电话是为了取回自己的小狗,所以答案为C项。 5.B 推理判断题。根据文章最后一句话中的maybe you should keep it可以推断出狗的主人 Peter没有带走自己的狗而是将狗留给了Ann一家,所以答案为B项。Odie是Peter对自己狗的称 呼,排除A项;C项与原文意思相反;没有信息提到Tracy会带走它,排除D项。 难句分析 原句:As soon as she opened the door, Riley dashed into the boys' room where Ann found Jack suffering a heart attack. 分析:本句话的主干是Riley dashed into the boys' room。前面是as soon as引导的时间状语从 句,表示“一……就……”。后面的where Ann found Jack suffering a heart attack为定语从句, 修饰先行词room。 译文:Ann一开门,Riley就冲进男孩们的房间,在那里Ann发现Jack正心脏病发作。 高考热词 Passage 1 1.keep an eye on 照看 2.bend over弯下腰 3.claim[kle?m] vt.要求(拥有);认领 4.be supposed to应该 Passage 2 (2013山东,B)词数:320 George Gershwin, born in 1898, was one of America's greatest composers. He published his first song when he was eighteen years old.During the next twenty years he wrote more than five hun- dred songs. Many of Gershwin's songs were first written for musical plays performed in theatres in New York City. These plays were a popular form of entertainment in the 1920s and 1930s. Many of his songs have remained popular as ever. Over the years they have been sung and played in every possible way—from jazz to country. In the 1920s there was a debate in the United States about jazz music. Could jazz, some people asked,be considered serious music?In 1924 jazz musician and orchestra leader Paul Whiteman de- cided to organize a special concert to show that jazz was serious music.Gershwin agreed to com- pose something for the concert before he realized he had just a few weeks to do it. And in that short time,he composed a piece for piano and orchestra which he called Rhapsody in Blue.Gersh- win himself played the piano at the concert.The audience were thrilled when they heard his music. It made him world-famous and showed that jazz music could be both serious and popular. In 1928,Gershwin went to Paris.He applied to study composition(作曲) with the well-known musi- cian Nadia Boulanger,but she rejected him.She was afraid that classical study would ruin his jazz- influenced style.While there,Gershwin wrote An American in Paris. When it was first performed, critics(评论家) were divided over the music.Some called it happy and full of life,to others it was silly and boring.But it quickly became popular in Europe and the United States.It still remains one of his most famous works. George Gershwin died in 1937,just days after doctors learned he had brain cancer.He was only thir- ty-nine years old.Newspapers all over the world reported his death on their front pages.People mourned the loss of the man and all the music he might have still written. 1.Many of Gershwin's musical works were  ????. A.written about New Yorkers B.composed for Paul Whiteman C.played mainly in the countryside D.performed in various ways 2.What do we know about the concert organized by Whiteman? A.It attracted more people to theatres. B.It proved jazz could be serious music. C.It made Gershwin leader of the orchestra. D.It caused a debate among jazz musicians. 3.What did Gershwin do during his stay in Paris? A.He created one of his best works. B.He studied with Nadia Boulanger. C.He argued with French critics. D.He changed his music style. 4.What do we learn from the last paragraph? A.Many of Gershwin's works were lost. B.The death of Gershwin was widely reported. C.A concert was held in memory of Gershwin. D.Brain cancer research started after Gershwin's death. 5.Which of the following best describes Gershwin? A.Talented and productive. B.Serious and boring. C.Popular and unhappy. D.Friendly and honest. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文为记叙文。介绍了20世纪上半叶美国著名的音乐家Gershwin以及他所创作 的音乐。 1.D 事实细节题。根据第二段最后一句话可知:这些年来他的音乐被人们以各种可能的方式 在演唱和演奏着,故选D项。 2.B 事实细节题。根据第三段第二、三句话可知选B项。 3.A 事实细节题。根据第四段中的描述:在巴黎期间他创作了An American in Paris。该段最 后一句话描述:这首音乐仍然是他最著名的作品之一,故选A项。 4.B 推理判断题。根据最后一段中的Newspapers all over the world reported his death on their front pages.由此推断出他的去世被广泛报道了,故选B项。 5.A 推理判断题。他在18岁时就发行了自己的第一首歌,在随后20年里共创作了500多首歌 曲。由此我们知道他是一位有音乐天赋且有非常多作品的一个人,故选A项。 难句分析 原句:In 1924 jazz musician and orchestra leader Paul Whiteman decided to organize a special con- cert to show that jazz was serious music. 分析:本句的主干是Paul Whiteman decided to organize a special concert,其中Paul Whiteman是 jazz musician and orchestra leader的同位语。后面的不定式短语to show that...为目的状语,that jazz was serious music为show的宾语从句。 译文:1924年,爵士乐音乐家兼管弦乐队指挥保罗·惠特曼决定举办一场特别的音乐会,以表明 爵士乐是一种严肃的音乐。 高考热词 Passage 2 1.composer[k?m?p??z?(r)] n.作曲家 2.as ever一如既往 3.orchestra [???k?str?] n.管弦乐队 4.thrill [?r?l] vt.使激动 5.front page头版 6.mourn [m??n] v.(因失去……而)哀悼 Passage 3 (2012山东,B)词数:355 One of the greatest contributors to the first Oxford English Dictionary was also one of its most un- usual.In 1879,Oxford University in England asked Prof. James Murray to serve as editor for what was to be the most ambitious dictionary in the history of the English language.It would include ev- ery English word possible and would give not only the definition but also the history of the word and quotations(引文)showing how it was used. This was a huge task,so Murray had to find volunteers from Britain,the United States,and the British colonies to search every newspaper,magazine,and book ever written in English.Hundreds of volunteers responded,including William Chester Minor. Dr. Minor was an American surgeon who had served in the Civil War and was now living in England.He gave his address as“Broadmoor, Crowthorne,Berkshire,”50 miles from Oxford. Minor joined the army of volunteers sending words and quotations to Murray.Over the next 17 years,he became one of the staff's most valued contributors. But he was also a mystery.In spite of many invitations,he would always decline to visit Oxford.So in 1897,Murray finally decided to travel to Crowthorne himself.When he arrived,he found Minor locked in a book-lined cell at the Broadmoor Asylum(精神病院)for the criminally insane. Murray and Minor became friends,sharing their love of words.Minor continued contributing to the dictionary,sending in more than 10,000 submissions in 20 years.Murray continued to visit Minor regularly,sometimes taking walks with him around the asylum grounds. In 1910,Minor left Broadmoor for an asylum in his native America.Murray was at the port to wave goodbye to his remarkable friend. Minor died in 1920,seven years before the first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary was com- pleted.The 12 volumes defined 414,825 words,and thousands of them were contributions from a very scholarly and devoted asylum patient. 1.According to the text,the first Oxford English Dictionary  ????. A.came out before Minor died B.was edited by an American volunteer C.included the English words invented by Murray D.was intended to be the most ambitious English dictionary 2.How did Dr.Minor contribute to the dictionary? A.He helped Murray to find hundreds of volunteers. B.He sent newspapers,magazines and books to Murray. C.He provided a great number of words and quotations. D.He went to England to work with Murray. 3.Why did Dr. Minor refuse to visit Oxford? A.He was shut in an asylum. B.He lived far from Oxford. C.He was busy writing a book. D.He disliked traveling. 4.Prof.Murray and Dr.Minor became friends mainly because  ????. A.they both served in the Civil War B.they had a common interest in words C.Minor recovered with the help of Murray D.Murray went to America regularly to visit Minor 5.Which of the following best describes Dr.Minor? A.Brave and determined. B.Cautious and friendly. C.Considerate and optimistic. D.Unusual and scholarly. 6.What does the text mainly talk about? A.The history of the English language. B.The friendship between Murray and Minor. C.Minor and the first Oxford English Dictionary. D.Broadmoor Asylum and its patients. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文属于人物故事类。作者讲述的是《牛津英语词典》的主编Pro. James Mur- ray为了编纂词典在不列颠、美国及英国殖民地寻找参与编辑词典的志愿者,并和志愿者之一 Dr.Minor,一个与众不同的人,成了好朋友的故事。 1.D 事实细节题。根据文章第一段第二句话可知答案。 2.C 事实细节题。根据文章第三段第一句话,Dr.Minor加入了给《牛津英语词典》的主编 Pro.James Murray提供单词和引语的志愿者大军,可知答案。 3.A 事实细节题。根据第四段可知,尽管多次被邀请,但他总是谢绝参观牛津。因此在1897 年,Murray最终决定亲自到Crowthorne,到了那里才发现Minor由于患有精神病而被锁在了精神 病院的一间摆满了书的小房间里。 4.B 事实细节题。通读第五段可知,Murray和Minor分享他们对于词汇的爱好,Minor继续为 词典作贡献,在20年的时间里向Murray提交了10,000多个词语。故选B。 5.D 推理判断题。根据Minor患有精神病而被锁在精神病院的一间摆满了书的小房间里可 知,他是非同寻常之人;又根据他对词典做出的贡献可知他是非常有学问的人,故选D。 6.C 主旨大意题。此题可使用排除法。A:英语语言的历史——不属于本文内容。B:Murray 和Minor的友谊——不全面。D:Broadmoor精神病院及其病人——没有涉及。故选C:Minor和 第一部《牛津英语词典》。 难句分析 原句:In 1879, Oxford University in England asked Prof. James Murray to serve as editor for what was to be the most ambitious dictionary in the history of the English language. 分析:本句的主干是Oxford University asked Prof. James Murray to serve as editor。for后跟了一 个由what引导的宾语从句,in the history of the English language在从句中作状语。 译文:1879年,英国牛津大学请詹姆斯·默里教授担任英语语言史上最耗时的词典的编辑。 Passage 3 1.contributor [k?n?tr?bj?t?] n.投稿人 2.definition [?def??n??n] n.定义 3.colony [?k?l?ni] n.殖民地 4.surgeon [?s??d??n] n.外科医生 5.decline [d??kla?n] v.拒绝 6.a book-lined cell 一个堆满书籍的小房间 7.criminally insane精神不正常而犯罪的 8.submission [s?b?m??n] n.提交的文件、建议等 9.remarkable [r??mɑ?k?bl] adj.非凡的;卓越的 10.scholarly [?sk?l?li] adj.有学问的 高考热词 Passage 4 (2011山东,B)词数:321 Tim Richter and his wife,Linda,had taught for over 30 years near Buffalo,New York—he in com- puters,she in special education.“Teaching means everything to us,”Tim would say.In April 199 8,he learned he would need a heart operation.It was the kind of news that leads to some serious thinking about life's purpose. Not long after the surgery,Tim saw a brochure describing Imagination Library,a program started by Dolly Parton's foundation(基金会)that mailed a book every month to children from birth to age five in the singer's hometown of Sevier,Tennessee.“I thought,maybe Linda and I could do some- thing like this when we retire,”Tim recalls.He placed the brochure on his desk,“as a reminder.” Five years later,now retired and with that brochure still on the desk,Tim clicked on imaginationli- brary.com.The program had been opened up to partners who could take advantage of book and postage discounts. The quality of the books was of great concern to the Richters.Rather than sign up online,they went to Dollywood for a look-see.“We didn't want to give the children rubbish,”says Linda.The books—reviewed each year by teachers,literacy specialists,and Dollywood board members—in- cluded classics such as Ezra Jack Keats's The Snowy Day and newer books like Anna Dewdney's Llama Llama series. Satisfied,the couple set up the Richter Family Foundation and got to work.Since 2004,they have shipped more than 12,200 books to preschoolers in their area.Megan Williams,a mother of four,is more than appreciative:“This program introduces us to books I've never heard of.” The Richters spend about $400 a month sending books to 200 children.“Some people sit there and wait to die,”says Tim.“Others get as busy as they can in the time they have left.” 1.What led Tim to think seriously about the meaning of life? A.His health problem.  B.His love for teaching. C.The influence of his wife.  D.The news from the Web. 2.What did Tim want to do after learning about Imagination Library? A.Give out brochures. B.Do something similar. C.Write books for children. D.Retire from being a teacher. 3.According to the text,Dolly Parton is  ????. A.a well-known surgeon B.a mother of a four-year-old C.a singer born in Tennessee D.a computer programmer 4.Why did the Richters go to Dollywood? A.To avoid signing up online. B.To meet Dollywood board members. C.To make sure the books were the newest. D.To see if the books were of good quality. 5.What can we learn from Tim's words in the last paragraph? A.He needs more money to help the children. B.He wonders why some people are so busy. C.He tries to save those waiting to die. D.He considers his efforts worthwhile. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文讲述了Tim Richter和他的妻子了解到Imagination Library 的所作所为之后, 成立了Richter Family Foundation。他们为孩子们做了一件非常有意义的事情。 1.A 事实细节题。从第一段最后两句可知,是他要做手术这个消息,即他的健康问题,导致了 他对于人生目的的认真思考。 2.B 事实细节题。从第二段中“I thought,maybe Linda and I could do something like this when we retire”可知答案。 3.C 事实细节题。从第二段第一句...Dolly Parton's foundation that mailed a book every month to children from birth to age five in the singer's home town of Sevier,Tennessee.可知答案。 4.D 推理判断题。第四段...they went to Dollywood for a look-see.“We didn't want to give the children rubbish,” says Linda.The books—reviewed each year by teachers...可以推断出答案。 5.D 推理判断题。从最后一段Tim所说的话中,我们可以得知他认为自己所做的努力是非常 值得的。所以选择D项。 难句分析 原句:Not long after the surgery, Tim saw a brochure describing Imagination Library, a program started by Dolly Parton's foundation that mailed a book every month to children from birth to age five in the singer's hometown of Sevier, Tennessee. 分析: 本句的主干是Tim saw a brochure,前面的短语Not long after the surgery作时间状语。de- scribing Imagination Library为前面名词a brochure的后置定语。a program为Imagination Li- brary的同位语。started by Dolly Parton's foundation为a program的后置定语。that mailed a book every month to children from birth to age five in the singer's hometown of Sevier, Tennessee 为that引导的定语从句,修饰先行词a program。 译文:在手术后不久,提姆看到了一本描述想象图书馆的小册子,这是一个由多莉·帕顿基金会 发起的一个项目,每个月给家乡田纳西州塞维尔从出生到五岁的孩子寄一本书。 Passage 4 1.a heart operation心脏手术 2.brochure[?br????(r)] n.小册子 3.reminder [r??ma?nd?(r)] n.提醒物;提示 4.click on 点击 5.sign up报名 6.literacy [?l?t?r?si] n.识字;读写能力 7.preschooler [?pri??sku?l?] n.(美)学龄前儿童 8.appreciative [??pri???t?v] adj.感激的 高考热词 B组????课标Ⅱ、Ⅲ及其他省(区、市)卷题组 Group 1 Passage 1(2019课标全国Ⅲ,A)词数:204 OPENINGS AND PREVIEWS Animals Out of Paper Yolo! Productions and the Great Griffon present the play by Rajiv Joseph, in which an origami(折 纸术)artist invites a teenage talent and his teacher into her studio. Merri Milwe directs. In pre- views. Opens Feb. 12. (West Park Presbyterian Church, 165 W. 86th St. 212-868-4444.) The Audience Helen Mirren stars in the play by Peter Morgan, about Queen Elizabeth II of the UK and her pri- vate meetings with twelve Prime Ministers in the course of sixty years. Stephen Daldry directs. Al- so starring Dylan Baker and Judith Ivey. Previews begin Feb. 14. (Schoenfeld, 236 W. 45th St. 212 -239-6200.) Hamilton Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musical about Alexander Hamilton, in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story. Thomas Kail directs. In previews. Opens Feb. 17. (Public, 425 Lafayette St. 212-967-7555.) On the Twentieth Century Kristin Chenoweth and Peter Gallagher star in the musical comedy by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, about a Broadway producer who tries to win a movie star's love during a cross-country train journey. Scott Ellis directs, for Roundabout Theatre Company. Previews begin Feb. 12. (American Airlines Theatre, 227 W. 42nd St. 212-719-1300.) 1.What is the play by Rajiv Joseph probably about? A.A type of art.  B.A teenager's studio. C.A great teacher.  D.A group of animals. 2.Who is the director of The Audience? A.Helen Mirren.  B.Peter Morgan. C.Dylan Baker.  D.Stephen Daldry. 3.Which play will you go to if you are interested in American history? A.Animals Out of Paper.  B.The Audience. C.Hamilton.  D.On the Twentieth Century. 答案 [语篇解读]????本文是一篇应用文。主题语境为人与社会,主题语境内容为戏剧。文章介绍了 几个演出,侧重学生艺术素养的培养。 1.A 事实细节题。本题题干意为:Rajiv Joseph的戏剧可能是关于什么的?根据文章第一部分 的“in which an origami artist invites a teenage talent and his teacher into her studio(在戏剧中,一 位折纸艺术家邀请一位十几岁的天才和他的老师来到她的工作室)”可知,它与一种艺术有 关。B:一个青少年的工作室;C:一位伟大的老师;D:一群动物。 2.D 事实细节题。本题题干意为:The Audience的导演是谁?根据文章The Audience部分的 Stephen Daldry directs可知,The Audience的导演是Stephen Daldry, 故D项正确。 3.C 事实细节题。本题题干意为:如果你对美国历史感兴趣,你将会去看哪出戏剧?根据文章 Hamilton部分的“in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story”可知,该戏剧 是和美国的诞生有关的,所以,如果你对美国历史感兴趣,就应该去看这出戏剧。 难句分析 原句:Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musical about Alexander Hamilton, in which the birth of America is presented as an immigrant story. 分析:本句是一个包含定语从句的主从复合句,其中主句是Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote this musi- cal about Alexander Hamilton,而in which引导的定语从句修饰先行词musical。 译文:Lin-Manuel Miranda写了这一部关于Alexander Hamilton的音乐剧。在这部音乐剧中,美 国的诞生以一个移民故事的形式被呈现。 高考热词 Passage 1 1.preview [?pri?vju?] n. 预演 2.star [stɑ?] v. 主演 3.musical comedy音乐喜剧 Passage 2(2019浙江,A)词数:359 Zachariah Fike has an unusual hobby. He finds old military(军队的)medals for sale in antique stores and on the Internet. But unlike most collectors, Zac tracks down the medals' rightful own- ers, and returns them. His effort to reunite families with lost medals began with a Christmas gift from his mother, a Pur- ple Heart with the name Corrado A.G. Piccoli, found in an antique shop. Zac knows the meaning of a Purple Heart—he earned one himself in a war as a soldier. So when his mother gave him the medal, he knew right away what he had to do. Through the Internet, Zac tracked down Corrado's sister Adeline Rockko. But when he finally reached her, the woman flooded him with questions:“Who are you?What antique shop?”How- ever, when she hung up, she regretted the way she had handled the call. So she called Zac back and apologized. Soon she drove to meet Zac in Watertown, N.Y.“At that point, I knew she meant business,”Zac says.“To drive eight hours to come to see me.” The Piccolis grew up the children of Italian immigrants in Watertown. Corrado, a translator for the Army during WWII, was killed in action in Europe. Before hearing from Zac, Adeline hadn't realized the medal was missing. Like many military medals, the one Zac's mother had found was a family treasure.“This medal was very precious to my parents. Only on special occasions(场合)would they take it out and let us hold it in our hands,”Adeline says. As a child, Adeline couldn't understand why the medal was so significant. “But as I grew old- er,”Adeline says,“and missed my brother more and more, I realized that was the only thing we had left.”Corrado Piccoli's Purple Heart medal now hangs at the Italian American Civic Associa- tion in Watertown. Zac recently returned another lost medal to a family in Alabama. Since he first reunited Corrado's medal, Zac says his record is now 5 for 5. 1.Where did Zac get a Purple Heart medal for himself? A.In the army.  B.In an antique shop. C.From his mother.  D.From Adeline Rockko. 2.What did Zac realize when Adeline drove to meet him? A.She was very impolite. B.She was serious about the medal. C.She suspected his honesty. D.She came from a wealthy family. 3.What made Adeline treasure the Purple Heart? A.Her parents' advice. B.Her knowledge of antiques. C.Her childhood dream. D.Her memory of her brother. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇记叙文,主题语境为人与社会,主题语境内容是社会交往。文章讲述 了一位获得过紫心勋章的老战士收集丢失的紫心勋章并物归原主的故事。文章侧重于对学 生文化意识的培养。 1.A 事实细节题。本题题干意为:Zac是在哪里获得自己的紫心勋章的?根据文章第二段的he earned one himself in a war as a soldier(他作为一名战士在一次战争中为自己赢得了一枚紫心 勋章)可知,A项(在军队中)正确。B:在一家古董店;C:从他妈妈那里;D:从Adeline Rockko那 里。 2.B 推理判断题。本题题干意为:当Adeline开车来见他的时候,Zac明白了什么?根据第三段 的描述,尤其是At that point, I knew she meant business(在那时,我知道她是认真的)可知,Zac明 白了Adeline非常重视那枚勋章,故答案为B项。A:她非常不礼貌;C:她怀疑他的诚实;D:她来自 一个富有的家庭。 3.D 事实细节题。本题题干意为:Adeline 珍惜紫心勋章的原因是什么?根据文章倒数第二段 的“But as I grew older,” Adeline says,“and missed my brother more and more, I realized that was the only thing we had left.”可知,Adeline珍惜这枚勋章的原因是她对哥哥的怀念,故D项正 确。A:她父母的建议;B:她的古董知识;C:她儿时的梦想。 高考热词 Passage 2 1.antique store古董店 2.track down追查到 3.hang up挂断(电话) 4.immigrant [??m?ɡr?nt] n.移民 5.precious [?pre??s] adj.珍贵的 Passage 3(2019北京,A)词数:295 Want to explore new cultures, meet new people and do something worthwhile at the same time? You can do all the three with Global Development Association (GDA). Whatever stage of life you 're at, wherever you go and whatever project you do in GDA, you'll create positive changes in a poor and remote community(社区).   We work with volunteers of all ages and backgrounds. Most of our volunteers are aged 17—2 4. Now we need volunteer managers aged 25—75. They are extremely important in the safe and effective running of our programmes. We have such roles as project managers, mountain leaders, and communication officers.   Depending on which role you choose, you could help to increase a community's access to safe drinking water, or help to protect valuable local cultures. You might also design an adventure challenge to train young volunteers. Not only will you help our young volunteers to develop personally, you'll also learn new skills and increase your cultural awareness. You may have chances to meet new people who'll become your lifelong friends. This summer we have both 4-week and 7-week programmes:   GDA ensures that volunteers work with community members and local project partners where our help is needed. All our projects aim to promote the development of poor and remote communi- ties. There is no other chance like a GDA programme. Join us as a volunteer manager to develop your own skills while bringing benefits to the communities. Find out more about joining a GDA programme: Country Schedule 4-week programmes 7-week programmes Algeria 5 Jul.—1 Aug. 20 Jun.—7 Aug. Egypt 24 Jul.—20 Aug. 19 Jun.—6 Aug. Kenya 20 Jul.—16 Aug. 18 Jun.—5 Aug. South Africa 2 Aug.—29 Aug. 15 Jun.—2 Aug. Website:www.glodeve.org Email:humanresources@glodeve.org 1.What is the main responsibility of volunteer managers? A.To seek local partners. B.To take in young volunteers. C.To carry out programmes. D.To foster cultural awareness. 2.The programme beginning in August will operate in  ????. A.Egypt  B.Algeria  C.Kenya  D.South Africa 3.The shared goal of GDA's projects is to  ????. A.explore new cultures  B.protect the environment C.gain corporate benefits  D.help communities in need 答案 [语篇解读] 本文体裁为应用文,主题语境为人与自我,主题语境内容为社会责任。文章介绍 了一个名为Global Development Association的志愿者项目。本文侧重培养学生的思维品质。 1.C 事实细节题。本题题干意为:志愿者经理的主要职责是什么?根据题干中的volunteer managers可锁定答案在第二段。根据第二段第四句They are extremely important in the safe and effective running of our programmes.可知答案为C项(执行项目)。A:寻找当地的合作者;B:吸 纳年轻志愿者;D:培养文化意识。 2.D 事实细节题。本题题干意为:在八月份启动的项目将会在  ????运作。根据题干中的 beginning in August可知,答案在表格中,对应日期为2 Aug.—29 Aug.,对应的国家是South Africa,所以答案是D项。 3.D 事实细节题。本题题干意为:GDA项目的共同目标是  ????。根据题干中的关键词 shared goal of GDA's projects可知,答案在第六段。根据第六段的最后一句All our projects aim to promote the development of poor and remote communities.(我们所有的项目旨在促进贫困偏 远社区的发展。)可知本题选择D项(帮助有需要的社区)。A:探索新文化;B:保护环境;C:获得企业效益。 难句分析 原句: GDA ensures that volunteers work with community members and local project partners where our help is needed. 分析:句子主干是GDA ensures that volunteers work,其中that引导的是宾语从句;and连接并列成 分community members和local project partners;where our help is needed是状语从句。 译文:GDA确保志愿者们在需要我们帮助的地方与社区成员们和当地的项目伙伴们一起工 作。 高考热词 Passage 3 1.worthwhile [?w????wa?l] adj. 值得做的 2.access [??kses] n. 使用权 3.promote [pr??m??t] v. 促进 4.remote [r??m??t] adj. 遥远的;偏远的 Passage 4(2019课标全国Ⅱ,A)词数:264 My Favourite Books Jo Usmar is a writer for Cosmopolitan and co-author of the This Book Will series(系列) of lifestyle books. Here she picks her top reads. Matilda Roald Dahl I once wrote a paper on the influence of fairy tales on Roald Dahl's writing and it gave me a new appreciation for his strange and delightful worlds. Matilda's battles with her cruel parents and the bossy headmistress, Miss Trunchbull, are equally funny and frightening, but they're also aspira- tional. After Dark Haruki Murakami It's about two sisters—Eri, a model who either won't or can't stop sleeping, and Mari, a young student. In trying to connect to her sister, Mari starts changing her life and discovers a world of di- verse“night people”who are hiding secrets. Gone Girl Gillian Flynn There was a bit of me that didn't want to love this when everyone else on the planet did, but the horror story is brilliant. There's tension and anxiety from the beginning as Nick and Amy battle for your trust. It's a real whodunit and the frustration when you realise what's going on is horribly enjoyable. The Stand Stephen King This is an excellent fantasy novel from one of the best storytellers around. After a serious flu out- break wipes out 99.4% of the world's population, a battle unfolds between good and evil among those left. Randall Flagg is one of the scariest characters ever. 1.Who does “I” refer to in the text? A.Stephen King.  B.Gillian Flynn. C.Jo Usmar.  D.Roald Dahl. 2.Which of the following tells about Mari and Eri? A.Cosmopolitan.  B.Matilda. C.After Dark.  D.The Stand. 3.What kind of book is Gone Girl? A.A folk tale.  B.A biography. C.A love story.  D.A horror story. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇应用文。主题语境为人与社会,主题语境内容为文学艺术。文章介 绍了一位作家对自己喜欢的几本书的评价。本文侧重于培养学生的文化意识。 1.C 猜测词义题。本题题干意为:文章中的“I” 指的是谁?根据第一段可知本文是作者Jo Usmar的书评。根据Matilda中的“I once wrote a paper on the influence of fairy tales on Roald Dahl's writing and it gave me...”可知,此处I 指的是Jo Usmar,故选C项。其他几项都是文章中 提到的几本书的作者。 2.C 事实细节题。本题题干意为:下面哪个选项讲述了Mari和Eri?在文章有关After Dark的书 评中,作者介绍了Eri和Mari,因此C项正确。A项Cosmopolitan是作者介绍Jo Usmar时提及的她 的一本书。B项和D项是书评介绍中的两本书。 3.D 推理判断题。本题题干意为:Gone Girl是一本什么样的书?根据文章Gone Girl部分的介 绍,尤其是“but the horror story is brilliant”可知,这本书是关于恐怖故事的,故D项正确。A:民 间传说;B:传记;C:爱情故事。 难句分析 原句:There was a bit of me that didn't want to love this when everyone else on the planet did, but the horror story is brilliant. 分析:本句是一个并列复合句,由but连接前后两个分句。前一分句的主干是There was a bit of me, that didn't want to love this 为定语从句, when everyone else on the planet did是时间状语从 句。 译文:在这个星球上其他人都喜欢这本书的时候,我却有一点不喜欢它,但是这个恐怖故事太精 彩了。 高考热词 Passage 4 1.co-author [k???????(r)] n.合著者 2.appreciation [??pri??i?e???n] n.理解 3.delightful [d??la?tful] adj.令人愉快的 4.aspirational [??sp??re???nl] adj.令人渴望的 5.brilliant [?br?lj?nt] adj.杰出的,精彩的 6.tension [?ten?(?)n] n.紧张 7.wipe out 彻底消灭,全部摧毁 Group 2 Passage 1 (2018课标全国Ⅱ,A)词数:284 Summer Activities Students should read the list with their parents/carers, and select two activities they would like to do. Forms will be available in school and online for them to indicate their choices and return to school. Before choices are finalised, parents/carers will be asked to sign to confirm their child's choices. Activity Description Member of staff Cost Outdoor Adventure (OUT) Take yourself out of your comfort zone for a week, discover new personal qualities, and learn new skills. You will be able to take part in a number of activities from canoeing to wild camping on Dartmoor. Learn rock climbing and work as a team,and enjoy the great outdoor environment. Mr. Clemens £140 WWⅠ Battlefields and Paris (WBP) On Monday we travel to London. After staying overnight in London, we travel on Day 2 to northern France to visit the World War Ⅰ battlefields. On Day 3 we cross into Belgium. Thursday sees us make the short journey to Paris where we will visit Disneyland Paris park, staying until late to see the parade and the fireworks. Our final day, Friday, sees us visit central Paris and tour the main sights. Mrs. Wilson £425 Crafty Foxes(CRF) Four days of product design centred around textiles. Making lovely objects using recycled and made materials. Bags, cushions and decorations...Learn skills and leave with modern and unusual textiles. Mrs. Goode £30 Potty about Potter (POT) Visit Warner Bros Studio, shop stop to buy picnic, stay overnight in an approved Youth Hostel in Streatley-on-Thames, guided tour of Oxford to see the film locations, picnic lunch outside Oxford's Christchurch, boating on the River Cherwell through the University Parks, before heading back to Exeter. Miss Drake £150 1.Which activity will you choose if you want to go camping? A.OUT.  B.WBP.  C.CRF.  D.POT. 2.What will the students do on Tuesday with Mrs. Wilson? A.Travel to London. B.See a parade and fireworks. C.Tour central Paris. D.Visit the WWⅠ battlefields. 3.How long does Potty about Potter last? A.Two days.  B.Four days. C.Five days.  D.One week. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇应用文,介绍了四项供学生选择的暑期活动。 1.A 事实细节题。题干句意:如果你想去野营,你将选择哪项活动?根据camping一词直接定 位表格中第一项活动OUT。根据OUT中第二句(在达特穆尔你可以参加从划独木舟到野营的 很多活动。)可知A项正确。 2.D 事实细节题。题干句意:在周二,学生们将和Wilson女士在一起做什么?根据Mrs. Wilson 直接定位表格中第二项活动WBP。根据WBP中第一、二句(星期一,我们去伦敦旅行。在伦 敦待一晚上后,第二天我们去法国北部参观一战战场。)可知D项正确。 3.A 事实细节题。题干句意:Potty about Potter持续多长时间?由Potty about Potter直接定位表 格中第四项活动POT。根据POT中第一句中关键信息stay overnight可知该项活动持续两天的 时间,故选择A项。 难句分析 原句:Thursday sees us make the short journey to Paris where we will visit Disneyland Paris park, staying until late to see the parade and the fireworks. 分析:本句是一个复合句。where为关系副词,引导定语从句,修饰先行词Paris;现在分词结构 staying until late to see the parade and the fireworks作伴随状语。 译文:周四我们去巴黎进行短途旅行,游览巴黎迪士尼乐园,一直待到晚些时候观看游行和烟 花。 高考热词 Passage 1 1.indicate [??nd?ke?t] v.表明 2.confirm[k?n?f??m] v.证实,确认 3.canoe [k??nu?] v.划(或乘)独木舟 4.approve [??pru?v] v.核准,认可 Passage 2 (2018课标全国Ⅲ,A)词数:192 Welcome to Holker Hall & Gardens Visitor Information How to Get to Holker By Car:Follow brown signs on A590 from J36, M6. Approximate travel times:Windermere—20 minutes, Kendal—25 minutes, Lancaster—45 minutes, Manchester—1 hour 30 minutes. By Rail: The nearest station is Cark-in-Cartmel with trains to Carnforth, Lancaster and Preston for connections to major cities & airports. Opening Times Sunday—Friday(closed on Saturday)11:00 am—4:00 pm, 30th March—2nd November. Admission Charges       Hall & Gardens      Gardens Adults:  £12.00  £8.00 Groups:  £9.00  £5.50 Special Events Producers' Market 13th April Join us to taste a variety of fresh local food and drinks. Meet the producers and get some excellent recipe ideas. Holker Garden Festival 30th May The event celebrates its 22nd anniversary with a great show of the very best of gardening, making it one of the most popular events in gardening. National Garden Day 28th August Holker once again opens its gardens in aid of the disadvantaged. For just a small donation you can take a tour with our garden guide. Winter Market 8th November This is an event for all the family. Wander among a variety of shops selling gifts while enjoying a live music show and nice street entertainment. 1.How long does it probably take a tourist to drive to Holker from Manchester? A.20 minutes.  B.25 minutes. C.45 minutes.  D.90 minutes. 2.How much should a member of a tour group pay to visit Hall & Gardens? A.£12.00.  B.£9.00.  C.£8.00.  D.£5.50. 3.Which event will you go to if you want to see a live music show? A.Producers' Market. B.Holker Garden Festival. C.National Garden Day. D.Winter Market. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇应用文,介绍了到达Holker的方式、参观时间、参观费用和特殊活 动。 1.D 事实细节题。根据题干中的from Manchester直接定位到文章How to Get to Holker部分 中的Manchester—1 hour 30 minutes,故选D项。 2.B 事实细节题。根据题干中的a tour group和Hall & Gardens直接定位到文章Admission Charges部分中的Groups:£9.00,故选B项。 3.D 事实细节题。根据题干中的see a live music show直接定位到文章Winter Market部分中 的enjoying a live music show,故选D项。 难句分析 原句:The event celebrates its 22nd anniversary with a great show of the very best of gardening, making it one of the most popular events in gardening. 分析:本句为简单句,主干为The event celebrates its 22nd anniversary,with短语作方式状语,现在 分词短语making it one of the most popular events in gardening作结果状语。 译文:这个活动以一场盛大的展览会来展示最好的园艺,以庆祝它的22周年纪念日。这使它成 了园艺方面最受欢迎的活动之一。 高考热词 Passage 2 1.approximate [??pr?ks?m?t] adj.约莫,大约 2.recipe [?res?pi] n.食谱 3.anniversary [??n??v??s?ri] n.周年纪念日 4.a live music show 现场音乐表演 Passage 3 (2017课标全国Ⅱ,A)?词数:287 In the coming months, we are bringing together artists from all over the globe, to enjoy speaking Shakespeare's plays in their own language, in our Globe, within the architecture Shakespeare wrote for. Please come and join us. National Theatre of China Beijing|Chinese This great occasion(盛会)will be the National Theatre of China's first visit to the UK. The compa- ny's productions show the new face of 21st century Chinese theatre. This production of Shake- speare's Richard Ⅲ will be directed by the National's Associate Director, Wang Xiaoying. Date & Time:Saturday 28 April, 2.30pm & Sunday 29 April, 1.30pm & 6.30pm Marjanishvili Theatre Tbilisi|Georgian One of the most famous theatres in Georgia, the Marjanishvili, founded in 1928, appears regularly at theatre festivals all over the world. This new production of As You Like It is helmed(指导)by the company's Artistic Director Levan Tsuladze. Date & Time:Friday 18 May, 2.30pm & Saturday 19 May, 7.30pm Deafinitely Theatre London|British Sign Language(BSL) By translating the rich and humourous text of Love's Labour's Lost into the physical language of BSL, Deafinitely Theatre creates a new interpretation of Shakespeare's comedy and aims to build a bridge between deaf and hearing worlds by performing to both groups as one audience. Date & Time: Tuesday 22 May, 2.30pm & Wednesday 23 May, 7.30pm Habima National Theatre Tel Aviv|Hebrew The Habima is the centre of Hebrew-language theatre worldwide. Founded in Moscow after the 19 05 revolution, the company eventually settled in Tel Aviv in the late 1920s. Since 1958, they have been recognised as the national theatre of Israel. This production of Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice marks their first visit to the UK. Date & Time:Monday 28 May, 7.30pm & Tuesday 29 May, 7.30pm 1.Which play will be performed by the National Theatre of China? A.Richard Ⅲ.  B.Love's Labour's Lost. C.As You Like It.  D.The Merchant of Venice. 2.What is special about Deafinitely Theatre? A.It has two groups of actors. B.It is the leading theatre in London. C.It performs plays in BSL. D.It is good at producing comedies. 3.When can you see a play in Hebrew? A.On Saturday 28 April. B.On Sunday 29 April. C.On Tuesday 22 May. D.On Tuesday 29 May. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇应用文。文章信息涉及英国即将举办的莎士比亚戏剧展演活动的剧 目安排、剧团简介、演出使用的语言和演出时间等。 1.A 事实细节题。根据题干内容可定位以 National Theatre of China为标题的一节内容,由 “This production of Shakespeare's Richard Ⅲ will be directed by...”可知,中国国家剧院将会 演出莎士比亚的Richard Ⅲ,所以从标题和本小节内容判断答案为A项。 2.C 事实细节题。以Deafinitely Theatre为标题的一节内容在介绍使用的语言时提到British Sign Language(BSL),即“英国手语”,此外还提到演出的目的是“在聋人和听力正常的人之 间搭建起桥梁”,该剧院的名字中含有deaf一词,由此可知该剧院能够使用手语进行演出,这是 这家剧院和其他剧院的不同之处,也就是它的特别之处,所以答案为C项。 3.D 事实细节题。根据文章最后一部分第一句话 “The Habima is the centre of Hebrew-lan- guage theatre worldwide.”可知,这家剧院用希伯来语演出。再结合Date & Time中的Tuesday 2 9 May可知,观众可以在这一天看到希伯来语的戏剧演出,所以答案为D项。 难句分析 原句:Founded in Moscow after the 1905 revolution,the company eventually settled in Tel Aviv in the late 1920s. 分析:Founded in Moscow after the 1905 revolution在此处是过去分词短语作状语。 译文:在1905年俄国革命后,这家公司在莫斯科创立,最后在20世纪20年代后期在特拉维夫站稳 脚跟。 高考热词 Passage 3 1.architecture [?ɑ?k?tekt??(r)] n.建筑设计,建筑学 2.interpretation [?n?t??pr??te??n] n.演绎 3.be recognised as被认为是 Passage 4 (2017课标全国Ⅲ,A)?词数:236 San Francisco Fire Engine Tours San Francisco Winery Tour Running:February 1st through April 30th This delicious tour goes through the city on its way to Treasure Island where we will stop at the famous Winery SF. Here you can enjoy 4 pours of some of the best wine San Francisco has to of- fer.(Included in ticket price) Departing from the Cannery:Tour times upon request Duration(时长):2 hours Price:$90 Back to the Fifties Tour Running:August 16th through August 31st This tour transports you back in time to one of San Francisco's most fantastic periods, the 1950s! Enjoy fun history as we take you through San Francisco for a free taste of ice cream. Departing from the Cannery:5:00 pm and 7:30 pm Duration:2 hours Price:$90 Spooky Halloween Tour Running:October 10th through October 31st Join us for a ride through the historical Presidio district. Authentic fire gear(服装)is provided for your warmth as our entertainers take you to some of the most thrilling parts of San Francisco. Departing from the Cannery:6:30 pm and 8:30 pm Duration:1 hour and 30 minutes Price:Available upon request Holiday Lights Tour Running:December 6th through December 23rd This attractive tour takes you to some of San Francisco's most cheerful holiday scenes. Authentic fire gear is provided for your warmth as you get into the holiday spirit. Departing from the Cannery:7:00 pm and 9:00 pm Duration: 1 hour and 30 minutes Advance reservations required. 1.Which of the tours is available in March? A.San Francisco Winery Tour. B.Back to the Fifties Tour. C.Spooky Halloween Tour. D.Holiday Lights Tour. 2.What can tourists do on Back to the Fifties Tour? A.Go to Treasure Island.  B.Enjoy the holiday scenes. C.Have free ice cream.  D.Visit the Presidio district. 3.What are tourists required to do to go on Holiday Lights Tour? A.Take some drinks.  B.Set off early in the morning. C.Wear warm clothes.  D.Make reservations in advance. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文介绍了旧金山消防车之旅,包括旧金山金银岛品酒游,50年代风情游、穿行 Presidio区的万圣节主题游和观赏节日彩灯游。短文除提供了上述四项城市观光游览活动的 起止日期以外,还提供了每项观光活动的主要内容、出发时间、时长和价格等信息。 1.A 事实细节题。根据短文中对这四项活动的运行时间的介绍可知,第一项活动的时间是 February 1st through April 30th,即从2月1日到4月30日,所以答案为A项。 2.C 事实细节题。根据第二项活动中的 “as we take you through San Francisco for a free taste of ice cream”可知,参加这项游玩活动你可以品尝到免费的冰激凌,所以答案为C项。 3.D 事实细节题。根据最后一项活动中的最后一句话 “Advance reservations required.”可 知,参加这项游玩活动需要提前预订,所以答案为D项。 难句分析 原句:Authentic fire gear is provided for your warmth as our entertainers take you to some of the most thrilling parts of San Francisco. 分析:此句主句为Authentic fire gear is provided,介词短语for your warmth作目的状语,as引导一 个时间状语从句。 译文:我们的演艺人员带领你们游览旧金山一些最刺激的地方时,会给你们提供仿真的防火服 来取暖。 高考热词 Passage 4 1.delicious [d??l???s] adj.宜人的,令人愉快的 2.depart [d??pɑ?t] v.出发,离去,离开 3.transport [tr?n?sp??t] v.使产生身临其境的感觉,把……带到另一地方或时间 4.entertainer [?ent??te?n?(r)] n.表演者,艺人 Group 3 Passage 1 (2016课标全国Ⅱ,A)?词数:259 What's On? Electric Underground 7.30pm—1.00am Free at the Cyclops Theatre Do you know who's playing in your area?We're bringing you an exciting evening of live rock and pop music from the best local bands.Are you interested in becoming a musician and getting a recording contract(合同)?If so,come early to the talk at 7.30pm by Jules Skye, a successful record producer.He's going to talk about how you can find the right person to produce your music. Gee Whizz 8.30pm—10.30pm Comedy at Kaleidoscope Come and see Gee Whizz perform.He's the funniest stand-up comedian on the comedy scene.This joyful show will please everyone,from the youngest to the oldest.Gee Whizz really knows how to make you laugh! Our bar is open from 7.00pm for drinks and snacks(快餐). Simon's Workshop 5.00pm—7.30pm Wednesdays at Victoria Stage This is a good chance for anyone who wants to learn how to do comedy.The workshop looks at ev- ery kind of comedy,and practices many different ways of making people laugh.Simon is a comedi- an and actor who has 10 years' experience of teaching comedy.His workshops are exciting and fun.An evening with Simon will give you the confidence to be funny. Charlotte Stone 8.00pm—11.00pm Pizza World Fine food with beautiful jazz music;this is a great evening out.Charlotte Stone will perform songs from her new best-selling CD,with James Pickering on the piano.The menu is Italian,with excellent meat and fresh fish,pizzas and pasta(面食).Book early to get a table.Our bar is open all day,and serves cocktails,coffee,beer,and white wine. 1.Who can help you if you want to have your music produced? A.Jules Skye.  B.Gee Whizz. C.Charlotte Stone.  D.James Pickering. 2.At which place can people of different ages enjoy a good laugh? A.The Cyclops Theatre.  B.Kaleidoscope. C.Victoria Stage.  D.Pizza World. 3.What do we know about Simon's Workshop? A.It requires membership status. B.It lasts three hours each time. C.It is run by a comedy club. D.It is held every Wednesday. 4.When will Charlotte Stone perform her songs? A.5.00pm—7.30pm.  B.7.30pm—1.00am. C.8.00pm—11.00pm.  D.8.30pm—10.30pm. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文是一篇应用文。文章主要介绍了四个地方的演出的具体时间以及内容等。 1.A 事实细节题。根据文章Electric Underground部分的最后一句He's going to talk about how you can find the right person to produce your music.可知选A项。 2.B 事实细节题。根据文章Gee Whizz部分的第四句可知,Gee Whizz真的知道怎么让你发 笑,再联系from the youngest to the oldest可判断为不同年龄的人,因此选B项。 3.D????事实细节题。根据文章Simon's Workshop部分的Wednesdays at Victoria Stage可判断 Simon's Workshop的演出为每周三。 4.C 事实细节题。根据文章Charlotte Stone部分的8.00 pm—11.00 pm以及Charlotte Stone will perform songs可判断8.00 pm—11.00 pm是她的演出时间,故选C项。 难句分析 原句:This is a good chance for anyone who wants to learn how to do comedy. 分析:本句为主从复合句。anyone who...=whoever...任何……的人。who引导的定语从句 “who wants to learn how to do comedy”修饰先行词anyone。定语从句中how to do comedy为 “wh-疑问词+不定式”结构,作learn的宾语。 译文:对于任何想要学习如何做喜剧的人来说,这是一个很好的机会。 高考热词 Passage 1 1.contract [?k?ntr?kt] n.合同 2.snack [sn?k] n.快餐,点心 3.confidence [?k?nf?d?ns] n.信心 4.a stand-up comedian一位单口喜剧演员 Passage 2 (2016课标全国Ⅲ,A)?词数:178 Music Opera at Music Hall:1243 Elm Street. The season runs June through August, with additional per- formances in March and September. The Opera honors Enjoy the Arts membership discounts. Phone:241-2742. http://www.cityopera.com. Chamber Orchestra:The Orchestra plays at Memorial Hall at 1406 Elm Street, which offers several concerts from March through June. Call 723-1182 for more information. http://www.chamberorch. com. Symphony Orchestra:At Music Hall and Riverbend. For ticket sales, call 381-3300. Regular season runs September through May at Music Hall and in summer at Riverbend. http://www.symphony. org/home.asp. College Conservatory of Music(CCM):Performances are on the main campus(校园)of the universi- ty, usually at Patricia Cobb

  • ID:3-6137136 2020届高考数学一轮总复习第四单元三角函数与解三角形第28讲函数y=Asin(ωx+φ)的图象与性质(课件34试卷含解析2份打包)理新人教A版

    高中数学/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共34张PPT) 高考总复习第(1)轮 理科数学 第四单元 三角函数与解三角形 第28讲 函数y=Asin(ωx+φ)的图象与性质 振幅 周期 频率 相位 初相 “五点法”作图及图象的对称性 由图象求解析式及图象变换 三角函数性质的综合应用 考点1·“五点法”作图及图象的对称性 【变式探究】 考点2·由图象求解析式及图象变换 【变式探究】 考点3·三角函数性质的综合应用 【变式探究】 MP 考点/3 考点/2 考点/1 第28讲 函数y=Asin(ωx+φ)的图象与性质 1.函数f(x)=2sin(ωx+φ)(ω>0,-<φ<)的部分图象如图所示,则ω、φ的值分别是(A) A.2,- B.2,- C.4,- D.4, 解:由图象知=-(-)=, 所以T=π,所以ω==2, 再将点(,2)代入f(x)=2sin(2x+φ), 得sin(+φ)=1,令+φ=2kπ+(k∈Z), 解得φ=2kπ-(k∈Z),因为φ∈(-,), 所以取k=0,所以φ=-. 2.(2018·浙江第二次联考)已知函数f(x)的图象是由函数g(x)=cos x的图象经过如下变换得到:先将g(x)的图象向右平移个单位长度,再将其图象上所有点的横坐标变为原来的一半,纵坐标不变.则函数f(x)的一条对称轴方程为(A) A.x= B.x= C.x= D.x= 解:y=cos x向右平移个单位长度y=cos(x-) y=cos(2x-). 所以f(x)=cos(2x-). 对称轴方程为2x-=kπ,k∈Z, 即x=kπ+,k∈Z,故选A. 3.(2018·佛山一模)把曲线C1:y=2sin(x-)上所有点向右平移个单位长度,再把得到的曲线上所有点的横坐标缩短为原来的,得到曲线C2,则C2(B) A.关于直线x=对称 B.关于直线x=对称 C.关于点(,0)对称 D.关于点(π,0)对称 y=2sin(x-)y=2sin(x-)y=2sin(2x-). 对于曲线C2:y=2sin(2x-). 令x=,得y=1,不是最值,所以它的图象不关于直线x=对称,A错误; 令x=,得y=2为最值,所以它的图象关于直线x=对称,B正确; 令x=,得y=-1,所以它的图象不关于点(,0)对称,C错误; 令x=π,得y=-,故它的图象不关于点(π,0)对称,D错误. 4.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ)已知曲线C1:y=cos x,C2:y=sin(2x+),则下面结论正确的是(D) A.把C1上各点的横坐标伸长到原来的2倍,纵坐标不变,再把得到的曲线向右平移个单位长度,得到曲线C2 B.把C1上各点的横坐标伸长到原来的2倍,纵坐标不变,再把得到的曲线向左平移个单位长度,得到曲线C2 C.把C1上各点的横坐标缩短到原来的,纵坐标不变,再把得到的曲线向右平移个单位长度,得到曲线C2 D.把C1上各点的横坐标缩短到原来的,纵坐标不变,再把得到的曲线向左平移个单位长度,得到曲线C2 (方法1)C1:y=cos x,C2:y=sin(2x+), 首先将曲线C1,C2的解析式统一为一个三角函数名,可将C1:y=cos x用诱导公式处理. y=cos x=cos(x+-)=sin(x+).横坐标变换需将ω=1变成ω=2, 即y=sin(x+) y=sin 2(x+)―→y=sin(2x+)=sin 2(x+). (注意ω的系数,在右平移需将ω=2提到括号外面,这时x+平移至x+) 根据“左加右减”原则,“x+”到“x+”需加上,即再向左平移. (方法二:排除法) 由C1变到C2,需要进行如下两种变换: ①由y=cos x→y=cos 2x; ②由y=cos 2x→y=sin(2x+). ①由y=cos x→y=cos 2x,横坐标变为原为的,可排除A,B. 由②y=cos 2x→y=sin(2x+),向左、还是向右平移了多少?可考察第一个零点的变化. y=cos 2x的第一个零点为-,y=sin(2x+)的第一个零点为-. 因为(-,0)向左平移得到(-,0),故排除C,选D. 5.(2017·河南洛阳统考)函数f(x)=2sin(ωx+φ)(ω>0,0<φ<)的部分图象如图所示,已知图象经过点A(0,1),B(,-1),则f(x)=__2sin(3x+)__. 由已知得=,所以T=,又T=,所以ω=3. 因为f(0)=1,所以sin φ=,又0<φ<,所以φ=. 所以f(x)=2sin(3x+)(经检验满足题意). 6.(2018·江苏卷)已知函数y=sin(2x+φ)(-<φ<)的图象关于直线x=对称,则φ的值为__-__. 由题意得f()=sin(π+φ)=±1, 所以π+φ=kπ+,所以φ=kπ-,k∈Z. 因为φ∈(-,),所以取k=0得φ=-. 7.已知函数f(x)=3sin(+)+3. (1)指出f(x)的周期、振幅、初相、对称轴; (2)用五点法画出它在一个周期内的闭区间上的图象; (3)说明此函数图象可由y=sin x的图象经过怎样的变换得到. 解:(1)周期T=4π,振幅A=3,初相φ=, 由+=kπ+(k∈Z), 得x=2kπ+(k∈Z)即为对称轴. (2)列表: x - + 0 π 2π f(x) 3 6 3 0 3 描点,连线,得到f(x)在一个周期内的图象. (3)①由y=sin x的图象上各点向左平移φ=个长度单位,得y=sin(x+)的图象. ②由y=sin(x+)的图象上各点的横坐标伸长到原来的2倍(纵坐标不变),得y=sin(+)的图象. ③由y=sin(+)的图象上各点的纵坐标伸长为原来的3倍(横坐标不变),得y=3sin(+)的图象. ④由y=3sin(+)的图象上各点向上平移3个长度单位,得y=3sin(+)+3的图象. 8.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)已知函数f(x)=sin(ωx+φ)(ω>0,|φ|≤),x=-为f(x)的零点,x=为y=f(x)图象的对称轴,且f(x)在(,)上单调,则ω的最大值为(B) A.11 B.9 C.7 D.5 先根据函数的零点及图象对称轴,求出ω,φ满足的关系式,再根据函数f(x)在(,)上单调,则(,)的区间长度不大于函数f(x)周期的,然后结合|φ|≤计算ω的最大值. 因为f(x)=sin(ωx+φ)的一个零点为x=-,x=为y=f(x)图象的对称轴, 所以·k=(k为奇数). 又T=,所以ω=k(k为奇数). 又函数f(x)在(,)上单调, 所以≤×,即ω≤12. 若ω=11,又|φ|≤,则φ=-,此时,f(x)=sin(11x-),f(x)在(,)上单调递增,在(,)上单调递减,不满足条件. 若ω=9,又|φ|≤,则φ=,此时,f(x)=sin(9x+),满足f(x)在(,)上单调的条件.故选B. 9.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ)函数y=sin x-cos x的图象可由函数y=sin x+cos x的图象至少向右平移  个单位长度得到. 解:(方法1)先化简函数解析式,再进行平移变换. 因为y=sin x+cos x=2sin(x+), y=sin x-cos x=2sin(x-)=2sin[(x-)+], 所以把y=2sin(x+)的图象至少向右平移个单位长度可得y=2sin(x-)的图象. (方法2)待定系数法. 设函数y=sin x+cos x的图象至少向右平移φ个单位得到y=sin x-cos x的图象. 因为y=sin x+cos x=2sin(x+), y=sin x-cos x=2sin(x-), 所以2sin[(x-φ)+]=2sin(x-), 于是有-φ+=-,所以φ=. (方法3)特殊点法(考察“五点法”中第一个零点). y=sin x+cos x=2sin(x+),“五点法”中第一个零点为-, y=sin x-cos x=2sin(x-),“五点法”中第一个零点为, 可知函数y=sin x-cos x的图象可由函数y=sin x+cos x的图象至少向右平移个单位得到. 10.(2017·山东卷)设函数f(x)=sin(ωx-)+sin(ωx-),其中0<ω<3,已知f()=0. (1)求ω; (2)将函数y=f(x)的图象上各点的横坐标伸长为原来的2倍(纵坐标不变),再将得到的图象向左平移个单位,得到函数y=g(x)的图象,求g(x)在[-,]上的最小值. (1)因为f(x)=sin(ωx-)+sin(ωx-), 所以f(x)=sin ωx-cos ωx-cos ωx =sin ωx-cos ωx=(sin ωx-cos ωx) =sin(ωx-). 由题设知f()=0,所以-=kπ,k∈Z, 所以ω=6k+2,k∈Z. 又0<ω<3,所以ω=2. (2)由(1)得f(x)=sin(2x-), 所以g(x)=sin(x+-)=sin(x-). 因为x∈[-,],所以x-∈[-,]. 当x-=-,即x=-时,g(x)取得最小值-. PAGE 7

  • ID:3-6137135 2020届高考数学一轮总复习第四单元三角函数与解三角形第27讲三角函数的图象与性质(二)(课件40试卷含解析2份打包)理新人教A版

    高中数学/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共40张PPT) 高考总复习第(1)轮 理科数学 第四单元 三角函数与解三角形 第27讲 三角函数的图象与性质(二) 三角函数的周期性 三角函数的单调性 三角函数性质的综合应用 考点1·三角函数的周期性 【变式探究】 考点2·三角函数的单调性 【变式探究】 考点3·三角函数性质的综合应用 【变式探究】 MP 考点/3 考点/2 考点/1 第27讲 三角函数的图象与性质(二) 1.(经典真题)在函数①y=cos |2x|,②y=|cos x|,③y=cos(2x+),④y=tan(2x-)中,最小正周期为π的所有函数为(A) A.①②③ B.①③④ C.②③ D.①③ ①y=cos|2x|=cos 2x,最小正周期为π; ②由图象知y=|cos x|的最小正周期为π; ③y=cos(2x+)的最小正周期T==π; ④y=tan(2x-)的最小正周期T=. 因此最小正周期为π的函数为①②③. 2.(2018·天津卷)将函数y=sin(2x+)的图象向右平移个单位长度,所得图象对应的函数(A) A.在区间[,]上单调递增 B.在区间[,π]上单调递减 C.在区间[,]上单调递增 D.在区间[,2π]上单调递减 函数y=sin(2x+)的图象向右平移个单位长度后的解析式为y=sin[2(x-)+]=sin 2x,则函数y=sin 2x的一个单调增区间为[,],一个单调减区间为[,].由此可判断选项A正确. 3.使函数f(x)=sin(2x+θ)+cos(2x+θ)为奇函数,且在[0,]上是减函数的θ的一个值可以是(D) A.- B. C. D. f(x)=2sin(2x+θ+), 因为f(x)是奇函数,所以θ+=kπ(k∈Z), 即θ=kπ-,k∈Z,排除B、C. 若θ=-,则f(x)=2sin 2x在[0,]上递增,排除A.故选D. 4.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ)设函数f(x)=cos(x+),则下列结论错误的是(D) A.f(x)的一个周期为-2π B.y=f(x)的图象关于直线x=对称 C.f(x+π)的一个零点为x= D.f(x)在(,π)单调递减 因为f(x)=cos(x+)的周期为2kπ(k∈Z),所以f(x)的一个周期为-2π,A项正确. 因为f(x)=cos(x+)图象的对称轴为直线x=kπ-(k∈Z),所以y=f(x)的图象关于直线x=对称,B项正确. f(x+π)=cos(x+).令x+=kπ+(k∈Z),得x=kπ-π,当k=1时,x=,所以f(x+π)的一个零点为x=,C项正确. 因为f(x)=cos(x+)的递减区间为[2kπ-,2kπ+](k∈Z),递增区间为[2kπ+,2kπ+](k∈Z),所以f(x)在(,)递减,在[,π)递增,D项错误. 5.函数f(x)=tan(x+)的单调递增区间是 (kπ-,kπ+)(k∈Z) . 由kπ-0)在区间[-,]上是增函数,则ω的取值范围是 (0,] . (方法1)由2kπ-≤ωx≤2kπ+(k∈Z), 得f(x)的增区间为[-,+],(k∈Z). 因为f(x)在[-,]上是增函数, 所以[-,]?[-,], 所以所以ω∈(0,]. (方法2)因为x∈[-,],ω>0, 所以ωx∈[-,], 又f(x)在区间[-,]上是增函数, 所以[-,]?[-,], 所以又ω>0,所以0<ω≤. 10.已知函数f(x)=sin(ωx+φ),其中ω>0,|φ|<. (1)若coscos φ-sinsin φ=0,求φ的值; (2)在(1)的条件下,若函数f(x)的图象的相邻两条对称轴之间的距离等于,求函数f(x)的解析式;并求最小正实数m,使得函数f(x)的图象向左平移m个单位后所对应的函数是偶函数. (1)由coscos φ-sinsin φ=0, 得coscos φ-sinsin φ=0, 即cos(+φ)=0.又|φ|<,所以φ=. (2)由(1)得,f(x)=sin(ωx+). 依题意,=,又T=,故ω=3, 所以f(x)=sin(3x+). 函数f(x)的图象向左平移m个单位后所对应的函数为g(x)=sin[3(x+m)+]. g(x)是偶函数当且仅当3m+=kπ+(k∈Z), 即m=+(k∈Z),从而,最小正实数m=. PAGE 5

  • ID:3-6137134 2020届高考数学一轮总复习第四单元三角函数与解三角形第26讲三角函数的图象与性质(一)(课件30试卷含解析2份打包)理新人教A版

    高中数学/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共30张PPT) 高考总复习第(1)轮 理科数学 第四单元 三角函数与解三角形 第26讲 三角函数的图象与性质(一) 三角函数的定义域 三角函数的值域(最值 ) 三角函数的值域或最值的应用 考点1·三角函数的定义域 【变式探究】 考点2三角函数的值域(最值 ) 【变式探究】 考点3·三角函数的值域或最值的应用 【变式探究】 MP 考点/3 考点/2 考点/1 第26讲 三角函数的图象与性质(一) 1.若动直线x=a与函数f(x)=sin x和g(x)=cos x的图象分别交于M、N两点,则|MN|的最大值为(B) A.1 B. C. D.2 |MN|=|sin a-cos a|=|sin(a-)|≤. 2.(经典真题)如图,某港口一天6时到18时的水深变化曲线近似满足函数y=3sin(x+φ)+k.据此函数可知,这段时间水深(单位:m)的最大值为(C) A.5 B.6 C.8 D.10 根据图象得函数的最小值为2,有-3+k=2,得k=5,所以最大值为3+k=8. 3.(2019·福建一模)已知f(x)=2cos2x-6sin xcos x,则函数f(x)的最大值是(C) A.3 B. C.+1 D.-1 f(x)=1+cos 2x-3sin 2x =(cos 2x-sin 2x)+1 =cos(2x+α)+1, 所以f(x)的最大值为+1. 4.(2018·辽宁朝阳三模)已知f(x)=sin(ωx+)(ω>0),f()=f(),且f(x)在区间(,)上有最小值,无最大值,则ω=(B) A. B. C. D. 由题意知f(x)的图象的一条对称轴为x==,且f(x)在x=处取得最小值, 所以 所以所以ω=. 5.如图,半径为R的圆的内接矩形周长的最大值为 4R . 设∠BAC=θ,周长为p, 则p=2AB+2BC=2(2Rcos θ+2Rsin θ) =4Rsin(θ+)≤4R, 当且仅当θ=时取等号. 所以周长的最大值为4R. 6.(2018·北京卷)设函数f(x)=cos(ωx-)(ω>0).若f(x)≤f()对任意的实数x都成立,则ω的最小值为____. 因为f(x)≤f()对任意的实数x都成立, 所以当x=时,f(x)取得最大值, 即f()=cos(ω-)=1, 所以ω-=2kπ,k∈Z,所以ω=8k+,k∈Z. 因为ω>0,所以当k=0时,ω取得最小值. 7.(经典真题)已知函数f(x)=sin2x-sin2(x-),x∈R. (1)求f(x)的最小正周期; (2)求f(x)在区间[-,]上的最大值和最小值. (1)由已知,有 f(x)=- =(cos 2x+sin 2x)-cos 2x =sin 2x-cos 2x=sin(2x-). 所以f(x)的最小正周期T==π. (2)因为f(x)在区间[-,-]上是减函数,在区间[-,]上是增函数, 且f(-)=-,f(-)=-,f()=, 所以f(x)在区间[-,]上的最大值为,最小值为-. 8.已知函数f(x)=(sin x+cos x)-|sin x-cos x|,则f(x)的值域是(C) A.[-1,1] B.[-,1] C.[-1,] D.[-1,-] 由f(x)=(sin x+cos x)-|sin x-cos x| 得f(x)= f(x)的图象如下图中粗线所示, 由图象可知,函数f(x)的值域是[-1,]. 9.(2018·重庆模拟改编)函数y=sin x-cos x-sin xcos x的最大值为 + . 令sin x-cos x=t∈[-,], 则t2=1-2sin xcos x, 所以函数y=t-=t2+t-=(t+1)2-1, 故当t=时,函数y取最大值+. 10.(2018·江苏卷)某农场有一块农田,如图所示,它的边界由圆O的一段圆弧MPN(P为此圆弧的中点)和线段MN构成.已知圆O的半径为40米,点P到MN的距离为50米.现规划在此农田上修建两个温室大棚,大棚Ⅰ内的地块形状为矩形ABCD,大棚Ⅱ内的地块形状为△CDP,要求A,B均在线段MN上,C,D均在圆弧上.设OC与MN所成的角为θ. (1)用θ分别表示矩形ABCD和△CDP的面积,并确定sin θ的取值范围; (2)若大棚Ⅰ内种植甲种蔬菜,大棚Ⅱ内种植乙种蔬菜,且甲、乙两种蔬菜的单位面积年产值之比为4∶3.求当θ为何值时,能使甲、乙两种蔬菜的年总产值最大. (1)如图,连接PO并延长交MN于点H,则PH⊥MN, 所以OH=10. 过点O作OE⊥BC于点E,则OE∥MN,所以∠COE=θ, 故OE=40cos θ,EC=40sin θ, 则矩形ABCD的面积为 2×40cos θ·(40sin θ+10)=800(4sin θcos θ+cos θ), △CDP的面积为 ×2×40cos θ(40-40sin θ)=1600(cos θ-sin θcos θ). 过点N作GN⊥MN,分别交圆弧和OE的延长线于点G和K,则GK=KN=10. 令∠GOK=θ0,则sin θ0=,θ0∈(0,). 当θ∈[θ0,)时,才能作出满足条件的矩形ABCD, 所以sin θ的取值范围是[,1). 答:矩形ABCD的面积为800(4sin θcos θ+cos θ)平方米,△CDP的面积为1600(cos θ-sin θcos θ)平方米,sin θ的取值范围是[,1). (2)因为甲、乙两种蔬菜的单位面积年产值之比为4∶3, 设甲的单位面积的年产值为 4k, 乙的单位面积的年产值为 3k(k>0), 则年总产值为4k×800(4sin θcos θ+cos θ)+3k×1600(cos θ-sin θcos θ) = 8000k(sin θcos θ+cos θ),θ∈[θ0,). 设f(θ) = sin θcos θ+cos θ,θ∈[θ0,), 则f′(θ)=cos2θ-sin2θ-sin θ=-(2 sin2θ+sin θ-1) =-(2sin θ-1)(sin θ+1). 令f′(θ)=0, 得θ =, 当θ∈(θ0,)时,f′(θ)>0,所以f(θ)为增函数; 当θ∈(,)时,f′(θ)<0,所以f(θ)为减函数, 因此,当θ=时,f(θ)取到最大值. 答:当θ=时, 能使甲、乙两种蔬菜的年总产值最大. PAGE 5

  • ID:3-6137130 2020届高考数学一轮总复习第四单元三角函数与解三角形第25讲倍角公式及简单的三角恒等变换(课件33试卷含解析2份打包)理新人教A版

    高中数学/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共33张PPT) 高考总复习第(1)轮 理科数学 第四单元 三角函数与解三角形 第25讲 倍角公式及简单的 三角恒等变换 三角函数的求值 三角函数的化简 三角恒等式的证明 考点1·三角函数的求值 【变式探究】 考点2·三角函数的化简 【变式探究】 考点3·三角恒等式的证明 【变式探究】 MP 考点/3 考点/2 考点/1 第25讲 倍角公式及简单的三角恒等变换 1.的值为(C) A.- B.- C. D. 原式= = ==sin 30°=. 2.(2017·山西太原4月模拟)已知α为锐角,若sin(α-)=,则cos(α-)=(A) A. B. C. D. (方法1)因为α为锐角,sin(α-)=, 所以cos(α-)=, 所以cos(α-)=cos[(α-)-] =cos(α-)cos+sin(α-)sin =×+×=. (方法2)令α-=θ,则sin θ=,cos θ=, 所以cos(α-)=cos(θ-) =×cos θ+×sin θ=. 3. (2018·佛山一模)已知tan θ+=4,则cos2(θ+)=(C) A. B. C. D. 由tan θ+=4,得+=4, 即=4,所以sin θcos θ=, 所以cos2(θ+)== ===. 4.(2018·全国卷Ⅰ·文)已知角α的顶点为坐标原点,始边与x轴的非负半轴重合,终边上有两点A(1,a),B(2,b),且cos 2α=,则|a-b|=(B) A. B. C. D.1 由cos 2α=,得cos2α-sin2α=, 所以=,即=, 所以tan α=±,即=±,所以|a-b|=. 5.(经典真题)设θ为第二象限角,若tan(θ+)=,则sin θ+cos θ= - . 因为tan(θ+)=,所以=, 解得tan θ=-, 所以(sin θ+cos θ)2= ===, 因为θ为第二象限角,tan θ=-, 所以sin θ+cos θ<0, 所以sin θ+cos θ=-. 6.(2016·浙江卷)已知2cos2x+sin 2x=Asin (ωx+φ)+b(A>0),则A=  ,b= 1 . 因为2cos2x+sin 2x=1+cos 2x+sin 2x =1+ sin (2x+), 所以1+ sin(2x+)=Asin(ωx+φ)+b, 所以A=,b=1. 7.已知cos α=,cos(α-β)=,且0<β<α<,求cos β的值. 因为cos α=,0<α<, 所以sin α==, 因为0<β<α<,所以0<α-β<, 又cos(α-β)=, 所以sin(α-β)==, 所以cos β=cos[α-(α-β)] =cos αcos(α-β)+sin αsin(α-β) =×+× =. 8.(2018·湖南永州三模)已知方程=k在(0,+∞)上有两个不同的解α,β(α<β),则下列四个命题正确的是(C) A.sin 2α=2αcos2α B.cos 2α=2αsin2α C.sin 2β=-2βsin2β D.cos 2β=-2βsin2β 由题意得直线y=kx与y=-cos x(x∈(,π))的图象相切,且切点为(β,-cos β), 因为y′=sin x,所以k==sin β, 所以tan β=-. 则sin β=,cos β=, 那么sin 2β=2sin βcos β==-2βsin2β.故选C. 9.(2018·河南南阳第三次联考)如图所示,已知△ABC中,∠C=90°,AC=6,BC=8,D为边AC上的一点,K为BD上的一点,且∠ABC=∠KAD=∠AKD,则DC=  . 由题意得sin ∠ABC=,cos ∠ABC=. sin ∠BDC=sin(∠DKA+∠DAK)=sin 2∠ABC =2sin ∠ABCcos ∠ABC=2××=, 所以cos ∠BDC=,tan ∠BDC=, 所以CD==. 10.(2018·江苏卷)已知α,β为锐角,tan α=,cos(α+β)=-. (1)求cos 2α的值; (2)求tan(α-β)的值. (1)因为tan α=,tan α=, 所以sin α=cos α. 因为sin2α+cos2α=1,所以cos2α=, 因此,cos 2α=2cos2α-1=-. (2)因为α,β为锐角,所以α+β∈(0,π). 又因为cos(α+β)=-,所以sin(α+β)==, 因此tan(α+β)=-2. 因为tan α=,所以tan 2α==-. 因此,tan(α-β)=tan[2α-(α+β)] ==-. PAGE 5

  • ID:3-6137129 2020届高考数学一轮总复习第四单元三角函数与解三角形第24讲两角和与差的三角函数(课件30试卷含解析2份打包)理新人教A版

    高中数学/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共30张PPT) 高考总复习第(1)轮 理科数学 第四单元 三角函数与解三角形 第24讲 两角和与差的三角函数 两角和与差公式的正用 两角和与差公式的逆用与变用 两角和与差公式的整体运用 考点1·两角和与差公式的正用 【变式探究】 考点2·两角和与差公式的逆用与变用 【变式探究】 考点3·两角和与差公式的整体运用 【变式探究】 MP 考点/3 考点/2 考点/1 第24讲 两角和与差的三角函数 1.sin 15°cos 75°+cos 15°sin 105°等于(D) A.0 B. C. D.1 原式=sin 15°cos 75°+cos 15°sin 75°=sin 90°=1. 2.(2019·广东清远一模)函数f(x)=sin x-cos(x-)的值域为(D) A.[-] B.[-,] C.[-2,2] D.[-1,1] f(x)=sin x-cos(x-)=sin x-cos x-sin x =sin x-cos x=sin(x-). 故其值域为[-1,1]. 3.(2019·辽宁第二次月考)若sin(-α)+sin α=,则sin(α+)的值是(C) A.- B. C.- D. sin(-α)+sin α =sincos α-cossin α+sin α =cos α+sin α=sin(α+)=, 所以sin(α+)=. 根据诱导公式, sin(α+)=sin(α++π)=-sin(α+)=-. 4.(2017·豫北名校联考)若函数f(x)=5cos x+12sin x在x=θ时取得最小值,则cos θ=(B) A. B.- C. D.- 因为f(x)=5cos x+12sin x=13(cos x+sin x) =13sin(x+α),其中sin α=,cos α=, 由题意θ+α=2kπ-(k∈Z),得θ=2kπ--α(k∈Z). 所以cos θ=cos(2kπ--α)=cos(+α)=-sin α=-. 5.(2017·江苏卷)若tan(α-)=,则tan α=  . (方法一)因为tan(α-)= ==, 所以6tan α-6=1+tan α(tan α≠-1),所以tan α=. (方法二)tan α=tan[(α-)+] ===. 6. (2018·全国卷Ⅱ)已知sin α+cos β=1,cos α+sin β=0,则sin(α+β)=__-__. 因为sin α+cos β=1,①cos α+sin β=0,② 所以①2+②2得1+2(sin αcos β+cos αsin β)+1=1, 所以sin αcos β+cos αsin β=-,所以sin(α+β)=-. 7.已知α是第二象限角,sin α=,β为第三象限角,tan β=. (1)求tan(α+β)的值; (2)求cos(2α-β)的值. (1)因为α是第二象限角,sin α=, 所以cos α=-=-,tan α==-, 又tan β=,所以tan(α+β)==. (2)因为β为第三象限角,tan β=, 所以sin β=-,cos β=-. 又sin 2α=2sin αcos α=-,cos 2α=1-2sin2α=, 所以cos(2α-β)=cos 2αcos β+sin 2αsin β=. 8.(经典真题)若tan α=2tan,则=(C) A.1 B.2 C.3 D.4 由cos(α-π)=cos(α+-) =sin(α+). 所以原式== =. 又因为tan α=2tan,所以原式==3. 9.若cos xcos y+sin xsin y=,sin 2x+sin 2y=,则sin(x+y)的值为  . cos(x-y)=, sin 2x+sin 2y=sin[(x+y)+(x-y)]+sin[(x+y)-(x-y)]=2sin(x+y)cos(x-y)=, 所以sin(x+y)=. 10.如图,在平面直角坐标系xOy中,以Ox轴为始边作两个锐角α,β,它们的终边分别与单位圆相交于A,B两点,已知A,B的横坐标分别为,. (1)求tan(α+β)的值; (2)求α+2β的值.   由条件得cos α=,cos β=. 因为α,β为锐角,所以sin α==, 同理可得sin β=.所以tan α=7,tan β=. (1)tan(α+β)==-3. (2)因为tan(α+2β)=tan[(α+β)+β] ===-1. 因为α,β为锐角,所以0<α+2β<,所以α+2β=. PAGE 4

  • ID:3-6137127 2020届高考数学一轮总复习第四单元三角函数与解三角形第23讲同角三角函数的基本关系与诱导公式(课件35试卷含解析2份打包)理新人教A版

    高中数学/高考专区/一轮复习

    (共35张PPT) 高考总复习第(1)轮 理科数学 第四单元 三角函数与解三角形 第23讲 同角三角函数的基本关系与诱导公式 sin2α+cos2α=1 诱导公式的应用 同角三角关系的应用 sin α±cos α、sin αcos α关系的应用 考点1·诱导公式的应用 【变式探究】 考点2·同角三角关系的应用 【变式探究】 考点3·sin α±cos α、sin αcos α关系的应用 【变式探究】 MP 考点/3 考点/2 考点/1 第23讲 同角三角函数的基本关系与诱导公式 1.tan 300°+的值是(B) A.1+ B.1- C.-1- D.-1+ 原式=tan(360°-60°)+ =-tan 60°+=1-. 2.(2018·广州一模)已知sin(x-)=,则cos(x+)=(D) A. B. C.- D.- (方法1)进行角的配凑 cos(x+)=cos[+(x-)]=-sin(x-) =-. (方法2)换元法 设x-=θ,则cos θ=,且x=θ+, 所以cos(x+)=cos(θ++)=cos(+θ) =-sin θ=-. 3.(2018·华南师大附中模拟)已知=5,则cos2α+sin 2α的值是(A) A. B.- C. -3 D.3 由=5得=5,所以tan α=2. 所以cos2α+sin 2α== ===. 4.如图所示,A,B是单位圆O上的点,且B在第二象限,C是单位圆与x轴正半轴的交点,点A的坐标为(,),∠AOB=90°,则tan∠COB=(B) A. B.- C. D.- 因为cos ∠COB=cos(∠COA+90°)=-sin ∠COA =-. 又因为点B在第二象限, 所以sin ∠COB==, 所以tan ∠COB==-. 5.已知cos α=,-<α<0,则的值为____. ==-, 因为cos α=,-<α<0,所以sin α=-. 所以原式=-=-=. 6.若sin θ,cos θ是方程4x2+2mx+m=0的两根,则m的值为 1- . 由题意且Δ=4m2-16m≥0. (sin θ+cos θ)2=1+2sin θcos θ=, 所以=1+,所以m=1±. 由Δ=4m2-16m≥0,得m≤0或m≥4,所以m=1-. 7.已知cos α=,且-<α<0,求下列各式的值. (1); (2). 因为cos α=,且-<α<0, 所以sin α=-,所以tan α=-2. (1)==0. (2)==-tan α=2. 8.若A,B是锐角△ABC的两个内角,则点P(cos B-sin A,sin B-cos A)在(B) A.第一象限 B.第二象限 C.第三象限 D.第四象限 因为△ABC是锐角三角形,所以A+B>, 所以A>-B>0,B>-A>0, 所以sin A>sin(-B)=cos B,sin B>sin(-A)=cos A, 所以cos B-sin A<0,sin B-cos A>0, 所以点P在第二象限. 9.已知x∈R,则函数y=(1+sin x)(1+cos x)的值域为 [0,+] . 因为y=(1+sin x)(1+cos x) =1+sin x+cos x+sin xcos x, 令t=sin x+cos x,则t∈[-,],sin xcos x=, 所以y=t2+t+=(t+1)2,t∈[-,]. 所以所求函数的值域为[0,+]. 10.(2019·陕西商洛二模)已知0<α<,若cos α-sin α=-. (1)求tan α的值; (2)把用tan α表示出来,并求出其值. (1)因为cos α-sin α=-,所以(cos α-sin α)2=. 所以1-2sin αcos α=,即sin αcos α=, 所以(sin α+cos α)2=1+2sin αcos α=, 因为0<α<,所以sin α+cos α=. 与cos α-sin α=-联立解得: sin α=,cos α=,所以tan α=2. (2)= =, 因为tan α=2,所以==. PAGE 4