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  • ID:7-6101298 2019年第一单元 走进化学世界单元测试卷(解析版)

    初中化学/人教版/九年级上册/第一单元 走进化学世界/本单元综合与测试

    新人教版九年级上册《第1单元 走进化学世界》2019年单元测试卷(安徽省安庆市桐城市蔡店中学) 一、选择题: 1.(3分)生活中的下列变化,不包含化学变化的是(  ) A.白醋除水垢 B.铁钢生锈 C.饼干变软 D.蜡烛燃烧 2.(3分)下列实验,既体现了物质的物理性质,又体现了其化学性质的是(  ) A.石墨的导电性 B.二氧化碳的倾倒 C.活性炭净水 D.水的沸腾 3.(3分)某同学在点燃蜡烛时,提出固体石蜡可能变成蒸气才能燃烧。就此看法而言,应属于科学探究环节中的(  ) A.提出问题 B.猜想与假设 C.进行实验 D.获得结论 4.(3分)下列实验操作中,正确的是(  ) A.点燃酒精灯 B.检查装置气密性 C.倾倒液体 D.过滤 5.(3分)以下关于科学探究的说法中,错误的是(  ) A.在设置对照实验时,除实验变量外,其他因素均相同 B.假设与实验结果不一定是一致的,所以我们可以进行任意的假设 C.水、温度、时间都可能是实验变量 D.科学探究的前提是提出问题 6.(3分)取用粉末状固体化学药品时,应使用的仪器是(  ) A.滴管 B.研钵 C.药匙 D.镊子 7.(3分)下面是实验室常见的玻璃仪器,其中能够在酒精灯上直接加热的是(  ) A. B. C. D. 8.(3分)下列滴管使用图示正确的是(  ) A.横放滴管在桌面 B.保持残留有试液的滴管 C.取液体时时挤入空气 D.向试管中滴加液体 9.(3分)《中国诗词大会》是央视一档全民参与的诗词节目,带动全民重温那些曾经学过的古诗词,从古人的智慧和情怀中汲取营养,涵养心灵。请指出以下诗句中出现的“烟”字,符合实际的是(  ) A.暖暖远人村,依依墟里烟 B.日暮乡关何处是?烟波江上使人愁 C.南朝四百八十寺,多少楼台烟雨中 D.日照香炉生紫烟,遥看瀑布挂前川 10.(3分)下表列举了法拉第《蜡烛的故事》中涉及的部分问题及对问题的回答,其中“对问题的回答”属于““设计实验方案””的是(  ) 选项 问题 对问题的回答 A 火焰不同部位温度高低如何比较? 用一火柴梗平放入火焰中,观察火柴梗不同部位的灼烧情况 B 火焰为什么向上? 热气流上升,形成对流 C 火焰明亮的原因是什么? 与火焰中的碳颗粒有关,碳颗粒会影响火焰明亮程度 D 吹灭蜡烛时产生的白烟是什么 主要成分是石蜡蒸汽凝结成的石蜡固体小颗粒 A.A B.B C.C D.D 11.(3分)实验是学习化学的重要方法,下列有关实验的基本操作正确的是(  ) A.取用药品时,若未说明用量,固体一般取1至2g,液体一般取1至2mL B.用托盘天平称取l2g氯化钠,称量时天平指针向左盘偏转,应向右侧移动游码或添加砝码至天平平衡 C.对试管内的液体进行加热时,液体的体积不能超过试管容积的,并且先用酒精灯内焰预热再进行加热 D.洗涤试管时,当试管内壁附着的水既不聚成水滴,也不成股流下,说明试管已洗涤干净 12.(3分)实验是科学探究的重要手段,实验结束后,如图中仪器的处理方式正确的是(  ) A. B. C. D. 13.(3分)用量筒量取溶液,视线与量筒内液体的凹液面最低处保持水平,读数为15毫升;倒出部分液体后,仰视凹液面的最低处,读数为8毫升。则该学生实际倒出的溶液体积(  ) A.小于7毫升 B.大于7毫升 C.等于7毫升 D.无法确定范围 14.(3分)两同学用托盘天平称量10.3g(1g以下用游码)药品,他们在放好10g砝码,并把游码调到0.3g后。一同学在称量的过程中发现指针向右偏,他此时应该?另一同学称量后发现误将砝码和药品在托盘上的位置颠倒了,请分析该同学称得药品的质量是(  ) A.增加药品 10.3g B.增加药品 9.7g C.减少药品 10.3g D.减少药品 9.7g 15.(3分)化学实验是化学学习的重要方法。小明在实验室里发现一瓶白色固体,他认为“可能是食盐”。对于可能是食盐,下列他的做法正确的是(  ) A.尝一尝,如果有咸味就是食盐 B.用手指捻一捻是否有颗粒感 C.观察瓶子标签或者询问老师此物质是什么 D.实验室药品都是有害的,不能碰 16.(3分)对探究活动各个环节进行认真的反思,是提高我们的探究能力和促进不断进步的重要保证。下列有关实验后反思的说法正确的是(  ) A.只要有结论就不需要思考猜想与结论是否一致 B.需反思探究方法是否科学、有效 C.不需要反思实验过程是否安全、环保 D.不需要反思探究程序是否合理、简捷 17.(3分)根据维生素C能够使淀粉﹣碘溶液褪色的原理,应用如图实验比较两种果汁中维生素C含量的多少。实验过程中不需要控制的条件是(滴管中果汁体积相同)(  ) A.胶头滴管滴出的果汁的滴数 B.两个胶头滴管的规格 C.烧杯中淀粉﹣碘溶液的浓度 D.烧杯中溶液的体积 二、填空题: 18.选用“物理变化、化学变化、物理性质、化学性质”之一填写在下列空格中: (1)铜能在潮湿的空气中生成铜绿是   。 (2)铜与氧气反应生成了氧化铜是   。 (3)水蒸气遇冷变成水,水在0℃时结成冰是   。 (4)水的凝固点是0℃,沸点为100℃,4℃时密度最大是   。 19.阅读下列科普文章:通常情况下,钾具有银白色光泽,质地十分柔软,可以用小刀切割。钾的熔点很低,只有63℃,也就是说,只要温度升高到63℃,金属钾就变成水银般的液体了。钾的密度很小,它比水还轻。钾的化学性质十分活泼,与水反应剧烈,当把一块钾放入水中时,你就会看到它不断地浮起落下,周身还冒出火焰。一会儿再看,水中的钾就消失了。原来,它跟水发生反应生成了氢氧化钾。钾与酸的水溶液反应更加剧烈,几乎能达到爆炸的程度。回答下列问题: (1)钾的物理性质有   、   、   、   。(至少答四点) (2)钾的化学性质有   。(答出一点即可) 20.仔细分析以下几个过程: ①潺潺的流水能蒸发变成水蒸气; ②木炭用于取暖; ③醋酸能跟活泼金属发生反应产生氢气; ④白云变成了雨滴或雪花降落到地面; ⑤钢铁可能会变成铁锈; ⑥煤着火燃烧,残余一堆灰烬; ⑦水蒸气可以变成天空中的白云; ⑧铁矿石冶炼成钢铁; ⑨酒精(乙醇)常作酒精灯和内燃机的燃料,是一种绿色能源; ⑩在16.6℃以上时,纯净的乙酸是一种有强烈刺激性气味的无色液体,易溶于水和酒精. 请分析上述描述中属于物理性质的是   (填序号),属于化学性质的是   ,属于物理变化的是   ,属于化学变化的是   . 21.下列是化学实验室中常见的基本操作.据图回答下列问题: (1)如图A所示,手握细口瓶倾倒液体时,细口瓶贴标签的一面要   ,细口瓶的塞子要   在桌面上. (2)如图B所示,用完酒精灯后,必须用灯帽盖灭,盖灭后轻提一下灯帽,再重新盖好.对其原因的叙述,不正确的一项是   (填序号). A.平衡气压,方便取下灯帽 B.挥发水分,利于点燃酒精灯 C.减少挥发,利于节约酒精 (3)如图C所示,用酒精灯加热试管里的液体时: ①试管里的液体不应超过试管容积的   . ②先对试管进行   ,然后用酒精灯的外焰对准药品所在部位加热. (4)如图D所示,如果试管内壁附有不易洗掉的物质时,清洗试管一般先用试管刷蘸去污粉   ,再用自来水冲洗和蒸馏水润洗,然后倒放在试管架上晾干. 22.规范的实验操作是实验成功的前提,请回答: (1)正确量取8mL的液体,应选用的合适仪器是    A、10mL的量筒 B、50mL的量筒 C、烧杯 D、胶头滴管 (2)胶头滴管用过后应   ,再去吸其他药品。 (3)实验室用烧杯加热蒸馏水时,烧杯底部应垫放   。 (4)实验室取用块状药品时,常用的仪器是   。 (5)下列实验操作中错误的是   (填字母),实验操作C可能造成   。实验操作D中应该注意的事项是   。(写两点) 23.酒精灯是实验室中常用的加热仪器,某小组同学对酒精灯火焰温度进行如下探究。 (I)定性研究:甲同学取一根火柴梗,拿住一端迅速平放入酒精灯火焰中,l~2s后取出,观察到位于外焰的部分明显碳化。 (1)写出碳在氧气中燃烧的文字表达式:   。 (2)由上述现象得出结论:外焰温度最高,你认为原因是   。 火焰层 平均温度/℃ 乙 丙 焰心 432 598 内焰 666 783 外焰 520 667 (Ⅱ)定量研究:乙和丙同学在老师指导下,分别利用高温传感器测得酒精灯各层火焰平均温度如表。 (3)由右表得出结论:    (填“焰心”、“内焰”或“外焰”)温度最高。 (4)结合定量研究结论,下列图示中的加热方法(试管夹未画出)最合理的是   (填字母序号)。 (Ⅲ)交流反思:不仅酒精灯的各层火焰温度不同,而且相同火焰层温度也有差异。 (5)造成乙、丙两同学所测相同火焰层温度差异的原因可能是(请找出三点) ①   , ②   , ③   。 24.如图是四个错误的实验操作,请指出其可能造成的后果并加以改正。 (1)图A可能造成的后果为   ,改正方法为   ; (2)图B可能造成的后果为   ,改正方法为   ; (3)图C可能造成的后果为   ,改正方法为   ; (4)图D可能造成的后果为   ,改正方法为   。 新人教版九年级上册《第1单元 走进化学世界》2019年单元测试卷(安徽省安庆市桐城市蔡店中学) 参考答案与试题解析 一、选择题: 1.(3分)生活中的下列变化,不包含化学变化的是(  ) A.白醋除水垢 B.铁钢生锈 C.饼干变软 D.蜡烛燃烧 【分析】有新物质生成的变化属于化学变化,没有新物质生成的变化属于物理变化,判断化学变化的唯一标准是有新物质生成。 【解答】解:A、白醋除水垢过程中,醋酸和碳酸钙反应生成醋酸钙、水和二氧化碳,是化学变化; B、钢铁生锈过程中,铁和水、氧气反应生成铁锈,是化学变化; C、饼干变软过程中没有生成新物质,是物理变化; D、蜡烛燃烧生成水和二氧化碳,是化学变化。 故选:C。 【点评】判断变化是否属于化学变化的唯一标准是:是否有新物质生成,如果有新物质生成,就是化学变化,如果没有新物质生成,就不是化学变化。 2.(3分)下列实验,既体现了物质的物理性质,又体现了其化学性质的是(  ) A.石墨的导电性 B.二氧化碳的倾倒 C.活性炭净水 D.水的沸腾 【分析】物质在化学变化中表现出来的性质叫化学性质,如可燃性、助燃性、氧化性、还原性、酸碱性、稳定性等;物质不需要发生化学变化就表现出来的性质,叫物理性质;物理性质经常表现为:颜色、状态、气味、密度、硬度、熔点、沸点、导电性、导热性、溶解性、挥发性、吸附性等。 【解答】解:A、石墨的导电性是利用石墨的物理性质,故选项错误; B、二氧化碳的倾倒是利用二氧化碳的密度比空气大的物理性质,也利用了二氧化碳既不能燃烧也不能支持燃烧的化学性质;故选项正确; C、活性炭净水是利用活性炭的吸附性,属于物理性质;故选项错误; D、水的沸腾是利用水的沸点,属于物理性质;故选项错误; 故选:B。 【点评】本考点考查了物理性质和化学性质的区分,要记忆有关石墨、二氧化碳、活性炭、水的性质,并能够在比较的基础上进行应用,本考点的基础性比较强,主要出现在选择题和填空题中。 3.(3分)某同学在点燃蜡烛时,提出固体石蜡可能变成蒸气才能燃烧。就此看法而言,应属于科学探究环节中的(  ) A.提出问题 B.猜想与假设 C.进行实验 D.获得结论 【分析】学探究的主要环节有提出问题→猜想与假设→制定计划(或设计实验)→进行实验→收集证据→解释与结论→反思与评价→拓展与迁移,据此结合题意进行分析判断。 【解答】解:根据题意,某同学在点燃蜡烛时,提出固体石蜡可能变成蒸气才能燃烧,提出固体石蜡可能变成蒸气才能燃烧是猜想与假设环节。 A、“某同学在点燃蜡烛时,提出固体石蜡可能变成蒸气才能燃烧”这一过程,属于科学探究环节中的猜想与预测,不是提出问题,故选项错误。 B、“某同学在点燃蜡烛时,提出固体石蜡可能变成蒸气才能燃烧”这一过程,属于科学探究环节中猜想与预测,故选项正确。 C、“某同学在点燃蜡烛时,提出固体石蜡可能变成蒸气才能燃烧”这一过程,属于科学探究环节中的猜想与预测,不属于进行实验,故选项错误。 D、“某同学在点燃蜡烛时,提出固体石蜡可能变成蒸气才能燃烧”这一过程,属于科学探究环节中的猜想与预测,不是获得结论,故选项错误。 故选:B。 【点评】本题难度不大,考查的是科学探究方法,是研究初中化学问题的重要方法,了解科学探究的基本环节是正确解答本题的关键。 4.(3分)下列实验操作中,正确的是(  ) A.点燃酒精灯 B.检查装置气密性 C.倾倒液体 D.过滤 【分析】A、使用酒精灯时要注意“两查、两禁、一不可”。 B、根据检查装置气密性的方法进行分析判断。 C、根据向试管中倾倒液体药品的方法进行分析判断。 D、过滤液体时,注意“一贴、二低、三靠”的原则。 【解答】解:A、使用酒精灯时要注意“两查、两禁、一不可”,禁止用一酒精灯去引燃另一酒精灯,图中所示操作错误。 B、检查装置气密性的方法:把导管的一端浸没在水里,双手紧贴容器外壁,若导管口有气泡冒出,装置不漏气;图中所示操作正确。 C、向试管中倾倒液体药品时,瓶塞要倒放,标签要对准手心,瓶口紧挨;图中瓶塞没有倒放,所示操作错误。 D、过滤液体时,要注意“一贴、二低、三靠”的原则,图中缺少玻璃棒引流,图中所示操作错误。 故选:B。 【点评】本题难度不大,熟悉各种仪器的用途及使用注意事项、常见化学实验基本操作的注意事项是解答此类试题的关键。 5.(3分)以下关于科学探究的说法中,错误的是(  ) A.在设置对照实验时,除实验变量外,其他因素均相同 B.假设与实验结果不一定是一致的,所以我们可以进行任意的假设 C.水、温度、时间都可能是实验变量 D.科学探究的前提是提出问题 【分析】科学探究的一般过程包括提出问题、作出假设、制定计划(即探究的方案:包括选择材料、设计方法步骤等)、实施计划、得出结论(分析所得的结果与假设是否相符)、表达和交流。 【解答】解:A、为了确保实验结果只是由实验变量的不同引起的,就应当使这两种环境中除实验变量不同外,其它条件都相同。A正确。 B、实验结果可以肯定假设,也可能否定假设。B错误。 C、实验中,变量是指可被操纵的特定因素或条件,因此水、温度、时间都可能是实验变量。C正确。 D、科学探究要围绕提出的问题进行,没有问题也就无所谓探究,因此科学探究的前提是提出问题。D正确。 故选:B。 【点评】正确理解科学探究的基本环节是解答的关键。 6.(3分)取用粉末状固体化学药品时,应使用的仪器是(  ) A.滴管 B.研钵 C.药匙 D.镊子 【分析】根据粉末状固体药品取用的方法进行分析。 【解答】解:取用粉末状药品时可以用药匙。 故选:C。 【点评】需要熟练掌握实验室常见仪器的名称以及其用途,并熟练掌握各种实验仪器的使用方法与注意事项。 7.(3分)下面是实验室常见的玻璃仪器,其中能够在酒精灯上直接加热的是(  ) A. B. C. D. 【分析】不能用于加热的仪器有:量筒、容量瓶、集气瓶等;能加热并且能直接加热的仪器有:试管、蒸发皿和坩埚等;能加热但需要垫石棉网加热的仪器有:烧杯、烧瓶、锥形瓶等。 【解答】解:不能用于加热的仪器有:量筒、容量瓶、集气瓶等;能加热并且能直接加热的仪器有:试管、蒸发皿和坩埚等;能加热但需要垫石棉网加热的仪器有:烧杯、烧瓶、锥形瓶等。 故选:A。 【点评】本题很简单,考查能直接在酒精灯上加热的仪器,了解常见仪器的名称、用途、注意事项等是解答本题的关键。 8.(3分)下列滴管使用图示正确的是(  ) A.横放滴管在桌面 B.保持残留有试液的滴管 C.取液体时时挤入空气 D.向试管中滴加液体 【分析】根据胶头滴管的使用方法进行分析判断。 【解答】解:A、胶头滴管不能倒置,不能平放于桌面上,否则会污染药品、腐蚀胶头,图中所示操作错误。 B、将残留试液的滴管倒持会腐蚀胶头,图中所示操作错误。 C、使用胶头滴管时先挤压胶头,排出空气,再伸入溶液中吸取,图示做法正好相反,图中所示操作错误。 D、使用胶头滴管滴入试剂时,胶头滴管千万不能伸入容器中或与器壁接触,否则会造成试剂污染,所以滴管要保持垂直悬于容器口上方滴加,图中所示操作正确。 故选:D。 【点评】本题难度不大,熟悉各种仪器的用途及使用注意事项、常见化学实验基本操作的注意事项是解答此类试题的关键。 9.(3分)《中国诗词大会》是央视一档全民参与的诗词节目,带动全民重温那些曾经学过的古诗词,从古人的智慧和情怀中汲取营养,涵养心灵。请指出以下诗句中出现的“烟”字,符合实际的是(  ) A.暖暖远人村,依依墟里烟 B.日暮乡关何处是?烟波江上使人愁 C.南朝四百八十寺,多少楼台烟雨中 D.日照香炉生紫烟,遥看瀑布挂前川 【分析】“烟”是由固体小颗粒扩散形成的一种现象,要与雾进行区别。 【解答】解:暖暖远人村,依依墟里烟﹣﹣这是燃烧柴草产生的烟气﹣﹣固体小颗粒;而BCD中的“烟”是指小液滴形成的水雾。 故选:A。 【点评】不同类物质性质会存在很大不同,这是化学对物质进行分类研究的突出优点。科学地确定分类标准,才能正确对物质进行分类。 10.(3分)下表列举了法拉第《蜡烛的故事》中涉及的部分问题及对问题的回答,其中“对问题的回答”属于““设计实验方案””的是(  ) 选项 问题 对问题的回答 A 火焰不同部位温度高低如何比较? 用一火柴梗平放入火焰中,观察火柴梗不同部位的灼烧情况 B 火焰为什么向上? 热气流上升,形成对流 C 火焰明亮的原因是什么? 与火焰中的碳颗粒有关,碳颗粒会影响火焰明亮程度 D 吹灭蜡烛时产生的白烟是什么 主要成分是石蜡蒸汽凝结成的石蜡固体小颗粒 A.A B.B C.C D.D 【分析】解决此题要知道科学探究的主要环节,如提出问题、猜想与假设、制定计划与设计实验、进行实验与收集证据、分析与论证、评估、交流与合作。 【解答】解:A、火焰不同部位温度高低如何比较?属于设计的实验方案; B、火焰为什么向上?属于解释原因; C、与火焰中有碳颗粒有关,碳颗粒会影响火焰明亮程度,属于实验现象分析; D、吹灭蜡烛时产生的白烟是什么?属于结论。 故选:A。 【点评】解决此题要知道科学探究的主要环节,如提出问题、猜想与假设等。 11.(3分)实验是学习化学的重要方法,下列有关实验的基本操作正确的是(  ) A.取用药品时,若未说明用量,固体一般取1至2g,液体一般取1至2mL B.用托盘天平称取l2g氯化钠,称量时天平指针向左盘偏转,应向右侧移动游码或添加砝码至天平平衡 C.对试管内的液体进行加热时,液体的体积不能超过试管容积的,并且先用酒精灯内焰预热再进行加热 D.洗涤试管时,当试管内壁附着的水既不聚成水滴,也不成股流下,说明试管已洗涤干净 【分析】A、根据节约药品的原则分析; B、根据用托盘天平称量药品时应遵循“左物右码”,在称量时发现天平指针向左盘偏转,说明药品质量大于砝码质量,应减少药品进行分析判断; C、根据给试管中的液体加热的方法进行分析判断; D、根据玻璃仪器清洗干净的标准进行分析判断。 【解答】解:A、从节约药品的角度分析,在实验室取用药品时,如果未说明用量,一般按照最少量来取用,即液体一般取1~2mL,固体一般是刚好盖满试管底部,故操作错误; B、用托盘天平称量l2g氯化钠时,步骤是:调节天平平衡,先向右边托盘添加砝码和拨动游码,然后向左边托盘添加氯化钠直至天平平衡;天平指针偏向左偏移,说明氯化钠的质量大于砝码质量,应减少氯化钠,故操作错误; C、给液体加热时,用酒精灯的外焰加热试管里的液体,且液体体积不能超过试管容积,故操作错误; D、如果玻璃仪器清洗干净,水就会均匀地附着在内壁上形成一层均匀的水膜,仪器内壁上的水既不聚成水滴,也不成股流下,故操作正确。 故选:D。 【点评】本题难度不大,熟悉各种仪器的用途及使用注意事项、常见化学实验基本操作的注意事项是解答此类试题的关键。 12.(3分)实验是科学探究的重要手段,实验结束后,如图中仪器的处理方式正确的是(  ) A. B. C. D. 【分析】A、根据固体药品的取用方法及药品的保存方法分析; B、根据使用酒精灯的注意事项分析; C、根据试管使用后的放置方法分析; D、根据滴管使用后的处理方法分析。 【解答】解:A、取用固体药品时,瓶塞取下后要倒放,取用完毕后,要把试剂瓶盖好,故A错误; B、酒精灯用完后,要立即用灯帽盖灭,并稳妥放置,故B错误; C、试管使用完后,要及时清洗并放到试管架上,故C正确; D、胶头滴管用完后、不能平放在桌面上,以免沾污了胶头滴管,故D错误。 故选:C。 【点评】本题难度不大,熟悉各种仪器的用途及使用注意事项、常见化学实验基本操作的注意事项是解答此类试题的关键。 13.(3分)用量筒量取溶液,视线与量筒内液体的凹液面最低处保持水平,读数为15毫升;倒出部分液体后,仰视凹液面的最低处,读数为8毫升。则该学生实际倒出的溶液体积(  ) A.小于7毫升 B.大于7毫升 C.等于7毫升 D.无法确定范围 【分析】用量筒量取液体时,量筒要放平,读数时视线应与凹液面最低处相平;如果仰视液面,读数比实际偏小,若俯视液面,读数比实际偏大。根据量筒的读数与实际值的关系来判断该学生实际倒出液体的体积大小。 【解答】解:用量筒量取液体时,量筒要放平,读数时视线应与凹液面最低处相平;如果仰视液面,读数比实际偏低,若俯视液面,读数比实际偏大。该学生初次视线与量筒内液体的凹液面的最低处保持水平,读数为15mL,实际体积等于15mL;倒出部分液体后,仰视凹液面最低处,其读数会比实际偏小,那么实际体积应大于8mL.则该学生实际倾倒的液体体积小于7mL。 故选:A。 【点评】量筒的使用是中考热点之一,量筒操作错误时会出现“俯大仰小”,即俯视读数,数值比实际体积大,反之,则小。 14.(3分)两同学用托盘天平称量10.3g(1g以下用游码)药品,他们在放好10g砝码,并把游码调到0.3g后。一同学在称量的过程中发现指针向右偏,他此时应该?另一同学称量后发现误将砝码和药品在托盘上的位置颠倒了,请分析该同学称得药品的质量是(  ) A.增加药品 10.3g B.增加药品 9.7g C.减少药品 10.3g D.减少药品 9.7g 【分析】根据天平的使用方法是左物右码,左盘的质量等于右盘的质量加游码的质量,即药品质量=砝码质量+游码质量,如果位置放反,根据左盘的质量=右盘的质量+游码的质量,列等式进行计算。 【解答】解:一同学在称量的过程中发现指针向右偏,说明药品少应该增加药品;由左盘的质量=右盘的质量+游码的质量可知:砝码质量=药品质量+游码的质量,所以药品质量=砝码质量﹣游码质量,即:药品的质量=10.0g﹣0.3g=9.7g。 故选:B。 【点评】本题考查了对托盘天平的使用,掌握左盘质量=右盘质量+游码质量是解题的关键。 15.(3分)化学实验是化学学习的重要方法。小明在实验室里发现一瓶白色固体,他认为“可能是食盐”。对于可能是食盐,下列他的做法正确的是(  ) A.尝一尝,如果有咸味就是食盐 B.用手指捻一捻是否有颗粒感 C.观察瓶子标签或者询问老师此物质是什么 D.实验室药品都是有害的,不能碰 【分析】根据实验室中取用药品的方法以及注意事项来分析解答。 【解答】解:A.在化学实验室中,不能品尝药品的味道,故错误; B.在化学实验室中,不能用手直接接触药品,故错误; C.可以观察瓶子标签或者询问老师此物质是什么,故正确; D.在实验室中,并不是所有的药品都有毒、有害,不能接触,故错误。 故选:C。 【点评】本题考查了药品的取用、化学实验室的规则,难度不大。 16.(3分)对探究活动各个环节进行认真的反思,是提高我们的探究能力和促进不断进步的重要保证。下列有关实验后反思的说法正确的是(  ) A.只要有结论就不需要思考猜想与结论是否一致 B.需反思探究方法是否科学、有效 C.不需要反思实验过程是否安全、环保 D.不需要反思探究程序是否合理、简捷 【分析】根据实验后反思可从反思探究过程、探究方法、探究程序、猜想与结论是否一致等方面进行,据此进行分析判断。 【解答】解:A.实验后反思,需要思考猜想与结论是否一致,故选项说法错误。 B.实验后反思,需要反思探究方法是否科学有效,故选项说法正确。 C.实验后反思,需要反思探究过程是否安全环保,故选项说法错误。 D.实验后反思,需要反思探究程序是否合理、简捷,故选项说法错误。 故选:B。 【点评】本题难度不大,考查的是科学探究的方法,是研究初中化学问题的重要方法,了解科学探究的基本环节是正确解答本题的关键。 17.(3分)根据维生素C能够使淀粉﹣碘溶液褪色的原理,应用如图实验比较两种果汁中维生素C含量的多少。实验过程中不需要控制的条件是(滴管中果汁体积相同)(  ) A.胶头滴管滴出的果汁的滴数 B.两个胶头滴管的规格 C.烧杯中淀粉﹣碘溶液的浓度 D.烧杯中溶液的体积 【分析】对比试验中,要控制好烧杯中溶液的体积、烧杯中淀粉﹣碘溶液的浓度、两个胶头滴管滴出的每滴果汁的体积,而胶头滴管滴出的果汁的滴数不需要控制。 【解答】解:当烧杯中溶液的体积一定、烧杯中淀粉﹣碘溶液的浓度一定、两个胶头滴管滴出的每滴果汁的体积一定时,通过测定胶头滴管滴出的果汁的滴数,再通过其它数据,可以测定果汁中维生素C的含量,所以实验过程中不需要进行控制的条件是胶头滴管滴出的果汁的滴数。 故选:A。 【点评】本题考查测定物质含量的方法,关键是找出需要控制的量和不需要控制的量,找出需要控制的量和不需要控制的量之后,解答就比较容易了。 二、填空题: 18.选用“物理变化、化学变化、物理性质、化学性质”之一填写在下列空格中: (1)铜能在潮湿的空气中生成铜绿是 化学性质 。 (2)铜与氧气反应生成了氧化铜是 化学变化 。 (3)水蒸气遇冷变成水,水在0℃时结成冰是 物理变化 。 (4)水的凝固点是0℃,沸点为100℃,4℃时密度最大是 物理性质 。 【分析】需要通过化学变化表现出来的性质,属于物质的化学性质,不需要通过化学变化表现出来的性质,属于物质的物理性质。 【解答】解:(1)铜能在潮湿的空气中生成铜绿,需要通过化学变化表现出来,是化学性质; (2)铜与氧气反应生成了氧化铜是化学变化; (3)水蒸气遇冷变成水,水在0℃时结成冰,过程中没有生成新物质,物理变化; (4)水的凝固点是0℃,沸点为100℃,4℃时密度最大,不需要通过化学变化表现出来,是物理性质。 故填:化学性质;化学变化;物理变化;物理性质。 【点评】物理性质、化学性质是一对与物理变化、化学变化有密切关系的概念,联系物理变化、化学变化来理解物理性质和化学性质,则掌握起来并不困难。 19.阅读下列科普文章:通常情况下,钾具有银白色光泽,质地十分柔软,可以用小刀切割。钾的熔点很低,只有63℃,也就是说,只要温度升高到63℃,金属钾就变成水银般的液体了。钾的密度很小,它比水还轻。钾的化学性质十分活泼,与水反应剧烈,当把一块钾放入水中时,你就会看到它不断地浮起落下,周身还冒出火焰。一会儿再看,水中的钾就消失了。原来,它跟水发生反应生成了氢氧化钾。钾与酸的水溶液反应更加剧烈,几乎能达到爆炸的程度。回答下列问题: (1)钾的物理性质有 银白色光泽 、 质地柔软 、 熔点低 、 密度小 。(至少答四点) (2)钾的化学性质有 能和水反应 。(答出一点即可) 【分析】需要通过化学变化表现出来的性质,属于物质的化学性质,不需要通过化学变化表现出来的性质,属于物质的物理性质。 【解答】解:(1)钾的物理性质:具有银白色光泽,质地十分柔软,熔点很低,钾的密度很小。 故填:银白色光泽;质地柔软;熔点低;密度小。 (2)钾的化学性质:能和水反应等。 故填:能和水反应。 【点评】物理性质、化学性质是一对与物理变化、化学变化有密切关系的概念,联系物理变化、化学变化来理解物理性质和化学性质,则掌握起来并不困难。 20.仔细分析以下几个过程: ①潺潺的流水能蒸发变成水蒸气; ②木炭用于取暖; ③醋酸能跟活泼金属发生反应产生氢气; ④白云变成了雨滴或雪花降落到地面; ⑤钢铁可能会变成铁锈; ⑥煤着火燃烧,残余一堆灰烬; ⑦水蒸气可以变成天空中的白云; ⑧铁矿石冶炼成钢铁; ⑨酒精(乙醇)常作酒精灯和内燃机的燃料,是一种绿色能源; ⑩在16.6℃以上时,纯净的乙酸是一种有强烈刺激性气味的无色液体,易溶于水和酒精. 请分析上述描述中属于物理性质的是 ①⑦⑩ (填序号),属于化学性质的是 ③⑤⑨ ,属于物理变化的是 ④ ,属于化学变化的是 ②⑥⑧ . 【分析】化学变化是指有新物质生成的变化,物理变化是指没有新物质生成的变化.物质的化学性质是指在化学变化中表现出来的性质,如可燃性、稳定性;物质的物理性质是指不需要通过化学变化表现出来的性质,如颜色、状态、味道、溶解性等;性质和变化,性质是特性,变化是过程,描述性质一般用“能、易、难、会、可以”等. 【解答】解:①潺潺的流水能蒸发变成水蒸气,属于物理性质; ②木炭用于取暖的过程中有新物质生成,属于化学变化; ③醋酸能跟活泼金属发生反应产生氢气属于化学性质; ④白云变成了雨滴或雪花降落到地面,只是物质状态的改变,没有生成新物质,属于物理变化; ⑤钢铁可能会变成铁锈需要在化学变化中才能表现出来,属于化学性质; ⑥煤着火燃烧,残余一堆灰烬,有新物质生成,属于化学变化; ⑦水蒸气可以变成天空中的白云属于物理性质; ⑧铁矿石冶炼成钢铁,有新物质生成,属于化学变化; ⑨酒精(乙醇)常作酒精灯和内燃机的燃料,是一种绿色能源,可燃性需要在化学变化中才能表现出来,属于化学性质; ⑩在16.6℃以上时,纯净的乙酸是一种有强烈刺激性气味的无色液体,易溶于水和酒精,这属于物理性质. 故答案为:①⑦⑩;③⑤⑨;④;②⑥⑧. 【点评】本题难度不大,充分理解两种变化和两种性质的概念与区别是正确解题的关键. 21.下列是化学实验室中常见的基本操作.据图回答下列问题: (1)如图A所示,手握细口瓶倾倒液体时,细口瓶贴标签的一面要 向着手心 ,细口瓶的塞子要 倒放 在桌面上. (2)如图B所示,用完酒精灯后,必须用灯帽盖灭,盖灭后轻提一下灯帽,再重新盖好.对其原因的叙述,不正确的一项是 C (填序号). A.平衡气压,方便取下灯帽 B.挥发水分,利于点燃酒精灯 C.减少挥发,利于节约酒精 (3)如图C所示,用酒精灯加热试管里的液体时: ①试管里的液体不应超过试管容积的  . ②先对试管进行 预热 ,然后用酒精灯的外焰对准药品所在部位加热. (4)如图D所示,如果试管内壁附有不易洗掉的物质时,清洗试管一般先用试管刷蘸去污粉 洗涤 ,再用自来水冲洗和蒸馏水润洗,然后倒放在试管架上晾干. 【分析】(1)根据取用液体药品时的注意事项进行分析; (2)根据使用酒精灯时的注意事项进行分析; (3)根据用酒精灯加热试管里的液体时的注意事项进行分析; (4)根据玻璃仪器的洗涤方法进行分析. 【解答】解:(1)如图A所示,手握细口瓶倾倒液体时,细口瓶标签的一面要向着手心,细口瓶的塞子要倒放在桌面上; (2)熄灭酒精灯时用灯帽盖灭,盖灭时轻提一下灯帽的原因防止温度降低压强变小,下次使用不易打开,同时也使生成水分蒸发掉,不是为了节约酒精; (3)给试管中的液体加热,试管内液体不能超过其体积的,试管夹夹在试管的中上部,要用酒精灯的外焰加热,必须先预热; (4)如图D所示,如果试管内壁附有不易洗掉的物质时,清洗试管一般先用试管刷蘸去污粉洗涤,再用自来水冲洗和蒸馏水润洗,然后倒放在试管架上晾干. 故答案为:(1)向着手心;倒放;(2)C;(3)①;②预热;(4)洗涤. 【点评】本题难度不大,熟悉各种仪器的用途及使用注意事项、掌握常见化学实验基本操作的注意事项是解答此类试题的关键. 22.规范的实验操作是实验成功的前提,请回答: (1)正确量取8mL的液体,应选用的合适仪器是 AD  A、10mL的量筒 B、50mL的量筒 C、烧杯 D、胶头滴管 (2)胶头滴管用过后应 用水冲洗干净 ,再去吸其他药品。 (3)实验室用烧杯加热蒸馏水时,烧杯底部应垫放 石棉网 。 (4)实验室取用块状药品时,常用的仪器是 镊子 。 (5)下列实验操作中错误的是 ABCD (填字母),实验操作C可能造成 腐蚀胶头 。实验操作D中应该注意的事项是 试管内液体量不能超过试管容积的三分之一,试管口不能朝着有人的方向 。(写两点) 【分析】(1)量筒量液时要注意量程的选择,应选择略大于量取液体体积的量程,选取的量程太大,会因刻度不精确而使量取的液体体积不准确,选取的量程太小,多次称量会有误差。 (2)胶头滴管用完后,不清洗,再去吸取别的药品,会污染别的药品。 (3)烧杯的底部面积较大,加热时,为了受热均匀,应垫上石棉网。 (4)根据取用块状药品的仪器分析。 (5)根据取用液体药品的注意事项、读取量筒内液体时的注意事项、胶头滴管的使用方法、给试管内液体加热的注意事项考虑。 【解答】解:(1)量取8mL液体,应选用与8毫升相近的量程,则应选10毫升量程的量筒,量取液体的最后不足的要用胶头滴管添加。 故选:AD。 (2)胶头滴管用完后,洗涤干净晾干,防止污染别的药品。 故答案为:用水冲洗干净; (3)实验室用烧杯加热蒸馏水时,不垫上石棉网,会因为受热不均,引起炸裂。 故答案为:石棉网; (4)实验室取用块状药品时,常用的仪器是镊子; 故答案为:镊子; (5)取用液体时,瓶塞要倒放在桌面上,试管要略微倾斜;读取量筒内液体体积时,视线要与凹液面的最低处保持水平;胶头滴管使用后平放或倒放会腐蚀胶头;给试管内液体加热时:试管内液体量不能超过试管容积的三分之一,试管口不能朝着有人的地方,夹试管时从底部往上套,套到距试管口三分之一处。 故答案为:ABCD;腐蚀胶头;试管内液体量不能超过试管容积的三分之一,试管口不能朝着有人的方向。 【点评】本题难度不大,熟悉各种仪器的用途及使用注意事项、掌握常见化学实验基本操作的注意事项是解答此类试题的关键。 23.酒精灯是实验室中常用的加热仪器,某小组同学对酒精灯火焰温度进行如下探究。 (I)定性研究:甲同学取一根火柴梗,拿住一端迅速平放入酒精灯火焰中,l~2s后取出,观察到位于外焰的部分明显碳化。 (1)写出碳在氧气中燃烧的文字表达式: 碳+氧气二氧化碳 。 (2)由上述现象得出结论:外焰温度最高,你认为原因是 外焰与空气(氧气)接触更充分 。 火焰层 平均温度/℃ 乙 丙 焰心 432 598 内焰 666 783 外焰 520 667 (Ⅱ)定量研究:乙和丙同学在老师指导下,分别利用高温传感器测得酒精灯各层火焰平均温度如表。 (3)由右表得出结论: 內焰  (填“焰心”、“内焰”或“外焰”)温度最高。 (4)结合定量研究结论,下列图示中的加热方法(试管夹未画出)最合理的是 C (填字母序号)。 (Ⅲ)交流反思:不仅酒精灯的各层火焰温度不同,而且相同火焰层温度也有差异。 (5)造成乙、丙两同学所测相同火焰层温度差异的原因可能是(请找出三点) ① 酒精的浓度 , ② 露出酒精灯的灯芯长度 , ③ 灯芯是否烧焦 。 【分析】(1)根据实验现象“位于外焰的部分明显碳化”进行填空; (2)将表中的数据进行对比,然后根据对比结果进行填空; (3)根据给试管中的液体加热需注意事项进行填空; (4)针对实验误差做出正确解释的问题。 【解答】解:(1)碳在氧气中燃烧的文字表达式是碳+氧气二氧化碳,故填:碳+氧气二氧化碳; (2)在实验中,位于外焰的部分明显碳化,这说明酒精灯的外焰温度最高,原因外焰与空气(或氧气)接触更充分,酒精燃烧更充分;故答案是:外焰与空气(氧气)接触更充分; (3)根据图表中的数据显示,酒精灯的内焰的温度最高;故答案是:内焰; (4)给试管内的液体加热时,试管与桌面倾斜约45度角,且用外焰加热,BD是直立,错误;A没有用外焰加热;故选:C; (5)属于实验误差分析,此问题属于开放题型,从酒精自身原因,酒精灯的构造,灯芯的长短等找原因。 故答案是:①酒精的浓度;②露出酒精灯的灯芯长度;③灯芯是否烧焦。 【点评】本题是探究加热器皿﹣酒精灯三层火焰温度高低的实验,实验操作必须规范,对于在实验数据处理或误差分析,必须遵循客观事实。 24.如图是四个错误的实验操作,请指出其可能造成的后果并加以改正。 (1)图A可能造成的后果为 腐蚀手 ,改正方法为 用药匙取用 ; (2)图B可能造成的后果为 碰破试管底部 ,改正方法为 试管平放,将锌粒置于试管口,再缓缓将试管直立 ; (3)图C可能造成的后果为 试剂瓶中药液被污染 ,改正方法为 瓶塞倒放 ; (4)图D可能造成的后果为 污染滴管或造成试剂污染 ,改正方法为 滴管应竖直悬空置于试管正上方 。 【分析】(1)根据取用固体药品的方法来分析; (2)根据将大颗粒固体或块状固体加入试管的方法来分析; (3)根据倾倒液体试剂的方法来分析; (4)根据胶头滴管的使用方法来分析。 【解答】解:(1)粉末状固体药品要用药匙或纸槽取用,不能用手直接接触,可能会腐蚀手,故答案为:腐蚀手;用药匙取用; (2)取用颗粒状固体药品时,试管要平放,将颗粒状或块状药品放于试管口,再缓缓竖立起试管让药品滑到试管底部,如果试管竖直放置有可能碰坏试管底部;故答案为:碰破试管底部;试管平放,将锌粒置于试管口,再缓缓将试管直立; (3)倾倒液体药品时,试剂瓶的瓶塞要倒放,防止污染药液,故答案为:试剂瓶中药液被污染;瓶塞倒放; (4)滴加液体药品时,滴管竖直悬空置于试管口正上方,否则可能污染滴管或造成试剂污染,故填:污染滴管或造成试剂污染;滴管应竖直悬空置于试管正上方。 【点评】化学实验的基本操作是做好化学实验的基础,学生要在平时的练习中多操作,掌握操作要领,使操作规范。

  • ID:6-6101296 2018-2019学年湖南省娄底市娄星区八年级(下)期末物理试卷(解析版)

    初中物理/期末专区/八年级上册

    2018-2019学年湖南省娄底市娄星区八年级(下)期末物理试卷 一、单选题(本题共36分.每小题给出的选项中,只有一个是正确的,请把正确答案的序号填涂到答题卷相应的位置,写在其它地方的均不给分.每小题选对得3分,错选或未选的得0分.) 1.(3分)力的国际单位是(  ) A.千克 B.牛顿 C.帕斯卡 D.焦耳 2.(3分)下列情况中不属于弹性形变的是(  ) A.手轻压钢条,使钢条变弯一些 B.把橡皮泥捏成各种不同的形状 C.手轻拉弹簧,弹簧伸长些 D.运动员拉开弓,准备射箭 3.(3分)下列说法中正确的是(  ) A.重力的方向总是垂直向下的 B.只有正在下落的重物才受到重力的作用 C.无论物体在哪里,物体重力的大小都是不变的 D.地面附近的物体均受重力的作用 4.(3分)用力拍打衣服,衣服上的灰尘就掉下来,其原因是(  ) A.拍打衣服,灰尘振动而掉落 B.拍打衣服,灰尘受力运动而掉下来 C.拍打衣服,衣服受力运动,灰尘由于惯性保持静止,从而脱离衣服而掉下来 D.拍打衣服,因为惯性,衣服保持静止,而灰尘运动,从而将灰尘从衣服中分离 5.(3分)茶杯放在水平桌面上,下列各对力中,属于平衡力的是(  ) A.茶杯受到的重力和桌面对茶杯的支持力 B.茶杯受到的支持力和茶杯对桌面的压力 C.茶杯受到的重力和茶杯对桌面的压力 D.茶杯对桌面的压力和地面对桌子的支持力 6.(3分)下列做法中属于减小摩擦的是(  ) A.给门轴加润滑油 B.体操运动员上器械前,手上涂防滑粉 C.自行车刹车时用力捏车闸 D.拔河时穿鞋底较粗糙的运动鞋 7.(3分)如图所示,盛有水的杯子静止在水平桌面上。杯子重1N,高9cm,底面积30cm2;杯内水重2N,水深6cm,水的密度为1.0×103kg/m3.下列选项中正确的是(  ) A.水对杯底的压强为900 Pa B.水对杯底的压力为2 N C.水杯对桌面的压强为1 000 Pa D.上述说法均不对 8.(3分)如图所示,水平桌面上有甲、乙两个质量和底面积都相等的容器。向容器中注入高度相等的水,水对容器底部的压强分别为p甲、p乙,装水后的容器桌面的压力分别为F甲、F乙.则(  ) A.p甲=p乙,F甲=F乙 B.p甲>p乙,F甲=F乙 C.p甲=p乙,F甲<F乙 D.p甲<p乙,F甲<F乙 9.(3分)高速列车成为百姓出行的便捷交通工具,如图所示,候车时,乘客要站在安全线以内避免列车进站时被吸向列车,这是因为列车进站时车体附近(  ) A.气流速度小、压强小 B.气流速度大、压强大 C.气流速度小、压强大 D.气流速度大、压强小 10.(3分)潜水艇潜在水下航行,当它下潜的深度增加时,比较它所受到的水的压力和浮力关系是(  ) A.压力越大,浮力越大 B.压力越大,浮力不变 C.压力不变,浮力越大 D.压力不变,浮力不变 11.(3分)把一小球放入盛满酒精()的溢水杯中,它沉入容器底部,从杯中溢出8g酒精,若将该小球放入盛满水的溢水杯中,它漂浮在水面上,从杯中溢出水的质量(  ) A.大于8g B.等于8g C.小于8g D.无法判断 12.(3分)在水平桌面上,有完全相同的圆柱形容器甲和乙,盛有质量相等的同种液体。将体积相同、材料不同的小球A和B分别放入两容器中,结果A球漂浮,B球悬浮,如图所示。A、B两球所受的浮力分别为FA和FB,甲、乙两容器底部对桌面的压强分别为p甲和p乙,则下列结论中正确的是(  ) A.FA>FB p甲<p乙 B.FA<FB p甲>p乙 C.FA>FB p甲>p乙 D.FA<FB p甲<p乙 二、填空题(本题共24分,每空2分,把答案填写在答题卷相应的位置) 13.(4分)质量为0.3kg的木块,受到的重力是   牛,一个人所受的重力为480N,他的质量是   千克,g取10N/kg。 14.(4分)重200N物体,在50N水平拉力作用下,沿水平地面以0.3m/s的速度匀速运动5s,在这个过程中,重力所做的功是   J,拉力做功的功率大小是   。 15.(4分)跳伞运动员跳伞,在空中未打开伞时,跳伞员加速下降(不计空气阻力),他的动能   。伞打开后,跳伞员匀速下降,则此时他的机械能   。(均选填“增大”、“减小”或“不变”) 16.(4分)如图所示,用F为30N的拉力,通过滑轮组拉着重为200N的物体A在水平面上以0.4m/s的速度向左做匀速直线运动。物体受到的摩擦力是物重的0.3倍,滑轮组的机械效率是   ,拉力的功率是   W。 17.(4分)如图所示,杠杆AC(刻度均匀,不计杠杆重)可绕支点O自由转动,在B点挂一120N的重物。为使杠杆平衡,应在杠杆上的   点施加一个作用力F,才能使作用力最小,该最小作用力F=   N。 18.(4分)马德堡半球实验证明了   的存在。17世纪40年代意大利科学家   首先用实验测定了大气压的值。1标准大气压相当于   厘米高的水银柱产生的压强。 三、作图与实验探究(20分,其中19题3分,20题2分,21题7分,22题8分) 19.(3分)如图所示,一个物体沿光滑斜面下滑,请作出物体所受重力和支持力的示意图。 20.(2分)如图所示,O点为杠杆的支点,请画出力F的力臂,并用字母L表示。 21.(7分)如图,在探究“阻力对物体运动的影响”实验中,让小车以相同速度分别滑上三种“路面”,记下小车停下的位置,测出小车在水平“路面”上运动的路程,并记入表。 实验序号 “路面”材料 小车运动的路程(cm) 1 棉布 40 2 木板 70 3 玻璃 110 (1)想让小车以相同速度滑上“路面”,需控制小车从斜面上   由静止滑下; (2)小车到达水平面时继续向前运动,是由于   。 (3)通过比较   组数据,可以判断出小车在木板上受到的阻力   (选填“大于”“小于”或“等于”)在棉布上受到的阻力; (4)如果有一种“路面”材料比玻璃更光滑,则小车运动的路程将   (选填“大于”“小于”或“等于”)在玻璃“路面”上运动的路程; (5)设想小车在绝对光滑的水平“路面”上运动,即不受阻力作用,小车将   。 (6)在水平面滑行的小车受到的重力和水平面对小车的支持力   (选填“是”或“不是”)一对相互作用力。 22.(8分)复习“科学探究:影响浮力大小的因素”时,小文收集到如图所示一幅图片,请对以下问题进行解答。(ρ水<ρ盐水) (1)图丙中,物体A所受浮力大小是   N;图丁中,物体A受到盐水向上和向下的压力差为   N.图丙和图丁中浮力的方向   。 (2)比较图丙、丁,说明浮力的大小与   有关。 (3)结合图甲和图丙可确定图乙方框中弹簧测力计示数F乙的范围是4.0N   F乙   3.0N(选填“>”或“<”);你判断的依据是:0   V排水乙   V排水丙(选填“>”或“<”)。 四、综合应用题(23题8分,24题12分) 23.(8分)一辆汽车装满货物共重5×104N,在平直公路上以14米/秒的速度匀速行驶了10min,汽车所受阻力是车总重的0.1倍。求: (1)汽车的牵引力是多大? (2)汽车发动机的功率是多? (3)这段时间内汽车的牵引力做了多少功? 24.(12分)重为200N的方形玻璃槽,底面积为0.4m2,放在水平台面上,向槽中加水至水深0.3m(已知ρ水=1.0×103kg/m3,g取10N/kg,玻璃槽的侧壁厚度不计) (1)求水对槽底部的压强和槽底对水平台面的压强; (2)将边长为L的正方体木块轻轻放入水中,当其静止时,木块高度的1/4露出水面且测出该木块露出水面的高度为5cm,求该木块的边长和密度; (3)用力F垂直向下作用在木块的上表面,使木块保持静止,此时力F的大小为12N,求木块露出水面的高度为多少cm? 2018-2019学年湖南省娄底市娄星区八年级(下)期末物理试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一、单选题(本题共36分.每小题给出的选项中,只有一个是正确的,请把正确答案的序号填涂到答题卷相应的位置,写在其它地方的均不给分.每小题选对得3分,错选或未选的得0分.) 1.(3分)力的国际单位是(  ) A.千克 B.牛顿 C.帕斯卡 D.焦耳 【分析】在国际单位中,力的单位是牛顿,简称牛,符号为N。 【解答】解: A、千克是质量的单位,A不正确; B、牛顿是力的单位,B正确; C、帕斯卡是压强的单位,C不正确; D、焦耳是功和能的单位,D不正确。 故选:B。 【点评】物理学中的物理量及单位多、符号也多,区分并记住各物理量的单位及符号,是学好初中物理的基础。 2.(3分)下列情况中不属于弹性形变的是(  ) A.手轻压钢条,使钢条变弯一些 B.把橡皮泥捏成各种不同的形状 C.手轻拉弹簧,弹簧伸长些 D.运动员拉开弓,准备射箭 【分析】物体受力形变,撤去外力后,能够恢复原状的形变叫弹性形变;物体发生形变后,撤去外力不能恢复原状的性质叫塑性。 【解答】解: A、手轻压钢条,使钢条变弯一些,松手后,钢条可以恢复,属于弹性形变,故A不符合题意; B、把橡皮泥捏成各种不同的形状,橡皮泥不能恢复,不属于弹性形变,故B符合题意; C、手轻拉弹簧,弹簧伸长些,松手后,弹簧能够恢复原状,属于弹性形变,故C不符合题意; D、运动员拉弓,弓发生变形,松手后,弓可以恢复,属于弹性形变,故D不符合题意。 故选:B。 【点评】本题考查弹性形变,要深刻理解弹性形变的意义,明确弹性形变与非弹性形变的主要区别。 3.(3分)下列说法中正确的是(  ) A.重力的方向总是垂直向下的 B.只有正在下落的重物才受到重力的作用 C.无论物体在哪里,物体重力的大小都是不变的 D.地面附近的物体均受重力的作用 【分析】由于地球的吸引而使物体受到的力叫重力,地球表面及附近的一切物体都受到重力的作用,重力的方向总是竖直向下的。 【解答】解: A、物体所受的重力的方向总是竖直向下,故A错误; BD、物体的重力是由地球的吸引而产生的,地面附近的物体均受重力的作用,故D正确,B错误; C、同一物体在地球上不同纬度的地方所受重力不相等,故C错误; 故选:D。 【点评】此题考查的是重力的存在,需要清楚的是:地球表面及附近的一切物体都受重力的作用,与物体的位置和状态无关。 4.(3分)用力拍打衣服,衣服上的灰尘就掉下来,其原因是(  ) A.拍打衣服,灰尘振动而掉落 B.拍打衣服,灰尘受力运动而掉下来 C.拍打衣服,衣服受力运动,灰尘由于惯性保持静止,从而脱离衣服而掉下来 D.拍打衣服,因为惯性,衣服保持静止,而灰尘运动,从而将灰尘从衣服中分离 【分析】(1)力的作用效果是使物体产生形变或使物体的运动状态发生改变; (2)一切物体都具有保持静止或匀速直线运动状态的性质叫惯性。 【解答】解: 用力拍打衣服,衣服在力的作用下改变原来的静止状态而运动,离开原来的位置,而灰尘由于惯性要保持原来的静止状态,所以衣服就和灰尘分离了,故C正确,ABD错误。 故选:C。 【点评】本题考查力的作用效果和惯性知识,此类现象在生活中随处可见,注意合理利用惯性知识解释。 5.(3分)茶杯放在水平桌面上,下列各对力中,属于平衡力的是(  ) A.茶杯受到的重力和桌面对茶杯的支持力 B.茶杯受到的支持力和茶杯对桌面的压力 C.茶杯受到的重力和茶杯对桌面的压力 D.茶杯对桌面的压力和地面对桌子的支持力 【分析】平衡力的判断,两个力必须同时满足四个条件:大小相等、方向相反、作用在同一直线上、作用在同一物体上。缺一不可。 【解答】解:A、茶杯受到的重力和桌面对茶杯的支持力,满足平衡力的四个条件,是平衡力,符合题意。 B、茶杯受到的支持力和茶杯对桌面的压力,这两个力作用在两个物体上,是相互作用力,不是平衡力,不符合题意。 C、茶杯受到的重力和茶杯对桌面的压力,这两个力作用在两个物体上,不是平衡力,不符合题意。 D、茶杯对桌面的压力和地面对桌子的支持力,这两个力作用在两个物体上,不是平衡力,不符合题意。 故选:A。 【点评】此类题考查二力平衡的四个条件。必须同时满足。 6.(3分)下列做法中属于减小摩擦的是(  ) A.给门轴加润滑油 B.体操运动员上器械前,手上涂防滑粉 C.自行车刹车时用力捏车闸 D.拔河时穿鞋底较粗糙的运动鞋 【分析】(1)减小摩擦力的方法:减小压力,减小接触面的粗糙程度,使接触面脱离,用滚动代替滑动。 (2)增大摩擦力的方法:增大压力,增大接触面的粗糙程度。 【解答】解:A、给门轴加润滑油使接触面脱离减小摩擦力,故A符合题意; B、体操运动员上器械前,手上涂防滑粉是在压力一定时,增大接触面的粗糙程度增大摩擦,故B不符合题意; C、自行车刹车时用力捏车闸是在接触面粗糙程度一定时,增大压力来增大摩擦力,故C不符合题意; D、拔河时穿鞋底较粗糙的运动鞋是在压力一定时,增大接触面的粗糙程度增大摩擦,故D不符合题意。 故选:A。 【点评】掌握摩擦力大小的影响因素,掌握增大和减小摩擦力的方法,并能在实际生活中增大有益摩擦和减小有害摩擦。 7.(3分)如图所示,盛有水的杯子静止在水平桌面上。杯子重1N,高9cm,底面积30cm2;杯内水重2N,水深6cm,水的密度为1.0×103kg/m3.下列选项中正确的是(  ) A.水对杯底的压强为900 Pa B.水对杯底的压力为2 N C.水杯对桌面的压强为1 000 Pa D.上述说法均不对 【分析】(1)知道杯内水深和水的密度,利用液体压强公式求水对杯底的压强;又知道杯底的底面积,利用压强定义式求水对杯底的压力; (2)求出杯和水的总重,因为在水平桌面上,也就知道了杯对桌面的压力,又知道杯的底面积,利用压强定义式求p=可求杯对水平桌面的压强。 【解答】解: A、杯内水的深度: h=6cm=0.06m, 水对杯底的压强: p=ρgh=1.0×103kg/m3×10N/kg×0.06m=600Pa,故A错误; B、根据p=可得,水对杯底的压力: F=pS=600Pa×30×10﹣4m2=1.8N;故B错误; CD、已知G水=2N,G杯=1N, 在水平桌面上,杯对桌面的压力: F′=G水+G杯=2N+1N=3N, 杯对桌面的压强: p′===1000Pa;故C正确,D错误; 故选:C。 【点评】本题考查了学生对压强定义式和液体压强公式的掌握和运用,对于不规则的容器,对容器底的压力和压强,要先计算液体对容器底的压强p=ρgh、再计算液体对容器底的压力F=pS;容器对桌面的压力和压强,先计算容器对桌面的压力F=G、再计算容器对桌面的压强p=。 8.(3分)如图所示,水平桌面上有甲、乙两个质量和底面积都相等的容器。向容器中注入高度相等的水,水对容器底部的压强分别为p甲、p乙,装水后的容器桌面的压力分别为F甲、F乙.则(  ) A.p甲=p乙,F甲=F乙 B.p甲>p乙,F甲=F乙 C.p甲=p乙,F甲<F乙 D.p甲<p乙,F甲<F乙 【分析】知道两容器内水的深度相同,根据液体压强公式比较水对两容器底部的压强大小; 因为两容器的底面积相同,注入水的高度相同,由图可知甲容器内水的重力小于乙容器内水的重力,又因为对桌面的压力等于容器重加上水重,得出桌面受到的压力关系。 【解答】解:由题知,向容器中注入高度相等的水,即水深h相同, ∵p=ρgh, ∴水对容器底部的压强P甲=p乙; ∵甲、乙两个容器的质量相等, ∴两个容器重相等, 由图知,甲容器内装水的重小于乙容器内装水的重, ∵地面受到的压力 F=G=G容器+G水, ∴装水后的容器桌面的压力: F甲<F乙。 故选:C。 【点评】本题考查了学生对压强公式和液体压强公式的掌握和运用,对液体压强大小变化分析关键是确定深度大小,对固体压强的大小情况分析关键是确定压力和受力面积的大小。 9.(3分)高速列车成为百姓出行的便捷交通工具,如图所示,候车时,乘客要站在安全线以内避免列车进站时被吸向列车,这是因为列车进站时车体附近(  ) A.气流速度小、压强小 B.气流速度大、压强大 C.气流速度小、压强大 D.气流速度大、压强小 【分析】流体的压强跟流速有关,流速越大,压强越小。比较人和列车之间的压强以及人外侧的压强的大小。 【解答】解:人离高速列车比较近时,高速列车的速度很大,人和高速列车的之间的空气流动速度很大,压强小,人外侧的压强不变,人受到外侧压强大于人内侧受到的压强,人在较大的压强差作用下很容易被压向列车,发生交通事故。 故选:D。 【点评】掌握流体压强跟流速的关系,能用流体压强知识解释有关的问题。 10.(3分)潜水艇潜在水下航行,当它下潜的深度增加时,比较它所受到的水的压力和浮力关系是(  ) A.压力越大,浮力越大 B.压力越大,浮力不变 C.压力不变,浮力越大 D.压力不变,浮力不变 【分析】潜水艇下潜的深度增加时,潜水艇的体积不变(排开水的体积不变),受浮力不变; 浸没在水中的潜水艇当它逐渐下潜时,所处深度变大,根据液体压强公式分析受到压强变化情况;再根据F=ps判断潜水艇受压力变化情况。 【解答】解:∵F浮=ρ水v排g,潜水艇的体积不变,下潜时,排开水的体积不变, ∴潜水艇受到水的浮力不变; 当潜水艇逐渐下潜时,深度h变大, ∵p=ρgh, ∴潜水艇受到水的压强变大; ∵F=ps,潜水艇的表面积s不变, ∴潜水艇受到水的压力变大。 故选:B。 【点评】本题考查了学生对液体压强公式、阿基米德原理的掌握和运用,知道潜水艇自身体积不变(排开水的体积不变、受浮力不变)是本题的关键。 11.(3分)把一小球放入盛满酒精()的溢水杯中,它沉入容器底部,从杯中溢出8g酒精,若将该小球放入盛满水的溢水杯中,它漂浮在水面上,从杯中溢出水的质量(  ) A.大于8g B.等于8g C.小于8g D.无法判断 【分析】(1)掌握物体在液体中的浮沉条件: 上浮:F浮>G 悬浮:F浮=G 下沉:F浮<G (2)根据阿基米德原理,浸在液体中的物体受到的浮力等于它排开液体受到的重力,小球在酒精中下沉,得出小球重力和浮力的关系,根据漂浮时浮力和重力的关系,得出溢出水的质量大小。 【解答】解:把一小球放人盛满酒精的溢水杯中,它沉入容器底部,从杯中溢出8g酒精,此时受到浮力小于物体的重力,则小球的质量大于8g; 又因为小球漂浮在水面上,所以在水中受到的浮力等于小球的重力,则排开水的重力等于小球的重力,即排开水的质量等于小球的质量,大于8g。 故选:A。 【点评】此题考查了对物体浮沉条件及阿基米德原理的应用,其中分别根据漂浮和下沉确定小球质量与浮力的关系是关键,题目中还用到了浮力与排开水的重力相等的知识。 12.(3分)在水平桌面上,有完全相同的圆柱形容器甲和乙,盛有质量相等的同种液体。将体积相同、材料不同的小球A和B分别放入两容器中,结果A球漂浮,B球悬浮,如图所示。A、B两球所受的浮力分别为FA和FB,甲、乙两容器底部对桌面的压强分别为p甲和p乙,则下列结论中正确的是(  ) A.FA>FB p甲<p乙 B.FA<FB p甲>p乙 C.FA>FB p甲>p乙 D.FA<FB p甲<p乙 【分析】(1)由题意可知A和B两球的体积相等,由图可知两球排开液体的体积关系,根据阿基米德原理可知受到的浮力关系; (2)根据物体浮沉条件可知两者的重力关系,两容器相同时受力面积相同且液体质量相等,根据F=G=mg可知对桌面的压力关系,利用p=得出对桌面的压强关系。 【解答】解:(1)由题意可知A和B两球的体积相等,由图可知A球排开液体的体积小于B球, 由F浮=ρ液gV排可知,A球受到的浮力小于B球受到的浮力,即FA<FB,故AC错误; (2)因物体漂浮或悬浮时受到的浮力和自身的重力相等,FA=GA,FB=GB, 所以,GA<GB, 因水平面上物体的压力和自身的重力相等,且两容器相同,液体的质量相等, 所以,由F=G=mg可知,甲容器对桌面的压力小于乙容器对桌面的压力, 由p=可知,p甲<p乙,故B错误、D正确。 故选:D。 【点评】本题考查了阿基米德原理和物体浮沉条件以及压强定义式的应用,要注意水平面上物体的压力和自身的重力相等。 二、填空题(本题共24分,每空2分,把答案填写在答题卷相应的位置) 13.(4分)质量为0.3kg的木块,受到的重力是 3 牛,一个人所受的重力为480N,他的质量是 48 千克,g取10N/kg。 【分析】知道木块的质量,根据公式G=mg求出其重力;知道人受到的重力,根据公式G=mg求出人的质量。 【解答】解: (1)木块的重力: G木=m木g=0.3kg×10N/kg=3N; (2)人的质量: m人===48kg。 故答案为:3;48。 【点评】此题主要考查的是学生对重力计算公式的理解和掌握,基础性题目。 14.(4分)重200N物体,在50N水平拉力作用下,沿水平地面以0.3m/s的速度匀速运动5s,在这个过程中,重力所做的功是 0 J,拉力做功的功率大小是 15W 。 【分析】已知在重力方向上没有移动距离,所以重力做功为0; 已知拉力的大小和物体的运动速度,根据公式P=Fv可求拉力所做功的功率。 【解答】解: 由题知,物体沿水平地面匀速运动,物体在重力的方向上没有移动距离,所以重力做功为0J; 拉力所做功的功率:P===Fv=50N×0.3m/s=15W。 故答案为:0;15W。 【点评】本题考查做功满足的条件和功率的计算,关键是知道影响做功的因素是有力作用在物体上和物体在力的方向上移动距离。 15.(4分)跳伞运动员跳伞,在空中未打开伞时,跳伞员加速下降(不计空气阻力),他的动能 增大 。伞打开后,跳伞员匀速下降,则此时他的机械能 减小 。(均选填“增大”、“减小”或“不变”) 【分析】(1)动能大小的影响因素:质量、速度。 (2)重力势能大小的影响因素:质量、高度。 (3)物体下落过程中和空气摩擦,机械能转化为内能。 【解答】解:跳伞员在跳伞过程中,质量不变,加速时,动能增大;他的质量不变,高度不断减小,重力势能减小;下落过程中和空气摩擦,机械能转化为内能,机械能减小。 故答案为:增大;减小。 【点评】掌握动能、重力势能、弹性势能大小的影响因素,进而据此去分析动能、重力势能、弹性势能、机械能的大小变化。 16.(4分)如图所示,用F为30N的拉力,通过滑轮组拉着重为200N的物体A在水平面上以0.4m/s的速度向左做匀速直线运动。物体受到的摩擦力是物重的0.3倍,滑轮组的机械效率是 66.7% ,拉力的功率是 36 W。 【分析】①沿水平方向使用滑轮组拉动物体时,直接拉物体的力做的功是有用功,拉力做的功是总功; 滑轮组由三段绳子与动滑轮相连,n=3,根据物体受到的摩擦力是物重的0.3倍,求物体受到的摩擦力; 通过滑轮组拉着物体在水平面上运动时,克服物体与水平面间摩擦力做功为有用功,根据η====求滑轮组的机械效率。 ②绳自由端移动的距离为物体移动距离的三倍,则绳自由端移动的速度为物体移动速度的三倍,求出绳自由端移动的速度; 利用P=Fv求拉力F的功率。 【解答】解: ①由图知,n=3,物体受到的摩擦力是物重的0.3倍,则物体受到的摩擦力f=0.3G=0.3×200N=60N, 通过滑轮组拉着物体在水平面上运动时,克服物体与水平面间摩擦力做功为有用功, 则滑轮组的机械效率:η=====×100%=66.7%; ②绳自由端移动的速度:v=nvA=3×0.4m/s=1.2m/s, 拉力的功率:P=Fv=30N×1.2m/s=36W。 故答案为:66.7%; 36。 【点评】本题考查机械效率、功率的计算及二力平衡的知识,关键是明确有用功的求法。 17.(4分)如图所示,杠杆AC(刻度均匀,不计杠杆重)可绕支点O自由转动,在B点挂一120N的重物。为使杠杆平衡,应在杠杆上的 A 点施加一个作用力F,才能使作用力最小,该最小作用力F= 30 N。 【分析】本题主要考查两个知识点: (1)对力臂概念的理解:力臂是指从支点到力的作用线的距离; (2)对杠杆平衡条件(F1l1=F2l2)的理解与运用:在阻力跟阻力臂的乘积一定时,动力臂越长,动力越小。 【解答】解:由杠杆平衡条件F1l1=F2l2可知在阻力跟阻力臂的乘积一定时,动力臂越长,动力越小。 由图可知,在杠杆上的A点施加一个力,当力的方向跟杠杆OA垂直向上时动力臂最长,动力最小; F1===30N 故答案为:A;30。 【点评】本题的解题关键是通过杠杆的平衡条件得出:在阻力跟阻力臂的乘积一定时,动力臂越长,动力越小的结论。 18.(4分)马德堡半球实验证明了 大气压 的存在。17世纪40年代意大利科学家 托里拆利 首先用实验测定了大气压的值。1标准大气压相当于 76 厘米高的水银柱产生的压强。 【分析】(1)著名的马德堡半球实验,证明了大气压强的存在; (2)意大利著名的科学家托里拆利利用实验测定了一个标准大气压能够支持760mm高的水银柱,即一标准大气压相当于760mm水银柱所产生的压强。 【解答】解:(1)由课本中提到的物理史实可知,马德堡市的市长奥托?格里克做的马德堡半球实验,最早证明大气压存在的。 (2)意大利科学家托里拆利最早测得大气压的值,一个标准大气压支持的水银柱的高度h=76cm。 故答案为:大气压;托里拆利;76。 【点评】此题主要考查的是大气压强的存在证明实验﹣﹣马德堡半球实验,以及大气压强的测量﹣﹣托里拆利实验和大气压强的数值,属于识记性内容,比较简单。 三、作图与实验探究(20分,其中19题3分,20题2分,21题7分,22题8分) 19.(3分)如图所示,一个物体沿光滑斜面下滑,请作出物体所受重力和支持力的示意图。 【分析】在明确物体所受的重力、支持力的三要素的基础上,结合力的示意图的画法,作出物体所受重力和支持力的示意图。 【解答】解:物体在斜面上受到的重力方向竖直向下,作用点(重心)在其几何中心上,即对角线的交点位置。 斜面对物体的支持力方向垂直斜面向上,作用点也在物体的几何中心上,与重力画出共点力。 答案如下图所示。 【点评】在画力的示意图时,若需要画出物体受到的多个力的示意图时,要将这几个力画成共点力。 20.(2分)如图所示,O点为杠杆的支点,请画出力F的力臂,并用字母L表示。 【分析】画力臂的方法:首先确定支点、动力、阻力。然后用虚线画出动力和阻力的作用线,再做出支点力的作用线的距离,最后标出动力臂和阻力臂。 【解答】解:用虚线延长力F的作用线,做支点O到力F的作用线的垂线,支点到垂足的距离为力臂L.如图所示: 【点评】画力臂时一定要找准支点与力的作用线,力的作用线必要时可进行延长,在画出由支点到力的作用线的距离时,也要注意垂直。 21.(7分)如图,在探究“阻力对物体运动的影响”实验中,让小车以相同速度分别滑上三种“路面”,记下小车停下的位置,测出小车在水平“路面”上运动的路程,并记入表。 实验序号 “路面”材料 小车运动的路程(cm) 1 棉布 40 2 木板 70 3 玻璃 110 (1)想让小车以相同速度滑上“路面”,需控制小车从斜面上 同一高度 由静止滑下; (2)小车到达水平面时继续向前运动,是由于 小车具有惯性 。 (3)通过比较 1、2 组数据,可以判断出小车在木板上受到的阻力 小于 (选填“大于”“小于”或“等于”)在棉布上受到的阻力; (4)如果有一种“路面”材料比玻璃更光滑,则小车运动的路程将 大于 (选填“大于”“小于”或“等于”)在玻璃“路面”上运动的路程; (5)设想小车在绝对光滑的水平“路面”上运动,即不受阻力作用,小车将 做匀速直线运动 。 (6)在水平面滑行的小车受到的重力和水平面对小车的支持力 不是 (选填“是”或“不是”)一对相互作用力。 【分析】(1)要使小车到达水平面的速度相同,应使小车从斜面同一高度由静止滑下; (2)物体保持运动状态不变的性质叫惯性; (3)根据表格数据分析解答; (4)根据表格中数据进行推理,小车受到的阻力越小,小车运动的距离越长,速度减小得越慢; (5)当运动的小车不受阻力,将做匀速直线运动; (6)互作用力的条件:大小相等,方向相反,作用在一条直线上,作用在不同的物体上。由此分析解答 【解答】解: (1)要想让小车以相同速度滑上“路面”,需控制小车从斜面上同一高度由静止滑下; (2)小车到达水平面时继续向前运动,是由于小车具有惯性; (3)由表格中1、2数据知,小车在木板上滑动的距离大于在棉布上滑动的距离,可以判断出小车在木板上受到的阻力小于在棉布上受到的阻力; (4)由上知,路面越光滑,小车运动的距离越远,所以如果有一种“路面”材料比木板更光滑,则小车运动的路程将大于在木板“路面”上运动的路程,小车的运动状态改变更慢; (5)小车在绝对光滑的水平“路面”上运动,即不受阻力作用,小车将会一直匀速直线运动下去。 (6)小车在水平面上做匀速运动,竖直方向上小车的重力和水平面的支持力,大小相等、方向相反、作用在一条直线上、都作用在小车上,所以它们不是相互作用力。 故答案为:(1)同一高度;(2)小车具有惯性;(3)1、2;小于;(4)大于; (5)做匀速直线运动; (6)不是。 【点评】在本题的实验中,要注意控制变量法的运用、实验现象与实验推论的辨别、能对实验现象进行正确的分析并进行科学的推理,从而得出正确的结论是解答的关键。 22.(8分)复习“科学探究:影响浮力大小的因素”时,小文收集到如图所示一幅图片,请对以下问题进行解答。(ρ水<ρ盐水) (1)图丙中,物体A所受浮力大小是 1.0 N;图丁中,物体A受到盐水向上和向下的压力差为 1.2 N.图丙和图丁中浮力的方向 竖直向上 。 (2)比较图丙、丁,说明浮力的大小与 液体的密度 有关。 (3)结合图甲和图丙可确定图乙方框中弹簧测力计示数F乙的范围是4.0N > F乙 > 3.0N(选填“>”或“<”);你判断的依据是:0 < V排水乙 < V排水丙(选填“>”或“<”)。 【分析】(1)根据称重法测浮力,得出图丙中物体A所受浮力大小; 图丁中,物体A受到盐水向上和向下的压力的压力差即受到的浮力,根据称重法测浮力求解,浮力方向竖直向上; (2)分析图丙、丁中相同量和不同时,得出浮力与变化量的关系; (3)根据阿基米德原理,物体排开液体的体积越大,受到的浮力越大,全部沉没时受到的浮力最大,根据称重法,F乙=G﹣F′乙,求出图乙方框中弹簧测力计示数F乙的范围。 【解答】解: (1)根据称重法测浮力,图丙中,物体A所受浮力大小: F浮丙=G﹣F丙=4.0N﹣3.0N=1.0N; 图丁中,物体A受到盐水向上和向下的压力的压力差即受到的浮力: F浮丁=G﹣F丁=4.0N﹣2.8N=1.2N; 浮力的方向是竖直向上的; (2)图丙、丁中物体排开液体的体积相同,液体的密度不同,由上知,物体受到的浮力不同,故说明浮力的大小与液体的密度有关; (3)根据阿基米德原理,在同种液体中物体排开液体的体积越大,受到的浮力越大,全部沉没时受到的浮力最大,丙图中排开水的体积最大,浮力最大,排开水的体积为0时,受到的浮力为0,即0<V排水乙<V排水丙,根据称重法F浮乙=G﹣F乙,结合图甲和图丙可确定图乙方框中弹簧测力计示数F乙的范围是:3.0N~4.0N,即4.0N>F乙>3.0N。 故答案为:(1)1.0;1.2;竖直向上;(2)液体的密度;(3)>;>;<;<。 【点评】本题探究:影响浮力大小的因素,考查称重法测浮力,控制变量法、阿基米德原理和数据分析。 四、综合应用题(23题8分,24题12分) 23.(8分)一辆汽车装满货物共重5×104N,在平直公路上以14米/秒的速度匀速行驶了10min,汽车所受阻力是车总重的0.1倍。求: (1)汽车的牵引力是多大? (2)汽车发动机的功率是多? (3)这段时间内汽车的牵引力做了多少功? 【分析】(1)根据汽车受到的阻力为车重的0.1倍求出阻力;匀速直线行驶的汽车,水平方向受到的牵引力和摩擦阻力是一对平衡力,根据平衡条件可以求出汽车的牵引力; (2)由功率公式P===Fv可以求出汽车的功率; (3)已知汽车发动机的功率和所用时间,由功率公式P=可以求出汽车牵引力做的功。 【解答】解: (1)汽车所受阻力:f=0.1G=0.1×5×104N=5×103N; 因为汽车匀速直线运动,牵引力F与摩擦阻力f是一对平衡力, 所以汽车的牵引力:F=f=5×103N; (2)汽车发动机的功率为: P===Fv=5×103N×14m/s=7×104W; (3)t=10min=600s, 根据P=可得,牵引力做的功: W=Pt=7×104W×600s=4.2×107J; 答:(1)汽车的牵引力为5×103N; (2)汽车发动机的功率为7×104W; (3)这段时间内汽车的牵引力做的功为4.2×107J。 【点评】本题考查的是功和功率的计算公式以及二力平衡条件的应用,其中已知汽车行驶的速度和发动机的牵引力,功率利用公式P=Fv计算,更简便。 24.(12分)重为200N的方形玻璃槽,底面积为0.4m2,放在水平台面上,向槽中加水至水深0.3m(已知ρ水=1.0×103kg/m3,g取10N/kg,玻璃槽的侧壁厚度不计) (1)求水对槽底部的压强和槽底对水平台面的压强; (2)将边长为L的正方体木块轻轻放入水中,当其静止时,木块高度的1/4露出水面且测出该木块露出水面的高度为5cm,求该木块的边长和密度; (3)用力F垂直向下作用在木块的上表面,使木块保持静止,此时力F的大小为12N,求木块露出水面的高度为多少cm? 【分析】(1)知道水槽内水的深度,根据p=ρgh求出水对槽底部的压强;根据V=Sh求出水槽内水的体积,利用G=mg和ρ=求出水槽内水的重力,槽底对水平台面的压力等于水槽和水的重力之和,利用p=求出槽底对水平台面的压强; (2)当正方体木块在水中静止时,木块高度的露出水面且露出水面的高度为5cm,据此求出该木块的边长,木块在水中漂浮,受到的浮力和自身的重力相等,根据F浮=ρgV排和G木=mg=ρgL3求出木块的密度; (3)用力F垂直向下作用在木块的上表面,使木块保持静止时,由受力分析可知,木块受到竖直向下的重力和压力F、竖直向上的浮力作用处于平衡状态,据此求出木块受到的浮力,利用阿基米德原理求出木块排开水的体积,根据V=Sh求出木块浸没在水中的深度,进一步求出木块露出水面的高度。 【解答】解:(1)水对槽底部的压强: p=ρ水gh=1.0×103kg/m3×10N/kg×0.3m=3×103Pa; 水槽内水的体积: V=Sh=0.4m2×0.3m=0.12m3, 由G=mg和ρ=可得,水槽内水的重力: G水=ρ水Vg=1.0×103kg/m3×0.12m3×10N/kg=1200N, 槽底对水平台面的压力: F=G水+G水槽=1200N+200N=1400N, 槽底对水平台面的压强: p′===3.5×103Pa; (2)当正方体木块在水中静止时,木块高度的露出水面且露出水面的高度为5cm, 则该木块的边长L=4L露=4×5cm=20cm, 因木块在水中漂浮,受到的浮力和自身的重力相等, 所以,F浮=G木,即ρ水gL2(L﹣L)=ρ木gL3, 该木块的密度: ρ木=ρ水=×1.0×103kg/m3=0.75×103kg/m3; (3)木块的重力: G木=m木g=ρ木L3g, 用力F垂直向下作用在木块的上表面,使木块保持静止时, 由受力分析可知,木块受到竖直向下的重力和压力F、竖直向上的浮力作用处于平衡状态, 则木块受到的浮力: F浮′=G+F=ρ木L3g+F, 木块排开水的体积: V排′==, 木块浸没在水中的深度: L浸===+=+=0.18m=18cm, 木块露出水面的高度: h=L﹣L浸=20cm﹣18cm=2cm。 答:(1)水对槽底部的压强为3×103Pa,槽底对水平台面的压强为3.5×103Pa; (2)该木块的边长为20cm,密度为0.75×103kg/m3; (3)木块露出水面的高度为2cm。 【点评】本题考查了液体压强公式、压强定义式、物体浮沉条件、密度公式和重力公式的应用,要注意水平面物体的压力和自身的重力相等。

  • ID:6-6096779 2018-2019学年陕西省西安市莲湖区八年级(下)期末物理试卷

    初中物理/期末专区/八年级下册


    2018-2019学年陕西省西安市莲湖区八年级(下)期末物理试卷
    一、选择题(共12小题,每小題3分,计36分.每小题只有一个选项是符合要求的)
    1.(3分)下列与中学生相关的估值中最接近实际值的是(  )
    A.一名中学生的质量约为50kg
    B.一名中学生手掌表面所受大气压力约为7N
    C.一名中学生的书包的重力约为200N
    D.一名中学生双脚站立时对地面的压强约为12×104Pa
    2.(3分)为了揭示大自然的奥秘,无数科学家进行了不懈的探索。下列说法错误的是(  )
    A.汤姆发现了电子,从而揭晓了原子是可以再分的
    B.卢瑟福建立了原子结构的核式模型
    C.组成大自然的大体和微观粒子都在不停地运动,其中太阳是宇宙的中心
    D.近代科学家提出质子和中子都是由被称为夸克的更小粒子组成的
    3.(3分)A、B是两个轻质泡沫小球,C是用毛皮摩擦过的橡胶棒,A、B、C三者之间相互作用时的场景分别如图甲、乙、丙所示,由此判断(  )
    
    A.小球A可能不带电 B.小球B可能不带电
    C.小球A一定带正电 D.小球B一定带正电
    4.(3分)扬州四季分明,美景如画。下列现象能说明分子在不停地做无规则运动的是(  )
    A.春天柳絮飘飘 B.夏天花香扑鼻
    C.秋天落叶纷纷 D.冬天雪花飞舞
    5.(3分)在“使用托盘天平称物体质量”的实验中,下列各项操作中不妥当的是(  )
    A.使用天平时,应将其放在水平工作台上
    B.调节横梁平衡时,应先将游码移至横梁标尺左端“0”刻度线处
    C.判断天平横梁是否平衡时,一定要等指针完全静止下来
    D.称量时左盘应放置被称量的物体,右盘放置砝码
    6.(3分)甲和乙两同学都穿着溜冰鞋站在溜冰场上相对而立。甲用力推了一下乙,结果两人都向相反方向滑出了较远的距离。这一事实可以验证下列知识中的(  )
    ①物体间力的作用是相互的
    ②力是改变物体运动状态的原因
    ③一切物体都有惯性
    ④甲对乙的作用力和乙对甲的作用力是一对平衡力。
    A.①②③ B.②③④ C.①②④ D.①③④
    7.(3分)如图所示,是探究阻力对物体运动的影响的实验,下列相关说法中错误的是(  )
    
    A.小车每次都从斜面上同一位置由静止自由下滑
    B.实验中需要改变水平面的粗糙程度
    C.实验中必须要用刻度尺测出小车在水平面运动的距离
    ================================================
    压缩包内容:
    2018-2019学年陕西省西安市莲湖区八年级(下)期末物理试卷.doc

  • ID:3-6041623 2019年辽宁省辽阳市中考数学试卷(Word解析版)

    初中数学/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年辽宁省辽阳市中考数学试卷 一、选择题(本题共10小题,每小题3分,共30分,在每小题给出的四个选项中,只有一项是符合题目要求的) 1.(3分)﹣8的绝对值是(  ) A.8 B. C.﹣8 D.﹣ 2.(3分)下列运算正确的是(  ) A.a12÷a3=a4 B.(3a2)3=9a6 C.2a?3a=6a2 D.(a﹣b)2=a2﹣ab+b2 3.(3分)如图是由6个大小相同的小正方体搭成的几何体,这个几何体的左视图是(  ) A. B. C. D. 4.(3分)下列调查适合采用抽样调查的是(  ) A.某公司招聘人员,对应聘人员进行面试 B.调查一批节能灯泡的使用寿命 C.为保证火箭的成功发射,对其零部件进行检查 D.对乘坐某次航班的乘客进行安全检查 5.(3分)将三角尺按如图所示放置在一张矩形纸片上,∠EGF=90°,∠FEG=30°,∠1=130°,则∠BFG的度数为(  ) A.130° B.120° C.110° D.100° 6.(3分)某校七年级举办“诵读大赛”,10名学生的参赛成绩分别为:85分,90分,94分,85分,90分,95分,90分,96分,95分,100分,则这10名学生成绩的众数是(  ) A.85分 B.90分 C.92分 D.95分 7.(3分)若ab<0且a>b,则函数y=ax+b的图象可能是(  ) A. B. C. D. 8.(3分)某施工队承接了60公里的修路任务,为了提前完成任务,实际每天的工作效率比原计划提高了25%,结果提前60天完成了这项任务.设原计划每天修路x公里,根据题意列出的方程正确的是(  ) A.﹣=60 B.﹣=60 C.﹣=60 D.﹣=60 9.(3分)如图,直线EF是矩形ABCD的对称轴,点P在CD边上,将△BCP沿BP折叠,点C恰好落在线段AP与EF的交点Q处,BC=4,则线段AB的长是(  ) A.8 B.8 C.8 D.10 10.(3分)一条公路旁依次有A,B,C三个村庄,甲乙两人骑自行车分别从A村、B村同时出发前往C村,甲乙之间的距离s(km)与骑行时间t(h)之间的函数关系如图所示,下列结论: ①A,B两村相距10km; ②出发1.25h后两人相遇; ③甲每小时比乙多骑行8km; ④相遇后,乙又骑行了15min或65min时两人相距2km. 其中正确的个数是(  ) A.1个 B.2个 C.3个 D.4个 二、填空题(本题共8小题,每小题3分,共24分) 11.(3分)今年全国高考报考人数是10310000,将10310000科学记数法表示为   . 12.(3分)已知正多边形的一个外角是72°,则这个正多边形的边数是   . 13.(3分)如图,一块飞镖游戏板由大小相等的小正方形构成,向游戏板随机投掷一枚飞镖(飞镖每次都落在游戏板上),击中黑色区域的概率是   . 14.(3分)6﹣的整数部分是   . 15.(3分)如图,A,B,C,D是⊙O上的四点,且点B是的中点,BD交OC于点E,∠AOC=100°,∠OCD=35°,那么∠OED=   . 16.(3分)某数学小组三名同学运用自己所学的知识检测车速,他们将观测点设在一段笔直的公路旁且距公路100米的点A处,如图所示,直线l表示公路,一辆小汽车由公路上的B处向C处匀速行驶,用时5秒,经测量,点B在点A北偏东45°方向上,点C在点A北偏东60°方向上,这段公路最高限速60千米/小时,此车   (填“超速”或“没有超速”)(参考数据:≈1.732) 17.(3分)如图,平面直角坐标系中,矩形ABOC的边BO,CO分别在x轴,y轴上,A点的坐标为(﹣8,6),点P在矩形ABOC的内部,点E在BO边上,满足△PBE∽△CBO,当△APC是等腰三角形时,P点坐标为   . 18.(3分)如图,在平面直角坐标系中,△ABC,△A1B1C1,△A2B2C2,△A3B3C3…△AnBn?n都是等腰直角三角形,点B,B1,B2,B3…Bn都在x轴上,点B1与原点重合,点A,C1,C2,C3…?n都在直线l:y=x+上,点C在y轴上,AB∥A1B1∥A2B2∥…∥AnBn∥y轴,AC∥A1C1∥A2C2∥…∥An?n∥x轴,若点A的横坐标为﹣1,则点?n的纵坐标是   . 四、解答题(第19题10分,第20题12分,共22分) 19.(10分)先化简,再求值:(+)÷,其中x=3tan30°﹣()﹣1+. 20.(12分)我市某校准备成立四个活动小组:A.声乐,B.体育,C.舞蹈,D.书画,为了解学生对四个活动小组的喜爱情况,随机选取该校部分学生进行调查,要求每名学生从中必须选择而且只能选择一个小组,根据调查结果绘制如下两幅不完整的统计图. 请结合图中所给信息,解答下列问题: (1)本次抽样调查共抽查了   名学生,扇形统计图中的m值是   ; (2)请补全条形统计图; (3)喜爱“书画”的学生中有两名男生和两名女生表现特别优秀,现从这4人中随机选取两人参加比赛,请用列表或画树状图的方法求出所选的两人恰好是一名男生和一名女生的概率. 四、解答题(第21题12分,第22题12分,共24分) 21.(12分)为了进一步丰富校园活动,学校准备购买一批足球和篮球,已知购买7个足球和5个篮球的费用相同;购买40个足球和20个篮球共需3400元. (1)求每个足球和篮球各多少元? (2)如果学校计划购买足球和篮球共80个,总费用不超过4800元,那么最多能买多少个篮球? 22.(12分)如图,在平面直角坐标系中,矩形OABC的边BC交x轴于点D,AD⊥x轴,反比例函数y=(x>0)的图象经过点A,点D的坐标为(3,0),AB=BD. (1)求反比例函数的解析式; (2)点P为y轴上一动点,当PA+PB的值最小时,求出点P的坐标. 五、解答题(满分12分) 23.(12分)我市某化工材料经销商购进一种化工材料若干千克,成本为每千克30元,物价部门规定其销售单价不低于成本价且不高于成本价的2倍,经试销发现,日销售量y(千克)与销售单价x(元)符合一次函数关系,如图所示. (1)求y与x之间的函数关系式,并写出自变量x的取值范围; (2)若在销售过程中每天还要支付其他费用450元,当销售单价为多少时,该公司日获利最大?最大获利是多少元? 六、解答题(满分12分) 24.(12分)如图,BE是⊙O的直径,点A和点D是⊙O上的两点,连接AE,AD,DE,过点A作射线交BE的延长线于点C,使∠EAC=∠EDA. (1)求证:AC是⊙O的切线; (2)若CE=AE=2,求阴影部分的面积. 七、解答题(满分12分) 25.(12分)如图1,△ABC(AC<BC<AC)绕点C顺时针旋转得△DEC,射线AB交射线DE于点F. (1)∠AFD与∠BCE的关系是   ; (2)如图2,当旋转角为60°时,点D,点B与线段AC的中点O恰好在同一直线上,延长DO至点G,使OG=OD,连接GC. ①∠AFD与∠GCD的关系是   ,请说明理由; ②如图3,连接AE,BE,若∠ACB=45°,CE=4,求线段AE的长度. 八、解答题(满分14分) 26.(14分)如图,在平面直角坐标系中,Rt△ABC的边BC在x轴上,∠ABC=90°,以A为顶点的抛物线y=﹣x2+bx+c经过点C(3,0),交y轴于点E(0,3),动点P在对称轴上. (1)求抛物线解析式; (2)若点P从A点出发,沿A→B方向以1个单位/秒的速度匀速运动到点B停止,设运动时间为t秒,过点P作PD⊥AB交AC于点D,过点D平行于y轴的直线l交抛物线于点Q,连接AQ,CQ,当t为何值时,△ACQ的面积最大?最大值是多少? (3)若点M是平面内的任意一点,在x轴上方是否存在点P,使得以点P,M,E,C为顶点的四边形是菱形,若存在,请直接写出符合条件的M点坐标;若不存在,请说明理由. 2019年辽宁省辽阳市中考数学试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一、选择题(本题共10小题,每小题3分,共30分,在每小题给出的四个选项中,只有一项是符合题目要求的) 1.【解答】解:﹣8的绝对值是8. 故选:A. 2.【解答】解:∵a12÷a3=a9,故选项A错误, ∵(3a2)3=27a6,故选项B错误, ∵2a?3a=6a2,故选项C正确, ∵,(a﹣b)2=a2﹣2ab+b2,故选项D错误, 故选:C. 3.【解答】解:左视图有2列,每列小正方形数目分别为2,2. 故选:D. 4.【解答】解:A、某公司招聘人员,对应聘人员进行面试适合采用全面调查; B、调查一批节能灯泡的使用寿命适合采用抽样调查; C、为保证火箭的成功发射,对其零部件进行检查适合采用全面调查; D、对乘坐某次航班的乘客进行安全检查适合采用全面调查; 故选:B. 5.【解答】解:∵AD∥BC,∠1=130°, ∴∠BFE=180°﹣∠1=50°, 又∵∠EGF=90°,∠FEG=30°, ∴∠EFG=60°, ∴∠BFG=50°+60°=110°, 故选:C. 6.【解答】解:数据90出现了3次,最多, 所以众数为90分, 故选:B. 7.【解答】解:∵ab<0,且a>b, ∴a>0,b<0, ∴函数y=ax+b的图象经过第一、三、四象限. 故选:A. 8.【解答】解:设原计划每天修路x公里,则实际每天的工作效率为(1+25%)x公里, 依题意得:﹣=60. 故选:D. 9.【解答】解:∵四边形ABCD是矩形, ∴∠C=90°, 由题意得:BF=BC,EF∥AB, ∴∠ABQ=∠BQF, 由折叠的性质得:∠BQP=∠C=90°,BQ=BC, ∴∠AQB=90°,BF=BQ, ∴∠BQF=30°, ∴∠ABQ=30°, 在Rt△ABQ中,AB=2AQ,BQ=AQ=4, ∴AQ=4,AB=8; 故选:A. 10.【解答】解: 由图象可知A村、B村相离10km,故①正确, 当1.25h时,甲、乙相距为0km,故在此时相遇,故②正确, 当0≤t≤1.25时,易得一次函数的解析式为s=﹣8t+10,故甲的速度比乙的速度快8km/h.故③正确 当1.25≤t≤2时,函数图象经过点(1.25,0)(2,6)设一次函数的解析式为s=kt+b 代入得,解得 ∴s=8t+10 当s=2时.得2=8t﹣10,解得t=1.5h 由1.5﹣1.25=0.25h=15min 同理当2≤t≤2.5时,设函数解析式为s=kt+b 将点(2,6)(2.5,0)代入得 ,解得 ∴s=﹣12t+30 当s=2时,得2=﹣12t+30,解得t= 由﹣1.25=h=65min 故相遇后,乙又骑行了15min或65min时两人相距2km,④正确. 故选:D. 二、填空题(本题共8小题,每小题3分,共24分) 11.【解答】解:将10310000科学记数法表示为1.031×107. 故答案为:1.031×107. 12.【解答】解:这个正多边形的边数:360°÷72°=5. 故答案为:5 13.【解答】解:∵总面积为9个小正方形的面积,其中阴影部分面积为3个小正方形的面积 ∴飞镖落在阴影部分的概率是=, 故答案为:. 14.【解答】解:∵1<<2, ∴6﹣的整数部分是6﹣2=4. 故答案为:4. 15.【解答】解:连接OB. ∵=, ∴∠AOB=∠BOC=50°, ∴∠BDC=∠BOC=25°, ∵∠OED=∠ECD+∠CDB,∠ECD=35°, ∴∠OED=60°, 故答案为60°. 16.【解答】解:作AD⊥直线l于D, 在Rt△ADB中,∠ABD=45°, ∴BD=AD=100, 在Rt△ADB中,tan∠ACD=, 则CD==100≈173.2, ∴BC=173.2﹣100=73.2(米), 小汽车的速度为:0.0732÷=52.704(千米/小时), ∵52.704千米/小时<速60千米/小时, ∴小汽车没有超速, 故答案为:没有超速. 17.【解答】解:∵点P在矩形ABOC的内部,且△APC是等腰三角形, ∴P点在AC的垂直平分线上或在以点C为圆心AC为半径的圆弧上; ①当P点在AC的垂直平分线上时,点P同时在BC上,AC的垂直平分线与BO的交点即是E,如图1所示: ∵PE⊥BO,CO⊥BO, ∴PE∥CO, ∴△PBE∽△CBO, ∵四边形ABOC是矩形,A点的坐标为(﹣8,6), ∴点P横坐标为﹣4,OC=6,BO=8,BE=4, ∵△PBE∽△CBO, ∴=,即=, 解得:PE=3, ∴点P(﹣4,3); ②P点在以点C为圆心AC为半径的圆弧上,圆弧与BC的交点为P, 过点P作PE⊥BO于E,如图2所示: ∵CO⊥BO, ∴PE∥CO, ∴△PBE∽△CBO, ∵四边形ABOC是矩形,A点的坐标为(﹣8,6), ∴AC=BO=8,CP=8,AB=OC=6, ∴BC===10, ∴BP=2, ∵△PBE∽△CBO, ∴==,即:==, 解得:PE=,BE=, ∴OE=8﹣=, ∴点P(﹣,); 综上所述:点P的坐标为:(﹣,)或(﹣4,3); 故答案为:(﹣,)或(﹣4,3). 18.【解答】解:由题意A(﹣1,1),可得C(0,1), 设C1(m,m),则m=m+,解得m=2, ∴C1(2,2), 设C2(n,n﹣2),则n﹣2=n+,解得n=5, ∴C2(5,3), 设C3(a,a﹣5),则a﹣5=a+,解得a=, ∴C3(,),同法可得C4(,),…,?n的纵坐标为, 故答案为. 四、解答题(第19题10分,第20题12分,共22分) 19.【解答】解:(+)÷ =[] =() = =x+1, 当x=3tan30°﹣()﹣1+=3×﹣3+2=﹣3+2=3﹣3时,原式=3﹣3+1=﹣2. 20.【解答】解:(1)10÷20%=50, 所以本次抽样调查共抽查了50名学生, m%==32%,即m=32; 故答案为50,32; (2)B组的人数为50﹣6﹣16﹣10=18(人), 全条形统计图为: (3)画树状图为: 共有12种等可能的结果数,其中所选的两人恰好是一名男生和一名女生的结果数为8, 所以所选的两人恰好是一名男生和一名女生的概率==. 四、解答题(第21题12分,第22题12分,共24分) 21.【解答】解:(1)设每个足球为x元,每个篮球为y元, 根据题意得:, 解得:. 答:每个足球为50元,每个篮球为70元; (2)设买篮球m个,则买足球(80﹣m)个,根据题意得: 70m+50(80﹣m)≤4800, 解得:m≤40. ∵m为整数, ∴m最大取40, 答:最多能买40个篮球. 22.【解答】解:(1)∵OABC是矩形, ∴∠B=∠OAB=90°, ∵AB=DB, ∴∠BAD=∠ADB=45°, ∴∠OAD=45°, 又∵AD⊥x轴, ∴∠OAD=∠DOA=45°, ∴OD=AD, ∵D(3,0) ∴OD=AD=3,即A(3,3) 把点 A(3,3)代入的y=得,k=9 ∴反比例函数的解析式为:y=. 答:反比例函数的解析式为:y=. (2)过点B作BE⊥AD垂足为E, ∵∠B=90°,AB=BD,BE⊥AD ∴AE=ED=AD=, ∴OD+BE=3+=, ∴B(,), 则点B关于y轴的对称点B1(﹣,),直线AB1与y轴的交点就是所求点P,此时PA+PB最小, 设直线AB1的关系式为y=kx+b,将 A(3,3)B1(﹣,),代入得, 解得:k=,b=, ∴直线AB1的关系式为y=x+, 当x=0时,y=, ∴点P(0,) 答:点P的坐标为(0,). 五、解答题(满分12分) 23.【解答】解: (1)设一次函数关系式为y=kx+b(k≠0) 由图象可得,当x=30时,y=140;x=50时,y=100 ∴,解得 ∴y与x之间的关系式为y=﹣2x+200(30≤x≤60). (2)设该公司日获利为W元,由题意得 W=(x﹣30)(﹣2x+200)﹣450=﹣2(x﹣65)2+2000 ∵a=﹣2<0; ∴抛物线开口向下; ∵对称轴x=65; ∴当x<65时,W随着x的增大而增大; ∵30≤x≤60, ∴x=60时,W有最大值; W最大值=﹣2×(60﹣65)2+2000=1950. 即,销售单价为每千克60元时,日获利最大,最大获利为1950元. 六、解答题(满分12分) 24.【解答】(1)证明:连接OA,过O作OF⊥AE于f, ∴∠AFO=90°, ∴∠EAO+∠AOF=90°, ∵OA=OE, ∴∠EOF=∠AOF=AOE, ∵∠EDA=AOE, ∴∠EDA=∠AOF, ∵∠EAC=∠EDA, ∴∠EAC=∠AOF, ∴∠EAO+∠EAC=90°, ∵∠EAC+∠EAO=∠CAO, ∴∠CAO=90°, ∴OA⊥AC, ∴AC是⊙O的切线; (2)解:∵CE=AE=2, ∴∠C=∠EAC, ∵∠EAC+∠C=∠AEO, ∴∠AEO=2∠EAC, ∵OA=OE, ∠AEO=∠EAO, ∴∠EAO=2∠EAC, ∵∠EAO+∠EAC=90°, ∴∠EAC=30°,∠EAO=60°, ∴△OAE是等边三角形, ∴OA=AE,∠EOA=60°, ∴OA=2, ∴S扇形AOE==2π, 在Rt△OAE中,OF=OA?sin∠EAO=2=3, ∴S△AOE=AE?OF=3=3, ∴阴影部分的面积=2π﹣3. 七、解答题(满分12分) 25.【解答】解:(1)如图1, AF与BD的交点记作点N,由旋转知,∠ACB=∠DCE,∠A=∠D, ∴∠BCE=∠ACD, ∵∠ACD=180°﹣∠A﹣∠ANC,∠AFD=180°﹣∠D﹣∠DNF,∠ANC=∠DNF, ∴∠ACD=∠AFD, ∴∠AFD=∠BCE, 故答案为:∠AFD=∠BCE; (2)①∠AFD=∠GCD或∠AFD+∠GCD=180°, 理由:如图2,连接AD,由旋转知,∠CAB=∠CDE,CA=CD,∠ACD=60°, ∴△ACD是等边三角形,∴AD=CD, ∵∠AMC=∠DMF, ∴△ACM∽△DFM, ∴∠ACD=∠AFD, ∵O是AC的中点, ∴AO=CO, ∵OD=OG,∠AOD=∠COG, ∴△AOD≌△COG(SAS), ∴AD=CG, ∴CG=CD, ∴∠GCD=2∠ACD=120°, ∴∠AFD=∠GCD或∠AFD+∠GCD=180°, 故答案为:∠AFD=∠GCD或∠AFD+∠GCD=180°; ②由①知,∠GCD=120°,∠ACD=∠BCE=60°, ∴∠GCA=∠GCD﹣∠ACD=60°, ∴∠GCB=∠BCE, ∵∠GCB=∠GCA+∠ACB,∠ACE=∠BCE+∠ACB, ∴∠GCB=∠ACE, 由①知,CG=CD,CD=CA, ∴CG=CA, ∵BC=EC=4, ∴△GCB≌△ACE(SAS), ∴BC=CE=4, ∴GB=AE, ∵CG=CD,OG=OD, ∴CO⊥GD, ∴∠COG=∠COB=90° 在Rt△BOC中,BO=BC?sin∠AC∠=2,CO=BC?cos∠AC∠=2, 在Rt△GOC中,GO=CO?tan∠GCA=2, ∴GB=CO+BO=2+2, ∴AE=2+2. 八、解答题(满分14分) 26.【解答】解:(1)将点C、E的坐标代入二次函数表达式得:,解得:, 故抛物线的表达式为:y=﹣x2+2x+3, 则点A(1,4); (2)将点A、C的坐标代入一次函数表达式并解得: 直线AC的表达式为:y=﹣2x+6, 点P(1,t),则点D(,t),设点Q(,), S△ACQ=×DQ×BC=﹣t=﹣t2+4t﹣6, ∵﹣<0,故S△ACQ有最大值,当t=8时,其最大值为10; (3)设点P(1,m),点M(x,y), ①当EC是菱形一条边时, 当点M在x轴下方时, 点E向右平移3个单位、向下平移3个单位得到C, 则点P平移3个单位、向下平移3个单位得到M, 则1+3=x,m﹣3=y, 而MP=EP得:1+(m﹣3)2=(x﹣1)2+(y﹣m)2, 解得:y=m﹣3=, 故点M(4,); 当点M在x轴上方时, 同理可得:点M(﹣2,3+); ②当EC是菱形一对角线时, 则EC中点即为PM中点, 则x+1=3,y+m=3, 而PE=PC,即1+(m﹣3)2=4+(m﹣2)2, 解得:m=1, 故x=2,y=3﹣m=3﹣1=2, 故点M(2,2); 综上,点M(4,)或(﹣2,3+)或M(2,2).

  • ID:3-6041621 2018-2019学年江苏省连云港市东海县八年级(下)期末数学试卷(解析版)

    初中数学/期末专区/八年级下册

    2018-2019学年江苏省连云港市东海县八年级(下)期末数学试卷 一.选择题(本大题共8小题,每小题3分,共24分) 1.(3分)要使二次根式有意义,字母x的取值必须满足的条件是(  ) A.x≥1 B.x≤1 C.x>1 D.x<1 2.(3分)下列调查中,不适合普查但适合抽样调查的是(  ) A.调查年级一班男女学生比例 B.检查某书稿中的错别字 C.调查夏季冷饮市场上冰淇凌的质量 D.调查载人航天飞船零件部分的质量 3.(3分)如图所示的数字图形中不是中心对称图形的有(  ) A. B. C. D. 4.(3分)下列说法正确的是(  ) A.明天会下雨是必然事件 B.不可能事件发生的概率是0 C.在水平的桌面上任意抛掷一枚图钉,一定针尖向下 D.投掷一枚之地近月的硬币1000次.正面朝下的次数一定是500次 5.(3分)下列分式中,是最简分式的是(  ) A. B. C. D. 6.(3分)对于反比例函数y=﹣,下列说法不正确的是(  ) A.图象分布在第二、四象限 B.当x>0时,y随x的增大而增大 C.图象经过点(1,﹣2) D.若点A(x1,y1),B(x2,y2)都在图象上,且x1<x2,则y1<y2 7.(3分)如图,将△ABC绕点A顺时针旋转,使点C落在边AB上的点E处,点B落在点D处,连接BD,若∠DAC=∠DBA,则∠BAC为(  ) A.32° B.35° C.36° D.40° 8.(3分)如图两张长相等,宽分别是1和3的矩形纸片上叠合在一起,重叠部分为四边形ABCD,且AB+BC=6,则四边形ABCD的面积为(  ) A.3 B. C.9 D. 二、填空题(本大题共10小题,每小题3分,共30分.不需要写出解答过程,请把答案直接填写在答题卡相应位置上) 9.(3分)使式子的值为0,则a的值为   . 10.(3分)分式,,的最简公分母是   . 11.(3分)化简:(2+)(2﹣)=   . 12.(3分)下表是对某地生活垃圾处理情况的分析,可以选择   统计图进行分析比较. 处理方式 回收利用 填埋 焚烧 占的百分比 4% 23% 73% 13.(3分)在一只不透明的袋子中装有2个红球、3个绿球和5个白球,这些球除颜色外都相同,摇匀后,从袋子中任意摸出1个球,摸出白球可能性   摸出红球可能性.(填“等于”、“小于”或“大于”) 14.(3分)若反比例函数y=的图象在其每个象限内,y随x的增大而减小,则k的值可以是   .(写出一个值即可). 15.(3分)若关于x的方程=﹣3有增根,则增根为x=   . 16.(3分)如图,在矩形ABCD中,∠ABC的平分线交AD与点E,AB=2,BC=3,则CE=   . 17.(3分)如图,直线y=mx与双曲线y=交于A、B两点,D为上x轴一点,连接BD交y轴与点C,若C(0,﹣2)恰好为BD中点,且△ABD的面积为6,则B点坐标为   . 18.(3分)如图,将矩形纸片ABCD分别沿AE、CF折叠,若B、D两点恰好都落在对角线的交点O上,下列说法:①四边形AECF为菱形,②∠AEC=120°,③若AB=2,则四边形AECF的面积为,④AB:BC=1:2,其中正确的说法有   .(只填写序号) 三、解答题(本题共9小题,共96分.解答时写出必要的文字说明、证明过程或演算步骤) 19.(16分)计算与化简: (1)﹣ (2)(3+)2 (3)+ (4)÷(x﹣) 20.(10分)解下列方程: (1)= (2)=1﹣ 21.(8分)先化简,再求值:1﹣÷,其中a=2020,b=2019. 22.(8分)如图,P,Q是方格纸中的两格点,请按要求画出以PQ为对角线的格点四边形. (1)画出一个面积最小的?PAQB. (2)画出一个四边形PCQD,使其是轴对称图形而不是中心对称图形,且另一条对角线CD由线段PQ以某一格点为旋转中心旋转得到. 23.(8分)某中学为了了解八年级学生的业余爱好,抽查了部分学生,并制如下表格和条形统计图: 频数 频率 体育 25 0.25 美术 30 a 音乐 b 0.35 其他 10 0.1 请根据上图完成下面题目: (1)抽查人数为   人,a=   . (2)请补全条形统计图; (3)若该校八年级有800人,请你估算该校八年级业余爱好音乐的学生约有多少人? 24.(10分)为加快城市群的建设与发展,在徐州与连云港两城市间新建一条城际铁路,建成后,铁路运行里程由现在的210km缩短至180km,城际铁路的设计平均时速要比现行的平均时速快200km,运行时间仅是现行时间的,求建成后的城际铁路在徐州到连云港两地的运行时间. 25.(10分)如图,在平行四边形ABCD中,点E、F在对角线BD上,且BF=DE (1)求证:△ADE≌△CBF; (2)若AE=3,AD=4,∠DAE=90°,该判断当BE的长度为多少时,四边形AECF为菱形,并说明理由. 26.(12分)如图,一次函数y=2x+b的图象经过点A(﹣1,0),并与反比例函数y=(x>0)的图象交于B(m,4) (1)求k1的值; (2)以AB为一边,在AB的左侧作正方形ABCD,求C点坐标; (3)将正方形ABCD沿着x轴的正方向,向右平移n个单位长度,得到正方形A1B1C1D1,线段A1B1的中点为点E,若点C1和点E同时落在反比例函数y=的图象上,求n的值. 27.(14分)已知结论:在直角三角形中,30°所对的直角边是斜边的一半,请利用这个结论进行下列探究活动. 如图,在Rt△ABC中,∠C=90°,∠A=30°,BC=2,D为AB中点,P为AC上一点,连接PD,把△APD沿PD翻折得到△EPD,连接CE. (1)AB=   ,AC=   . (2)若P为AC上一动点,且P点从A点出发,沿AC以每秒一单位长度的速度向C运动,设P点运动时间为t秒. ①当t=   秒时,以A、P、E、D、为顶点可以构成平行四边形. ②在P点运动过程中,是否存在以B、C、E、D为顶点的四边形是平行四边形?若存在,请求出t的值;若不存在,请说明理由. 2018-2019学年江苏省连云港市东海县八年级(下)期末数学试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一.选择题(本大题共8小题,每小题3分,共24分) 1.【解答】解:根据题意,得 x﹣1≥0, 解得,x≥1; 故选:A. 2.【解答】解:A.调查年级一班男女学生比例适合普查; B.检查某书稿中的错别字适合普查; C.调查夏季冷饮市场上冰淇凌的质量适合抽样调查; D.调查载人航天飞船零件部分的质量适合普查; 故选:C. 3.【解答】解:A、是中心对称图形,不符合题意; B、是中心对称图形,不符合题意; C、是中心对称图形,不符合题意; D、不是中心对称图形,符合题意; 故选:D. 4.【解答】解:A.明天会下雨是随机事件,此选项错误; B.不可能事件发生的概率是0,此选项正确; C.在水平的桌面上任意抛掷一枚图钉,不一定针尖向下,此选项错误; D.投掷一枚之地近月的硬币1000次.正面朝下的次数可能是500次,此选项错误; 故选:B. 5.【解答】解:A.,不是最简分式; B.,不是最简分式;, C.,不是最简分式;, D.,是最简分式; 故选:D. 6.【解答】解:A、k=﹣2<0,∴它的图象在第二、四象限,故本选项正确; B、k=﹣2<0,当x>0时,y随x的增大而增大,故本选项正确; C、∵﹣=﹣2,∴点(1,﹣2)在它的图象上,故本选项正确; D、点A(x1,y1)、B(x2、y2)都在反比例函数y=﹣的图象上,若x1<x2<0,则y1<y2,故本选项错误. 故选:D. 7.【解答】解:设∠BAC=x,由旋转的性质,可得 ∠DAE=∠BAC=x, ∴∠DAC=∠DBA=2x, 又∵AB=AD, ∴∠ADB=∠ABD=2x, 又∵△ABD中,∠BAD+∠ABD+∠ADB=180°, ∴x+2x+2x=180°, ∴x=36°, 即∠BAC=36°, 故选:C. 8.【解答】解:依题意得:AB∥CD,AD∥BC,则四边形ABCD是平行四边形. 如图,过点A作AE⊥BC于点E,过点A作AF⊥CD于点F, ∴AE=1,AF=3, ∴BC?AE=AB?AF, ∴BC=3AB. 又∵AB+BC=6, ∴AB=1.5,BC=4.5 ∴四边形ABCD的面枳=4.5×1= 故选:D. 二、填空题(本大题共10小题,每小题3分,共30分.不需要写出解答过程,请把答案直接填写在答题卡相应位置上) 9.【解答】解:∵式子的值为0, ∴2a﹣1=0, 解得:a=. 故答案为:. 10.【解答】解:分式,,的最简公分母是6x. 故答案为6x. 11.【解答】解:原式=22﹣()2 =4﹣3 =1. 12.【解答】解:由统计图的特点可知:想用统计图记录垃圾的处理比例,就用扇形统计图; 故答案为:扇形统计图. 13.【解答】解:∵一只不透明的袋子中有2个红球、3个绿球和5个白球,这些球除颜色外都相同, ∴P(红球)==,P(绿球)=,P(白球)==, ∴摸到白球的可能性大于摸到红球的可能性. 故答案为:大于; 14.【解答】解:根据题意,k﹣1>0, 解得k>1; ∴k=5(答案不唯一). 15.【解答】解:∵原方程有增根, ∴最简公分母(x+2)(x﹣2)=0, 解得x=2或﹣2. 故答案为:±2. 16.【解答】解:∵四边形ABCD是矩形, ∴AD∥BC,AB=CD,BC=AD=3,∠D=90°, ∴∠AEB=∠EBC, ∵∠ABE=∠EBC, ∴AB=AE=CD=2, 在Rt△EDC中,CE===. 故答案为. 17.【解答】解:过点B作BE⊥y轴,垂足为E, ∴∠BEC=∠DOC=90° ∵点C是BD的中点, ∴BC=DC ∵∠OCD=∠ECB ∴△BEC≌△DOC ∴BE=OD EC=OC=2 ∵S△ABD=6=OD×OE ∴OD= ∴A(﹣,4)B(,﹣4) 故答案为:B(,﹣4) 18.【解答】解:∵四边形ABCD是矩形, ∴OA=OC,∠B=∠BAD=90°,BC∥AD, ∴∠ECO=∠FAO, ∵∠EOC=∠FOA, ∴△EOC≌△FOA(ASA), ∴OE=OF, ∵AO⊥EF, ∴AE=AF=EC,∵EC∥AF, ∴四边形AECF是平行四边形, ∵AE=AF, ∴四边形AECF是菱形,故①正确, ∵AE=AF,AO⊥EF, ∴∠EAO=∠FAO, ∵∠BAE=∠EAO, ∴∠BAE=∠EAO=∠OAF=30°, ∴∠EAF=60°, ∵BC∥AD, ∴∠AEC+∠EAD=180°, ∴∠AEC=120°,故②正确, ∵AB=2, ∴AO=OC=2,OE=OF=, ∴S菱形AECF=?AC?EF=?4×=,故③正确, 设BE=a,则AE=EC=2a,AB=a, ∴AB:BC≠1:2,故④错误, 故答案为:①②③. 三、解答题(本题共9小题,共96分.解答时写出必要的文字说明、证明过程或演算步骤) 19.【解答】解:(1)原式=2﹣=; (2)原式=9+10+6=19+6; (3)原式=+ = =; (4)原式=÷ =? =. 20.【解答】解:(1)去分母得:3x+2=5, 解得:x=1, 经检验x=1是增根,分式方程无解; (2)去分母得:x=2x﹣1+2, 解得:x=﹣1, 经检验x=﹣1是分式方程的解. 21.【解答】解:1﹣÷ =1﹣ =1﹣ = =, 当a=2020,b=2019时,原式==2019. 22.【解答】解:(1)如图①所示: (2)如图②所示: 23.【解答】解:(1)抽查的人数为25÷0.25=100(人),a=30÷100=0.3, 故答案为:100、0.3; (2)b=100×0.35=35, 补全图形如下: (3)估算该校八年级业余爱好音乐的学生约有800×0.35=280(人). 24.【解答】解:设建成后的城际铁路在徐州到连云港两地的运行时间为xh,则建成前在徐州到连云港两地的运行时间为xh, 依题意,得:﹣=200, 解得:x=, 经检验,x=是原方程的解,且符合题意. 答:建成后的城际铁路在徐州到连云港两地的运行时间为h. 25.【解答】(1)证明:∵四边形ABCD是平行四边形, ∴AD=CB,∠ADE=∠CBF, 在△ADE与△CBF中, , ∴△ADE≌△CBF(SAS); (2)解:连结AC交BD于G, ∵AE=3,AD=4,∠DAE=90°, ∴BF=DE=5, ∵四边形AECF为菱形, ∴AC⊥EF,AE=AF=3, ∴DE?AG=AE?AD, AG=2.4, 在Rt△AGF中,FG==1.8, ∴BE=BF﹣2FG=1.4. 26.【解答】解:(1)∵一次函数y=2x+b的图象经过点A(﹣1,0), ∴b=2, ∴一次函数y=2x+2,与y轴的交点E(0,2) 当y=4时,即2x+2=4,∴x=1, ∴B(1,4), ∴k1=1×4=4, 答:k1的值为:4. (2)过点BD分别作BM⊥x轴,DN⊥x轴,垂足为M、N,过C、D分别作x轴、y轴平行线相交于点 P, 由于ABCD是正方形,易证△ABM≌△DAN≌△DCP (AAS) ∴AN=BM=CP=4,DN=DP=AM=2, ∴C(﹣2,6), 答:点C的坐标为(﹣2,6), (3)平移前C(﹣2,6),E(0,2),沿着x轴向右平移n个单位得:C1(﹣2+n,6),E1(0+n,2), ∵点C1和点E1同时落在反比例函数y=的图象上, ∴(﹣2+n)×6=2n, ∴n=, 答:n的值为:. 27.【解答】解:(1)∵∠C=90°,∠A=30°,BC=2, ∴AB=4,AC=BC=6, 故答案为:4,6 (2)∵以A、P、E、D、为顶点可以构成平行四边形 ∴PE∥AD,PE=AD ∵把△APD沿PD翻折得到△EPD, ∴AP=PE ∴AP=AD==2 ∴t=s 故答案为:2 (3)如图,若四边形DECB是平行四边形 ∴DE∥BC ∴∠ADE=∠B=60°,∠AHD=∠ACB=90° ∵∠A=30°,∠AHD=90° ∴HD=AD= ∴AH==3 ∵把△APD沿PD翻折得到△EPD ∴∠ADP=∠PDE=30°, ∴PD=2PH ∵∠A=∠ADP=30° ∴AP=PD=2PH ∵AH=AP+PH=3PH=3 ∴PH=1, ∴AP=2 ∴t==2s 如图,若四边形DEBC是平行四边形, ∴DE∥BC ∴∠CBD=∠BDE=60° ∵DE=AD=DB=BC=2, ∴△DBE是等边三角形,△BCD是等边三角形 ∴∠CDB=60° ∴∠ADC=∠CDE=120° ∵AD=DE,CD=CD,∠ADC=∠CDE=120° ∴△ACD≌△EDC(SAS) ∴AC=CE ∴当点P与点C重合时,把△APD沿PD翻折得到△EPD,此时四边形DEBC是平行四边形, ∴t=s 综上所述:当t=2s或6s时,以B、C、E、D为顶点的四边形是平行四边形.

  • ID:6-6034498 2019年辽宁省辽阳市中考物理试卷(解析版)

    初中物理/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年辽宁省辽阳市中考物理试卷 一、选择题(本题共12小题,共28分.1-8题为单选题,每题2分:9-12题为多选题,每题3分,漏选得2分,错选得0分) 1.(2分)下列厨房中的估测数据最接近实际的是(  ) A.一个鸡蛋的质量约为0.5kg B.刚烧开的水温度约为100℃ C.电冰箱的电功率约为1000W D.菜刀刀刃的厚度约为0.5cm 2.(2分)如图所示的沙画是一种新型的艺术形式,它是通过将沙子洒落在平板灯台上,做出各种造型,灯台射出的光线由于受到沙子的阻挡,呈现出一幅栩栩如生的画面。下列光现象中与沙画的光学原理相同的是(  ) A.小孔成像 B.海市蜃楼 C. 反光镜成像 D.鱼缸中放大的鱼 3.(2分)如图是一款太阳能座椅,椅子顶部安装的硅光电池板,可储备能量供晚间使用。下列说法正确的是(  ) A.硅光电池板是由超导材料制成的 B.硅光电池板可以将太阳能转化为电能 C.太阳能来源于太阳内部氢核的裂变 D.太阳能属于不可再生能源 4.(2分)下列有关家庭电路和安全用电的说法正确的是(  ) A.使用试电笔时,不能接触笔尾金属体 B.用电器的开关发生短路时,会造成空气开关自动断开 C.站在地面上的人,因碰火线而触电时,漏电保护器会切断电路 D.冰箱使用三脚插头,是为了防止电流过大引起火灾 5.(2分)下列现象中,需要吸收热量的是(  ) A.壶口冒“白气” B.铁水浇铸成零件 C.“雾凇”的形成 D.冰凌融化 6.(2分)如图是一款特殊的自行车,当踩动脚踏板“骑行”时,能够产生电能给手机等设备 充电,同时也能达到健身的目的。下列选项中与该自行车发电原理相同的是(  ) A. B. C. D. 7.(2分)酿酒是人类神奇的发明,如图是将谷物倒入锅中熬制酒料的过程。下列说法正确的是(  ) A.用火种引燃木柴的过程与钻木取火的原理相同 B.灶台下木柴燃烧的过程,将内能转化成了化学能 C.锅能向酒料传递热量,是因为锅的温度高于酒料的温度 D.熬制过程中需要不断地搅拌,这是为了通过做功的方式增加物体内能 8.(2分)如图所示的电路中,电源电压恒定不变。闭合开关S,将滑动变阻器的滑片P由a点移动到b点的过程中,下列说法正确的是(  ) A.电压表V2的示数将变小 B.灯泡的亮度始终保持不变 C.电流表A1的示数与电流表A2的示数始终相等 D.电压表V1的示数与电流表A3的示数比值将变大 9.(3分)如图是棒球比赛时,向斜上方击球时的情景。下列有关说法正确的是(  ) A.击球的一瞬间,棒对球的力大于球对棒的力 B.球在上升过程中,重力势能转化为动能 C.球上升到最高点时,若所受力全部消失,球将做匀速直线运动 D.球下落过程中速度越来越大,因为重力改变了球的运动状态 10.(3分)如图所示,井下管道工人完成作业后,地面上的人用一个滑轮组将其从10m深的井下匀速提升到地面,用时50s绳子自由端的拉力为200N,动滑轮的重力为60N, 不计绳重和摩擦,下列说法正确的是(  ) A.绳子自由端拉力的功率为40W B.管道工人的重力为540N C.这个过程中滑轮组的机械效率为90% D.若用该滑轮组匀速拉起一个质量更大的工人,会降低滑轮组的机械效率 11.(3分)如图所示,放在水平桌面上的两个容器,质量和底面积相同,分别装有密度不同的甲、乙两种液体。将两个体积相同的小球a、b分别放入两液体中静止,此时两个容器底部受到的液体压强相等。下列说法正确的是(  ) A.放入小球后,液体对容器底部的压力F甲=F乙 B.两种液体的密度ρ甲>ρ乙 C.a、b两个小球的质量ma<mb D.若将a球放入乙液体中,b球放入甲液体中,静止时,a、b两个小球所受到的浮力Fa<Fb 12.(3分)如图甲所示的电路中,电源电压保持不变。闭合S1断开S2,S3接a,将滑动变阻器R1的滑片从最右端滑动到最左端时,灯泡L正常发光。再闭合S2断开S1,S3接b,将滑动变阻器R2的滑片从最右端向左滑动到某一位置。两次实验中,分别绘制出电流表与电压表示数变化关系的图象如图乙所示。下列说法正确的是(  ) A.电源电压为12V B.灯泡的额定功率为24W C.闭合S1断开S2,S3接a时,灯泡L的最小功率为6W D.滑动变阻器R2的最大阻值为24Ω 二、填空题(本题共9小题,每空1分,共26分) 13.(3分)周末康康和同学们去登山,当他首先到达山顶时,高兴地放声大喊,喊声是由声带的   产生的;同学们在半山腰就能听出是康康的声音,是通过声音的   来判断的。此时康康手腕上登山手表显示的大气压示数应   (填“大于”、“小于”或“等于”)在山脚时的示数。 14.(3分)有一款松软的内部装有香草的汽车座垫,坐在上面时,由于减小了   (填“压力”或“压强”),使人感觉很舒适。同时也会使车内气味芬芳,这是   现象。汽车行驶过程中,以车外的树木为参照物,座椅是   的。 15.(3分)如图是一款智能便携超声波监测仪,它正在监测一名孕妇腹中的胎儿,此监测仪采用了与医院B超类似的超声波技术,并能通过无线WIFI与智能手机连接,在手机屏幕上就能看到胎儿清晰的实时影像。这款监测仪利用了超声波来传递   ,智能手机通过   波接收监测仪的数据;手机屏幕上的彩色影像是由红、   、蓝三种色光混合而成的。 16.(3分)如图是汽油机两个冲程的示意图,其中   图中的冲程为汽车提供了动力。汽油机在吸气冲程吸入气缸的是   (填“空气”或“汽油和空气”)汽车发动机用 水来冷却、是利用了水的   大的特点。 17.(3分)如图所示,干燥的秋天,脱下毛衣后,用手臂靠近小泡沫块,泡沫块就会粘满手臂,这是因为干燥的手臂与毛衣   后带电,而带电体具有   的性质。若手臂带负电,用手臂接触不带电的验电器金属球,则金属球与手臂之间的瞬间电流方向是   (填“手臂到金属球”或“金属球到手臂”) 18.(3分)如图是我国研制的096战略核潜艇。该艇浸没时排开水的质量为16000吨,最大下 潜深度可达600米,位居世界第一。当096艇悬浮待命时,受到的浮力为   N,600米深度海水的压强为   Pa.为保证战略核武库的安全,发射装置需要艇长、副艇长和武器操控官都按下各自的开关才能开启,这三个开关之间应该是   (填串联”或“并联”)的。(不考虑海水密度的变化,ρ海水取10×103kg/m3,g取10N/kg) 19.(3分)如图是威威家的电能表,由表盘上的信息可知,他家同时使用的用电器总功率不能超过   W.威威家有一台烤面包机,铭牌上标有“220V900W”的字样,某次烤面包机单独正常工作时,电能表的转盘转了45转,则此次烤面包机工作了   min.若在用电高峰期,实际电压低于220V,烤面包机的实际功率将   (填“变大”、“变小”或“不变”)。 20.(2分)如图所示,一名游客行走在玻璃栈道上,栈道上映出了她美丽的“身影”,若游客的身高是1.65m,则游客的头顶到“身影”头顶的距离为   m;当她在栈道上行走时,她的“身影”的大小将   (填“变大”、“变小”或“不变”) 21.(3分)将标有“6V9w”阻值不变的小灯泡L与阻值为6Ω的定值R0接入如图所示的电路。闭合开关S,电压表的示数为6V,则电流表的示数为   A,电源电压为   V,工作3min定值电阻R0产生的热量为   J。 三、作图题(本题共3小题,每小题3分,共9分) 22.(3分)如图所示,由水中折射出的一条光线ab照射到凹透镜上,光线ab与凹透镜的主光轴平行,其中F为凹透镜的焦点,O为光心。请画出: (1)折射光线ab在水中的入射光线。 (2)水中入射光线在水面发生反射时的反射光线。 (3)光线ab通过凹透镜后的折射光线。 23.(3分)如图甲是爆米花锅,锅盖被锁扣紧锁在锅口。为了方便打开锅盖,爆米花师傅在锁扣上加装一个钢管,与锁扣构成杠杆AOB,扳动钢管的A点,就能打开锁扣。图乙是其简化图,O为支点,F2是阻力。请在乙图中画出打开锅盖时: (1)阻力F2的力臂l2。 (2)作用在A点的最小动力F1及其力臂I1。 24.(3分)A、B是两个电磁铁,闭合开关后,小磁针在如图所示的位置静止,C是两个电磁铁之间的一条磁感线,请标出: (1)电磁铁间磁感线的方向。 (2)电源右端的极性(用“+”或“﹣”表示)。 (3)电磁铁B上方小磁针的N极。 四、简答题(本题3分) 25.(3分)阳阳做了如图所示的一个实验,将一个两端开口的玻璃管的下端靠近乒乓球,管的上端用一个电吹风对着管口水平吹风,发现乒乓球沿着玻璃管向上运动,并从管口 飞出。请回答下列问题: (1)乒乓球沿着玻璃管向上运动,是利用了流体压强的什么特点? (2)电吹风中的电动机工作时,主要的能量转化是什么? (3)电吹风吹热风时,电热丝的发热原理是什么? 五、计算题(本题共2小题,共18分.要求写出必要的文字说明、公式、计算过程、数值、单位和答) 26.(9分)如图是新概念卵形汽车Pivo,车与人的总质量为800kg,静止在水平地面上时,对水平地面的压强为8×104Pa,最高时速可达180km/h。求: (1)该车静止在水平地面上时与地面的总接触面积是多大? (2)若该车以最高时速沿平直公路进行测试,匀速前进时的阻力 是人车总重的0.2倍,则此时该车牵引力的功率为多少? (3)在测试中,该车以最高时速在平直公路上匀速前进23km所消耗的电能与完全燃烧1kg汽油所释放的能量相同,则该车的效率为多少?(q汽油=4.6×107J/kg,g取10N/kg) 27.(9分)图甲是两档空气炸锅,图乙是其内部简化电路,R1、R2均为发热体,将开关S分别置于1、2两位置时,空气炸锅处于不同的档位。已知两档空气炸锅的高温档功率为900W,R2阻值为96.8Ω.求: (1)发热体R1的阻值是多少? (2)空气炸锅一次性可装入200克牛柳,若将这些牛柳从40℃加热到190℃,牛柳需要吸收多少热量?【c牛柳=3×103J/(kg?℃)】 (3)不计热量损失,用高温档牛柳从40℃加热到190℃,需要多长时间? 六、实验、探究题(本题共5小题,共36分) 28.(5分)在探究“固体熔化时温度变化规律”的实验中,取两个相同的试管A、B,在A试管中放入蜂蜡,在B试管中放入冰,已知蜂蜡是非晶体,冰是晶体,且蜂蜡的沸点高于水的沸点。如图甲所示将两个试管放入同一杯水中加热。请你完成下面探究实验: (1)开始实验后,某一时刻B试管中温度计的示数如图甲所示,温度为   ℃。 (2)两种物质熔化前后温度随时间变化关系的图象如图乙所示,通过分析图象可知,晶体熔化的特点是:持续吸热,   。观察发现,冰熔化后的升温比熔化前的升温慢,这是因为   。 (3)第22min时B试管中的水   (填“能”或“不能”)沸腾。从第12min到第l6min,蜂蜡的内能   (填“增加”或“不变”)。 29.(6分)下面是玲玲探究“凸透镜成像规律”的实验。 (1)玲玲将蜡烛、焦距为10cm的凸透镜、光屏依次放在光具座上,点燃蜡烛并调整烛焰、凸透镜、光屏三者的中心在同一高度,这样做的目的是:   。 (2)玲玲将凸透镜固定在光具座50cm的刻度线处,将蜡烛和光屏移至如图所示的位置时,光屏上出现了烛焰清晰的像,该成像原理在实际中的应用是   (填“照相机”、“投影仪”或“放大镜”) (3)实验过程中蜡烛由于燃烧而变短,为了使烛焰的像再次成在光屏的中心,应向下移动   (填“光屏”或“凸透镜”)。 (4)玲玲将蜡烛移到35cm刻度线处,保持透镜的位置不变,应将光屏移至   cm刻度线处,才能再次在光屏上呈现清晰的像 (5)若在蜡烛和凸透镜之间合适的位置放一个近视眼镜,为了使光屏上重新呈现清晰的像,光屏应向   (填“左”或“右)移动;若不移动光屏,并保持近视眼镜的位置不变,玲玲更换另一个凸透镜,光屏上也得到了清晰的像,那么此凸透镜的焦距应   (填“大于”或“小于”)10cm。 30.(7分)红红用质量相等的木块和小车进行了以下力学实验。 (1)红红在探究“滑动摩擦力大小与什么因素有关”的实验中,每次她都应用弹簧测力计沿水平方向拉物体做   运动,测力计的示数分别如图甲所示,分析A、B两次实验数据可知,   (填“木块”或“小车”)的表面更粗糙。根据A、C两次实验得出:接触面粗糙程度一定时,压力越   ,滑动摩擦力越大。 (2)在C实验中,若红红将拉力增加到3N(小车仍随木块一起运动),此时木块受到地面的摩擦力为   N,小车   (填“不受”或“受”)摩擦力的作用。 (3)如图乙所示,红红又进行了D、E、F三次实验。将小车在同一斜面同一高度由静止释放,分别在毛巾、棉布和木板三个表面水平运动,发现小车在木板表面运动的最远,说明阻力越   ,速度减小的越慢。由此推论出:如果运动的物体不受力,它将   。 31.(7分)学习了密度知识之后,鹏鹏利用天平和量筒测量牛奶的密度。 (1)在量筒中倒入适量的牛奶,如图甲所示,则牛奶的体积为   ml。 (2)将天平放在水平台上,游码归零后,鹏鹏发现指针静止时的位置如图乙所示,他应将平衡螺母向   调节,直到天平平衡。 (3)把量筒中的牛奶全部倒入一个质量为20g的烧杯中,并用天平测出总质量,如图丙所示,则牛奶的质量为   g,牛奶的密度为   kg/m3 (4)鹏鹏的测量方法,会导致所测牛奶的密度值偏   (填“大”或“小”) (5)鹏鹏又想知道酸奶的密度。他利用刚测出密度的牛奶(密度用ρ牛表示)、两个完全相同的圆柱形玻璃杯、小木块和刻度尺,测出了酸奶的密度。请你将他的实验步骤补充完整并写出酸奶密度的表达式。 ①测出   高度为h1; ②在一个圆柱形玻璃杯中倒满牛奶,将小木块放入其中漂浮,待牛奶不再溢出后,将木块取出,测出此时圆柱形玻璃杯中牛奶的高度为h2; ③在另一个圆柱形玻璃杯中倒满酸奶,将小木块放入其中漂浮,待酸奶不再溢出后,将木块取出,测出此时圆柱形玻璃杯中酸奶的高度为h2; ④酸奶的密度表达式ρ酸=   (用字母表示)。 32.(11分)聪聪在实验室中找到学生电源、四个定值电阻(5Ω、10Ω、20Ω、25Ω)、“25Ω1A”的滑动变阻器R1、最大阻值未知的滑动变阻器R2、电流表、电压表、开关及导线若千。完成了下列电学实验。 (一)探究“电流与电阻的关系”。 (1)如图甲是聪聪连接的电路,还有一根导线没有接上,请你用笔画线代替导线将电路连接完整,并保证连接这根导线后滑动变阻器的滑片位于阻值最大处。 (2)正确连接后,闭合开关,聪聪发现电流表无示数,电压表示数较大,可能是定值电阻发生了   (填“短路”或“断路”)。 (3)实验中保持电压表的示数为2V不变,为保证四个定值电阻单独接入电路都能成实验,电源的电压值不应超过   V。 (4)正确完成四次实验后,可以得出结论:电压一定时,电流与电阻成   。 (5)聪聪又在实验室中找到一个标有“0.3A”字样的灯泡,他想用这个灯泡探究“电流与电压的关系”,老师告诉他不可以,原因是   。 (二)测量滑动变阻器R2的最大阻值。 (1)聪聪连接了如图乙所示的电路,将滑动变阻器R2的滑片调至最右端。闭合开关,适当调节R1的阻值,电流表和电压表的示数如图丙所示,电流表的示数为   A,R2的最大阻值为   Ω。 (2)实验中至少需要测量三组数据,目的是   (填“寻找普遍规律”或“减小误差”)。 (三)聪聪又找来最大阻值为30Ω的滑动变阻器R3和最大阻值为20Ω的滑动变阻器R4,利用学生电源(电压调为12V不变),设计了如图丁所示电路,测量标有0.3A”字样灯泡的额定功率,请将他的实验过程补充完整: (1)只闭合开关S、S2,将滑动变阻器   的滑片调到阻值最大处,移动另一个滑动变阻器的滑片直至电压表的示数为   V,此时灯泡正常发光。 (2)保持两个滑动变阻器的滑片位置不动,只闭合开关S、S1,读出电压表的示数为7V。 (3)灯泡的额定功率P额=   W。 2019年辽宁省辽阳市中考物理试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一、选择题(本题共12小题,共28分.1-8题为单选题,每题2分:9-12题为多选题,每题3分,漏选得2分,错选得0分) 1.【解答】解:A、10个鸡蛋的质量大约1斤,而1斤=500g,所以一个鸡蛋的质量在50g=0.05kg左右。故A不符合实际; B、在标准大气压下水的沸点是100℃.我们生活的环境气压接近标准大气压,所以开水的温度在100℃左右。故B符合实际; C、电冰箱工作电流约1A,其功率在P=UI=220V×1A=220W左右。故C不符合实际; D、菜刀刀刃的厚度不到1mm=0.1cm。故D不符合实际。 故选:B。 2.【解答】解:沙画表演属于光沿直线传播的现象。 A.小孔成像属于光沿直线传播现象。故选项A符合题意; B.海市蜃楼属于光的折射现象。故选项B不符合题意; C.反光镜成像属于光的反射现象。故选项C不符合题意; D.鱼缸中放大的鱼属于光的折射现象。故选项D不符合题意。 故选:A。 3.【解答】解:A、硅光电池板由半导体材料制成,故A错误; B、硅光电池板可将太阳能转化为电能,故B正确; C、太阳能来源于太阳内部氢核的聚变,而不是裂变,故C错误; D、太阳能可源源不断从自然界获得,因此属于可再生能源,故D错误。 故选:B。 4.【解答】解: A、使用试电笔时,手应接触笔尾的金属体,这样才能正确辨别火线和零线,故A错; B、用电器的开关发生短路时,开关闭合,用电器正常工作,不会造成空气开关自动断开,故B错; C、站在地上的人接触三孔插座里的火线发生触电时,一部分电流会流向大地,不流回零线,此时漏电保护器自动切断电路,故C正确; D、冰箱使用三脚插头,是为了将冰箱的金属外壳接地,防止因外壳漏电而发生触电事故,故D错。 故选:C。 5.【解答】解:A“白气”是壶口喷出的温度较高的水蒸气遇冷液化形成的小水滴,此过程放出热量。故A不符合题意; B、铁水浇铸成零件,液态变成固态是凝固过程,此过程放出热量。故B不符合题意; C、雾凇是空气中的水蒸气遇冷凝华形成的冰晶,此过程放出热量。.故C不符合题意; D、冰凌融化,固态变成液态是熔化过程,此过程吸收热量。故D符合题意。 故选:D。 6.【解答】解:自行车发电原理是闭合电路的一部分导体在磁场中做切割磁感线运动,导体中产生感应电流,是电磁感应现象,则与自行车发电原理相同的是发电机原理, A、图中闭合电路的一部分导体在磁场中做切割磁感线运动,导体中产生感应电流,这是电磁感应现象,与电动机的原理不同,故A符合题意; B、图中是奥斯特实验,说明了电流周围存在磁场,与发电机的原理不同,故B不合题意; C、图中有电源,通电导体在磁场中受力会发生运动,是电动机的工作原理,故C不合题意; D、图中是电磁铁,利用了电流的磁效应,与发电机的原理不同,故D不合题意。 故选:A。 7.【解答】解:A、用火种引燃木柴的过程是热传递;钻木取火的本质是机械能转化为内能。两者原理不同。故A错误; B、木柴燃烧的过程,本质是化学能转化为内能的过程。故B错误; C、只要存在温度差,就会发生热传递,锅能向酒料传递热量,是因为锅的温度高于酒料的温度。故C正确; D、熬制过程中需要不断地搅拌,目的是使酒料受热均匀,同时避免粘锅。故D错误。 故选:C。 8.【解答】解:由电路图可知,灯泡与滑动变阻器并联,电压表V1、V2均测电源两端的电压,电流表A1、A3测阻器支路的电流,电流表A2测灯泡支路的电流。 因电源电压恒定不变, 所以,滑片移动时,电压表V1、V2的示数均不变,故A错误; 因并联电路中各支路独立工作、互不影响, 所以,滑片移动时,电流表A2的示数不变,灯泡的亮度始终保持不变,故B正确; 将滑动变阻器的滑片P由a点移动到b点的过程中,接入电路中的电阻变小, 由I=可知,通过滑动变阻器的电流变大,即电流表A1、A3的示数变大, 则电流表A1的示数与电流表A2的示数不相等、电压表V1的示数与电流表A3的示数比值变小,故CD错误。 故选:B。 9.【解答】解:A、击球的一瞬间,棒对球的力与球对棒的力是一对作用力与反作用力,大小相等。故A错误; B、球在上升过程中,质量不变,速度降低,动能减小;高度增加,重力势能增大,动能转化为重力势能;故B错误; C、球做曲线运动,上升到最高点时,速度不为零,若此时受到的力全部消失,它将保持匀速直线运动状态,故C正确; D、力是改变物体运动状态的原因,球下落过程中速度越来越大,因为重力改变了球的运动状态,故D正确。 故选:CD。 10.【解答】解: A、由图知,n=3,拉力端移动距离s=3h=3×10m=30m, 拉力做功W总=Fs=200N×30m=6000J, 拉力做功的功率: P===120W,故A错; B、不计绳重和摩擦,拉力F=(G人+G轮),则管道工人的重力G人=3F﹣G轮=3×200N﹣60N=540N,故B正确; C、有用功W有用=G人h=540N×10m=5400J, 滑轮组的机械效率: η==×100%=90%,故C正确; D、若用该滑轮组匀速拉起一个质量更大的工人,相当于增大了提升的物重,滑轮组的机械效率会增大,故D错。 故选:BC。 11.【解答】解:A.两个容器底部受到的液体压强相等、两个容器的底面积相同,根据p=知液体对容器底部的压力相等,故A正确; B、由图知,甲液体的深度大于乙液体的深度,两个容器底部受到的液体压强相等,根据p=ρgh知ρ甲<ρ乙,故B错误; C、因为a在甲液体中处于漂浮状态,所以ρ甲>ρa,因为b在乙液体中处于悬浮状态,所以ρ乙=ρb,又因为ρ甲<ρ乙,所以ρa<ρb,根据ρ=知,当两球体积相同时ma<mb,故C正确; D、a球放入甲液体中处于漂浮状态,浮力等于重力,即F浮a甲=Ga=ρ甲gV甲a,球放入乙液体中处于悬浮状态,浮力等于重力,即F浮乙b=Gb=ρ乙gVb, 由BC知ρa<ρ甲<ρ乙=ρb知:若将a球放入乙液体中,处于漂浮状态,浮力等于重力,即F浮a乙=Ga=ρ乙gV乙a,b球放入甲液体中会沉底,即Gb>F浮甲b=ρ甲gVb,所以Gb>F浮甲b=ρ甲gVb>ρ甲gV甲a=F浮a乙=Ga=ρ乙gV乙a,所以力Fa<Fb,故D正确。 故选:ACD。 12.【解答】解:①闭合S1断开S2,S3接a,此时灯泡与R1串联,电压表测灯泡L的电压,滑动变阻器R1的滑片滑动过程中电压表与电流表示数均发生改变。 故电流表电压表变化关系是图乙中的曲线; 当滑动变阻器R1的滑片滑动滑到最左端时,R1的电阻为0,灯泡电压达到最大值U=12V,等于电源电压; 灯泡正常发光,可以根据图象中的电流电压值算出灯泡的额定功率P=UI=12V×2A=24W, 从而判断A、B都正确; 灯泡最小电压与对应的最小电流图乙可以找到,分别为 3V、0.75A;灯泡的最小功率可以根据公式P'=U'I'=3V×0.75A=2.25W,故C错误; ②闭合S2断开S1,S3接b时,电路只有滑动变阻器R2工作,电压表测它的电压,电流表测电流。由于电路只有R2工作,所以电压表示数始终不变, 当滑动变阻器R2的滑片滑到最右端,电阻最大,电流最小,由图乙可知最小电流为0.5A,由此可知滑动变阻器R2的最大电阻,故D正确; 故选:ABD。 二、填空题(本题共9小题,每空1分,共26分) 13.【解答】解:声音是由于物体的振动产生的,康康的喊声是由声带的振动产生的;我们之所以能听出康康的声音,是根据声音的音色判断的; 大气压随高度的增加而减小,故康康手腕上登山手表显示的大气压示数应小于在山脚时的示数。 故答案为:振动;音色;小于。 14.【解答】解: 椅子的座垫较松软,是通过增大受力面积,减小压强的,这样当人坐在上面时感觉较舒服。 因为一切物质的分子都在不停的做无规则运动,所以装有香草的汽车座垫会使车内气味芬芳。 汽车行驶过程中,以车外的树木为参照物,座椅和树木之间的相对位置不断发生改变,故以车外的树木为参照物,座椅是运动的。 故答案为:压强;扩散;运动。 15.【解答】解: (1)智能便携超声波监测仪可以监测孕妇腹中胎儿的情况,利用了超声波来传递信息的; (2)智能手机可以通过电磁波接收监测仪的数据; (3)手机画面的颜色是由红、绿、蓝三种色光合成的。 故答案为:信息;电磁;绿。 16.【解答】解:由图可知,甲图中两个气门都关闭,活塞上行,为压缩冲程,图乙中,两个气门关闭,活塞下行,为做功冲程,为汽车提供动力的冲程是做功冲程,故图乙是正确的;在吸气冲程中汽油机吸入的是汽油和空气的混合物; 与其它液体相比较,水的比热容最大,在质量和升高的温度相同时,水吸收的热量最多,制冷效果最好。 故答案为:乙;汽油和空气;比热容。 17.【解答】解: 干燥的秋天,脱下毛衣时,毛衣与手臂摩擦带了电荷,由于带电体能够吸引轻小物体,所以用手臂靠近小泡沫块,泡沫块就会粘满手臂; 若手臂带负电,用手臂接触不带电的验电器金属球,一部分电子会从手臂转移到验电器上,由于电子所带的电荷是负电荷,所以金属球与手臂之间的瞬间电流方向是金属球到手臂。 故答案为:摩擦;吸引轻小物体;金属球到手臂。 18.【解答】解:(1)满载排水量16000t,即m排=16000t=1.6×107kg; 当096艇悬浮待命时,根据阿基米德原理可得受到的浮力: F浮=G排=m排g=1.6×107kg×10N/kg=1.6×108N。 (2)600米深度海水的压强: p=ρgh=1.0×103kg/m3×10N/kg×600m=6×106Pa; (3)由于艇长、副艇长和武器操控官都按下各自的开关才能开启发射装置,说明艇长、副艇长和武器操控官的开关都闭合时,才能开启发射装置,所以它们是串联连接的。 故答案为:1.6×108;6×106;串联。 19.【解答】解: 由电能表参数可知,电能表正常工作时的电压为220V,允许通过的最大电流为20A,他家同时使用用电器的最大总功率:P大=UI=220V×20A=4400W; 用电器消耗的电能为:W=kW?h=0.015kW?h; 根据W=Pt可知用电器工作的时间为:t===h=1min; 若在用电高峰期,实际电压低于220V,由于电阻不变,根据公式P=可知,实际功率会变小。 故答案为:4400;1;变小。 20.【解答】解:游客的身高是1.65m,据物像等大的特点可知,她在镜中的像高也是1.65m,则游客的头顶到“身影”头顶的距离为1.65m+1.65m=3.3m;当她在栈道上行走时,她的像大小仍然和物体的大小相等,她的“身影”的大小将不变; 故答案为:3.3;不变。 21.【解答】解:由电路图可知,R0与灯泡L串联,电压表测量R0两端的电压,电流表测电路中的电流; 则电路中的电流I==1A, 根据P=可知: 灯泡电阻RL===4Ω 根据欧姆定律和串联电路电压的特点可得: 电源电压:U=I(R0+RL)=1A×(6Ω+4Ω)=10V; R0产生的热量Q0=I2R0t=(1A)2×6Ω×3×60s=1080J。 故答案为:1;10;1080。 三、作图题(本题共3小题,每小题3分,共9分) 22.【解答】解:(1)入射光线平行于主光轴,所以该光线经凹透镜折射后,其折射光线的反向延长线过焦点。 (2)根据光路的可逆性可知,斜射入水中的光线,经过水面后,折射小于入射角,故先做出发现,然后做出入射光线,如图: 。 23.【解答】解:(1)过支点O做F2的作用线的垂线,即为阻力臂l2; (2)由杠杆平衡条件F1 L1=F2 L2可知,在阻力跟阻力臂的乘积一定时,动力臂越长,动力越小;图中支点在O点,因此OA作为动力臂时最长;动力的方向应该向左,过点A垂直于OA向左作出最小动力F1的示意图。如下图所示: 24.【解答】解: 左图中电源上端为正极,根据其电流方向由安培定则可知,电磁铁A的左端为N极,右端为S极; 根据图中磁感线的形状可知,两电磁铁间的磁极为异名磁极,可知电磁铁B的左端为N极,右端为S极; 在磁体外部,磁感线的方向由N极指向S极,所以图中磁感线的方向是从右向左; 再根据安培定则可知右图中电源左端为正极,右端为负极; 根据磁极间的作用规律可知小磁针右端为N极,如图所示: 四、简答题(本题3分) 25.【解答】答:(1)用吹风机水平吹玻璃管的上端,玻璃管上端空气流速增大,压强变小,而玻璃管下端空气流速不变,压强不变,则玻璃管下端的气体压强大于上端的气体压强,在向上压强差的作用下,乒乓球从玻璃管上端飞出。 (2)电动机工作时,主要的能量转化是将电能转化为机械能。 (3)吹风机是由一组电热丝和一个小风扇组合而成的,通电时电热丝会产生热量,风扇吹出的风经过电热丝,就变成热风,因此电热丝的发热原理是电流的热效应。 五、计算题(本题共2小题,共18分.要求写出必要的文字说明、公式、计算过程、数值、单位和答) 26.【解答】解:(1)该车静止在水平地面上时,对地面的压力: F压=G=mg=800kg×10N/kg=8000N, 由p=可得,汽车与地面的总接触面积: S===0.1m2; (2)因汽车匀速行驶时处于平衡状态,受到的牵引力和阻力是一对平衡力, 所以,汽车受到的牵引力: F=f=0.2G=0.2×8000N=1600N, 汽车行驶的速度: v=180km/h=50m/s, 则此时该车牵引力的功率: P===Fv=1600N×50m/s=8×104W; (3)该车以最高时速在平直公路上匀速前进23km时,牵引力做的功: W=Fs=1600N×23×103m=3.68×107J, 消耗的电能: W电=Q放=m′q汽油=1kg×4.6×107J/kg=4.6×107J, 则该车的效率: η=×100%=×100%=80%。 答:(1)该车静止在水平地面上时与地面的总接触面积是0.1m2; (2)此时该车牵引力的功率为8×104W; (3)该车的效率为80%。 27.【解答】解:(1)由电路图可知,当S置于1位置时,只有电阻R1接入电路; 当S置于2位置时,R1、R2串联,因此由P=可知,当S置于1位置时,功率较大,即空气炸锅处于加热状态; 当S置于2位置时,空气炸锅处于保温状态; 则R2的功率P2===500W, 发热体R1的功率:P1=900W﹣500W=400W; 由P=可知,R1===121Ω。 (2)牛柳需要吸收的热量Q吸=cm△t=3×103J/(kg?℃)×0.2kg×(190℃﹣40℃)=9×104J; (3)不计热量损失Q吸=W=9×104J; 由P=可得,用高温档牛柳从40℃加热到190℃,需要时间t===100s。 答:(1)发热体R1的阻值是121Ω。 (2)牛柳需要吸收9×104J热量; (3)需要100s长时间。 六、实验、探究题(本题共5小题,共36分) 28.【解答】解:(1)温度计的读数首先看示数在0℃的上方还是下方,然后注意温度计最小分度值,最后进行读数;从图中可以看出此刻示数在0℃以下,且最小分度值是1℃,故读数是:﹣4℃。 (2)晶体熔化特点是:继续吸热,温度不变; 由于冰的比热容比水的比热容小,所以在加热时,水温度上升比较慢; (3)液体沸腾的必须满足两个条件:①达到沸点,②继续吸热。 烧杯的水处于沸腾过程中继续吸热,温度保持在98℃不变,把试管内的水加热到98℃时候不再放出热量给试管内的水吸收,所以试管内的水无法沸腾; 第12min到第l6min,蜂蜡已经与烧杯中的水达到热平衡状态,无法继续吸热,故蜂蜡的内能不变。 故答案是:(1)﹣4;(2)温度不变,水的比热容比冰的比热容大;(3)不能,不变。 29.【解答】解:(1)蜡烛、凸透镜、光屏,三者在同一条直线上,三者的中心大致在同一高度,这样做的目的是:使像成在光屏的中央。 (2)由图可知,物距u=50cm﹣20cm=30cm,像距v=65cm﹣50cm=15cm,f=10cm,此时u>2f,成倒立缩小的实像,能够说明照相机的成像原理; (3)蜡烛燃烧变短,根据过凸透镜光心的光线传播方向不变可知,像成在了光屏的上方,为了使像仍成在光屏中央,可以将透镜向下移动或将光屏向上移动; (4)由图知,当蜡烛在刻度尺的10cm处,u=50cm﹣20cm=30cm,u>2f,凸透镜成倒立缩小的实像,v=65cm﹣50cm=15cm;根据光在折射时光路的可逆性可知,保持蜡烛和光屏位置不变,当u′=15cm时,即凸透镜移动至50cm+30cm=80cm刻度线处,在屏上能再次呈现清晰的像; (5)若在蜡烛和凸透镜之间合适的位置放一个近视眼镜,使光线发散,为了使光屏上重新呈现清晰的像,光屏应向右移动;若不移动光屏,并保持近视眼镜的位置不变,玲玲更换另一个凸透镜,光屏上也得到了清晰的像,那么此凸透镜的焦距应小于10cm,光线发散以后还能成像在原位置。 故答案为:(1)使像成在光屏的中央;(2)照相机;(3)凸透镜;(4)80;(5)右;小于。 30.【解答】解:(1)红红在探究“滑动摩擦力大小与什么因素有关”的实验中,每次她都应用弹簧测力计沿水平方向拉物体做匀速运动,使拉力与物体所受摩擦力二力平衡;测力计的示数分别如图甲所示,分析A、B两次实验数据可知,压力相同,B的拉力大,即滑动摩擦力大,小车的表面更粗糙。根据A、C两次实验得出:接触面粗糙程度一定时,压力越 大,滑动摩擦力越大。 (2)如果突然将拉力增加到3N,因压力大小和接触面粗糙程度不变,故则此时木块受到桌面的摩擦力大小不变,为2.8N,因拉力大于滑动摩擦力,故木块必做加速运动,小车仍随木块一起运动,所以受摩擦力作用。 (3)摩擦力大小与接触面的粗糙程度有关,接触面越粗糙,摩擦力越大;反之接触面越光滑,则摩擦力越小。当摩擦力越小时,小车运动的距离越远; 推理:如果运动物体不受力,它将做匀速直线运动。 故答案为:(1)匀速直线;小车;大;(2)2.8;受;(3)小;做匀速直线运动。 31.【解答】解:(1)量筒的分度值为1ml,量筒中牛奶的体积为V=50mL=50cm3; (2)把天平放在水平桌面上,游码移到标尺左端的零刻度线处后,由图乙知,指针偏左,此时应将平衡螺母向右调节,直到指针对准分度盘中央的刻度线; (3)已知烧杯的质量m烧=20g, 烧杯和牛奶的质量m总=50g+20g+5g+2g=77g, 量筒中牛奶的质量为m=m总﹣m烧=77g﹣20g=57g; 牛奶的密度ρ===1.14g/cm3.=1.14×103kg/m3; (4)把量筒中的牛奶全部倒入一个质量为20g的烧杯中,由于有少量牛奶附着在量筒内壁上,所测牛奶质量偏小,则密度偏小; (5)实验步骤: ①测出 圆柱形玻璃杯高度为h1; ②在一个圆柱形玻璃杯中倒满牛奶,将小木块放入其中漂浮,待牛奶不再溢出后,将木块取出,测出此时圆柱形玻璃杯中牛奶的高度为h2; ③在另一个圆柱形玻璃杯中倒满酸奶,将小木块放入其中漂浮,待酸奶不再溢出后,将木块取出,测出此时圆柱形玻璃杯中酸奶的高度为h2; ④因为木块漂浮在牛奶面上受到的浮力等于重力,所以G=F浮=ρ牛gV排, 设圆柱形玻璃杯的底面积为S,木块排开牛奶的体积为:V排=S(h1﹣h2), 所以G=F浮=ρ牛gS(h1﹣h2), 木块的质量:m==ρ牛S(h1﹣h2), 当木块压入烧杯中,用刻度尺测出此时烧杯中牛奶的深度h2 小木块的体积为:V=S(h2﹣h3) 小木块的密度:ρ==ρ牛。 故答案为:(1)50;(2)右;(3)57;1.14×103;(4)小;(5)①圆柱形玻璃杯;④=ρ牛。 32.【解答】解:(一)(1)要求这根导线后滑动变阻器的滑片位于阻值最大处,故变阻器左下柱连入电路中,如下所示: (2)若定值电阻短路,电压表示数为0,不符合题意; 若定值电阻断路,则电流表没有示数,电压表串联在电路中测电源电压,符合题意,故正确连接后,闭合开关,聪聪发现电流表无示数,电压表示数较大,可能是定值电阻发生了 断路; (3)实验中保持电压表的示数为2V不变,根据串联电路的规律和分压原理有: =,故为保证四个定值电阻单独接入电路都能成实验,电源的电压值U不应超过4V; (4)正确完成四次实验后,可以得出结论:电压一定时,电流与电阻成反比; (5)研究灯泡探究“电流与电压的关系”要控制电阻的大小不变,而灯的电阻随温度的变化而变化,故老师告诉他不可以; (二)测量滑动变阻器R2的最大阻值。 (1)电流表和电压表的示数如图丙所示,电流表选用小量程,分度值为0.02A,电流表的示数为 0.2A,电压表选用小量程,分度值为0.1V,电压为2V,由欧姆定律,R2大===10Ω; (2)实验中至少需要测量三组数据,目的是减小误差; (三)测量标有“0.3A”字样灯泡的额定功率,通过灯的电流为0.3A时,灯正常发光: (1)只闭合开关S、S2,将滑动变阻器R4的滑片调到阻值最大处,移动另一个滑动变阻器的滑片直至电压表的示数为6V,此时灯泡正常发光; (2)保持两个滑动变阻器的滑片位置不动,只闭合开关S、S1,读出电压表的示数为7V。 (3)在(2)中,电压表测R3、R4的电压,根据串联电路电压的规律,灯的额定电压为:U额=12V﹣7V=5V, 灯泡的额定功率: P额=U额I额=5V×0.3A=1.5W。 故答案为:(一)(1)如上所示;(2)断路;(3)4;(4)反比;(5)灯的电阻随温度的变化而变化; (二)(1)0.2;10;(2)减小误差;(三)(1)R4;6;(3)1.5。

  • ID:7-6033974 2019年辽宁省本溪市中考化学试卷(Word解析版)

    初中化学/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年辽宁省本溪市中考化学试卷 一、选择题(本题包括15个小题,共20分,每小题只有一个选项符合题意.第l小题~第10小题,每小题1分;第11小题~第15小题,每小题1分) 1.(1分)下列能源不属于化石燃料的是(  ) A.煤 B.石油 C.酒精 D.天然气 2.(1分)列变化过程发生化学变化的是(  ) A.粮食酿成酒 B.水果榨成汁 C.铁水铸成锅 D.蔗糖溶于水 3.(1分)下列化学肥料中,属于磷肥的是(  ) A.KNO3 B.K2SO4 C.CO(NH2)2 D.Ca(H2PO4)2 4.(1分)下列各斟中“”和“”分别表示不同元素的原子,其中表示混合物的是(  ) A. B. C. D. 5.(1分)有关金刚石和石墨的说法正确的是(  ) A.都有可燃性 B.都有导电性 C.都是黑色固体 D.都有滑腻感 6.(1分)打赢蓝天保卫战,是党的十九大做出的重大决策部署。以下做法不合理的是(  ) A.关停重污染企业 B.限制燃放烟花爆竹 C.推广使用新能源汽车 D.露天焚烧作物秸秆 7.(1分)下列有关溶液酸碱性的说法错误的是(  ) A.pH=7的溶液呈中性 B.pH>7的溶液一定呈碱性 C.pH<7的雨水一定是酸雨 D.酸溶液的pH越小酸性越强 8.(1分)下列有关燃烧与灭火的说法正确的是(  ) A.通过降低可燃物的着火点可以灭火 B.面粉厂、加油站等场所应应严禁烟火 C.室内起火应迅速开所有门窗通风 D.吹灭燃着蜡烛的灭火原理是隔绝氧气 9.(1分)化学与人类健康密切相关,下列做法合理的是(  ) A.霉变大米煮熟后食用 B.食用加铁酱油可预防贫血 C.用亚硝酸钠腌制咸菜 D.甲醛溶液浸泡海产品保鲜 10.(1分)下列实验操作正确的是(  ) A.过滤 B.滴加液体 C.连接仪器 D.加热液体 11.(2分)下列各组物质的鉴别方法错选的是(  ) A.白酒和白醋﹣﹣闻气味 B.羊毛线和涤纶线﹣﹣灼烧闻气味 C.氯酸钾和高锰酸钾﹣﹣观察颜色 D.氮气和二氧化碳﹣﹣伸入燃着的木条,观察 12.(2分)下列物质的性质相和用途表述没有直接联系的是(  ) A.铜具有良好的导它性,可制作导线 B.干冰升华时吸收大量的热,可作制冷剂 C.稀有气体化学性质稳定,可制多种用途电光源 D.氢氧化铝能与酸反应,可用于治疗胃酸过多症 13.(2分)利用98%的浓硫酸,配制一定溶质质量分数的稀硫酸,下列描述正确的是(  ) A.实验的主要步骤是计算、称量、量取、溶解 B.用量筒量取所需的水,注入盛有浓硫酸的烧杯中 C.实验中用到的玻璃仪器只有烧杯、量筒和胶头滴管 D.量取浓疏酸时仰视读数,会使配得的溶液溶质质量分数偏大 14.(2分)以下对化学知识的归纳正确的是(  ) A.含碳元素的化合物一定是有机物 B.复分解反应前后元素化合价一定不变 C.组成元素相同的物质,化学性质一定相同 D.分子是由原子构成的,分子一定比原子大 15.(2分)除去下列物质中的少量杂质,所选用试剂及实验操作均正确的是(  ) 选项 物质(括号内为杂质) 所用试剂及只要实验操作 A 氯化钠(氯化镁) 加水溶解、过滤,蒸发 B 硝酸钠溶液(硫酸钠) 加入适量氯化钡溶液,过滤 C 氯化钙溶液(盐酸) 加入过量的碳酸钙,过滤 D 氧气(氮气) 缓慢通过灼热的铜网 A.A B.B C.C D.D 二、填空题(本题包括4个小题,每空1分,共18分) 16.(4分)用化学用语填空。 (1)2个氩原子   。 (2)汞元素   。 (3)3个二氧化硫分子   。 (4)醋酸   。 17.(4分)如图中A是碘元素在元素周期表中的信息,B﹣E是四种粒子的结构示意图。 请回答。 (1)碘的相对原子质量是   ; B是碘原子的结构示意图,碘离子的符号为   。 (2)B~E四种粒子中,属于同种元素的粒子是   (填字母,下同),化学性质相似的粒子是   。 18.(4分)消毒与清洁对公共场所和家庭是至关重要的。 (1)二氧化氯(ClO2)可作水处理消毒剂,二氧化氯中氯元素的化合价是   。 (2)“洁则灵”与“漂白剂”不能混用,二者若混合易产生一种有毒气体X.反应原理为:NaClO+2HCl=NaCl+X↑+H2O,则X的化学式为   。 (3)用炉具清洁剂(含有NaOH )清洗炉具时,应避免接触皮肤,其原因是   。 (4)使用洗洁剂清洗餐具上的油污时,利用了洗涤剂对油污的   作用。 19.(6分)水是生命之源,我们应该了解水及溶液的相关知识。 (1)生活中可用   区分硬水和软水。 (2)净水时,利用活性炭的   性除去水中的色素和异味。 (3)下花是氯化钠和硝酸钾在不同温度的溶解度请回答。 温度/℃ 10 20 30 40 50 60 溶解度/g NaCl 35.8 36.0 36.3 36.6 37.0 37.3 KNO3 20.9 31.6 45.8 63.9 85.5 110 ①根据上表数据分析NaCl与KNO3的溶解度相等的温度在   (填字母 )之间。 A.10℃﹣20℃B.20℃﹣30℃C.30℃﹣40℃ ②若NaCl中混有少量的KNO3,提纯NaCl的方法是   。 ③某同学取NaCl、KNO3中的一种物质,按如图所示进行实验。 该同学所取的固体物质为   ,W的值为   g。 三、简答题(本题包括3个小题,共16分) 20.(5分)如图是某品牌的风味酸牛奶及每100g酸牛奶中主要营养成分数据。请回答下列问题。 营养成分 蛋白质 脂肪 糖类 钠 钙 质量 3.2g 3.6g 11.9g 60mg 80mg (1)人体必需的六大类基本营养素中,除水外,表中没有标示的营养素是   。 (2)表中能为人体提供能量的营养素有   种。 (3)该酸牛奶的外包装是一种塑料制品,随意丢齐会造成“白色污染”。为减少“白色污染”,可采取的措施是   (答一点)。 (4)酸牛奶中的蔗糖,在胃肠内转化为葡萄糖(C6H12O6)。葡萄糖在酶的催化作用下,与氧气反应生成水和二氧化碳,请写出该反应的化学方程式   。 21.(6分)金属材料广泛应用于生活和生产中。 (1)下列物品所用的主要材料属于金属材料的是   (填字母)。 A.瓷碗 B.玻璃瓶 C.一元硬币 D.硬铝门窗 (2)生铁和钢是使用最多的金属材料,二者性能不同的原因是   。 工业上采用赤铁矿石(主要成分为氧化铁)炼铁的反应原理是   (用化学方程式表示)。 (3)向Al(NO3)3、Cu(NO3)2、和AgNO3的混合溶液中加入一定量铁粉,待充分反应后过滤,向滤渣中加入稀盐酸。 ①若有气泡产生,则滤液中的溶质是   ; ②若没有气泡产生,则滤液中溶质的组成最多有   种情况。 22.(5分)A﹣F为初中化学中常见的六种物质,其中A、B、C、D、E为五种不同类别的物质,A为大理石的主要成分,其相互反应及转化关系如图所示。(图中“﹣”表示相连的物质间能相互发生反应,“→”表示物质间有相应的转化关系,部分反应物、生成物及反应条件已略去)。请回答。 (1)C物质的一种用途是   。 (2)D→E的基本反应类型为   。 (3)B→A的化学方程式为:   。 (4)F的化学式可能是   。 四、实验题(本题包括3个小题,共18分) 23.(4分)请根据如图实验回答问题。 (1)图一为测定空气里氧气含量的实验。点燃红磷前,需要用弹簧夹夹紧胶皮管的原图是   。 该实验中不能用铁丝代替红磷的原因是   。 (2)图二为探究分子性质的实验。实验中观察到烧杯B中的液体由无色变为红色,说明分子具有的性质是   。 (3)图三为探究固体溶解时的热量变化实验,若向试管中加入的固体是NH4NO3,可观案到U形管内左侧液面   (填“低于”或“高于”)右侧液面。 24.(7分)请根据如图回答问题。 (1)仪器①的名称是   。 (2)实验室用过氧化氢溶液和二氧化锰制取氧气,反应的化学方程式为   。若用图E装置收集氧气,当观察到导管口的气泡   时,再把导管口伸入盛满水的集气瓶。 (3)用收集的氧气完成木炭燃烧的实验(如图F所示),观察到的现象是   。 (4)通常状况下,甲烷是一种无色无味的气体,难溶于水,密度比空气小。实验室常用醋酸钠和碱石灰两种固体混合物加热制得甲烷气体。制取甲烷的发生装置可选用   (填字母,下同),收集装置可选用   。 25.(7分)某校化学兴趣小组同学向盛有一定量生石灰的烧杯中加入碳酸钠溶液,充分反应后却至室温,过滤、洗涤、干燥,得到固体A和溶液B,并对固体A和溶液B的成分展开了探究。 上述实验中发生的化学反应有: ①CaO+H2O=Ca(OH)2 ②    (写化学方程式)。 探究活动1:固体A的成分是什么? [猜想假设]小雨猜想是CaCO3;小亮猜想是CaCO3和Ca(OH)2 小亮猜想含有Ca(OH)2的理由是   。 [实验验证] 1.小雨取少量固体A于试管中,加入足量的稀盐酸,有气泡产生。证明自己的猜想正确。 2.小亮取少量固体A于试管中,加入足量水振荡,静置,向上层清液中滴加无色酚酞溶液,观察到   ,证明自己的猜想正确。 [反思评价]同学们经过讨论后认为小雨的实验不足以确定固体A的成分,理出是   。结合两位同学的实验,证明了小亮的猜想是正确的,由此确定了固体A的成分。 探究活动Ⅱ:溶液B中溶质的成分是什么? [猜想假设]猜想一:NaOH 猜想二:NaOH Na2CO3 猜想三:NaOH Ca(OH)2 [讨论交流]结合对固体A成分的探究,同学们认为猜想三是正确的,理由是   。 [实验验证]取少量溶液B于试管中,滴加   溶液,产生白色沉淀,证明猜想三正确。 五、计算题(本题包括2个小题,共8分) 26.(2分)香叶醛(化学式为C10H16O)存在于柠檬油中,具有柠檬、柑橘果香,广泛应用于肥皂、花露水的加香剂中。请计算。 (1)一个香叶醛分子中共有   个原子。 (2)15.2g香叶醛中含有氧元素的质量为   g。 27.(6分)取6.5g锌粉于烧杯中,向其中加入稀硫酸至恰好完全反应,共用去稀硫酸154.7g。请计算反应后所得溶液中溶质的质量分数。 2019年辽宁省本溪市中考化学试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一、选择题(本题包括15个小题,共20分,每小题只有一个选项符合题意.第l小题~第10小题,每小题1分;第11小题~第15小题,每小题1分) 1.【解答】解:当今世界最重要的三大化石燃料是天然气、煤、石油,是不可再生能源。酒精不属于化石燃料。 故选:C。 2.【解答】解:A、粮食酿成酒过程中有新物质酒精生成,属于化学变化。 B、水果榨成汁过程中没有新物质生成,属于物理变化。 C、铁水铸成锅过程中没有新物质生成,属于物理变化。 D、蔗糖溶于水过程中没有新物质生成,属于物理变化。 故选:A。 3.【解答】解:A、KNO3中含有氮元素和钾元素,属于复合肥; B、K2SO4 含有钾元素,属于钾肥; C、CO(NH2)2含有氮元素,属于氮肥; D、Ca(H2PO4)2中含有磷元素,属于磷肥。 故选:D。 4.【解答】解:A中含有一种分子,是纯净物; B中含有三种分子,是混合物; C中含有一种分子,是纯净物; D中含有一种分子,是纯净物。 故选:B。 5.【解答】解:A、金刚石和石墨均是碳元素形成的单质,均具有可燃性,故选项说法正确。 B、金刚石不具有导电性,故选项说法错误。 C、金刚石是无色透明的固体,石墨是深灰色固体,故选项说法错误。 D、石墨有滑腻感,金刚石没有,故选项说法错误。 故选:A。 6.【解答】解:A、关停重污染企业,做法合理,故选项错误; B、限制燃放烟花爆竹,做法合理,故选项错误; C、推广使用新能源汽车,做法合理,故选项错误; D、露天焚烧作物秸秆,生成有害气体和烟尘,做法不合理,故选项正确; 故选:D。 7.【解答】解:A.pH=7时,溶液呈中性,正确; B.pH大于7的溶液呈碱性,正确; C.pH<5.3的雨水称为酸雨,错误; D.pH越小,溶液呈酸性,pH越小,酸性越强,正确; 故选:C。 8.【解答】解:A.着火点是可燃物的属性,不能随意改变,故错误; B.面粉厂、加油站等场所的空气中弥漫着大量的可燃性气体和可燃性固体小颗粒,应严禁烟火,以免发生火灾或爆炸,故正确; C.室内起火不能打开所有门窗通风,以免因为空气流通而造成火势蔓延,故错误; D.吹灭燃着蜡烛的灭火原理是降低蜡烛温度低于其着火点而灭火,故错误。 故选:B。 9.【解答】解:A、霉变的大米中含有毒的黄曲霉素,且通常加热条件不能破坏,霉变大米煮熟后不能食用,所以错误。 B、铁是合成血红蛋白的重要元素,缺乏会患缺铁性贫血,“加铁酱油”含有铁元素,故有助于防治缺铁性贫血,所以正确。 C、工业用亚硝酸钠有毒,不能食用,所以错误。 D、甲醛有毒,能破坏人体蛋白质的结构,使之失去生理功能,从而引发中毒,同时甲醛也会降低水产品的品质,所以错误。 故选:B。 10.【解答】解:A、过滤液体时,要注意“一贴、二低、三靠”的原则,图中缺少玻璃棒引流,图中所示操作错误。 B、使用胶头滴管滴加少量液体的操作,注意胶头滴管不能伸入到试管内或接触试管内壁,应垂直悬空在试管口上方滴加液体,防止污染胶头滴管,图中所示操作错误。 C、导管连接胶皮管时,先把导管一端湿润,然后稍用力转动使之插入胶皮管内,图中所示装置正确。 D、给试管中的液体加热时,用酒精灯的外焰加热试管里的液体,且液体体积不能超过试管容积的,图中试管没有倾斜、没有用外焰加热,图中所示操作错误。 故选:C。 11.【解答】解:A、白酒有酒味而白醋有酸味,故A正确; B、羊毛属于蛋白质灼烧有烧焦羽毛气味,而涤纶属于合成纤维灼烧有特殊刺激性气味,故B正确; C、氯酸钾是白色固体,高锰酸钾是紫黑色固体,故C正确; D、氮气和二氧化碳都不具有助燃性,插入燃着的木条都会熄灭,故D错误; 故选:D。 12.【解答】解:A、铜具有良好的导它性,可制作导线,故选项说法正确。 B、干冰升华时吸收大量的热,可作制冷剂,故选项说法正确。 C、稀有气体通电时它们会发出不同颜色的有色光,可制多种用途电光源,故选项说法错误。 D、氢氧化铝能与酸反应,可用于治疗胃酸过多症,故选项说法正确。 故选:C。 13.【解答】解:A、利用98%的浓硫酸,配制一定溶质质量分数的稀硫酸,采用的加水稀释的方法,其操作步骤是计算、量取、溶解,故选项说法错误。 B、稀释浓硫酸时,要把浓硫酸缓缓地沿器壁注入水中,同时用玻璃棒不断搅拌,以使热量及时的扩散;一定不能把水注入浓硫酸中,故选项说法错误。 C、操作步骤是计算、量取、溶解,量筒和胶头滴管用于量取浓硫酸和水,烧杯、玻璃棒用于进行溶解操作,用到的玻璃仪器有烧杯、玻璃棒、量筒、胶头滴管,故选项说法错误。 D、量取浓疏酸时仰视读数,读数比实际液体体积大,读数比实际液体体积小,会造成实际量取的浓硫酸的体积偏大,会使配得的溶液溶质质量分数偏大,故选项说法正确。 故选:D。 14.【解答】解:A、含碳元素的化合物不一定是有机物,碳的氧化物、碳酸盐、碳酸虽含碳元素,但其性质与无机物类似,因此把它们看作无机物,故选项说法错误。 B、复分解反应是两种化合物相互交换成分生成两种新的化合物的反应,特征是换成分,价不变,即反应前后元素的化合价不变,故选项说法正确; C、分子是保持物质化学性质的最小微粒,分子相同,则化学性质相同,而组成元素相同,分子不一定相同,故错误; D、分子和原子不能笼统的比较大小,故错误; 故选:B。 15.【解答】解:A、氯化镁、氯化钠均易溶于水,不能用加水溶解、过滤、蒸发的方法进行分离,故选项所采取的方法错误。 B、硫酸钠能与适量氯化钡溶液反应生成硫酸钡沉淀和氯化钠,能除去杂质但引入了新的杂质氯化钠,不符合除杂原则,故选项所采取的方法错误。 C、盐酸能与过量的碳酸钙反应生成氯化钙、水和二氧化碳,再过滤除去过量的碳酸钙,能除去杂质且没有引入新的杂质,符合除杂原则,故选项所采取的方法正确。D、氧气通过灼热的铜网时可与铜发生反应生成氧化铜,而氮气不与铜反应,反而会把原物质除去,不符合除杂原则,故选项所采取的方法错误。 故选:C。 二、填空题(本题包括4个小题,每空1分,共18分) 16.【解答】解:(1)由原子的表示方法,用元素符号来表示一个原子,表示多个该原子,就在其元素符号前加上相应的数字,故2个氩原子表示为:2Ar。 (2)书写元素符号注意“一大二小”,汞的元素符号是Hg。 (3)由分子的表示方法,正确书写物质的化学式,表示多个该分子,就在其分子符号前加上相应的数字,则三个二氧化硫分子可表示为:3SO2。 (4)醋酸的化学式为:CH3COOH。 故答案为: (1)2Ar; (2)Hg; (3)3SO2; (4)CH3COOH。 17.【解答】解:(1)碘的相对原子质量是126.9; 碘原子最外层电子数是7,反应过程中容易得到1个电子形成带1个单位负电荷的离子,碘离子的符号为I﹣。 故填:126.9;I﹣。 (2)B~E四种粒子中,属于同种元素的粒子是CD,这是因为它们的核内质子数相等,化学性质相似的粒子是BE,这是因为它们的最外层电子数相等。 故填:CD;BE。 18.【解答】解:(1)在二氧化氯(ClO2)中氧元素显﹣2价,由于在化合物中正负化合价的代数和为零,可推出氯的化合价为:+4价。故填:+4; (2)根据质量守恒定律可知,反应式NaClO+2HCl═NaCl+X↑+H2O可知: 反应物中:Na原子为1个,Cl原子为3个,O原子为1个,H原子为2个; 生成物中:Na原子为1个,Cl原子为1个,O原子为1个,H原子为2个;还缺少两个氯原子。 故X是Cl2,故填:Cl2。 (3)氢氧化钠具有强烈的腐蚀性,所以用炉具清洁剂(含有NaOH )清洗炉具时,应避免接触皮肤;故填:氢氧化钠具有强烈的腐蚀性; (4)洗涤剂对油污起到了乳化作用;故填:乳化。 19.【解答】解:(1)生活中可用肥皂水区分硬水和软水; (2)因为活性炭具有疏松多孔的结构,具有吸附性,净水时,利用活性炭的吸附性除去水中的色素和异味; (3)①20℃~30℃,氯化钠溶解度由36.0g增大到36.3g,硝酸钾溶解度由31.6g增大到45.8g,因此两物质的溶解度相等的温度在20℃~30℃间,故B正确; ②KNO3的溶解度受度变化影响较大,NaCl的溶解度受温度影响较小,所以NaCl中混有少量的KNO3,可利用蒸发结晶的方法提纯NaCl; ③60℃时,硝酸钾的溶解度是110g;氯化钠的溶解度是37.3g,所以该同学所取的固体物质为硝酸钾;烧杯中的硝酸钾固体是47.4g﹣31.6g=15.8g,加入Wg正好形成饱和溶液,20℃时硝酸钾的溶解度是31.6g,15.8g硝酸钾固体正好溶解在50g水中形成饱和溶液。 故答案为: (1)肥皂水; (2)吸附; (3)①B; ②蒸发结晶; ③硝酸钾;50。 三、简答题(本题包括3个小题,共16分) 20.【解答】解:(1)人体必需的六大类基本营养素有水、无机盐、糖类、蛋白质、油脂和维生素;故填:维生素; (2)糖类、油脂和蛋白质是人体主要的三大供能物质;故填:3; (3)为减少“白色污染”,可采取的措施有使用可降解塑料,塑料制品回收循环利用等;故填:使用可降解塑料; (4)葡萄糖在酶的催化作用下,与氧气反应生成水和二氧化碳,故填:C6H12O6+6O26CO2+6H2O。 21.【解答】解:(1)金属材料包括纯金属与合金,所以一元硬币和硬铝门窗是由金属材料制成的;而玻璃与陶瓷属于无机非金属材料;故填:CD; (2)生铁和钢的含碳量不同,生铁的含碳量是2%至4.3%,钢的含碳量是0.03%至2%之间,故填:含碳量不同; CO在高温条件下与氧化铁反应,生成铁和二氧化碳,其反应的化学方程式为3CO+Fe2O32Fe+3CO2;故填:3CO+Fe2O32Fe+3CO2; (3)①往AgNO3、Cu(NO3)2和Al(NO3)3的混合溶液中加入一定量的铁粉,铁的金属活动性排在铝之后,不会与硝酸铝反应,铁会先与硝酸银反应,硝酸银完全反应后,再与硝酸铜反应,充分反应后过滤,向滤渣中加入稀盐酸,有气泡产生,说明铁有剩余,硝酸银、硝酸铜完全反应,溶液中的溶质是硝酸铝和硝酸亚铁;故填:酸铝和硝酸亚铁; ②因为硝酸铝与铁不反应,所以反应后的溶液中一定含有硝酸铝;向含有AgNO3、Cu(NO3)2的混合溶液中加入一定量的铁粉,铁粉会首先置换硝酸银中的银,待硝酸银完全反应后继续与硝酸铜发生反应;过滤,向滤渣中滴加稀盐酸,无气泡产生,说明滤渣金属中不含有铁,滤液中一定含有硝酸亚铁,可能含有硝酸铜,还可能含有硝酸银,所以滤液中溶质的组成情况有:①硝酸铝和硝酸亚铁;②硝酸铝、硝酸亚铁和硝酸铜;③硝酸铝、硝酸亚铁、硝酸铜和硝酸银;故填:3。 22.【解答】解:(1)A﹣F为初中化学中常见的六种物质,其中A、B、C、D、E为五种不同类别的物质,A为大理石的主要成分,所以A是碳酸钙,碳酸钙会与D反应,所以D是酸,可以是盐酸,C会转化成碳酸钙,会与盐酸反应,所以C是氢氧化钙,B会与碳酸钙相互转化,会与氢氧化钙反应,所以B是二氧化碳,盐酸转化成的E会与F反应,所以E是氢气,F可以是氧化铜,经过验证,推导正确,所以C物质的一种用途是改良酸性土壤; (2)D→E的反应是盐酸和活泼金属反应生成盐和氢气,基本反应类型为置换反应; (3)B→A的反应是二氧化碳和氢氧化钙反应生成碳酸钙沉淀和水,化学方程式为:CO2+Ca(OH)2=CaCO3↓+H2O; (4)F的化学式可能是CuO。 故答案为:(1)改良酸性土壤; (2)置换反应; (3)CO2+Ca(OH)2=CaCO3↓+H2O; (4)CuO。 四、实验题(本题包括3个小题,共18分) 23.【解答】解:(1)图一为测定空气里氧气含量的实验。点燃红磷前,需要用弹簧夹夹紧胶皮管的原因是防止红磷燃烧放热导致集气瓶中的气体逸出。铁丝在空气中不能燃烧,所以该实验中不能用铁丝代替红磷;故填:防止红磷燃烧放热导致集气瓶中的气体逸出;铁丝在空气中不能燃烧; (2)烧杯A中的浓氨水与烧杯B中的酚酞试液没有接触,但是实验中观察到烧杯B中的液体由无色变为红色,这说明分子是在不断运动的;故填:不断运动; (3)硝酸铵溶于水会吸收热量,造成集气瓶内的温度降低,气压减小,所以在外界大气压的作用下,U形管内的红墨水左端升高,右端下降;故填:高于。 24.【解答】解:(1)仪器①的名称是锥形瓶; (2)过氧化氢在二氧化锰的催化作用下生水和氧气,化学方程式为:2H2O22H2O+O2↑;为了防止收集到的气体不纯,当观察到导管口的气泡连续均匀冒出时再收集; (3)用收集的氧气完成木炭燃烧的实验(如图F所示),观察到的现象是:剧烈燃烧、发出白光、放出热量; (4)实验室常用醋酸钠和碱石灰两种固体混合物加热制得甲烷气体,不需要加热,属于固液常温型,发生装置应选B;甲烷的密度比空气大、难溶于水,常用 向下排空气法和排水法收集。 故答案为: (1)锥形瓶; (2)2H2O22H2O+O2↑;气泡连续均匀冒出; (3)剧烈燃烧、发出白光、放出热量; (4)B; D或E。 25.【解答】解:上述实验中发生的化学反应有: ①CaO+H2O=Ca(OH)2 ②Na2CO3+Ca(OH)2═CaCO3↓+2NaOH。 故填:Na2CO3+Ca(OH)2═CaCO3↓+2NaOH。 [猜想假设] 小雨猜想是CaCO3;小亮猜想是CaCO3和Ca(OH)2 小亮猜想含有Ca(OH)2的理由是氢氧化钙微溶于水,固体中可能含有没有溶解的氢氧化钙。 故填:氢氧化钙微溶于水。 [实验验证] 2.小亮取少量固体A于试管中,加入足量水振荡,静置,向上层清液中滴加无色酚酞溶液,观察到溶液变红色,说明溶液中含有氢氧化钙,证明自己的猜想正确。 故填:溶液变红色。 [反思评价] 同学们经过讨论后认为小雨的实验不足以确定固体A的成分,理出是固体中含有氢氧化钙,则溶液B中含有反应生成的氢氧化钠和溶解的氢氧化钙。 故填:固体中含有氢氧化钙,则溶液B中含有反应生成的氢氧化钠和溶解的氢氧化钙。 [讨论交流] 猜想三是正确的,理由是固体中含有氢氧化钙,则溶液B中含有反应生成的氢氧化钠和溶解的氢氧化钙。 故填:固体中含有氢氧化钙,则溶液B中含有反应生成的氢氧化钠和溶解的氢氧化钙。 [实验验证] 取少量溶液B于试管中,滴加碳酸钠溶液,产生白色沉淀,说明溶液中含有氢氧化钙,证明猜想三正确。 故填:碳酸钠。 五、计算题(本题包括2个小题,共8分) 26.【解答】解:(1)由化学式的意义可知,一个香叶醛分子中共有10+16+1=27个原子。 (2)15.2g香叶醛中含有氧元素的质量为:15.2g×=1.6g。 故答为:(1)27;(2)1.6。 27.【解答】解:设生成的硫酸锌的质量为x,生成的氢气的质量为y, Zn+H2SO4=ZnSO4+H2↑ 65 161 2 6.5g x y == x=16.1g y=0.2g 反应后所得溶液中溶质的质量分数为×100%=10% 答:反应后所得溶液中溶质的质量分数为10%。

  • ID:4-6033971 2019年辽宁省本溪市中考英语试卷解析版

    初中英语/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年辽宁省本溪市中考英语试卷 第一部分 选择题(共50分)Ⅰ. 单项选择 (共15分,每小题1分)从下面各题的四个选项中选出一个最佳答案. 1.(1分)The article gives students some___________ about how to stay safe online.(  ) A.suggestions B.activities C.decisions D.advantages 2.(1分)Many people find that listening to soft music helps ______ to sleep well.(  ) A.him B.her C.them D.it 3.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Shall we stop and wait for others? ﹣﹣﹣Sounds good. I think they will catch up______ a few minutes.(  ) A.during B.after C.for D.in 4.(1分)The Greens like the quietness in the countryside. The city is too ______ for them.(  ) A.comfortable B.dangerous C.noisy D.perfect 5.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Look at the dark clouds, and the wind is blowing strongly. ﹣﹣﹣It ______that a big storm is coming.(  ) A.sounds B.seems C.feels D.smells 6.(1分)Mr.Liu _________ watches TV.He thinks watching TV is a waste of time.(  ) A.often B.seldom C.always D.usually 7.(1分)Frank is an honest boy and he never tells a lie. We all _______ him.(  ) A.miss B.mind C.doubt D.trust 8.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Ling ling, you'll feel sleepy tomorrow _______ you go to bed early. ﹣﹣﹣OK, Mom. I'll go to bed at once.(  ) A.if B.unless C.though D.because 9.(1分)The man _______ be a doctor in this hospital, but I'm not sure.(  ) A.must B.would C.can D.might 10.(1分)As far as I know, the robot that can sweep the floor ________ in the 1980s.(  ) A.is invented B.invented C.was invented D.has invented 11.(1分)To feed her little son. Mrs. Smith has to _______ the vegetables and meat.(  ) A.make up B.put up C.set up D.cut up 12.(1分)﹣﹣﹣I went to your home yesterday morning, but you weren't in. ﹣﹣﹣Well, I ______along the river at that time.(  ) A.walked B.was walking C.am walking D.have walked 13.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Could you tell me how I can improve my English? ﹣﹣﹣Sure. _______, you could speak it as much as possible.(  ) A.After all B.In the end C.By the way D.First of all 14.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Simon has been________ school for 2 days. What's wrong with him? ﹣﹣﹣It's said that he has a cold.(  ) A.nervous about B.thirsty for C.absent from D.worried about 15.(1分)﹣﹣﹣I am afraid I'm too tired to walk on. ﹣﹣﹣_________. I believe you can do it.(  ) A.That's for sure B.I hope so. C.Come on D.All right Ⅱ.补全对话 (共5分,每空1分)从方框内所给的选项中选择恰当的句子完成此对话.(有两个多余选项) 16.(5分)(Betty meets Mary before the English exam of their entrance exams.) A:Hello, Mary! B: Hello, Betty! Finishing the exams this afternoon means that our middle school life is over. A: (1)   . B: I'm going to do something special. A: Something special?(2)   . B: Sure. I plan to make breakfast for my parents every morning as they have done for me these years. A: You're right. B: (3)   . A: I've planned to play with my classmates from morning to evening every day.(4)    I will stay with my parents as much as possible. B: I agree. A: Oh, it's time to take the exam. I hope you will get good grades! Good luck. B: (5)   . A. Can you tell me more?B. What do you mean?C. What are you going to do this summer vacation?D. But now I want to change my idea.E. What about you?F. The same to you.G. What did you plan to do? Ⅲ.完形填空(共10分,每空1分)根据短文内容,从各题所给的四个选项中选择一个最佳答案. 17.(10分)A college student stayed up all night studying for his zoology(动物学) test the next day. The following morning, (1)    he entered the classroom, he saw ten birds on the desks. Each bird was (2)    with a sack(麻布袋) and only the legs were outside. The teacher told the students that the test would be to watch each pair of bird legs and write down the name and the living habits of each bird. The student looked at each pair of bird legs. (3)    of them looked the same to him. He began to get upset. He stayed up all night studying, but now he had to name birds by their legs. The more he (4)    about it, the sadder he got. He (5)    not think of any answers after a long time. He went to the teacher's desk and said, "What a strange test! (6)    could anyone tell differences among birds by their legs? I'm afraid I have to take the exam later. " (7)    these words, the student put his test paper on the desk and walked to the door. The teacher was(8)   .The class was so big that he didn't know every student's (9)   , so when the student reached the door, the teacher (10)    out, "One moment, boy, what's your name?" The student pulled up his trouser legs and said, "My dear teacher, can you guess my name by my legs?" (1)A. before B. while C. after D. since (2)A. covered B. served C. connected D. shared (3)A. Both B. All C. Neither D. None (4)A. talked B. asked C. thought D. heard (5)A. could B. must C. might D. should (6)A. How B. Why C. When D. Where (7)A. Against B. Through C. With D. About (8)A. happy B. surprised C. thankful D. satisfied (9)A. name B. address C. hobby D. future (10)A. blew B. put C. cut D. called IV. 阅读理解(共20分,每小题5分)根据短文内容,从各题所给的四个选项中选择一个正确答案. 18.(5分)A river was running happily in the hill, the valley(山谷) and the field. Soon it was stopped by a huge rock and the river was a little afraid and worried what it could do. The rock said, "Hi, baby!Where are you going?" The river answered, "I'm going to the sea. My mother is waiting for me." The rock made fun of the river and said, "You're too young. Go back to the hill at once. You can't get there. Don't come back here again!" The river was surprised to hear that and said, "I can only go forwards(向前).There's no river that goes backwards(向后)!" The rock became angry and warned the river. "Don't speak! If you don't go back, you will have to change your direction. Don't want to run over my body!" The river asked helplessly, "Where should I go?" "You can go anywhere you like. Just don't come close to me!" While they are talking, more and more water came here. Then it began to get out of control. The river ran quickly over the rock and the rock was washed pitifully. The river said proudly, "A weak person will change his goal and direction. A person who is strong will only go ahead and nothing can stop him!" (1)The final goal of the river was to go to the   . A. field B. valley C. sea D. hill (2)The rock wanted the river to   . A. get out of control B. come close to him C. make fun of him D. go back to the hill (3)The river ran over the rock   . A. slowly B. softly C. quickly D. carelessly (4)After meeting the rock, the river became    at last instead of being afraid. A. proud B. helpless C. pitiful D. worried. (5)The passage tells us that we should    when facing difficulties. A. Avoid solving the problem B. become strong and go ahead C. change our dream directly D.be used to giving up silently 19.(5分) Chinese painting is one of the oldest art forms in the world. Painting in the traditional style is known today in Chinese as Guohua. Traditional Chinese painting is done with a brush dipped(浸) in black or colored ink(墨水).Paper and silk are also needed for painting. The finished work can be put on scrolls(轴).Traditional Chinese painting includes landscape(山水)painting, figures(人物), bird and flowers. Landscape painting is regarded as the highest form of Chinese painting. Chinese folk(民间的) music is an important part of Chinese culture. It has a long history. One of the Confucianism Classics(儒家经典 ) Shi Jing, contains many folk songs. They are much loved by people up to now. Traditional Chinese musical instruments are symbols of Chinese culture, such as guqin, guzheng, pipa, erhu, xiao and chime(编钟). Sheng and suona are also popular in northern villages in China. Xi'an drum music is large traditional drum music. It is a valuable part of Chinese ancient music, and is regarded as the "living fossil(化石) of Chinese ancient music" in the world. (1)People usually use    for doing traditional Chinese painting. ①brushes ②ink ③color pencils ④paper ⑤silk A.①②③④ B.②③④⑤ C.①②③⑤ D.①②④⑤ (2)The highest form of Chinese painting is   . A. landscape painting B. figures C. bird and flowers D. trees (3)The underlined word "contain" means   . A. hold B. control C. prevent D. include (4)    is called the "living fossil of Chinese ancient music" in the world. A. Folk music B. Country music C. Ancient music D. Xi'an drum music (5)The two paragraphs above are about   . A. Chinese music B. Chinese painting C. Chinese culture D. Chinese history 20.(5分)Once upon a time, the colors in the world started to argue. All thought they were the most important and useful. Green said, "I'm the symbol of life and hope. I was chosen for grass, trees and leaves. Look around and you will see me everywhere." Blue followed, "You only consider the earth, but look at the sky and the sea." Yellow smiled, "I bring hope and warmth into the world. Look at the color of the sun and the moon." Orange continued, "I'm the color of joy. My beauty is so fantastic that no one can think of you at sunrise or sunset." Red shouted out, "I'm the ruler of you. I'm the color of life and live. So nobody can take my place." Purple stood up, "I'm the color of power. People never question me! They just listen and follow." Finally, indigo(靛青色) spoke slowly. "I stand for thought and reflection(反省).Yet all of you just need them." Suddenly, the sky became dark and rain started to pour down. The colors all gathered(聚集) in fear. Rain began to speak, "Join hands and come to me." The colors did as they were told. Rain added, "Don't you know you each are made for a certain purpose? When it rains, appear together to show that you can all live in peace. The rainbow(彩虹) is the color of your friendship." (1)The color green thought it was the most important because   . A. It made the world full of joy B. it was the symbol of life and love C. people could see it here and there D.it was the color of grass and flowers (2)    gives the world hope and warmth. A. Red B. Blue C. Yellow D. Purple (3)Each color is made for a    purpose. A. similar B. certain C. funny D. personal (4)According to the passage, we can know   . A. orange stands for powerful and life B. all the colors were happy to greet rain C. Blue is the color of the sea and the sky D. The sky became dark and began to snow (5)The best title for the passage can be "   ". A. The color of friendship B. The performance of colors C. The colors in the world D. The courage of the rainbow 21.(5分)Holland(荷兰)is the magical land of tulips(郁金香) and windmills(风车). The tulips bloom(开花) from March until May. Holland is famous as the largest flower selling country in the world. The windmills, however, are important for the people of Holland. Keukenhof Keukenhof is the most famous and largest flower park in the world. Will you visit Holland in spring? Then be sure to visit Keukenhof, you will see the beautiful Holland tulips and other famous flowers in Holland. Single Bloemenmarket Rain or shine, this famous floating(漂浮的)flowers market in Amsterdam is filled with colorful fresh flowers from Monday to Sunday. Though the best months are in March, April or May, the floating flowers market is a great place to find tulips at any time of the year. Schiedam Schiedam is the best choice if you want to see the largest windmills in the world. With heights up to 33 meters, they are hard to miss. Zaanse Schans Zannse Schans is also a good place you should visit. About 250 years ago, over 600 windmills formed the first industrial area in the world. It produces paint, paper and so on. Today it's an open﹣air conservation area(自然保护区) and museum, which interests thousands of visitors each year. (1)Holland is    selling country in the world. A. the largest flower B. the largest windmills C. the smallest flower D. the smallest windmills (2)If you visit Keukenhof in spring, you can enjoy   . A. tulips and other flowers B. tulips and some windmills C. different kinds of plants D. plants and some windmills (3)You can see tulips    in the floating flower market. A. every month except March B. at any time of the year C. only in March, April or May D. from Monday to Saturday (4)The largest windmills in the world lie in   . A. Amsterdam B. Zaanse Schans C. Schiedam D. Keukenhof (5)From the last paragraph, we know Zaanse Schans   . A. has few visitors each year B.is an animal conservation area C. doesn't have any windmills D.is a good place to see windmills 第二部分 非选择题(共70分)V. 补全对话(共5分,每空1分)在下面对话的空白处填入适当的话语(话语可以是句子、短语或词),使对话完整. 22.(5分)A: Hello, this is Tim. May I speak to Bob? B: Speaking, Tim. A: Hi, Bob(1)   ? B: Yes, I have nothing to do tomorrow afternoon. What's up? A: I have two tickets for the basketball game tomorrow.(2)   ? B: Yes, I'd love to. I am always expecting to watch a basketball game (3)   ? A: My brother bought two tickets for me yesterday. B: (4)   ? A: Sixty yuan for each. B: Great! What time shall we meet? A: (5)   . B: Five o'clock? OK, see you then. A: See you. VI. 句子翻译(共15分)(A)根据所给中文完成句子翻译.(共11分.局部翻译,每小题1分,整句翻译,每小题1分) 23.(1分)5G 来了!它将使我们的生活越来越好. 5G is coming! It will make our life   . 24.(1分)政府鼓励我们科学地处理垃圾. The government encourages us    rubbish in a scientific way. 25.(1分)你能好好利用时间吗? Can you   ? 26.(1分)下周我们学校将有一场才艺表演.     a talent show in our school next week. 27.(1分)沿着古老的丝绸之路旅行是一次多么有趣的经历啊!     it is to travel along the old Silk Road! 28.(2分)目前为止,我已经读了10本英文书.    . 29.(2分)每天不要忘记给你的父母一个微笑.    . 30.(2分)我们正在讨论快餐为什么有害健康.    . (B) 阅读下面的短文,将短文中画线部分的句子译成中文.(共4分,每小题4分) 31.(4分)Good manners mean good actions in social communication.(1)A person who has good manners is welcome because he always thinks of others. A person with good manners won't say anything that will hurt others. A person with good manners won't influence people when they are talking. Then how can we learn to have good manners? (2)In fact, that is not difficult at all. Good manners just mean respect (尊重) for other people. (1)    (2)    VII. 完形填空(共10分,每空1分)根据短文内容,用方中所给词的正确形式填空,使短文完整、正确.(每个词只能用一次,有两个多余词) 32.(10分) him; once; remember;love;still;nothing;ask; through; pretty; baby;understand; on One sunny day, an angle(天使) ran out of heaven(天堂) and came down to this world. He walked (1)    the city and the village. Before his trip was over, he wanted to take something away to (2)    his trip here. He noticed a garden. He picked the most beautiful roses and said, "I see (3)    more beautiful than these." Looking on a little further, he saw a bright﹣eyed baby. The baby was looking at its mother. He said, "Oh, the expression on its face is even (4)    than the roses. I will take it." Then he saw the baby's mother. The mother was also looking at her baby. The (5)    to her own baby was pouring out of the mother's eyes just like the water of a river. The angel said to(6)   , "Oh, that mother's love is the best thing I have seen. I will take it, too!" He flew away with the three things. When he came back, he had a look at the three things(7)   more. He looked at the flowers and they had wilted(枯萎).He looked at the(8)    expression and it had disappeared. He looked at the mother's love and it was (9)    there. Then he (10)    the only thing that could keep its beauty all the way was a mother's love. I could last forever. Ⅷ. 任务型阅读(共20分,每小题10分)阅读下列短文,简略回答所提出的问题. 33.(10分) Ma Yun is in his words There are always many young people who want to learn something from me. In fact, I'm not as lucky as most of you. I tried 3 times for colleges but all failed. For the fourth time, I tried for the teachers' college and they accepted me. I applied(申请) for jobs for 30 times. You can guess the results. It was so difficult at that time. I was down but I didn't give up and fought on. So you can see a new Ma Yun now. You are lucky enough. You are at the best time of this century. The best wealth you have is that you are young. Among all the challenges, I think the biggest one is education. Something we teach our kids is too old. So we have to research what is the best way and what are the best things to teach our kids. The future you face is not a competition for knowledge but a competition for creativity and imagination. When people have problems, the chance will come. If you can solve them, then the chance will belong to you. (1)How many times did Ma Yun try for colleges?    (2)Why did Ma Yun succeed?    (3)What is the biggest challenge in Ma Yun's opinion?    (4)What kind of competition will young people face?    (5)Are problems good or bad things according to the passage?    阅读下面短文,完成表格. 34.(10分)Some people around you look so cool and happy, but you often feel lonely. Or the friends you have do not really understand you that make you feel lonely, too. So what can be done when you have this feeling? Understand people's differences Not everyone has to do things the same way or behave the same way. Find people who have the same feeling. That is always a good basic for the friendship. You can take part in activities outside school like sports, art classes and dancing classes. There you can have more chances to find people who have the same interest as you. Develop your friendship Friendships do not just happen, and they need work. Phone your friends once in a while. Being there when they need you means that they will do the same for you. Accept others' invitations Even if someone invites you to a neighborhood street party, you never know who else will be there. Laughing and playing together could start a new friendship. Start a club Make your circle of friends big by starting a club. Going camping together or regularly (有规律地) going to the movies doesn't take much time. The title: (1)    Understand people's differences ●Not everyone does things or behaves the same way.●Find the people who have the same (2)    as you. Develop your friendship ●Please be there when (3)   , so they will do the same for you. Accept others' invitations ●You should go to the parties if you (4)   .●Maybe you will make some new friends in these parties. (5)    ●Try to make your circle of friends big.●It doesn't take much time to take part in some regular activities. IX. 书面表达(共20分) 35.(5分)根据要求完成小作文,词数:30词左右.(共5分) 回想初中阶段,你的班级或学校举办的哪一次活动对你影响至深,说说你在活动中做了什么,并有什么样的感受或收获. ______. 根据要求完成大作文,词数:80-100词. 36.(15分)每年十月份,越来越多的游客来本溪赏枫叶.请你根据以下提示,说说如何给游客可留下"景美人更美"的好印象,从自身做起,做文明本溪人! 提示词:beautiful views美丽的景色 要求: 1.语意连贯,层次清晰,书写规范. 2.文中不得出现真实姓名与校名. 3. 短文开头已给出,不计入总词数. How to be a polite citizen Benxi is a good place to watch maple leaves (枫叶) in October._________. 2019年辽宁省本溪市中考英语试卷 参考答案与试题解析 第一部分 选择题(共50分)Ⅰ. 单项选择 (共15分,每小题1分)从下面各题的四个选项中选出一个最佳答案. 1.【解答】suggestions建议;activities活动;decisions决定;advantages优点.根据语境可知这篇文章给了学生一些关于如何在网上保持安全的建议. 故选:A. 2.【解答】考查人称代词.根据 helps,可知动词后用人称的宾格形式,主语是Many people 复数,所以用them. 故选:C. 3.【解答】for"为、为了";during"在…期间";in"在…之内";after"在…之后",四者都是介词.因in+时间,在…之后,表将来. "一会儿之后"可翻译为"in a few minutes",由题干"﹣﹣﹣我们应该停下来等别人吗?﹣﹣﹣那听起来很好.我想他们一会儿就会赶上来的."可知,空格用in,因此答案应是in. 故选:D. 4.【解答】A表示舒服的,B表示危险的,C表示吵闹的,D表示完美的.根据题干可知格林一家人喜欢乡下的宁静,城市对他们来说太吵闹了,其中quiteness和noisy刚好对应. 故选:C. 5.【解答】本题考查的动词词义的辨析,分析:从上下句的语境和句意可知,回答的是好像/似乎一场大暴雨即将来临.所给的四个答案分析:sound 听起来;seem 似乎,好像;feel 感觉;smell 闻起来,因此只有答案B符合本题意思要求. 故选:B. 6.【解答】A表示经常,B表示很少,C表示总是,D表示通常.根据题干中He thinks watching TV is a waste of time.可知刘先生认为看电视是一种浪费时间,由此可知他是很少看电视的. 故选:B. 7.【解答】本题考查的是动词词义的辨析.分析:从上下句的语境分析,回答的是我们都相信他.所给的四个答案分析:miss 错过,想念;mind 介意;doubt 怀疑;trust 相信. 因此只有答案D符合本题意思要求. 故选:D. 8.【解答】A表示如果,B表示除非,C表示虽然、即使,D表示因为.根据题干中可知妈妈告诉玲玲除非她早点睡觉,否则明天会瞌睡的,此处应用unless. 故选:B. 9.【解答】A表示必须,B表示将,C表示能、可以,D表示可能.根据题干中but I'm not sure可知这个男人可能是这个医院里的医生. 故选:D. 10.【解答】根据意思:据我所知,能扫地的机器人是20世纪80年代被发明的.一般过去时态的被动态,was/were done.主语是单数,故用was. 故选:C. 11.【解答】A表示组成、编造、化妆,B表示张贴、搭建,C表示建立,D表示切碎.根据题干可知为了喂她的小儿子,史密斯夫人不得不把蔬菜和肉切碎. 故选:D. 12.【解答】根据题干可知说话人昨天那个时候正在沿着河边散步,其中at that time是过去进行时常用的时间状语,其结构是主语+was/were+doing. 故选:B. 13.【解答】A表示毕竟,B表示最后,C表示顺便说一下,D表示首先.根据题干可知说话人建议对方如想提高英语,首先要尽可能经常地说英语. 故选:D. 14.【解答】be nervous about表示对……感到紧张,be thirsty for表示渴望,be absent from表示缺席,be worried about表示担心.根据题干中What's wrong with hime?以及It's said that he has a cold.可知西蒙已经2天没有去上学了. 故选:C. 15.【解答】考查情境对话.A.That's for sure那是肯定的;B.I hope so我希望如此.C.Come on加油;D.All right好的.根据I believe you can do it.可知应说加油. 故选:C. Ⅱ.补全对话 (共5分,每空1分)从方框内所给的选项中选择恰当的句子完成此对话.(有两个多余选项) 16.【解答】细节理解题 (1)C.根据答语I'm going to do something special.我打算去做一些特别的事情.可知需要询问,你打算做什么?与C吻合,即What are you going to do this summer vacation?. (2)A.根据答语 Sure. I plan to make breakfast for my parents every morning as they have done for me these years,当然,我希望每天早上给我父母做早饭,因为他们这些年都为我做.可知询问了是否能告诉我多一些,即Can you tell me more? (3)E.根据答语I've planned to play with my classmates from morning to evening every day我本来打算从早到晚和我同学玩,可知是在询问对方怎么样,即What about you? (4)D.根据后文I will stay with my parents as much as possible.我会和我父母尽可能多待在一起.可知与前文的I've planned to play with my classmates from morning to evening every day我本来打算从早到晚和我同学玩,是不一样的,说明改变了主意,与D吻合,即But now I want to change my idea. (5)F.根据上文 I hope you will get good grades! Good luck.我希望你能获得好成绩,祝你好运!可知作为礼貌用语,需要同样祝福对方,与F吻合The same to you. Ⅲ.完形填空(共10分,每空1分)根据短文内容,从各题所给的四个选项中选择一个最佳答案. 17.【解答】21﹣25 CABCA 26﹣30 ACBAD 1.C 考查连词辨析.A在…之前;B在…期间;C在…之后;D自从;根据下句 he saw ten birds on the desks桌子上有一些鸟,应该是进入教室后,故答案是C. 2.A 考查动词辨析.A覆盖;B服务;C连接;D分享;根据后面only the legs were outside.只有腿在外面,前面应该是麻布袋盖着,故答案是A. 3.B 考查代词辨析.A两者都;B全部的;C两者都不;D没有一个;根据 (  )of them looked the same to him,这里应该是在他看来,他们都是一样的.故答案是B. 4.C 考查动词辨析.A谈论;B问;C想;D听;根据上句He stayed up all night studying, but now he had to name birds by their legs他整晚都在学习,但现在他不得不用它们的腿来命名鸟类,后面应该是越想越伤心,故答案是C. 5.A 考查动词辨析.A能;B必须;C可能;D应该根据He (5)not think of any answers after a long time.应该是一段时间他想不出任何答案,故答案是A. 6.A 考查疑问副词辨析.A怎样;B为什么;C何时;D哪儿;根据(  )could anyone tell differences among birds by their legs?结合文章,这里应该是如何通过鸟腿能告诉它们有什么不同,故答案是A. 7.C 考查介词辨析.A反对;B通过;C和…D关于;根据(  )these words, the student put his test paper on the desk and walked to the door.这里应该是边说这些话,边把卷纸放到桌子上,表伴随,故答案是C. 8.B 考查形容词辨析.A开心的;B惊奇的;C感恩的;D满足的;根据上文学生的话,这里The teacher was应该是老师非常震惊,故答案是B. 9.A 考查名词辨析.A名字;B地址;C爱好;D未来;根据下文what's your name?你叫什么名?应该是不知道学生名,故答案是A. 10.D 考查动词辨析.A吹;B放;C切;D叫;根据下句"One moment, boy, what's your name?等一下,孩子,你叫什么名字?"应该是老师喊到,故答案是D. IV. 阅读理解(共20分,每小题5分)根据短文内容,从各题所给的四个选项中选择一个正确答案. 18.【解答】1. C 细节理解题.由第三行The river answered, "I'm going to the sea. My mother is waiting for me."可知,小河回答说:"我要去海边,我妈妈在等我."由此可知,小河最终的目的地是大海.故选C. 2. D 细节理解题.由第四行You're too young. Go back to the hill at once.可知,岩石对小河说,它太小了,应该马上回到山上去.由此可知,岩石想要小河回到山上去.故选D. 3. C 细节理解题.由倒数第二句The river ran quickly over the rock and the rock was washed pitifully.可知,河水很快流过岩石,岩石被无情地冲刷着.故选C. 4. A 细节理解题.由最后一行The river said proudly可知,小河骄傲地说了一些话.由此可知,最后小河变得自豪而又骄傲.故选A. 5. B 逻辑推理题.由文章最后一行A weak person will change his goal and direction. A person who is strong will only go ahead and nothing can stop him可知,一个软弱的人会改变他的目标和方向,一个坚强的人只会前进,没有什么能阻止他.由此可知,这篇文章想要告诉我们当我们面临困难时,我要变得坚强,勇往直前.故选B. 19.【解答】(1)D 细节理解题,根据原文Traditional Chinese painting is done with a brush dipped(浸) in black or colored ink(墨水).Paper and silk are also needed for painting.传统中国画要一支刷子浸到黑色或者有颜色的墨水中完成,纸和丝绸也是需要的,可知物品有brush,ink,paper,silk.故选D. (2)A 细节理解题,根据原文Landscape painting is regarded as the highest form of Chinese painting.山水画被认为是中国画的最高形式,故选A. (3)D 猜测词意题,根据原文, contains many folk songs. They are much loved by people up to now.包括很多民间音乐,直到现在都被很多人喜爱.可知contain的意思是"包括".故选D. (4)D 细节理解题,根据原文 Xi'an drum music is large traditional drum music.西安鼓乐是很大的传统鼓乐, and is regarded as the "living fossil(化石) of Chinese ancient music" in the world,且在世界上被认为是中国古典音乐的活化石.故选D. (5)C 主旨大意题,根据原文,Chinese painting is one of the oldest art forms in the world中国画在世界上是最古老的艺术形式之一, Chinese folk(民间的) music is an important part of Chinese culture这 中国民间的音乐是中国文化的重要部分,主要介绍了中国的传统画以及中国民间音乐,些都属于中国文化的范畴.故选C. 20.【解答】(1)C 细节理解题,根据原文I was chosen for grass, trees and leaves. Look around and you will see me everywhere,我被选择作为草,树木和叶子,看看周围,你会到处都能看到我.可知绿色认为自己重要的原因是人们到处都能看到它.故选C. (2)C 细节理解题,根据原文Yellow smiled,I bring hope and warmth into the world,黄色微笑着说,我给世界带来希望和温暖.故选C. (3)B 细节理解题,根据原文"Don't you know you each are made for a certain purpose? 难道你们不知道你们每个人都有一定的目的?可知每一种颜色都有它存在的一定的目的."一定的"用certain.故选B. (4)C 细节理解题,根据原文 Blue followed, "You only consider the earth, but look at the sky and the sea."蓝色紧跟着,你只是考虑到了地上,但是看看天空和海洋.可知蓝色是天空和海洋的颜色,故选C. (5)A 主旨大意题,根据原文, When it rains, appear together to show that you can all live in peace. The rainbow(彩虹) is the color of your friendship."当下雨的时候,你们可以很平静地一起生活一起出现,彩虹就是你们友谊的颜色.可知本文主要也是讲的团结,友谊方面的哲理.故选A. 21.【解答】(1)A 细节理解题,根据原文 Holland is famous as the largest flower selling country in the world荷兰是作为世界上最大的售花国家而出名,故选A. (2)A 细节理解题,根据原文,Will you visit Holland in spring? Then be sure to visit Keukenhof, you will see the beautiful Holland tulips and other famous flowers in Holland.你会春天去荷兰吗?那么一定要去 Keukenhof,你将会看到很漂亮的荷兰郁金香和其他出名的花朵.故选A. (3)B 细节理解题,根据原文, the floating flowed market is a great place to find tulips at any time of the year.这个漂浮的花朵市场是全年都可以找到郁金香的好地方.故选B. (4)C 细节理解题,根据原文, Schiedam is the best choice if you want to see the largest windmills in the world.如果你想去看世界上最大的风车, Schiedam是最好的选择.故选C. (5)D 细节理解题,根据原文, Zannse Schans is also a good place you should visit. About 250 years ago, over 600 windmills formed the first industrial area in the world,Zannse Schans也是你可以去玩的好地方.大约在250年前,超过600种风车促成了世界上的第一次工业领域.可知Zannse Schans 也是去看风车的好去处.故选D. 第二部分 非选择题(共70分)V. 补全对话(共5分,每空1分)在下面对话的空白处填入适当的话语(话语可以是句子、短语或词),使对话完整. 22.【解答】细节理解题 (1)Are you free tomorrow afternoon? 根据答语Yes, I have nothing to do tomorrow afternoon.是的,我明天下午没事做,可知询问的是,你明天下午有没有空?即Are you free tomorrow afternoon? (2)Would you like to watch it with me?根据答语 Yes, I'd love to. I am always expecting to watch a basketball game 是的,我想去.我一直都期待看一场篮球比赛,可知询问的是,你想不想和我一起去看,即Would you like to watch it with me? (3)How did you get the tickets?根据答语My brother bought two tickets for me yesterday.我哥哥昨天买了两张门票给我.可知询问的是,你是怎么得到门票的呢?即How did you get the tickets? (4)How much are they?根据答语Sixty yuan for each.每张60元.可知需要询问的是票价.即How much are they? (5)Let's meet at 5 o'clock tomorrow afternoon.根据上文What time shall we meet?我们什么时候见面?以及答语答语 Five o'clock? OK, see you then,五点?好的,到时候见.可知回答时间时候提到的是5点钟,结合事件是明天下午的事件安排,所以对应时间是明天下午5点见,即Let's meet at 5 o'clock tomorrow afternoon.. VI. 句子翻译(共15分)(A)根据所给中文完成句子翻译.(共11分.局部翻译,每小题1分,整句翻译,每小题1分) 23.【解答】根据题干,可知考查句型: better and better越来越好, 结合句意:5G 来了!它将使我们的生活越来越好. 故答案为better and better. 24.【解答】根据题干,可知考查句型:deal with处理 ,考查句型encourage sb to do sth鼓励某人做某事. 结合句意:政府鼓励我们科学地处理垃圾. 故答案为 to deal with. 25.【解答】根据题干,可知考查句型: make good use of your time好好利用你的时间,can后接动词原形. 结合句意:你能好好利用时间吗? 故答案为 make good use of your time. 26.【解答】根据题干,可知考查句型:there be句型的一般将来时there will be将会有…, 结合句意:下周我们学校将有一场才艺表演. 故答案为There will be. 27.【解答】根据题干,可知考查句型:what引导的感叹句what a/an+形容词+可数名词单数!an interesting experience一次有趣的经历,时态是一般现在时. 结合句意:沿着古老的丝绸之路旅行是一次多么有趣的经历啊! 故答案为 What an interesting experience. 28.【解答】根据题干,可知考查句型:so far 目前为止,read ten English books读10本英文书 ,时态是现在完成时have+过去分词. 结合句意: 故答案为 I have read ten English books so far. 29.【解答】根据题干,可知考查句型:否定祈使句don't+动词原形开头;forget to do sth忘记做某事;give your parents a smile给你的父母一个微笑 ,结合句意:每天不要忘记给你的父母一个微笑. 故答案为 Don't forget to give your parents a smile every day. 30.【解答】根据题干,可知考查句型:why引导原因状语从句,be bad for对…有害;主句时态是现在进行时be+doing,从句时态是一般现在时 ,主句时态是现在进行时. 结合句意:我们正在讨论快餐为什么有害健康. 故答案为 We are discussing why fast food is bad for our health. (B) 阅读下面的短文,将短文中画线部分的句子译成中文.(共4分,每小题4分) 31.【解答】(1)一个有礼貌的人是受欢迎的,因为他总是为别人着想.英文翻译中文题,根据原文,A person who has good manners is welcome一个有礼貌的人是受欢迎的,其中who引导的是一个定语从句,即who has good manners修饰a person.think of others替别人着想.故得此答案. (2)事实上,学会有礼貌一点儿也不难.英文翻译中文题,根据原文,In fact事实上,that 指的是学会有礼貌, not…at all 一点也不,is not difficult at all.一点也不难.故得此答案. VII. 完形填空(共10分,每空1分)根据短文内容,用方中所给词的正确形式填空,使短文完整、正确.(每个词只能用一次,有两个多余词) 32.【解答】(1)through.考查介词;句意,他走路穿过城市和村庄,可知空缺处需要填入一个介词,表示"通过",用through.故得此答案. (2)remember.考查动词;句意,他想要带走什么去记住他在这儿的旅行.可知空缺处需要填入一个动词,表示"记住",空缺处前的to后接动词原形,表示目的,所以用原形remember,故得此答案. (3)nothing.考查代词;句意,我没有看到过比这些更美丽的了.可知空缺处需要填入一个代词,表示"无物",用nothing.故得此答案. (4)prettier.考查形容词;句意,它的脸上的表情比那些玫瑰更加漂亮.空缺前有be动词,空缺后有than,可知空缺处需要填入一个形容词的比较级,表示"更加漂亮的",用prettier,故得此答案. (5)love.考查名词;句意,妈妈眼中倾泻出来的对她的孩子的爱就像河流的水,可知空缺处需要填入一个名词,表示"爱",用love,故得此答案. (6)himself.考查反身代词;句意,天使对他自己说,可知空缺处需要填入一个反身代词,表示"他自己",用himself,故得此答案. (7)once.考查副词;句意,他再一次看了下三个事物,可知空缺处需要填入一个副词,构成once more 表示"再次",用once,故得此答案. (8)baby's.考查名词所有格;句意,可知空缺处需要填入一个名词所有格词,表示"婴儿的",用baby's.故得此答案. (9)still.考查副词;句意,他看了看那个妈妈的爱,它仍然在那儿.可知空缺处需要填入一个连词,表示"仍然",用still.故得此答案. (10)understood.考查动词;句意,然后他理解了唯一那个可以一直保持它的美丽的是那个妈妈的爱,可知空缺处需要填入一个动词,表示"理解",结合时态是一般过去时态,用understood.故得此答案. Ⅷ. 任务型阅读(共20分,每小题10分)阅读下列短文,简略回答所提出的问题. 33.【解答】(1)Four.细节理解题,根据原文I tried 3 times for colleges but all failed. For the fourth time, I tried for the teachers' college and they accepted me,我尝试了3次考大学但是失败了,第四次,我尝试考师范学校且他们录取我了.所以一共是4次.故得此答案. (2)Because he didn't give up and fought on.细节理解题,根据原文,I was down but I didn't give up and fought on. So you can see a new Ma Yun now.我很失落但是我没有放弃且一直战斗.所以你现在看到了一个全新的马云.故得此答案. (3)He thinks the biggest challenge is education.细节理解题,根据原文,Among all the challenges, I think the biggest one is education.做所有的挑战中,我认为最大的挑战是教育.故得此答案. (4)They will face a competition for creativity and imagination.细节理解题,根据原文,The future you face is not a competition for knowledge but a competition for creativity and imagination.未来你要面对的不是知识的竞争,而是创造力和想象力的竞争.故得此答案. (5)Problems are good things.细节理解题,根据原文,When people have problems, the chance will come. If you can solve them, then the chance will belong to you.当人们有问题时候,机会就会来临.如果你可以解决它们,那么机会就属于你.可知碰到问题是好事.故得此答案. 阅读下面短文,完成表格. 34.【解答】(1)What can be done when you are lonely?考查细节理解题,根据原文,but you often feel lonely. Or the friends you have do not really understand you that make you feel lonely, too. So what can be done when you have this feeling?但是你经常感到孤独,或者你拥有的朋友不理解你让你寂寞,因此当你有这种感觉的时候我们应该做些什么呢?可知本文主要围绕我们应该做些什么来摆脱寂寞.标题用What can be done when you are lonely?故得此答案. (2)feeling and interest.考查细节理解题,根据原文 Find people who have the same feeling,找到有一样感觉的人,There you can have more chances to find people who have the same interest as you.那里你可以有更多的机会找到像你一样有相同兴趣的人.可知要找到与你一样感觉的人和兴趣一样的人.填入feeling and interest.故得此答案. (3)your friends need you 考查细节理解题,根据原文Being there when they need you means that they will do the same for you当朋友需要你的时候就在那里,意味着他们也会对你做一样的事情,可知空缺处需要填入your friends need you ,故得此答案. (4)are invited.考查细节理解题,根据原文, Even if someone invites you to a neighborhood street party, you never know who else will be there即使邀请你去一个街区的聚会,你永远不知道都有谁会在那里.可知如果你被邀请了的话,你应该去参加聚会.结合空缺处,需要用被动语态来表达,被动语态结构是be+过去分词,主语是you,所以用are invited.故得此答案. (5)Start a club考查细节理解题,根据原文 最后一点建议是 Start a club,故得此答案. IX. 书面表达(共20分) 35.【解答】English Festival is a special Festival for our school.I can't forget the 3rd English Festival last April.I took part in a chorus(高分句型一).The song was Big Big world.We practiced singing for a week though the weather was very hot(高分句型二).Then we finally performed well.I felt so happy that we had the chance to show our beautiful sound on the stage.(从活动,活动中做的事情和感受等表达清楚) 根据要求完成大作文,词数:80-100词. 36.【解答】Benxi is a good place to watch maple leaves (枫叶) in October.Let's leave the visitors a good impression not only for the beautiful views ,but also as a Benxi citizen.How to be a polite citizen?(开篇点明题意) First, We must be friendly.Use"please,OK,welcome" with smile when you talk with visitors. Besides, we should be ready to help others(高分句型一).Try to be a helpful person. If visitors need us,we should help them.What's more, we should follow the rules. For example,we mustn't step on the grass or pick flowers. We mustn't drop litter carelessly.At last ,we also need to behave well in public.We stand for our city Benxi in public.So it needs our good manners.(从四个方面展开对成为文明市民的论述) Why not do as above points?Let's try our best to be a polite citizen(高分句型二).(结尾倡议大家成为文明市民)

  • ID:4-6032832 2019年海南省中考英语试卷解析版无听力材料和音频

    初中英语/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年海南省中考英语试卷 I.听句子选图画(共1小题,每小题5分,满分5分看图听句子,选出与句子意思一致的图画.每个句子读一遍 1.(5分) (1)   (2)   (3)   (4)   (5)    Ⅱ.听句子选答语(共5小题,每小题1分,满分5分)根据你所听到的句子,选出正确的答语.每个句子读两遍. 2.(1分)A.Well done. B.I'm not sure. C.See you. 3.(1分)A.Yes. I'd be glad to. B.No,thanks. C. You're right. 4.(1分)A. Only once. B.Two years ago. C. In a month. 5.(1分)A. Im sorry. B. I think so C.I hope not. 6.(1分)A. The same to you. B.It doesnt matter. C. Good idea. Ⅲ、对话理解(共2小题,满分5分)根据你所听到的对话内容,选出能回答所提问题的最佳选项.每段对话读两遍 7.(2分)请听第一段对话,回答下列小题. (1)How long will the sports meeting last? A. For one day. B. For two days. C. For three days. (2)Why won't Mike take part in the high jump? A. Because he isnt good at it. B.Because he has a bad cold. C.Because he hurt his leg. 8.(3分)请听第二段对话,回答下列小题. (1)what does the man need? A. A toothbrush. B. A knife. C. A pencil. (2)What's the man's room number? A.6804. B.8406. C.8604. (3)Where is the tea house? A.On the first floor. B.On the second floor. C. Near the sports center. Ⅳ.短文理解(共1小题,每小题1分,满分1分)根据你所听到的短文内容,选出最佳选项.短文读两遍. 9.(1分)(1)Mary′s   sent her some chickens as a birthday present. A. Father B.mother C.uncle (2)The box of chickens arrived   . A. before her birthday B.on her birthday C. after her birthday (3)Mary dropped the box because   . A. the box was so heavy B. she wanted to open it C. the chickens went out (4)It took Mary hours to   that morning. A. feed the chickens B. find the chicker C. carry the chickens (5)Mary got   MORE chickens at last. A. four B.six C. ten V.单项选择(共5小题,每小题1分,满分5分)A)单词辨音找出画线部分与其他单词发音不同的选项.(5分) 10.(1分)找出画线部分与其他单词发音不同的选项.(  ) A.safe B.page C.lab 11.(1分)找出画线部分与其他单词发音不同的选项.(  ) A.follow B.rose C.hobby 12.(1分)找出画线部分与其他单词发音不同的选项.(  ) A.worse B.storm C.north 13.(1分)找出画线部分与其他单词发音不同的选项.(  ) A.autumn B.August C.aunt 14.(1分)找出画线部分与其他单词发音不同的选项.(  ) A.knee B.knock C.kilo B)选择填空.从A、B、C三个选项中选出一个能填入空白处的最佳选项.(15分) 15.(1分)﹣﹣﹣It's time______class. Lets go into the classroom. ﹣﹣﹣OK.(  ) A.for B.of C.in 16.(1分)Chinese learning is popular with people all over______world.(  ) A.a B./ C.the 17.(1分)My cousin and I often walk to the______to see pandas on weekends.(  ) A.bank B.zoo C.market 18.(1分)Mr. Black's speech is______.It helps us have a better understanding of life.(  ) A.silly B.awful C.excellent 19.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Excuse me,______? ﹣﹣﹣It's June 26th.2019(  ) A.what is the date B.whose is the bike C.how is the weather 20.(1分)We didn't cut the cake______ Amy made a wish.(  ) A.because B.until C.if 21.(1分)As students, we should go over lessons and do our homework______.(  ) A.carefully B.finall C.slowly 22.(1分)David fell fast asleep while he______a newspaper.(  ) A.reads B.has read C.was reading 23.(1分)﹣﹣Would you please______your e﹣mail address? I missed it just now. ﹣﹣No problem.It's fox@163.com.(  ) A.repeat B.review C.record 24.(1分)Shanghai has a______population than that in many other cities.(  ) A.large B.larger C.largest 25.(1分)Mrs Green refuses______sweet food. She doesn't want to get fat.(  ) A.eat B.eating C.to eat 26.(1分)﹣﹣﹣China plans to send another spaceship into space. ﹣﹣﹣Wow! More and more secrets______soon.(  ) A.are going to discover B.will be discovered C.have discovered 27.(1分)﹣﹣﹣______hard﹣working boy Zhou Bin is! ﹣﹣﹣Yes. I' m sure he'll pass the test.(  ) A.What a B.What C.How 28.(1分)Families usually______new pictures of flowers or fish before Spring Festival.(  ) A.give up B.put up C.set up 29.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Sandy, do you know______? ﹣﹣﹣Yes, Some news about black holes.(  ) A.what Tom is searching for B.what is Tom searching for C.who Tom is searching for Ⅵ.完形填空(共1小题,每小题10分,满分10分)阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每小题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项. 30.(10分)Patty got home after school as usual. She walked in, went to the sofa and sat down, looking at the (1)   . "What′s wrong with you? "asked Kathy, her elder sister. "(2)   ." Kathy was a thoughtful high school girl. She wouldn't leave things like that "You (3)   be in trouble. You're usually happy when you get home from school. Patty kept sitting with her head down. "I hate school! I hate my class! I hate that new(4)   . "l know what you mean, Patty. You don' t hate anyone. "Well! Jemy told my best friend Betty, that she would make friends with her if Betty(5)    being my friend. And now Betty doesn't play with me after class." "Thats not very (6)    , Kathy said, How about your other friends? You have other friends,don't you?" "Yes, "Patty answered, trying not to cry. "(7)    Jerry made me lose my best friend. "Patty, you didn' t lose your friend." "l just told you,I did!" "Listen, my little sister. You don't lose friends. You just (8)   your real friends. Your real friends will (9)    leave you when they meet new friends." The next day, Patty walked in, went to the sofa and sat down as yesterday. But the difference was that the (10)    look came back to her face. It was clear that she had got out of the trouble. (1)A. door B.window C.floor (2)A. Something B. Nothing C. Everything (3)A. should B.must C.would (4)A. girl B.boy C.teacher (5)A. considered B.preferred C.stopped (6)A.nice B.helpful C.easy (7)A. So B.And C.But (8)A. find out B. care for C.hear from (9)A. sometimes B.never C.seldom (10)A. angry B.happy C.peaceful 第三部分阅读理解(共两大题,满分30分)Ⅶ.阅读理解(共3小题,每小题10分,满分30分)阅读下列三篇语言材料,根据语言材料的内容,从每小题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出能回答所提问题或完成所给句子的最佳选项. 31.(10分)Do you use memes(表情包)to talk with your friends online? Memes are sometimes more fun to use than words. Here are some popular ones. In this meme, a duck is looking at something, Actress Zhou Dongyu's face is a bit similar to the little duck's face. Many Intemet users find it funny to compare their faces. In this meme, Nick Young is smiling with a confused expression(疑惑的表情) with question marks around his head, Young plays in the NBA for the Golden State Warriors, He made this expression on a Tv show after his mother called him a clown(小丑). In this meme, Mo Gutou is pointing to himself and saying"Are you talking to me? The cartoon characters expression is from a human face. Now many people like making their own special expressions online and those expressions online and those expressions become popular memes. In this meme, Yue Yunpeng is covering his mouth with his left hand. He looks surprised. Many Intemet users think this meme is lively. (1)Zhou Dongyu's   is a bit similar to the little ducks. A.nose B. mouth C.face (2)Nick Young made the popular expression for the first time   . A. in the basketball game B.on a Tv show C. at home (3)Mo Gutou is   and saying"Are you talking to me?" A.pointing to himself B. looking at something C.covering his mouth (4)Many Intemet users think Yue Yunpeng's meme is   . A.lively B.cute C.surprising (5)This passage is mainly about   . A.famous people B. lovely animals C.popular memes 32.(10分)Do you know when and where ice cream was created? It has a long and interesting history. The earliest ice cream was eaten in China many centuries ago. People at that time would put orange juice on the ice or get something cool to drink. Later, this idea traveled to Italy. Around 1660, it was popular to serve ice cream in coffee shops in Paris. Most of the shops were owned by Italians. Among them, the first successful one belonged to( 属于)a man named Francesco Procopio. Ice cream was brought to America in the early 1700s, and it quickly became the favorite of Americans. President George Washington had ice cream pots(罐)and machines in his kitchen.Dolly Madison, the wife of President Madison, was the first one to serve it in the White House.She made her guests very happy when she served such desserts(甜品). Before ice cream was sold in stores. it was made and kept at a very low temperature first. It took a lot of work to mix cream, eggs, fruit and ice. Nancy Johnson, an American woman who was good at machines, invented the ice cream freezer in 1846. Five years later. Jacob Flusell opened the first ice cream factory in Baltimore, Maryland. Her business quickly came to other states. Today in the United States, ice cream is not only a kind of food, but also a way of life. (1)The earliest ice cream was the ice with   on or something cool to drink. A.orange juice B.apple juice C.watermelon juice (2)The owner of the first successful coffee shop in Paris was a(n)   . A. Frenchman B. American C. Italian (3)The underlined word "freezer" means   in Chinese. A.品种 B.冰柜 C.配方 (4)Which of the following is TRUE?    A. In 1700. ice cream came to the White House. B. In 1846, many ice cream factories opened C.Today ice cream means a lot to Americans (5)The best title for this passage is"   ". A. the History of Ice Cream B.Ice Cream in America C.Business on Ice Cream 33.(10分)At sharing time, Logan waved(挥)his hand wildly. Ms. Lewis called on him. "I lost my tooth, " said Logan. "I remember, " said Ms Lewis, " It was yesterday. "You showed us the hole. " said Zach. "Ms. Lewis took your picture for the board, and she gave you the tooth in a little box to take home, "said Sammy. "Yes, but then I really can't find that box anywhere! "said Logan. "Oh, no! "said Emma. " Only when the Tooth Fairy buys the lost tooth from us, can we grow a new tooth." Logan nodded. "What should I do?" "Maybe you could leave something that looks like a tooth, "said Sammy. "It's worth a try, "said Logan. The first night, Logan left a round white eraser under his pillow(枕头 ) But it didn't work Logan reported back to the class. Zach advised to use a puppy tooth instead while Emma suggested white corn. That night, he put a kernel(谷粒)of white corn. Still nothing happened. The third night. Logan left a note under his pillow. It said: Dear Tooth Fairy I lost my tooth and now I can't find it. Please give me a half﹣dollar anyway. Logan In the moming. Logan found a note from the Tooth Fairy under his pillow. He shared the note with his class at school. Dear logan, I′d love to give you a half﹣dollar but I need something to show that you really lost your tooth. The Tooth Fairy "If you sleep with your mouth open, she will be able to see the tooth hole, "said Sammy. The class laughed. Come on! But that just gave me a great idea! "said Logan. The next day, at sharing time, Logan showed the kids a shiny half﹣dollar. "How did you get the Tooth Fairy to leave the money?"asked Zach. Logan said proudly. "The photo! I took it home to put under my pillow." (1)Logan waved his hand wildly because he couldn't wait to   . A.ask Ms, Lewis questions. B.share his problem C. go home for his tooth (2)Emma thought it was   if a child couldn't find his or her lost tooth. A.terrible B.normal C.dangerous (3)Logan got the half﹣dollar by putting   under his pillow. A.a round white eraser B.a note C. the photo (4)According to the story, the Tooth Fairy was most probably   . A.Ms.Lewis B. Logan's parent C.Emma (5)We can learn that Logan is a boy who   from the story. A. is ready to help his classmates B.simply takes others suggestions C.tries to solve the problems he meets Ⅷ.情景对话(共1小题,每小题5分,满分5分)根据对话内容,从方框内选出能填入空白处的最佳选项,其中有两项为多余选项. 34.(5分)A: Hi, Mike! I heard you had a study trip last Saturday.(1)   . B: Wenchang and Qionghai. A:(2)   . B: First, we visited Puqian Bridge. (3)   . A: Of course I have! It connects Haikou and Wenchang It's the longest bridge over the sea in Hainan. B:(4)    We all take pride in such rapid development. A: When did you go to Qionghai? B: After lunch. We traveled around Shamei Village in the afternoon.(5)    A:Which song? B: The folk song(民歌), Jit Jin Bu Jian Jin Jiu Jian. A: How fantastic! I hope our study trip will be wonderful too. A.It's really great.B. Who did you go with?C. And we learnt a famous song.D.Well, what did you do?E. Where did you go?F.Did you enjoy yourselves?G. Have you heard about it? 第四部分书面表达(共三大题,满分10分)Ⅸ.任务型读写(共1小题,每小题10分,满分10分)阅读下面短文,按要求完成下列各题. 35.(10分)We usually go to see a doctor when we are ill. Doctors may give us some medicine, and the medicine often makes us feel better. But sometimes the doctor's medicine doesn't work. This happened to one man, Thomas Smith. He was ill in hospital, but he wasn't getting well. Then he found a new "doctor"inside himself. He saw funny films. He read funny books. And something wonderful happened.Laughing took away his pain after half a year. He could have a good night's rest. His own happy feeling helped him get well again. He wrote his story in his book. He said laughing was very useful. It was the best"medicine". Another man, Simon Beck, was also ill, and he had a serious pain in his back. The doctor couldn't stop it, so the man began to "picture"his pain. In his head he "drew a picture of a dog.He imagined it to be a real dog. And it was hurting him. Then the man talked softly to the dog. He put his hand on the dogs head and made friends with it. One year later, his pain went away! These stories may surprise you, but more and more people are getting well in this way. So call on the"doctor"inside your mind, and keep happy and well! (1)Where was Thomas smith's new "doctor"?(根据短文内容回答问题)    (2)What did Simon Beck begin to do when the doctor couldn't stop his pain?(根据短文内容回答问题)    (3)Who spent less time taking away the pain, Thomas Smith or Simon Beck?(根据短文内容回答问题)    (4)In the passage the underlined word"It"refers to(a)   . (5)The topic sentence主题句) in this passage is"   ". X.词汇(共5小题,满分5分)A)根据句意及词首字母或汉语提示,补全单词. 36.(1分)Bob is interested in dancing. His dream job is to be a d   . 37.(1分)My friends c    stamps in order to learn more about history. 38.(1分)Alice asked me to read the book Harry Potter, but I have a    read it twice. 39.(1分)The little girl kissed her father and said, " Dad, I love you three   (千) time." 40.(1分)Drums are   (基础的) to African music. People there play them often. B)选用方框内所给词的适当形式,完成短文.(每词限用一次) 41.(5分) I should kind coin think An artist saw a beggar( 乞丐)at the train station one day. He gave his last few (1)   to the beggar. Then he saw another one, and forgot that he had no money in his pockets. He asked the man(2)    if he would like to have lunch with him. The beggar agreed without(3)   , So they had a good meal together. In the end,he said to the beggar,"Come home with (4)    in a taxi, my friend. And I'll give you the money back". "No way!" the beggar(5)    at once."I've paid for your lunch. I' m not going to pay for your taxi home!" Ⅺ.写作(满分15分) 42.(15分)据悉,我国青少年的近视率居全球第一,70%的学生有视力方面的问题.为引起广大青少年的重视,某英语报刊正在开展以" Saving Our Eyesight"为题的征文活动.请根据以下 提示写一篇短文投稿,分析造成青少年近视的原因并提出保护视力的合理建议. 要求:1.语句通顺,意思连贯,语法正确,书写规范. 2.所有提示须全部用上,并作适当发挥. 3.文中不得出现真实的人名、校名、地名. 4.80词左右(文章开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数). Saving Our Eyesight As the saying goes, "Eyes are the window to the soul(心灵 ) "However, 70% of us have poor eyesight. What has caused this problem? ___________. In a word, lets take care of our eyes so that we can see our bright future. 2019年海南省中考英语试卷 参考答案与试题解析 I.听句子选图画(共1小题,每小题5分,满分5分看图听句子,选出与句子意思一致的图画.每个句子读一遍 1.【解答】BCAED Ⅱ.听句子选答语(共5小题,每小题1分,满分5分)根据你所听到的句子,选出正确的答语.每个句子读两遍. 2.【解答】C 3.【解答】A 4.【解答】A 5.【解答】B 6.【解答】C Ⅲ、对话理解(共2小题,满分5分)根据你所听到的对话内容,选出能回答所提问题的最佳选项.每段对话读两遍 7.【解答】BC 8.【解答】ACB Ⅳ.短文理解(共1小题,每小题1分,满分1分)根据你所听到的短文内容,选出最佳选项.短文读两遍. 9.【解答】CBABA V.单项选择(共5小题,每小题1分,满分5分)A)单词辨音找出画线部分与其他单词发音不同的选项.(5分) 10.【解答】safe的音标是 [se?f];page的音标是 [pe?d?];lab的音标是 [l?b].因此可知lab中的划线部分与其他几项不一样. 故选:C. 11.【解答】follow的音标是 [?f?l??];rose的音标是[r??z];hobby的音标是 [?h?bi].因此可知rose中的划线部分与其他几项不一样. 故选:B. 12.【解答】worse的音标是 [w??s];storm的音标是[st??m];north的音标是 [n??θ].因此可知worse中的划线部分与其他几项不一样. 故选:A. 13.【解答】autumn的音标是 [???t?m];August的音标是 [???g?st];aunt的音标是 [a?nt].因此可知aunt中的划线部分与其他几项不一样. 故选:C. 14.【解答】knee的音标是 [ni?];knock的音标是 [n?k];kilo的音标是 [?ki?l??].因此可知kilo中的划线部分与其他几项不一样. 故选:C. B)选择填空.从A、B、C三个选项中选出一个能填入空白处的最佳选项.(15分) 15.【解答】on"在…之上、在…时候";in"在…之内";of"…的、由…组成的",三者都是介词.因It′s time for sth."到该…时间了".由题干"﹣﹣﹣到该上课的时间了.让我们进教室吧.﹣﹣﹣好吧."可知,空格用for,因此答案应是for. 故选:A. 16.【解答】a是不定冠词 ,放在单数可数名词前面 ,表示某类人或事物中的"一个 、一名",表泛指,a用于以辅音音素开头的字母或单词前.the 是定冠词,表特指,意为"这、那、这些、那些".放在可数名词和不可数名词前.因all over the world."在全世界",.由题干"汉语学习在世界各地都很受欢迎."可知,空格用the,所以答案应是the. 故选:C. 17.【解答】bank银行,zoo动物园,market市场;根据句意"我和表妹经常在周末步行去动物园看熊猫"可知,要填"动物园",其它选项语意不通. 故选:B. 18.【解答】silly 愚蠢的;awful 可怕的;excellent 极好的,优秀的;通过句子It helps us have a better understanding of life,它帮助了我们更好地理解了生活可知,演讲是对我们有帮助的,极好的,所以选excellent,其它两个不符合题意. 故选:C. 19.【解答】根据答句It's June 26th.2019,2019年6月26日可知在询问日期,所以用what is the date日期是多少? 故选:A. 20.【解答】because因为,until直到,if如果;根据句意"直到艾米许了个愿,我们才切蛋糕"可知,要填"直到",其它选项语意不通. 故选:B. 21.【解答】carefully小心地;finally最后地;slowly慢慢地.根据作为学生,我们应该认真复习功课和做作业. 故选:A. 22.【解答】根据句意"大卫在读报纸的时候睡着了"可知,要用过去进行时,其构成为was/ were doing,主语是he,用was. 故选:C. 23.【解答】repeat 重复;review 复习;record 记录;从句子I missed it just now,刚才我错过了可知希望对方在说一遍,也就是重复一遍,因此选repeat最合适.其它两个选项不正确. 故选:A. 24.【解答】根据提示,推测意思是上海的人口比其他许多城市都多.根据than 可知,此处应用形容词的比较级.因此large的比较级是large. 故选:B. 25.【解答】refuse to do sth拒绝做某事,句意:格林太太拒绝吃甜食.她不想发胖. 故选:C. 26.【解答】主语More and more secrets和动词discover是被动关系,再结合句意"越来越多的秘密很快就会被发现"可知,要用一般将来时的被动语态,其构成为will be done. 故选:B. 27.【解答】分析句子结构可知考查感叹句,在感叹句中,what修饰名词,how修饰形容词/副词,根据hard﹣working boy Zhou Bin is!可知句型结构为:What +a/an+形容词+单数名词+主语+谓语动词! 故选:A. 28.【解答】give up放弃,put up张贴,set up建立;根据句意"家庭通常会在春节前贴上鲜花或鱼的新图片"可知,要填"张贴",其它选项语意不通. 故选:B. 29.【解答】根据句意:﹣桑迪,你知道Tom正在找什么吗?﹣知道.关于黑洞的一些新闻.可知考查宾语从句,用陈述语序,故排除B;结合Some news about black holes,可知连词是what. 故选:A. Ⅵ.完形填空(共1小题,每小题10分,满分10分)阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每小题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项. 30.【解答】(1)C 考查名词.句意:她走进来,走到沙发上坐下,看着地板.不开心中的坐在沙发上,可知,她应该是低着头,看在地板.所以选C. (2)B 考查不定代词.句意:"没什么."凯西是一个体贴的高中女生.她不会留下"你一定有麻烦了.你放学回家通常都很开心."可知, 她不想说,所以姐姐猜测她的烦恼.所以选B. (3)B 考查助动词.句意:她不会留下"你一定有麻烦了.你放学回家通常都很开心."可知, 平时很开心,这次闷闷不乐"一定"是有麻烦了.肯定的推测用"must be".所以选B. (4)A 考查名词.句意:我讨厌上学!我讨厌我的班!我讨厌那个新来的女孩.根据下文的名字可知,她们都是女生,因此用girl. 所以选A. (5)C 考查动词.句意:如果贝蒂不再是我的朋友,她会和她交朋友.结合选项A.认为B.首选C.停止.可知, 停止正在做的事情用"stop doing sth".所以选C (6)A 考查形容词.句意:"那不太好,"凯西说,可知,凯西认为这样的事情"不好". 所以选A. (7)C 考查连词.句意:"是的,"帕蒂回答,尽量不哭,"但是杰瑞让我失去了我最好的朋友.结合选项A.因此 B.和C.但是.可知,这是"转折"关系.所以选C. (8)A 考查动词短语.句意:你只要找到你真正的朋友.结合选项A.找出B.照顾C.听取.根据句意可知为"找到".所以选A (9)B 考查副词.句意:你的真正的朋友在遇到新朋友时永远不会离开你.结合选项A.有时B.从不C.很少.根据句意可知,真正的朋友永远不会离开你. 所以选B. (10)B 考查形容词.句意:但不同的是,快乐的表情又回到了她的脸上.很明显,她已经摆脱了麻烦.可知, 麻烦摆脱了,"快乐"自然回到了她的脸上.所以选B. 第三部分阅读理解(共两大题,满分30分)Ⅶ.阅读理解(共3小题,每小题10分,满分30分)阅读下列三篇语言材料,根据语言材料的内容,从每小题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出能回答所提问题或完成所给句子的最佳选项. 31.【解答】(1)C细节理解题.根据Actress Zhou Dongyu's face is a bit similar to the little duck's face.女演员周冬雨的脸有点像小鸭子的脸.可知,周冬雨的脸有点像小鸭子.故选C (2)B细节理解题.根据He made this expression on a Tv show after his mother called him a clown.他在电视节目中这样做是因为他妈妈叫他小丑.可知,他第一次在电视节目中用了这个表情.故选B (3)A 细节理解题.根据Mo Gutou is pointing to himself and saying"Are you talking to me?"莫古图指着自己说:"你在跟我说话吗?"可知,他是指着自己说的.故选A (4)A 细节理解题.根据最后一句 Many Intemet users think this meme is lively.很多网民认为这个表情包很活泼.可知,岳云鹏的表情很活泼.故选A (5)C主旨大意题.根据第一句Do you use memes(表情包)to talk with your friends online? 你在网上和你的朋友聊天时会用到表情包吗?结合下文可知,本文主要描写的是"受欢迎的表情包".故选C 32.【解答】(1)A.细节理解题.根据 People at that time would put orange juice on the ice or get something cool to drink.那是的人们把橙汁放在冰上或者凉的东西去喝.故选:A. (2)C.细节理解题.根据Most of the shops were owned by Italians.大多数的咖啡店为意大利人所拥有.故选:C. (3)B.词意理解题.根据Nancy Johnson, an American woman who was good at machines.Nancy Johnson是一位美国女性,她擅长制造机器可知,这位美国女性制造了一台机器,故选:B. (4)C.正误判断题.根据Today in the United States, ice cream is not only a kind of food, but also a way of life.今天在美国,冰激凌不仅是一种食物,而且是一种生活方式可知.故选:C. (5)A.主旨大意题.根据本文的内容可知,本文讲述了冰激凌的起源和发展历史,故需:A. 33.【解答】1.B 细节理解题.由At sharing time, Logan waved his hand wildly. Ms. Lewis called on him. "I lost my tooth, " said Logan在共享时间,洛根挥手.刘易斯女士叫他."我掉了牙,"洛根说,可知他想要说自己的问题,故选B. 2.A 细节理解题.由"Oh, no! "said Emma. " Only when the Tooth Fairy buys the lost tooth from us, can we grow a new tooth.""哦,不!"艾玛说."只有当牙仙从我们这里买下丢失的牙齿,我们才能长出一颗新牙,可知她认为找不到牙齿很糟糕,故选A. 3.C 内容理解题.根据 Logan said proudly. "The photo! I took it home to put under my pillow."洛根自豪地说."照片!我把它带回家放在枕头下,可知是用了照片,故选C. 4.B 细节推断题.由In the moming. Logan found a note from the Tooth Fairy under his pillow早上.洛根在枕头下发现了一张牙仙的纸条.结合纸条的内容,可知最有可能看到他枕头下纸条的应该是父母,故选B. 5.C 内容理解题.根据"If you sleep with your mouth open, she will be able to see the tooth hole, "said Sammy. The class laughed. Come on! But that just gave me a great idea! "said Logan萨米说:"如果你张着嘴睡觉,她就能看到牙洞.全班笑了.好吧.但这给了我一个好主意!"洛根说, Logan said proudly. "The photo! I took it home to put under my pillow."洛根自豪地说."照片!我把它带回家放在枕头下,可知男孩应该是一个想方设法解决问题的人,故选C. Ⅷ.情景对话(共1小题,每小题5分,满分5分)根据对话内容,从方框内选出能填入空白处的最佳选项,其中有两项为多余选项. 34.【解答】考查语境理解. (1)E.根据下一句 Wenchang and Qionghai.文昌和琼海.可知问去了哪里.故答案是E. (2)D.根据下一句First, we visited Puqian Bridge.首先,我们参观了浦前大桥.可知问你做了什么.故答案是D. (3)G.根据下一句 Of course I have当然,可知问你听说过吗?故答案是G. (4)A.根据下一句 We all take pride in such rapid development我们都为这样的快速发展感到骄傲.可知说真是太好了,故答案是A. (5)C.根据下一句Which song?可知说学了一首著名的歌.故答案是C. 第四部分书面表达(共三大题,满分10分)Ⅸ.任务型读写(共1小题,每小题10分,满分10分)阅读下面短文,按要求完成下列各题. 35.【解答】(1)Inside himself.细节理解题,根据原文Then he found a new "doctor"inside himself然后他发现了一个新的"医生"在他自己身体里.故得此答案. (2)He began to "picture" his pain.细节理解题,根据原文 The doctor couldn't stop it,so the man began to "picture"his pain,医生阻止不了,因此这个人就开始"画"他的痛苦.故得此答案. (3)Tomas Smith.细节理解题,根据原文,Thomas Smith,Laughing took away his pain after half a year.对于Thomas Smith,在半年后大笑带走了他的病痛.Simon Beck,One year later, his pain went away!而Simon Beck,一年以后,他的病痛就走了.可知Thomas Smith花了更少的时间带走病痛.故得此答案. (4)Laughing.细节理解题,根据原文He said laughing was very useful. It was the best"medicine,他说大笑是非常有用的,他是最好的良药.可知it指的就是大笑Laughing.故得此答案. (5)Call on the "doctor" inside your mind,and keep happy and well.主旨大意题,根据原文These stories may surprise you, but more and more people are getting well in this way. So call on the"doctor"inside your mind, and keep happy and well!,这个故事可能会让你很惊讶,但是越来越多的人用这种方式变得越来越好,因此召唤其你思想里的医生,且保持开心健康.可知Call on the "doctor" inside your mind,and keep happy and well.就是主题句.故得此答案. X.词汇(共5小题,满分5分)A)根据句意及词首字母或汉语提示,补全单词. 36.【解答】考查名词.根据上文"鲍勃对跳舞很感兴趣",推断他梦想的工作是当一名舞蹈家.由首字母d考虑名词dancer,意为"舞蹈家",由空前的冠词a推断此处填单数形式. 故答案为 dancer 37.【解答】考查动词.根据语境"我的朋友收集邮票是为了了解更多的历史",由首字母c考虑动词collect,意为"收集",因本句无明确的时间状语,可以用一般现在时或一般过去时. 故答案为 collect/collected 38.【解答】考查副词.根据语境"爱丽丝要我读《哈利波特》,但我已经读了两遍了",由空前的have推断本句属于现在完成时,由首字母a考虑副词already,意为"已经". 故答案为 already 39.【解答】考查翻译填空.根据汉语提示及其英语句子,可知要翻译的部分为:千,mc.英语表达是:thousand.前面有具体数字,用单数形式.句意:这个小女孩吻了她父亲说,"爸爸,我爱你三千年". 故答案为thousand. 40.【解答】考查翻译填空.根据汉语提示及其英语句子,可知要翻译的部分为:基础的,形容词.英语表达是:basic.句意:鼓是非洲音乐的基础.那里的人们经常玩. 故答案为basic. B)选用方框内所给词的适当形式,完成短文.(每词限用一次) 41.【解答】1.coins 考查名词.根据语境"他把最后几枚硬币给了乞丐",考虑用名词coin,意为"硬币",由空前的few推断此处填原形,故答案为 coins; 2.kindly 考查副词.根据语境"他亲切地问那人是否愿意和他一起吃午饭",考虑用副词kind,意为"和蔼的",由空前的动词asked推断此处填副词形式,故答案为 kindly; 3.thinking 考查动词.根据语境"乞丐没有考虑就同意了",考虑用动词think,意为"思考",由空前的介词without推断此处填﹣ing形式,故答案为 thinking; 4.me 考查代词.根据语境"朋友,跟我坐出租车回家吧",考虑用代词me,意为"我",由空前的介词with推断此处填宾格形式,故答案为 me; 5.shouted 考查动词.根据语境:"没门!"乞丐立刻喊道,考虑用动词shout,意为"叫喊",因本文为讲故事,推断此处填过去式形式,故答案为 shouted. Ⅺ.写作(满分15分) 42.【解答】 Saving Our Eyesight As the saying goes, "Eyes are the window to the soul(心灵 ) "However, 70% of us have poor eyesight. What has caused this problem? The main reason is the bad habits of using eyes.For example, many of us read in wrong positions,such as reading in bed or keeping our eyes too close to the book.Besides,taking less exercise can also cause poor eyesight. What's more, some of us spend too much time playing computer games or watching TV. It's bad for our eyes. So how can we protect our eyes ?Here is some advice on how to protect our eyes.(造成青少年近视的原因) First,we should be cautious on the health of using eyes.We should not keep our eyes working for a long time. While reading ,we should keep the book about a foot away from us.After reading for an hour or two,we had better have a rest by looking at the plants in the distance.Second,using less electronic products is a good way to protect our eyes.【高分句型一】 Besides,we should see green plants as often as possible.Finally, remember to do eye﹣protecting exercises or do more outdoor sports, which will help us keep good eyesight.【高分句型二】 (对保护视力的几条建议) In a word, let's take care of our eyes so that we can see our bright future.

  • ID:6-6032448 2019年江苏省徐州市中考物理试卷(解析版)

    初中物理/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年江苏省徐州市中考物理试卷 一、选择题(每小题只有一个选项符合题意;每小题2分,共20分) 1.(2分)机械手表放在耳朵附近,听到表针走动的声音较小;把一个气球放在手表与耳朵之间相互贴紧,听到表针走动的声音较大。这两种情况声音的主要差别是(  ) A.音调 B.响度 C.音色 D.频率 2.(2分)电冰箱中霜的形成属于(  ) A.蒸发 B.液化 C.凝华 D.升华 3.(2分)把万花筒一端对着光亮的地方并转动,从另一端能看到千变万化的图案,这是因为万花筒内放置的(  ) A.平面镜 B.凹面镜 C.凸透镜 D.凹透镜 4.(2分)将一勺砂糖放入一杯水中,整杯水都变甜了。这个现象说明(  ) A.分子是运动的 B.分子间有引力 C.分子间有斥力 D.分子可以再分 5.(2分)如图所示自行车的各个部分中,减小了有害摩擦的是(  ) A.车胎 B.车把 C.车轴 D.脚踏板面 6.(2分)下列有关中学生的数据中,符合实际情况的是(  ) A.脚的长度约10cm B.行走一步的距离约0.5m C.步行的速度约15m/s D.心脏跳动一次的时间约10s 7.(2分)下列家庭用电的做法正确的是(  ) A.导线直接接入插座 B.手拿测电笔金属杆 C.湿手拔插头 D.用电器外壳接地 8.(2分)“北斗+5G”技术将用于助力北京打造智慧型冬奥会,这项技术主要利用(  ) A.电磁波 B.超声波 C.次声波 D.红外线 9.(2分)我省首座“光充储”电动汽车充电站已投入使用,该充电站利用清洁能源,通过屋顶发电板发电,这种能源是(  ) A.石油 B.天然气 C.太阳能 D.风能 10.(2分)在“探究凸透镜成像规律”时,开始时烛焰在光屏上成缩小的像,接着把物距调整为刚才的一半,移动光屏使烛焰在光屏上成像,此时的像(  ) A.是放大的 B.是缩小的 C.是等大的 D.以上三种都有可能 五、物理填空题(第17题2分,其余每空1分,共20分) 11.(3分)寒冬,室外装满水的缸容易破裂。因为,通常气温低于   ℃时,缸里的水从表面开始凝固,而冰的密度比水小,水结成冰后质量   ,体积   (填“变大”“变小”或“不变”),从而把水缸胀裂。 12.(3分)跳伞运动员打开降落伞后在空中匀速下降,此时运动员和伞受到的空气阻力   重力(填“>”“<”或“=”),运动员的重力势能   (填“变大”“变小”或“不变”);以   为参照物,运动员是静止的。 13.(3分)一位同学体重为600N,自然站立在水平地面上,对地面压力为   N,双脚站立对地面的压强比行走时   ;某沼泽地能承受的压强为2×104Pa,这位同学与沼泽地的接触面积至少为   m2,才不会陷入沼泽地。 14.(3分)在“探究光的反射规律”实验中,平面镜水平放置,白纸板要   放置在平面镜上;图中反射角度数为   ;能不能因此得出反射光线和入射光线总是垂直的结论   。 15.(3分)在“探究不同物质吸热升温的现象”实验中,量取沙子和水时,要保证它们的质量   ;用酒精灯分别加热沙子和水,沙子和水的温度升高,   能增加;如果采用升高相同温度,比较加热时间的方式,得到的图象应是甲、乙两种图象中的   。 16.(3分)两个磁体之间有力的作用,同名磁极相   ;通电导线能使小磁针发生偏转,这是因为通电导线周围存在   ;如图所示,把通电导线放在两个磁极中间,磁极对导线的力垂直指向纸里,如果导线中电流方向相反,则磁极对导线的力垂直指向   (填“纸里”或“纸外”)。 17.(2分)如图所示,在玻璃杯中倒入少量热水,摇晃几下后把水倒出,然后立即把玻璃杯倒扣在水槽中,水快速涌进玻璃杯。请解释其中的道理:   。 六、物理解答题(第18、19题2分,第20、21题各6分,第22~24题各8分,共40分.解答第20、21题时应有解题过程) 18.(2分)如图所示,一束光平行于凸透镜主光轴入射,请画出相应的折射光线。 19.(2分)如图所示,一个实心球静止在水平地面上,请画出它所受重力G的示意图。 20.(6分)工人用杠杆将重为180N的物体匀速提升0.5m,做了100J的功。求: (1)提升物体做的有用功; (2)杠杆的机械效率。 21.(6分)定值电阻R1两端加4.5V电压时,通过的电流为0.45 A.如图所示电路,电源电压不变,R1和定值电阻R0并联,电流表示数为0.50A;用阻值为30Ω的电阻R2替换R1,电流表示数变为0.30 A.求: (1)R1的阻值; (2)电源电压。 22.(8分)小明要测量额定电压为2.5V的小灯泡的功率。 (1)如图所示,电路图中没有标明电流表、电压表,请在相应圆圈内填入字母“A”“V”完成电路图。 实验序号 ① ② ③ 电压U/V 2.0 2.5 2.8 电流I/A 0.22 0.24 0.26 (2)连接电路时,闭合开关前,滑动变阻器的滑片应移到   端。 (3)小明测量的数据如上表所示,三次测量比较,小灯泡亮度变化情况是    A.变亮 B.变暗 C.不变 (4)小灯泡的额定功率为   W。 23.(8分)小华用弹簧测力计、烧杯、水、薄塑料袋测量酱油的密度。 (1)测量前,应检查弹簧测力计指针是否指在   刻度线上。 (2)把适量的酱油装入塑料袋,排出空气后扎紧口,用弹簧测力计测出重力为3.6N;然后用弹簧测力计提着塑料袋浸没在水中,如图所示,弹簧测力计示数为   N。 (3)水的密度为1×103kg/m3,则可算出酱油的密度为   kg/m3。 (4)小华想用上述器材继续测量白酒的密度,但白酒的密度比水小。 请帮她想出一个可行的办法并简要说明:   。 24.(8分)阅读短文,回答文后的问题。 热阻 当物体或物体的不同部分之间存在温度差时,就会发生热传递。传导是热传递的一种方式,物体对热量的传导有阻碍作用,称为热阻,用R表示。物体的热阻与物体在热传导方向上的长度l成正比、与横截面积S成反比,还与物体的材料有关,关系式为R=,式中λ称为材料的导热系数,不同材料的导热系数一般不同。房屋的墙壁为了保温,往往使用导热系数较小的材料。如果墙壁一侧是高温环境,温度始终为t1;另一侧是低温环境,温度始终为t2,墙壁中形成稳定的热量流动,则单位时间内从高温环境传导到低温环境的热量Q与墙壁两侧的温度差成正比,与墙壁的热阻成反比。 (1)热量传导过程和电流相似,温度差相当于电路中    A.电流 B.电压 C.电阻 D.电功率 (2)铜汤勺放在热汤中,把手很快就会烫手,而塑料把手的汤勺不会烫手。由此可知铜和塑料的导热系数大小:λ铜   λ塑料(填“>”“<”或“=”)。 (3)如图甲所示,热量在墙壁中传导,虚线标出的墙壁正中间处的温度为   。 (4)如图乙所示,热量在墙壁中传导,在传导方向上的长度为l1,横截面积为S,导热系数为λ1;在墙壁一侧紧贴一层保温层,保温层与墙壁面积相同,在热传导方向上的长度为l2,导热系数为λ2,则单位时间内从高温环境传导到低温环境的热量Q=   。 2019年江苏省徐州市中考物理试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一、选择题(每小题只有一个选项符合题意;每小题2分,共20分) 1.【解答】解:由于不同介质传声的速度和效果有所不同,且声音的响度与距发声体的远近有关。所以将一个气球放在机械手表与耳朵之间,机械手表在气球的不同部位,听到的声音有所不同,但手表直接贴近耳朵时距离最近,所以响度最大,即放上气球后听到的声音不会比的声音强,故B正确、ACD错误。 故选:B。 2.【解答】解: 电冰箱冷冻室中的霜,是空气中的水蒸气遇冷凝结成的小冰晶,属于凝华现象,故C正确。 故选:C。 3.【解答】解:万花筒是靠平面镜反射而成的。它是由三面平面镜组成一个三棱镜,再在一头放上一些各色玻璃碎片,这些碎片经过三面平面镜的反射,就会出现对称的图案,看上去就像一朵朵盛开的花。 故选:A。 4.【解答】解: 将一勺砂糖放入一杯水中,不一会整杯水会变甜,这种现象叫做扩散现象,这种现象说明了分子在不停地做无规则运动,故A正确。 故选:A。 5.【解答】解:A、车胎有很多花纹,增大了接触面的粗糙程度,可以增大与地面之间的摩擦力,属于增大有益摩擦;故A不合题意; B、车把有很多花纹,增大了接触面的粗糙程度,可以增大与手掌之间的摩擦力,属于增大有益摩擦;故B不合题意; C、车轮转动时,车轮与车轴之间的摩擦,容易使零件磨损,中间加装滚动轴承,变滑动为滚动,属于减小有害摩擦;故C符合题意; D、脚踏板面有很多花纹,增大了接触面的粗糙程度,可以增大与脚底之间的摩擦力,属于增大有益摩擦。故D不合题意。 故选:C。 6.【解答】解:AB、成年人的步幅在70cm左右,中学生的步幅比成年人小一些,在50cm=0.5m左右,脚的长度接近步幅的一半,在25cm左右。故A不符合实际,B符合实际; C、中学生正常步行的速度在4km/h=4×m/s≈1.1m/s左右。故C不符合实际; D、正常情况下,人的心脏1min跳动的次数在75次左右,跳动一次的时间接近1s。故D不符合实际。 故选:B。 7.【解答】解:A、导线直接接入插座,导线裸露在外面,容易触电,不符合安全用电原则,故A错误; B、手握测电笔金属杆判断插座中是否有电会造成触电,不符合安全用电原则,故B错误; C、直接用湿手去拔插头,因生活用水是导体,易引发触电,不符合安全用电原则,故C错误; D、有金属外壳的用电器接地线是为了防止触电事故的发生,符合安全用电原则,故D正确。 故选:D。 8.【解答】解:“北斗+5G”技术是利用电磁波传递信息的,故A正确。 故选:A。 9.【解答】解: “光充储”电动汽车充电站,利用太阳能发电板将太阳能转化为电能,蓄电池充电时将电能转化为化学能储存起来,故C符合题意。 故选:C。 10.【解答】解: 在“探究凸透镜成像规律”时,开始时烛焰在光屏上成缩小的像,此时物距大于二倍焦距(u>2f),接着把物距调整为刚才的一半,则此时的物距应大于焦距(u′>f); 若此时的物距大于二倍焦距时,成的是倒立、缩小的实像;若此时的物距等于二倍焦距时,成的是倒立、等大的实像;若此时的物距在一倍焦距和二倍焦距之间时,成的是倒立、放大的实像; 由此可知,光屏上的像可能是放大的,可能是缩小的,也可能是等大的,故D正确。 故选:D。 五、物理填空题(第17题2分,其余每空1分,共20分) 11.【解答】解:当水从4℃降到0℃的过程中,物质多少不变,所以质量不变; 但水具有反常膨胀的特点,结冰后,由于质量不变,密度变小,由公式ρ=知,体积变大,从而把水缸胀裂。 故答案为:0;不变;变大。 12.【解答】解:(1)由于跳伞运动员和伞在空中匀速直线下降,处于平衡状态,所以人和伞受到的总重力与空气阻力是一对平衡力,大小相等,方向相反; (2)当降落伞张开后,运动员匀速下降时,质量不变,高度减小,重力势能变小。 (3)跳伞运动员相对于降落伞位置保持不变,故以降落伞为参照物,跳伞运动员是静止的。 故答案为:=;变小;降落伞。 13.【解答】解:(1)因水平面上物体的压力和自身的重力相等, 所以,自然站立在水平地面上或行走时的压力: F=G=600N, 又因双脚站立时受力面积为两只脚与地面的接触面积之和,行走时受力面积为一只脚与地面的接触面积, 所以,由p=可知,双脚站立对地面的压强比行走时小; (2)由p=可得,受力面积即这位同学与沼泽地的接触面积: S===0.03m2。 故答案为:600;小;0.03。 14.【解答】解:在“探究光的反射规律”实验中,平面镜要水平放置,白纸板要竖直放置在平面镜上;因为反射角等于入射角,所以反射角为45°;只有入射角为45°时,反射角为45°,此时反射光线和入射光线垂直,只凭一次实验存在偶然性,不能得出反射光线和入射光线总是垂直的结论。 故答案为:竖直;45°; 不能。 15.【解答】解:在“探究不同物质吸热升温的现象”实验时,需要控制水和沙子的质量相同; 用酒精灯分别加热沙子和水,沙子和水会吸收热量,温度升高,内能变大; 由图甲可知,此时的加热时间相同,升高的温度不同,由图乙可知,升高的温度相同,加热时间不同,故应选择乙。 故答案为:相等;内;乙。 16.【解答】解:两个磁体之间有力的作用,同名磁极相互排斥; 通电导线能使小磁针发生偏转,这说明通电导线周围存在磁场,这种现象叫电流的磁效应; 通电导体在磁场中受力的作用而运动,运动方向与电流的方向和磁感线的方向有关,只改变电流方向,导体受力方向改变,则此时磁极对导线的力垂直指向纸外。 故答案为:斥;磁场;纸外。 17.【解答】解:玻璃杯内空气受热膨胀后,部分空气从杯中被排出,倒扣后温度降低,杯内水蒸气液化,杯内气压减小,杯内气压小于大气压,水在大气压的作用下被压进杯里。 故答案为:玻璃杯内空气受热膨胀后,部分空气从杯中被排出,倒扣后温度降低,杯内水蒸气液化,杯内气压减小,杯内气压小于大气压,水在大气压的作用下被压进杯里。 六、物理解答题(第18、19题2分,第20、21题各6分,第22~24题各8分,共40分.解答第20、21题时应有解题过程) 18.【解答】解:平行于主光轴的入射光线,经过凸透镜折射后,折射光线过焦点。由此可画出入射光线对应的折射光线,如图所示: 。 19.【解答】解:重力的方向是竖直向下的,过实心球球心画一条带箭头的竖直向下的有向线段,用G表示,如图所示: 20.【解答】解:(1)提升物体做的有用功: W有用=Gh=180N×0.5m=90J; (2)杠杆的机械效率: η==×100%=90%。 答:(1)提升物体做的有用功是90J; (2)杠杆的机械效率是90%。 21.【解答】解:(1)根据I=可得: R1===10Ω; (2)根据欧姆定律和并联电路的电流特点可知: R1和定值电阻R0并联时, +=I, 即:+=0.50A﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣① R2和定值电阻R0并联时, +=I, 即:+=0.30A﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣② 根据①式减②式可得:U=3V。 答:(1)R1的阻值为10Ω (2)电源电压为3V。 22.【解答】解:(1)电流表电阻很小,与电阻串联,电压表电阻很大,与电阻并联,如图所示: (2)为了保护电路,闭合开关前滑动变阻器的滑片应在阻值最大处,即b端; (3)根据P=UI算出三次的功率依次是0.44W、0.6W、0.728W,即随着电压的增大,实际功率增大,灯泡变亮,故A正确; (4)灯泡的额定电压为2.5V,额定电流为0.24A, 额定功率P=UI=2.5V×0.24A=0.6W。 故答案为:(1)见上图;(2)b;(3)A;(4)0.6。 23.【解答】解:(1)使用弹簧测力计时候,首先要“调零”,即检查指针是否在零刻度线; (2)由图可知,该测力计的最小分度值为0.2N,指针在0刻度线下方3格,则弹簧测力计的示数是3×0.2=0.6N; (3)把装有酱油的塑料袋浸没在水中的时候,忽略塑料袋的体积,酱油的体积等于排开水的体积,即V酱油=V排; 酱油的重力G=mg=ρ酱油gV酱油=3.6N ① 酱油浸没在水中受到的浮力F浮=G﹣F拉=3.6N﹣0.6N=ρ水gV排② ;所以:ρ酱油=1.2ρ水=1.2×103kg/m3。 (4)酒精的密度小于水的密度,所以装酒精的塑料袋无法像装酱油的塑料袋一样浸没在水中。反过来,如果烧杯装酒精,塑料袋装水,则装水的塑料袋可以浸没在酒精中,从而测出酒精的密度。 故答案是:(1)零;(2)0.6;(3)1.2×103;(4)将适量的水装入塑料袋用弹簧测力计浸没在装白酒的烧杯中。 24.【解答】解:(1)热传递的条件是温度差,电压时形成电流的原因,热量传导过程和电流相似,温度差相当于电路中电压,故B正确; (2)铜汤勺放在热汤中,把手很快就会烫手,而塑料把手的汤勺不会烫手,说明塑料的传热性能差,根据题意知:导热系数越小,热阻越大,导热能力越差,所以铜导热系数大于塑料的导热系数,即λ铜>λ塑料; (3)墙壁中形成稳定的热量流动,相同时间内,温度的减少相同,所以墙壁正中间处的温度为:; (4)根据“单位时间内从高温环境传导到低温环境的热量Q与墙壁两侧的温度差成正比,与墙壁的热阻成反比”知 单位时间内从高温环境传导到低温环境的热量Q=。 故答案为:(1)B;(2)>;(3);(4)。

  • ID:9-6032308 2019年山西省中考道德与法治试卷(word版,含解析)

    初中思想品德(道德与法治)/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年山西省中考道德与法治试卷 一、选择题(在每小题的四个选项中,只有一项最符合题意,请选出并在答题卡上将该项涂黑.本大题有12小题,每小题3分,共36分) 1.(3分)今年两会,国务院政府工作报告中有关2019年发展主要预期目标及重点工作有:(  ) ①国内生产总值增长6.6%。 ②为企业和个人减税降费约1.3万亿元。 ③国内生产总值增长6%﹣6.5%。 ④全年减轻企业税收和社保缴费负担近2万亿元。 A.①② B.③④ C.②③ D.①④ 2.(3分)第十三届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过的法律是(  ) A.《中华人民共和国民法总则》 B.《中华人民共和国慈善法》 C.《中华人民共和国监察法》 D.《中华人民共和国外商投资法》 3.(3分)下列是小洪同学初中生活的点滴记录及自我反思,你认为其中正确的一项是(  ) A.初一:个子豆芽似的猛长,喉结明显出现,脸上长讨厌的“痘痘”﹣﹣﹣﹣这是青春期的心理变化,典型的 B.初二:上课被老师误解,挨了批评,当堂和老师大吵争辩。﹣﹣﹣﹣这是合理主张自己权利,是有个性的表现 C.初三:起床晚了,上学迟到,却故意对班主任说是自行车坏了影响的。﹣﹣﹣﹣这是灵活应对的机敏表现,给自己点赞 D.中考:鉴于自己的情况,报职高,学技术,将来努力当“大国工匠。﹣﹣﹣﹣这是对升学和职业选择的正确思考 4.(3分)下列是有关公民基本权利和义务的说法及理解,你认为其中正确的一项是(  ) A.宪法的第二章是公民的基本权利和义务,这是宪法的核心内容 B.劳动权、知识产权、受教育权、游行、依法服兵役都属于公民的基本权利 C.某高考状元发现,某补习机构宣传栏里有自己的照片,很生气,该机构侵犯状元的荣誉权 D.何大叔在公交车上发现钱包被偷,要求对全体乘客进行搜身,这涉嫌侵犯乘客的财产权 5.(3分)多种所有制经济“共同发展”幸福是奋斗出来的 今年寒假,省城几位当年的初中同学聚会,下面是他们的谈话: 甲:我刚开一家削面馆,只有一间门面房,买了个机器人当服务员,生意还不错。 乙:大学毕业,我就应聘到国家电网工作,我们正在搞特高压。厉害了,我的国! 丙:我们村出资建葡萄加工厂,我负责网销,村民们的葡萄再也不用发愁销售了。 丁:我在一家大型生态园当部门经理,老板是山西明星企业家,这家生态园是他自己投资的。 从以上同学们的聊天中,你能判断出谁在公有制企业中工作呢?(  ) A.甲和乙 B.丙和丁 C.乙和丙 D.甲和丁 6.(3分)近日,省城某初中开展模拟法庭。小郑担任刑事法庭“审判长”,小何等同学筹备。 上述小郑的判断中,你认为正确的一组是(  ) A.①② B.②③ C.②④ D.③④ 7.(3分)今年初春,山西某初中一个影视社团开展“新中国成立70周年红色电影嘉年华”活动,每月一个专题。下面是该社团上传到微信群的有关海报: 请你判断海报中哪个月的电影是以“山西抗战﹣﹣追求世界和平”为题材的?(  ) A.3月 B.4月 C.5月 D.6月 8.(3分)小宇要写“科技创新改变中国”的演讲稿,下列哪些热点新闻能作为直接论据呢?(  ) ①1月24日,工信部宣布:中国5G技术研发试验第三阶段测试结果已达预商用水平。 ②近年山西和顺县村民的耕牛不时被野生华北豹吃掉,环保组织积极筹款予以补偿。 ③5月中旬,亚洲文明对话大会在北京隆重召开,约1200名中外嘉宾参加开幕式。 ④就在美国加紧打压华为时,华为多年自主研制的海思芯片近日终于推出,举世瞩目。 A.①② B.②③ C.③④ D.①④ 9.(3分)请你判断“文明礼貌从我做起”这个标题与下列哪一幅漫画相匹配呢?(  ) A. B. C. D. 10.(3分)你会说理吗?这是中学生应有的核心能力,也是公民社会所倡导的理性思维的集中体现。请你根据下列分析说明题的设问,选出其主体适用“因果思维”来说理的一项:(  ) A.党和国家为什么要强化“立德树人”的教育宗旨? B.山西举办第二届全国青年运动会的积极意义是什么? C.你如何看待部分家长和学校禁止学生上网的现象? D.你如何看待学生考试作弊的行为? 11.(3分)下列单位挂牌是小朱在某市不同地点看到的:据此小朱产生如下理解,其中正确的一项是(  ) A.这六个单位都属于国家机构,市中级人民法院独立行使检察权 B.市教育局、公安局都属于行政机关,是市人民政府的所属部门 C.市人大常委会是该市最高权力机关,能领导市政府和市中级人民法院等部门的工作 D.市政协可以通过询问、质询等手段监督市政府的工作,并开展执法检查 12.(3分)宪法在我心中: 近日,省城某居委会开展:“宪法在我心中”宣传活动,下列是他们制作的相关展板。你认为其中哪块展板的内容为宪法的核心价值追求?(  ) A. B. C. D. 二、简答题(本大题有4小题,共19分) 13.(6分)基础知识填空: ①心情不好时,就到操场散步或看电影,这是用   法调节情绪。 ②犯罪的三大特征是严重社会危害性、   、应受刑罚处罚性。 ③依法治国写进宪法是   年。 ④“仁者爱人”“推已及人”与社会主义核心价值观中个人层面的   要求一致。 ⑤请写出一条初中生尚不具备的公民政治权利:   。 ⑥中国特色社会主义理论体系中最新增加的内容是   。 14.(3分)观察下列照片,回答问题: (1)假如你去西藏旅游与藏族同胞交往时,应注意些什么? (2)上述照片中,哪两张是你进藏后可能拍到的有关藏族的照片? 15.(7分)采访人大代表 山西某市一位初中教师去年参加了市里的“两会”。2019年春季开学后,学校电视台学生记者专访了该教师。下面是采访笔录(节选): 学生:老师,这次市里的“两会”,您是以人大代表还是以政协代表的身份参加的? 教师:人大代表。 学生:这次会议的主要内容有哪些? 教师:主要听取审议了市长所做的政府工作报告,还有市中院等机关的工作报告,最后表决批准了我市2019年国民经济和社会发展计划,还有人事罢免等,内容很多。 学生:人大代表要积极参政议政。作为代表,这次您参与提交了什么方面的提案? 教师:有关义务教育改革方面的,这也是落实目前山西“改革创新,奋发有为”大讨论要求的具体体现。另外,你的提问中有几处表述是不妥的,需要纠正。 根据以上采访,回答下列问题。 (1)这里的“两会”分别体现我国的什么政治制度? (2)结合这位教师所谈会议内容,请你分别对应说明人大的职权有哪些? (3)教师所说的学生“提问中有几处表述是不妥的”分别是什么并加以改正。 16.(3分)小何这个办法好! 今年5月,省城某初中校门口的宣传栏要出一期主题板报。小何等几位同学具体负责,他们在报头通栏写了“山高人为峰”五个大字,并画“高山”配图(见下面板报)。可高山画出来后,总感觉山势的高大显示不出求。大家先是犯愁,后是争论不休,始终拿不出好的主意来。 根据上述材料,回答下列问题: (1)此时,一直沉思的小何同学走到板报前,用粉笔在半山腰加了几朵云(见图),立即赢得大家的一致肯定。 那么,小何同学此举值得你学习的两点是什么? (2)根据小何他们正制作的板报内容,你能看出本期的主题是什么? 三、分析说明题(共1道题,8分) 17.(8分)被“偷走”的金牌 今年5月17日,在英囯举办的世界跆拳道锦标赛女子73公斤级决赛现场,出现了这样的场面:中囯选手(曾是巴西奥运冠军)在以20:l0领先的情形下,被摩洛哥籍裁判以犯规扣分次数达到10次为由直接判负。但其中的多数扣分,大家都觉得莫名其妙。 这样,来自英国本土的选手自动得冠。 值得注意的是,现场的英国观众并不买账,不断给那位举着英国国旗兴奋地满场转圈的本国选手送去嘘声,颁奖时同样如此;可是,当宣布中国女选手的名字时,全场却爆发出热烈的掌声。“要不是国家有规定不能罢赛,我们绝对不会去领奖。”中国跆拳道队一位工作人员对新华社记者说。 根据上述新闻,回答下列问题 (1)既然罢赛等方法不可取,那此时中国跆拳道队领队应该怎么办? (2)针对这位裁判的判定,假如中央电视台现场采访你,你会说什么呢? 四、实践探究题(共12分) 18.(12分)到欧洲研学去! 小华家住山西,升入初中后,对欧洲古典建筑有浓厚兴趣。2019年寒假,当地正好有一个“欧洲文化经典之旅”研学活动:法国(2天)﹣﹣意大利(2)天﹣﹣英国(2天),包括参观牛津大学等世界著名学府。报名条件要求很高,机会难得。于是,小华以及同学小王都渴望参加,经过选拔,成功入选。 下面是他们参与此次活动所遇到的问题与困惑,请你帮忙解答: 正月初四:三晋启程﹣﹣终于能走了! (1)今年小华已初三,离中考不到半年。面对升学压力,已经同意的父母又有些犹豫,不想让小华前往。假如你是小华,会如何说服家人呢? 初七到初十:法意掠影﹣﹣这就是欧洲?! (2)外面的世界似乎什么都新鲜,小华眼花缭乱并在不经意间有如下行为: 行为1:第一天黄昏时分,航班终于抵达巴黎。一小时后,他们入住酒店。走进酒店大堂,只见墙上有一排挂钟(部分见图)。此时小华格外兴奋,急于打电话给国内好友分享见闻。 行为2:在凡尔赛宫某展厅,小华边欣赏世界名画,边高声评论说笑。 行为3:在罗马斗兽场外广场,小华将喝完矿泉水的空塑料瓶,顺手扔进了可回收垃圾桶里。 上述三个行为有两个不妥,小王要善意提醒,你认为小王会说什么? (3)到了国外,他们才发现,好多外国人还过中国年,又是舞龙,又是踩高跷,“年味”十足。小华随即拍了许多这样的照片发到朋友圈,立刻有微信好友问:“这么多的外国人喜欢过中国年说明了什么?” 你认为小华会怎样回复? 十一到十二:英伦探秘一一文化中的“文化” (4)英国BBC“偶像”栏目正在发起100多年以来全球最具标志性人物票选活动,共有28位候选人。其中下列4位是小华崇拜的: 上述4位候选人中只能选1位,你会建议小华选谁?选择的理由是什么? (5)本小题为选作题:(任选一道作答即可) 选作题1﹣与英国导游互动 英国导游介绍:巴斯古城是距离伦敦不远的一座历史名城,属于世界文化遗产。巴斯的古罗马浴场古迹(见右图)闻名全球。 ①小王问小华:“咱们山西也有一座古城是世界文化遗产,你知道是什么吗?” ②英国导游问小华:“中国传统文化很有意思,你能谈谈有什么特点吗?” 选作题2﹣﹣与朋友圈互动 研学快结束了,小华把几天来拍摄的又一组照片发到朋友圈。(见下图) ①笨笨猪@小华:你拍摄的照片中哪些是意大利古代建筑文明成果? 答:   (找出两个并写出其序号及对应名称) ②小华@笨笨猪:我发的照片里还有华人著名建筑大师贝聿铭先生的杰作,你知道是哪一幅?对于该建筑存在不同评价,你的看法是什么? 2019年山西省中考道德与法治试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一、选择题(在每小题的四个选项中,只有一项最符合题意,请选出并在答题卡上将该项涂黑.本大题有12小题,每小题3分,共36分) 1.【解答】2019年两会,国务院政府工作报告中有关2019年发展主要预期目标是:2019全年减轻企业税收和社保缴费负担近2万亿元,国内生产总值增长6%﹣6.5%,故③④符合题意;国内生产总值增长6.6%、为企业和个人减税降费约1.3万亿元,是2018年度取得的成就,不是2019年发展主要预期目标,故①②不符合题意。 故选:B。 2.【解答】2019年3月15日,第十三届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过《中华人民共和国外商投资法》,自2020年1月1日起施行。故D符合题意,其它选项不符合题意。 故选:D。 3.【解答】青春期是一个生长和发育发生重要变化的时期,其变化表现为生理变化和心理变化。进入青春期以后,个子猛长,出现了喉结,脸上还长了不少令人讨厌的小痘痘,这是正常的生理现象,属于青春期生理发展特点,A正确;“当堂和老师大吵争辩”是不尊重老师、没有正确对待老师的批评的表现,B错误;“起床晚了,上学迟到,却故意对班主任说是自行车坏了影响的”是不诚实的做法,诚信是为人之本,C错误;职业有分工不同,没有高低贵贱之分,针对自己的实际,中考后,报职高,学技术,将来努力当“大国工匠,这是对升学和职业选择的正确思考,D正确。 故选:D。 4.【解答】本题考查了课本的基础知识,依据课本知识分析选项可知,A选项公民的基本权利和义务是宪法的核心内容,宪法是每个公民享有权利、履行义务的根本保证,观点正确,符合题意;B选项依法服兵役属于公民的基本义务,观点错误;C选项某补习机构宣传栏里有某高考状元的照片,该机构侵犯状元的肖像权,观点错误;D选项何大叔要求对全体乘客进行搜身,这涉嫌侵犯乘客的人身自由权,观点错误。 故选:A。 5.【解答】依据教材知识分析材料可知,甲是个体经济,不合题意;乙是国有企业,符合题意;丙是集体经济,符合题意;丁是私营企业,不合题意。可见,乙和丙是在公有制企业工作。 故选:C。 6.【解答】①中的b也属于刑事违法行为。②小郑担任刑事法庭“审判长”,审判的违法行为,都违反刑法,符合题意。③根据法庭座位设置,应是审判员、审判长,审判员;书记员;公诉人,辩护人;被告,a正确,符合题意。④a属于行政处罚;b属于刑事处罚,符合题意;c属于民事责任,小郑采纳选项错误。 故选:B。 7.【解答】略 8.【解答】本题考查了科技创新改变中国的表现,依据课本知识分析选项可知,中国5G技术研发试验第三阶段测试结果已达预商用水平,就在美国加紧打压华为时,华为多年自主研制的海思芯片近日终于推出,举世瞩目,体现了我国的自主创新能力不断增强,①④选项符合题意;②选项体现了依法维护人民群众的合法权益;③体现了外交成就。 故选:D。 9.【解答】分析图片,图A是孩子不愿意做作业,是没有认识到学习的重要性,不能自觉履行受教育义务的行为;图B是班级投票选举班干部,体现班级民主管理,学生具有维护集体利益的责任感;图C把野蛮话脏话打包扔掉,说明要注意语言文明;图D是欠债不还的老赖受到征信惩罚,不允许乘坐高铁、飞机,说明要诚信做人。只有C符合文明礼貌要求。 故选:C。 10.【解答】学会说理,理性思维,也是公民素养的基本要求。面对不同的问题,应该用不同的思维模式来说理;分析选项可知,A﹣﹣主体用因果思维;B﹣﹣主体用用并列思维;CD﹣﹣主体用辩证思维。 故选:A。 11.【解答】依据教材知识分析材料可知,A错误,政协不是国家机构,人民法院行使审判权;B正确,教育局、公安局属于政府部门,都属于行政机关;C错误,市人大是该市最高权力机关;D错误,市政协不能执法检查。 故选:B。 12.【解答】宪法的核心价值追求是规范国家权力运行以保障公民的权利,据此观察分析四个选项,可知“宪法的作用”C选项符合题意,ABD的内容都没有强调保障公民的基本权利,都不符合题意,排除。 故选:C。 二、简答题(本大题有4小题,共19分) 13.【解答】①该题考查调控情绪,分析材料,心情不好时,就到操场散步或看电影,这是用注意注意力法调节情绪。据此作答。 ②该题考查犯罪特征,结合相关知识,犯罪有严重社会危害性、刑事违法性、刑罚当罚性。据此作答 ③该题考查依法治国,分析材料,答出依法治国写进宪法是1999年。据此作答。 ④该题考查核心价值观,后果材料,“仁者爱人”“推已及人”与社会主义核心价值观中个人层面的友善要求一致。据此作答。 ⑤该题考查基本的政治权利,分析材料,答出选举权与被选举权即可。 ⑥该题考查新时代思想,结合材料,中国特色社会主义理论体系中最新增加的内容习近平新时代中国特色社会主义。据此作答即可。 故答案为: ①转移注意力。 ②刑事违法性。 ③1999年。 ④友善。 ⑤选举权与被选举权。 ⑥习近平新时代中国特色社会主义。 14.【解答】(1)本题考查与少数民族交往要注意什么问题。结合教材知识可以做到三个尊重,不触犯民族禁忌,不破坏民族团结。 (2)本题考查藏族风土人情。布达拉宫和藏袍服饰是藏族特有的,③④符合题意;①是蒙古族摔跤;②穹顶拱门是西洋建筑风格。 故答案为: (1)尊重藏族的风俗习惯;尊重藏族的宗教信仰;尊重藏族的语言文字;不做有损民族团结的行为等。 (2)③④。 15.【解答】(1)人民代表大会体现我国的根本政治制度是人民代表大会制度,政治协商会议体现我国坚持中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度。据此作答。 (2)人民代表大会职权有:立法权、决定权、任免权和监督权,据此作答。 (3)认真阅读材料,联系教材知识,可知,“政协代表”应该为“政协委员”;人大代表要积极“参政议政”改为“积极履职”;“提案”改为“议案”等,据此作答。 故答案为: (1)“市人大会议”体现了我国的人民代表大会制度;“市政协会议”体现了中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度。(各2分) (2)立法权、决定权、任免权和监督权。 (3)“政协代表”应该为“政协委员”;人大代表要积极“参政议政”改为“积极履职”;“提案”改为“议案”。 16.【解答】(1)该题考查创新的表现,分析材料,学习小何创新精神与能力,学习他善于观察的优秀品质;学习他勤于动手,大但实践善于创新的勇气作答。 (2)该题考查自信自强的表现,分析材料,根据小何他们正制作的板报内容,本期的主题是自信自强。据此作答即可。 故答案为: (1)学习他创新精神与能力,能突破思维定势,用对比衬托的方法解决实际问题;学习他善于观察的优秀品质;学习他勤于动手,大但实践善于创新的勇气。 (2)自信、自强品质。 三、分析说明题(共1道题,8分) 17.【解答】(1)本题考查个人怎样维护公平。结合材料分析,中国跆拳道选手遭遇到不公平对待,事关国家尊严和荣誉,不能忍气吞声,要敢于对不公平说不,要采用合理合法的方式和手段,谋求最大限度的公平。可以及时向有关国际组织提出合理申诉;注意控制情绪,不能过激维权。 (2)本题考查对此事的看法。可以从是什么、为什么、怎么办角度整理思路。是什么?此次判决是不公平的;为什么?说不公平判决的危害,对裁判员、运动员、对运动项目、对体育精神的影响;怎么办?希望国际组织对此事调查回应,建立对裁判员评估和约束机制等。答案言之有理即可。 故答案为: (1)及时向国际有关组织提出合理申诉;既不能忍气吞声又不能过激维权,要控制情绪,理性对待。 (2)答案要点为:①我不认同今天比赛的裁决,从现场英国观众的反应也能感受判决显失公平;②裁判的误判是明目张胆的,会让人怀疑他的职业道德;③是对我方运动员本人明显不公和伤害;④也是对跆拳道项目规则的肆意破坏,践踏这个项目的健康发展;⑤颠覆公平竞争的体育环境;⑥呼吁国际有关方面高度关注此事,并对中方诉求做出积极回应。同时,建议推出对裁判员的评估约束机制。 四、实践探究题(共12分) 18.【解答】略

  • ID:4-6032261 2019年山东省菏泽市中考英语试卷解析版无听力材料和音频

    初中英语/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年山东省菏泽市中考英语试卷 选择题(共80分)一、听力(共四节,满分7.5分)做题时,先将答案标在试卷上,录音内容结束后,请将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。 第一节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分)听下面5个句子每个句子后有三幅图画,每个句子仅读一遍。请你从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出与句子内容相符的图画,并标在试卷的相应位置。 1.(1.5分) 2.(1.5分) 3.(1.5分) 4.(1.5分) 5.(1.5分) 第二节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分)听下面5个句子,每个句子后有一道小题,每个句子读两遍,请你听完句子的第二遍朗读后,从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳答语并标在试卷的相应位置。 6.(1.5分)A. You're welcome. B.It doesn't matter. C. Sorry to hear that. 7.(1.5分)A. Yes, I can. B.No, I can't. C. Sorry, I won't. 8.(1.5分)A. I want to be a teacher. B.I'm 12 years old. C. I'd like some noodles. 9.(1.5分)A. It's very beautiful. B. Yes, I have. C. Sounds good. 10.(1.5分)A. Enjoy the full moon. B.Watch the boat races. C. Make snowmen. 第三节(共1小题;每小题7.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面5段对话,每段对话后有一道小题,每段对话和问题读两遍,请你听完对话和问题的第二遍朗读后,从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。 11.(7.5分)(1)How much is the red hat? A. It's five dollars. B.It's ten dollars. C. It's fifteen dollars. (2)Why can't Tim come to the party? A. He has to do the dishes. B. He has to clean his room. C.He has to study for a test. (3)Why can't Tim come to the party? A. He has to do the dishes. B. He has to clean his room. C.He has to study for a test. (4)What should Peter do? A.Write to David and say thanks. B.Call David and say sorry. C.Email David and say hello. (5)Who probably answered the telephone just now? A. Rick. B. Lucy. C. Lucy's mother. 第四节(共1小题;每小题7.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面一段短文,短文后有五道小题。短文和问题读两遍。请你听完短文和问题的第二遍朗读后,从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。 12.(7.5分)(1)When did Li Lei take part in the Cleanup Day activities? A.Last Friday. B.Last Saturday. C. Last Sunday. (2)Where did they go with their teacher by bus? A. Tianxiang Park. B. People's Park, C.Zhaowanghe Park. (3)Who picked the banana peels up and put them into the rubbish box? A. A boy. B. Li Lei. C. Li Lei's teacher. (4)What did they help to do in the end? A. Plant the trees. B. Throw the rubbish C.Water the flowers. (5)How did they feel? A. Tired but happy. B. Tired and terrible. C. Bored but relaxed. 二、英语知识运用(共两节,满分10分)第一节单项填空(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分)从A、B、C三个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 13.(1分)﹣Are you____little boy in the photo, Tony? ﹣Yes, it's me. This photo was taken when I was only three.(  ) A.a B.an C.the 14.(1分)﹣The relations between my parents have become difficult. What should I do? ﹣You could do more jobs around the house so that they have more time for proper____.(  ) A.instrument B.communication C.community 15.(1分)﹣How is your friend going to the station? ﹣I'm not sure. He____take a taxi there.(  ) A.must B.has to C.may 16.(1分)﹣This is a really old bike. ﹣Yes,I____it for seven years.(  ) A.have had B.have bought C.Bought 17.(1分)Be more____next time, and you won't make the same mistake again.(  ) A.careless B.careful C.nervous 18.(1分)____my grandpa is over 80 years old, he still looks strong and healthy.(  ) A.Although B.Because C.Unless 19.(1分)﹣Lucy,when you leave the room,please ____the light. ﹣OK,Mom.(  ) A.put off B.turn off C.turn up 20.(1分)﹣Could you please tell me____? ﹣Sure. Just go along this street and you'll find it on your left.(  ) A.where is the bookstore B.where the bookstore is C.how can I get to the bookstore 21.(1分)﹣Would you like to go shopping with me after lunch? ﹣I'd love to, but I____to go out this afternoon.(  ) A.don't allow B.will allow C.won't be allowed 22.(1分)﹣ What do you think of the movie The Wandering Earth(《流浪地球》)? ﹣____!I've seen it three times and it always gives me something to think about.(  ) A.Wonderful B.I can't stand it C.It's too boring 第二节 完形填空(共1小题;每小题10分,满分10分) 23.(10分)阅读下面短文,从短文后各小题所给的A、BC三个选项中,选出可以填人空白处的最佳选项. Nowadays, many people drive their cars to work.There are a lot of cars in the street and the (1)   is very busy.So sometimes (2)   is not easy for people to get to work on time. When you are going to be late, you only dream of taking a plane there.Can your dream(3)   ? Yes! You can take a plane only in months! Four engineers in Germany are(4)   in making planes. They are making a newplane﹣Lilium jet. It doesn't look like a plane (5)   an egg. Many people think it looks funny and interesting. The great"egg"can take two people to the sky and (6)   three hundred kilometres in one hour. That's really great. Some people call Lilium jet"a flying car". Why? Firstly, it's not difficult for people to learn to drive it. People can drive it just like driving a car. But it can go (7)   and farther than a car. Secondly, Lilium jet is not very big, only a quarter of a plane. So it doesn't need an airport. Only a small place is OK. It can stop(8)   . In the future, the"flying car"will come into people's life and (9)   our ways of trip. Lilium jet will come on the market soon. (10)   you want to make your trip easy and funny, why not buy one? I'm sure you will have a good time on it. (1)A. traffic B. sky C.train (2)A. this B. that C. it (3)A. come on B. come back C. come true (4)A.bored B.interested C. disappointed (5)A. but B. and C.so (6)A. walk B.swim C.fly (7)A. slower B.faster C.earlier (8)A.where B.nowhere C.everywhere (9)A. change B. find C.lose (10)A.Unless B. If C.Whether 三、阅读理解(共两节,满分30分) 第一节(共4小题;满分30分)阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中,选出最佳选项。 24.(6分) In the Warring States Period, the State of Qin had a fight withthe State of Zhao, Zhao needed some talented people to ask for helpfrom Chu.Then Mao Sui﹣the man who believed he was the rightperson for this task came and recommended (推荐)himself.And hemade the king of Chu send the army to help successfully. Zhao wassafe. From then on, Mao Sui became a well﹣known hero of thestate. One day, Shang Yang put a thin wooden stick near the southgate of the capital of Qin.He promised to pay 10 gold pieces toanyone who could move it to the north gate. It was such a simplejob that all the people thought Shang was joking. Then he added 40moregold pieces. A man moved it and he really got 50 gold pieces.After that, the people of Qinbelieved Shang was a man of hisword. So they all followed Shang's new laws later. Wang Xizhi was one of the most famous calligraphers(书法家)during the Eastern Jin Dynasty of China. When he was veryyoung, he practiced his art every day and neverstopped.One day, Wang Xizhi wrote in wood for an engraver(雕刻师)to cut. Then the engraver found the ink had penetrated (渗透)onecentimeter into the wood.Now"Ru Mu San Fen" is often used todescribe sharp ideas or useful views. (1)Where did Mao Sui come from according to this passage?    A. The State of Qin. B. The State of Zhao. C. The State of Chu. (2)Why did the people of Qin follow Shang Yangs new laws?    A. They believed in Shang Yang. B. They were afraid of Shang Yang. C.Shang Yang gave them gold pieces. (3)What is"Ru Mu San Fen"often used to describe now?    A. A man of his word. B. Sharp ideas or useful views. C.A well﹣known hero of the state. 25.(8分) How do people find their ways? At first, people did it by looking at the sun, the moon and stars, Later, we started to use the compass(指南针).Today, there are navigation satellite systems. A navigation satellite system uses groups of satellites, They send information to a receiver, such as your smart phone. Then they can find where you are. The earliest navigation system is the Global (全球的) Positioning System(GPS) of the United States, The US has put 24 satellites into space to make sure GPS can locate a person correctly and globally. Russia's GLONASS and European Union's Galileo can also work globally. The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)is China's homegrown navigation system. It was set up in 2000. With it, China became the third country to build a navigation system after the US and Russia. BeiDou can find you wherever you are. It helps you go faster by finding shortcuts and using correct directions. When you are in trouble and call the police, they will know exactly where you are if you have a smart phone that uses BeiDou. Today, there are more than 20 BeiDou satellites above our heads. And the system is able to offer open services to the Asia﹣ Pacific area. China plans to send more BeiDou 3 satellites into space. BeiDou﹣3's position accuracy(精确度) is less than five meters, By 2020, the BeiDou system will have 35 satellites and begin serving Globally. (1)How did people find their ways at first according to this passage?    A. By looking at the sun, the moon andstars. B. By using the navigation satellite systems. C. By looking at the compass. (2)How many navigation satellite systems are mentioned in the passage?    A. Two. B. Three. C. Four. (3)What does the underlined word"locate "in the third paragraph mean?    A.位于 B.设置 C.定位 (4)What do you know about the BeiDou system?    A.It was set up before GPS. B.It will begin serving globally by 2020. C. There are less than 20 BeiDou satellites today. 26.(8分)Writing is a much newer invention than talking. Nobody knows when people first began to talk, but so far as we know, they did not begin to write until seven or eight thousand years ago. In Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China, and later in Palestine and Greece, people beganto make marks and pictures with sticks and sharp stones from which others, or they themselves later, could see what they had thought. These early reoords were the beginning of writing.The first writing was picture writing.Here are some early Chinese picture words. Can you see what they represent (代表)? Later Chinese writing is less like pictures than the earlier writing was, but we can seethe pictures in some of its words. For example: In picture writing, each picture represents a word; you need a different picture or mark for each word. In present﹣day Chinese writing most of the marks are not pictures of anything, and areader has to learn how the Chinese write about two thousand of these words before beingable to read a newspaper. With some of these marks you may be able to see what the idea is, For example: The sun and the moon.明Its meanings are:"bright"and"open". A man and two marks.仁One of the meanings is"humanity". (1)When did people begin to write?    A.Seven or eight hundred years ago. B. Before people first began to talk. C. Seven or eight thousand years ago. (2)Which of the following is the earliest Chinese picture word?    A. B. C.雨 (3)What does the明in the passage mean?    A.Day and night. B.Bright and open. C. Humanity. (4)What's the passage mainly about?    A. The history of Chinese writing. B.When Chinese people began to write. C. How the Chinese began to talk. 27.(8分)Delivering a better life By YANG FEIYUE |China Daily |Updated, 2019﹣03﹣30 10:42 A father who was disabled at work and abandoned (抛弃) by his wife brings his daughter on his takeout routes. The 39﹣year﹣old man from Yunnan Province lost his mother when he was a teenager, He experienced a serious accident in 2012. And his wife abandoned him and their daughter three years ago. But Li Bangyong didn' t give up. He has managed to support himself and his girl by delivering takeout over the past two years. Li moved to Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province to find a job but lost it after a machine crushed(压碎) his right hand. He started delivering food with his baby last year. He put a safety chair on hise﹣bike. His girl wears a special coat to protect against sunlight and a quilt to keep warm.He works this way from 7:30 a.m. to 7 :30 p.m. with only a 10﹣minute lunch break. He feeds his girl bread when she cries and slows down when she falls asleep. Li always carries her when he takes the food to customer' s doors, although he often has to climb many stairs. He faces hardship but finds comfort in his work. And many people have offered support to Li after reading his story. (1)Who reported the news?    A. Yang Feiyue. B.Li Bangyong. C.Wang Zhenyu. (2)How long does Li Bangyong usually work every day?    A.About 8 hours. B. About 10 hours. C. About 12 hours. (3)Why does Li's girl walk around during a break?    A. To deliver takeout. B. To relax her legs. C. To protect against sunlight. (4)Where does this passage probably come from?    A.A guide book. B.A TV program. C.A website 三、阅读理解(共两节,满分10分)第二节(共1小题;每小题10分,满分10分)阅读下面短文,完成相关任务。 28.(10分) Paper cutting is one of the traditional folk arts in China. It is a kind of popular folk arts and has been popular for about 1, 500 years.Let's learn about paper cutting. Wonderful meanings Paper cutting has some wonderful meanings, In our mind, paper cuttings can always bring us happiness and good luck. At the Spring Festival, people put up"Fu "on doors or windows.At a wedding, people also put up"Xi". The largest paper cutting in the world The largest paper cutting was made by Guo Xiaodong. It has an area of about 456 square meters. It is as large as a basketball court. Why are most paper cuttings red? In old times, people respected the sun. Red is the color of the sun. We always regardred as the symbol of hope and good luck. Now, we can still see red everywhere in China.The walls of old palaces are red. Lanterns are red. Weddings are always full of red things,too. Black paper cutting in Shanzhou It's true that most paper cuttings are red. But paper cuttings in Shanzhou, Henan Province are black. Black is the best color there. Shanzhou is a dry place. The local people make black paper cuttings to wish for rain. (1)What can paper cuttings always bring us in our mind?    (2)Who made the largest paper cutting?    (3)How do the local people in Shanzhou wish for rain?    (4)请把文中划线句子翻译成汉语.    (5)请给短文拟一个恰当的标题.    四、综合填空(共1小题;,每小题10分,满分10分)阅读下面短文,用方框内所给词汇的适当形式填空,使短文语义完整。 29.(10分) look good on other appear especially before share side and In recent years, with the development of technology,many popular apps(应用程序) have been produced. These days, an app has caught great attention. It is douyin, a videosharing app. Douyin first (1)   in 2016. Now it is many people's favorite app,(2)   the young. With Douyin, users can record videos, edit (编辑)them and (3)   them online. It is very easy (4)   interesting. We can share our videos with our friends with just a tap on the mobile phone screen. What's more, it's a great way to spend our free time by (5)   through those funny videos. However, every coin has two (6)   . The app also has bad things. On the one hand,some people spend long hours (7)    the app, which is harmful for their health. On the (8)    hand, users can also find some bad things on the app. Such thing is unsuitable and meaningless. In my opinion, Douyin should check the videos (9)    they are uploaded(上传)in order to keep a healthy environment for its users.Douyin is not (10)   for teenagers. We should not use it too often. 五、写作(共两节,满分5分)第一节信息归纳(共1小题;每小题5分,满分5分)阅读下面郎件,用英语完成思维导图。 30.(5分)Dear Li hua Thanks for your last letter.In your letter you talked about your problems on English study. Here are some tips on learning English for you. ?Read a book, newspaper or magazine in English with a dictionary. This will help you learn new words in a fun way. Even by spending just 15 minutes a day, your skills can be improved greatly. ?Listen to speeches and watch movies or documentaries in areas you aren't familiar with. They are fun tips on improving English. This activity will help improve listening and vocabulary at the same time. ?Know English grammar inside and out. It is one of the top tips on learning English.Grammar is a basic tool for English learners. It can help you understand better. ?Keep a diary. It allows you to use all of your English skills. This is one of the greatest tipson improving English at any stage of learning the language. All in all, learning English is hard, but with these tips on learning English, I believe ill get better at English. Yours, Lisa (1)    (2)    (3)    (4)    (5)    第二节书面表达(满分15分) 31.(15分)假如你是李华,你的英国笔友Lisa来信说她最近正在学习汉语,在学习过程中遇到"程门立雪"( Cheng Men Li Xue)这一成语,不解其意,请你根据下面图片提示,用英语给她回信,简要叙述这个成语故事,并谈谈自己的理解和感悟. 要求: 1.语言规范,语句通顺,可适当发挥; 2.字数:100词左右,开头和结尾已经给出,不计人总词数. 可能用到的词: idiom成语; during the Northern Song Dynasty北宋时期;Cheng Yi程顾; have a nap小憩; disturb打扰; moved感动的; respect尊敬 Dear Lisa, I'm glad to hear from you.___________________________ Yours, Li Hua 2019年山东省菏泽市中考英语试卷 参考答案与试题解析 选择题(共80分)一、听力(共四节,满分7.5分)做题时,先将答案标在试卷上,录音内容结束后,请将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。 第一节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分)听下面5个句子每个句子后有三幅图画,每个句子仅读一遍。请你从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出与句子内容相符的图画,并标在试卷的相应位置。 1.【解答】略 2.【解答】略 3.【解答】略 4.【解答】略 5.【解答】略 第二节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分7.5分)听下面5个句子,每个句子后有一道小题,每个句子读两遍,请你听完句子的第二遍朗读后,从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳答语并标在试卷的相应位置。 6.【解答】略 7.【解答】略 8.【解答】略 9.【解答】略 10.【解答】略 第三节(共1小题;每小题7.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面5段对话,每段对话后有一道小题,每段对话和问题读两遍,请你听完对话和问题的第二遍朗读后,从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。 11.【解答】略 第四节(共1小题;每小题7.5分,满分7.5分) 听下面一段短文,短文后有五道小题。短文和问题读两遍。请你听完短文和问题的第二遍朗读后,从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。 12.【解答】略 二、英语知识运用(共两节,满分10分)第一节单项填空(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分)从A、B、C三个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 13.【解答】句意:﹣汤尼,照片里的那个小男孩是你吗?﹣是的,是我.这张照片是我三岁的时候拍的.此处特指照片里的小男孩,故用定冠词the. 故选:C. 14.【解答】句意:﹣我父母之间的关系变得很困难.我该怎么办?﹣你可以多做些家务,这样他们就有更多的时间进行适当的沟通.instrument仪器;工具;communication交流;community社区.根据"我父母之间的关系变得很困难.我该怎么办"可知"你可以多做些家务,这样他们就有更多的时间进行适当的沟通." 故选:B. 15.【解答】A表示必须,B表示不得不,C表示可能.根据题干可知中I'm not sure.可知说话人不确定其朋友是怎么去火车站的,推测出其可能是坐出租车去那里了. 故选:C. 16.【解答】根据句意"我已经买了7年了"可知,要用现在完成时,其构成为have/ has done,buy是瞬间动词,在完成时中不能和时间段连用.故改为have. 故选:A. 17.【解答】句意:下次你要加倍小心,不要再犯同样的错误了.careless粗心的;careful细心的;nervous紧张的.根据"不要再犯同样的错误了"可知"下次你要加倍小心". 故选:B. 18.【解答】本题考查的是从属连词的用法.所给的答案都可以引导状语从句. although(虽然)引导让步状语从句;because(因为)引导原因状语从句;unless(除非)引导条件状语从句,由句意可知although符合要求. 故选:A. 19.【解答】put off推迟; turn off关掉; turn up出现;开大.结合语境:Lucy, 当你离开房间的时候,请关上灯.turn off符合语境. 故选:B. 20.【解答】考查宾语从句.宾语从句中,从句通常用陈述语序,排除AC.选项B是正常语序. 故选:B. 21.【解答】主语I和谓语"允许"是被动关系,再根据句意"我很想去,但今天下午不允许我出去"可知,要用一般将来时的被动语态,其构成为will be done. 故选:C. 22.【解答】考查情境对话.A.Wonderful很精彩;B.I can't stand it 我忍受不了.C.It's too boring太无聊.根据答语:我已经看过三次了,它总是给我一些思考的东西.可知应说很精彩. 故选:A. 第二节 完形填空(共1小题;每小题10分,满分10分) 23.【解答】(1)A.考查名词.句意:大街上有许多车,因此交通繁忙.traffic交通,车辆; sky天空;train火车.根据There are a lot of cars in the street.大街上有许多车,可知交通繁忙.故选:A. (2)C.考查代词.句意:因此,有时候按时上班是很难的. this这个;that那个;it它.根据is not easy for people to get to work 可知,只是一个it作形式主语的句型,it is +形容词+to do.故选:C. (3)C.考查动词.句意:你的梦想能实现吗?come on加油;come back返回; come true实现.根据your dream可知梦想实现.故选:C. (4)B.考查形容词.句意:四位德国工程师对制造飞机感兴趣.bored厌烦的;interested感兴趣的;disappointed失望的.根据in making planes可知考查固定用法be interested in doing对某事感兴趣.,故选:B. (5)A.考查连词.句意:它看起来不像飞机而像一个鸡蛋. but但是;so于是;and和.根据 It doesn't look like a plane.它看起来不像飞机,可知考查固定于法not…but不是…而是.故选:A. (6)C.考查动词.句意:这个巨大的"鸡蛋"可以带两个人在天上,每小时可以飞300公里.walk走;swim游泳;fly飞行.根据to the sky到天上可知只有飞行.故选:C (7)B.考查形容词.句意:但是它比汽车运行的快,运行的远.slower较慢的;faster较快的;earlier较早的.根据three hundred kilometres in one hour.每小时可以飞300公里可知性能比汽车好,因此也应该比汽车快.故选:B. (8)C.考查代词.句意:它可以停在任何地方.where哪儿;nowhere任何地方都不;everywhere各处.根据 Only a small place is OK.只要一块小地方就可以.可知停放方便.故选:C. (9)A.考查动词.句意:在将来,这种飞行汽车将进入人们的生活,改变人们的旅行方式. change改变; find发现;lose丢失.根据上文可知,这种飞行汽车速度快,飞行远,停放方便.因此可以改变人们的生活方式.故选:A. (10)B.考查连词.句意:如果你想让你的旅行变得极容易又有趣,为什么不买一台呢?Unless除非;If如果;Whether是否.根据you want to make your trip easy and funny你想让你的旅行变得极容易又有趣,表示买一台飞行车的条件,故选:B 三、阅读理解(共两节,满分30分) 第一节(共4小题;满分30分)阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中,选出最佳选项。 24.【解答】(1)B.细节理解题.根据第一篇故事Zhao needed some talented people to ask for helpfrom Chu.Then Mao Sui﹣the man who believed he was the right person for this task came and recommended (推荐)himself.赵国需要一些有才华的人来向楚国求援,于是认为自己是这项任务的合适人选的毛遂来亲自推荐.可知,毛遂是赵国人.故选B. (2)A. 细节理解题.根据第二篇故事After that, the people of Qin believed Shang was a man of hisword. So they all followed Shang's new laws later. 之后,秦国人民相信商鞅是一个可以相信的人,所以后来他们都遵守了商的新法律.故选A. (3)B.细节理解题.根据第三篇故事最后一句Now"Ru Mu San Fen" is often used to describe sharp ideas or useful views. 现在,"入木三分"经常被用来形容尖锐的想法或有用的观点.可知,现在这个词经常被用来形容尖锐的想法或有用的观点.故选B. 25.【解答】(1)A.细节理解题.根据At first, people did it by looking at the sun, the moon and stars,起初,人们通过观察太阳、月亮和星星来做到这一点,故选A. (2)C.细节理解题.根据GPS; GLONASS;Galileo;BDS.共四个.故答案是C. (3)D.词义猜测题.根据The US has put 24 satellites into space to make sure GPS can locate a person correctly and globally.美国已经将24颗卫星送入太空,以确保全球定位系统能够准确地定位一个人.可知意思是定位.故选D. (4)B.细节理解题.根据By 2020, the BeiDou system will have 35 satellites and begin serving Globally.到2020年,北斗系统将拥有35颗卫星,并开始向全球服务.可知答案是B. 26.【解答】(1)C 细节理解题.根据第一段中but so far as we know, they did not begin to write until seven or eight thousand years ago.但据我们所知,他们直到七八千年前才开始写作.可知,文字写作开始于七八千年前.故选C. (2)A 细节理解题.根据 The first writing was picture writing. 第一个是图画文字.结合选项,可知A选项是图画文字,所以它是中国最早的文字.故选A. (3)B 细节理解题.根据The sun and the moon.明Its meanings are:"bright"and"open".太阳和月亮.说明它的意思是:"明亮"和"开放".可知,明的意思是"光明和开放".故选C (4)A 主旨大意题.根据Writing is a much newer invention than talking,写作是一项比谈话新得多的发明.中国的文字开始于七八千年前,经历的一些变化最后形成了现在的汉字.由此可以推测,本文主要见得是中国文字的历史.故选C 27.【解答】(1)A细节理解题,根据原文 By YANG FEIYUE |China Daily |Updated, 2019﹣03﹣30 10:42 杨飞越,中国日报,2019年3月20日10:42更新.可知是;杨飞越写的这篇报道.故选A. (2)C细节理解题,根据原文He works this way from 7:30 a.m. to 7 :30 p.m,他这样从早上7点半工作到晚上7点半.所以一共有12个小时.故选C. (3)B细节理解题,根据原文Li's girl walks around to relax her legs during a break.他女儿为了放松她的腿,在休息时间到处走走,故选B. (4)C细节理解题,根据原文,根据图文结合,有具体时间的报道,By YANG FEIYUE |China Daily |Updated, 2019﹣03﹣30 10:42 杨飞越,中国日报,2019年3月20日10:42更新.可知这个消息可能是从一个网站来的,故选C. 三、阅读理解(共两节,满分10分)第二节(共1小题;每小题10分,满分10分)阅读下面短文,完成相关任务。 28.【解答】(1).Happiness and good luck.细节理解题,根据 In our mind, paper cuttings can always bring us happiness and good luck. 在我们的记忆中,剪纸总是能给我们带来幸福和好运.故答案为:Happiness and good luck. (2).Guo Xiaodong.细节理解题,根据The largest paper cutting was made by Guo Xiaodong.可知,最大的剪纸是由郭晓冬制作的.故答案为:Guo Xiaodong. (3).By making black paper cuttings to wish for rain.细节理解题,根据 The local people make black paper cuttings to wish for rain.当地的人用黑色的剪纸来求雨.故答案为:By making black paper cuttings to wish for rain. (4)我们一直认为这是幸福和好运的象征.英汉翻译题,regard as认为,当做;the symbol of happiness and good luck幸福和好运的象征.故答案为:我们一直认为这是幸福和好运的象征. (5)Paper cutting.主旨大意题,本文主要讲述了剪纸的历史和它的寓意,故答案为:Paper cutting. 四、综合填空(共1小题;,每小题10分,满分10分)阅读下面短文,用方框内所给词汇的适当形式填空,使短文语义完整。 29.【解答】1.appeared 考查动词.根据语境"抖音于2016年首次亮相 ",考虑选择动词appear,意为"出现",由in 2016推断此处填过去式形式,故答案为 appeared; 2.especially 考查副词.根据语境"现在它是许多人最喜欢的应用程序,特别是年轻人",考虑选择副词especially,意为"尤其",故答案为 especially; 3.share 考查动词.根据语境"通过抖音,用户可以录制视频、编辑视频并在线共享",考虑选择动词share,意为"分享",由and前的动词edit推断此处填原形,故答案为 share; 4.and 考查连词.根据语境"这又简单又有趣",由两个形容词easy与interesting推断此处填并列连词,考虑选择连词and,意为"和",故答案为 and; 5.looking 考查动词.根据语境"更重要的是,这是一个通过看那些有趣的视频来打发我们空闲时间的很好的方式",考虑选择动词look,意为"看",由空前的介词by推断此处填﹣ing形式,故答案为 looking; 6.sides 考查名词.根据语境"然而,凡事都有两面",考虑选择名词side,意为"方面",由空前的数词two推断此处填复数形式,故答案为 sides; 7.on 考查介词.根据语境"一方面,有些人花很长时间在这个应用上,这对他们的健康有害",考虑选择词on,构成短语spend on sth.,意为"在…上花时间",故答案为 on; 8.other 考查形容词.根据语境"另一方面,用户也可以在应用程序上发现一些不好的地方",考虑选择形容词other,构成短语 on the other hand,意为"另一方面",故答案为 other; 9.before 考查介词.根据语境"我看来,抖音应该在上传之前检查一下这些视频",考虑选择介词before,意为"在…以前",故答案为 before; 10.good 考查形容词.根据语境"抖音对青少年不好,我们不应该经常用它",考虑选择词good,构成短语be good for, 意为"对…有益",故答案为 good. 五、写作(共两节,满分5分)第一节信息归纳(共1小题;每小题5分,满分5分)阅读下面郎件,用英语完成思维导图。 30.【解答】(1)learn new words.细节理解题.根据 This will help you learn new words in a fun way.这将帮助你以一种有趣的方式学习新单词.故答案是: learn new words.故答案是:learn new words. (2)Listen to speeches. 细节理解题.根据 Listen to speeches and watch movies or documentaries in areas you aren't familiar with.听演讲,在你不熟悉的地方看电影或纪录片.故答案是:Listen to speeches. (3)improve listening and vocabulary. 细节理解题.根据This activity will help improve listening and vocabulary at the same time.这项活动将有助于同时提高听力和词汇.故答案是:improve listening and vocabulary. (4)English grammar. 细节理解题.根据Know English grammar inside and out.熟悉英语语法.故答案是:English grammar. (5)Keep a diary. 细节理解题.根据?Keep a diary. It allows you to use all of your English skills.?记日记.它能让你运用你所有的英语技能.故答案是:Keep a diary. 第二节书面表达(满分15分) 31.【解答】Dear Lisa, I'm glad to hear from you. I am very happy that you have great interest in learning Chinese.(高分句型一)Let me tell you the story about the idiom Cheng Men Li Xue.(开篇点明题意.) It is a story during the Northern Song Dynasty.There was a student called Yangshi.He had a confused problem,he wanted to ask famous teacher Cheng Yi.When he arrived his house,the teacher was having a nap.So the page boy asked Yangshi to visit the teacher another time.But Yangshi refused.Suddenly,It started snowing,the page boy asked him to come in and wait in the house since it was very cold.However,Yangshi stood in front of the gate ,even later it snowed heavily.After the teacher finished all the things,Yangshi still stood in the snow.Then the teacher asked him,"Why not come another day?How silly you are!",Yangshi said,"I have learned something from you,I can't disturb you,and I must show my respect for you".Finally,Cheng Yi was moved by Yangshi's action and taught him a lot.(讲述故事的经过) It shows us that we should show our respect to our teachers.Hope it will help you to understand.(结尾总结) Yours, Li Hua

  • ID:4-6032241 2019年浙江省嘉兴市中考英语试卷解析版

    初中英语/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年浙江省嘉兴市中考英语试卷 一、完形填空(本题有15小题,每小题15分,共计15分) 1.(15分)Last summer my son,Eric, left for university in another country. Our once lively house became quiet and (1)   . I missed him so much that I started sending him messages on the phone, mainly to say(2)   or to give him a word of warning. One of my messages says, "So you told me you(3)   your credit card(信用卡).If you don't try hard to mend your careless ways, one day you'll (4)    and find your brain missing." I did get Eric's messages, but most of them were about(5)   They were no different from the notes he used to leave (6)    the white board when he was at home. "I bought a new pair of shoes. They cost me ﹩90. Please help!" "Money is running short(7)   I've bought some books for my research paper. Help me please!" (8)   , however, Eric begins to send me all kinds of articles: some funny, some touching and some worth(9)   . He says they will help me understand young men better and keep up with the times. I read the articles slowly, like a(10)   student,with mixed feelings as well﹣my kid, who followed me around not long ago, has now become my(11)   ! So I write back, "I've read all those articles. I'll take(12)   as a loving son's expectations towards his mother. He must be thinking that his mother is still (13)   enough to accept new things. That makes me feel proud. What we parents lack(缺乏) most is the ability to learn and(14)   ,in both body and mind.Thank you, my son." In this way we share ideas and(15)   each other, with a gentle and beautiful language we seldom use. Every time I read those messages, I feel my heart filled with warmth. (1)A.dark B. clean C. lonely D.comfortable (2)A.hello B. sorry C. thanks D.goodbye (3)A.lost B. lent C. designed D.received (4)A.give up B. wake up C. set off D.take off (5)A.health B. music C. money D.safety (6)A.on B. across C. behind D.opposite (7)A.if B. until C. though D.because (8)A.Luckily B. Actually C. Recently D.Immediately (9)A.copying B. writing C. thinking D.correcting (10)A.crazy B. popular C. nervous D.careful (11)A.doctor B. teacher C. customer D.classmate (12)A.us B. you C. him D.them (13)A.young B. pretty C. friendly D.honest (14)A.fight B. change C. exercise D.remember (15)A.watch B. invite C. protect D.encourage 二、阅读理解(本题有15小题,每小题6分,共计30分) 2.(6分)阅读下面材料,然后从各题所给的四个选项中选出一个最佳答案. Every year,more than 26,000 childre narrive in Britain.We ask some new arrivals what they like best about their new lives and what's different from home. (1)Among the above four children,    probably likes the new school life best. A. Luck B.Zinah C. Jarek D. Daisy (2)In Zinah's eyes, her maths teacher in India might be   . A. cold B. strict C patient D. humorous (3)The passage is probably taken from   . A. a travel magazine B. an education website C. a geography textbook D. a business newspaper 3.(8分)阅读下面材料,然后从各题所给的四个选项中选出一个最佳答案. Everyone faces difficulties in their life. Daniel Kish was born with a special eye illness and lost his eyesight before he was only 14 months old. Soon after, however, he started to do an amazing thing. He learned to make clicks(咔哒声) with his tongue to help him move around. Kish now moves about using sonar(声呐). He is so good at it that he can ride a bicycle by himself on public roads. And he started the organization World Access for the Blind(WAFTB) in 2000, teaching others how to use sonar. In the interview with National Geographic, he explains how the sonar works. "When I make a click sound, it produces sound waves. These waves reflect(反射) off surfaces all around and return to my ears. My brain then deals with the sound and turns it into pictures in my mind. Each click is like a camera flash, which helps me make a 3﹣D picture of my surroundings for hundreds of feet. It's like having a conversation with the environment." Kish feels it is exciting to ride a bike using a sonar, although he needs to click twice a second, much more than he usually does. "It may sound a bit dangerous to move around the world in this way," he says. "But most people in the world live in fear of things that they imagine. I love hiking and mountain﹣biking. I go almost everywhere. And I've never had an accident and hurt myself." He is happy to be able to help more blind children to improve their life."We've served over 10, 000 students in nearly 40 countries," he tells the reporter."Many students are surprised how quickly results come. Seeing isn't in the eyes. It's in the mind." (1)Kish moves around using sonar because   . A. he is good at making clicks B. it make him "see" the world C. he has a great interest in science D. it is important for him to keep healthy (2)Which of the following is the right order shoeing the sonar works?    ①The sound waves reflect off surfaces. ②The person makes a clicking sound. ③The brain turns the sound into pictures. ④The sound waves reach the person's ears. A.①④③② B.②①④③ C.①④②③ D.②③①④ (3)What can we learn about World Access for the Blind( WAFTB ) from the passage?    A. It offers the blind free bicycles. B. It sells sonar products to the blind. C. It teaches the blind to use sonar. D. It helps the blind find more friends. (4)The best title for the passage might be   . A. Living without fear B. Travelling with the blind C.Hoping for the future D. Looking around the world 4.(8分)阅读下面材料,然后从各题所给的四个选项中选出一个最佳答案. Fresh green grass. Hundreds of colorful wild flowers. Water running into little pools. Birds making their homes in boxes. The 9, 500﹣square﹣metre Augustenborg Botanical Garden may look just like any other well﹣organized park but there's a difference. It lies on the roofs(屋顶) of industria land office buildings in the city of Malmo in Sweden. Green roofs are not a new invention. And now they are getting popular again. The common roofs of a modern city have endless black surfaces with no life or water. Perhaps that's why a garden on a roof becomes such a perfect choice for more and more people. Green roofs are not just pretty. They also help to moderate the city temperature. The high temperatures on common roofs in the summer can make top floor flats uncomfortably hot. What is more, they play a part in making the cities hotter than the countryside around them, causing the "urban heat﹣island effect". On a green roof, however, with its plants and water, temperatures change only a little, as they do in a park. This can greatly cut the costs of heating and cooling in the building below. Also, a green roof takes in rain water, and protects the city drainage(排水) system._____ And small animals and birds can make their homes on it. Thanks to this, the city may become part of nature, rather than something completely separate from it. While the cost of building such a roof can still be higher, it can be cheaper in the long term as a result of energy savings. And wouldn't it be wonderful to be able to walk out into a garden high above the city's noise and traffic, whether you're at school or in an office or just at home in aten﹣floor block. (1)With the example of Augustenborg Botanical Garden, the writer wants to explain   . A. how wildlife is protected B. what a green roof is like C. how to organize a good park D. what to do with a spare roof (2)The underlined word " moderate" in Paragraph 3 is the closest in meaning to "   ". A. raise B. check C. record D. control (3)Which of the following is the best sentence to fill in the blank in Paragraph 4?    A. A green roof is alive. B. A green roof stops pollution. C. A common roof is noisy. D. A common roof increases the cost. (4)The purpose of the passage is to   . A. discover the problems with green roofs B. introduce the change of green roofs C. show the amazing beauty of green roofs D. describe the advantages of green roots 5.(8分)阅读下面材料,然后从各题所给的四个选项中选出一个最佳答案. Mark Zuckerberg, who starts the social network Facebook, often wears jeans and a T﹣shirt to work, including to important business meetings. Not everyone agrees with him. Some people say he doesn't look serious this way. Harvard Business School researcher, Franccsca Gino, has a different idea. While most peopleseem to think that dressing differently from those around you generally has a bad influence, shebelieves it can actually have a positive(积极的) effect. And she's done experiments to support heridea. When her researchers, wearing sportswear, visited the expensive shops an Italy, they wereusually viewed as wealthier and more important people than those who were well﹣dressed indesigner clothes. Do people always view less formal(正式的) clothing more positively? Researchers in France took theirresearch out into the street, to the general public. The video they made shows an actordressed in a well﹣cut suit and shiny shoes. While walking along the road, he begins to cough badly, stops to catch his breath and falls down. Before he even calls for help, people rush to help him. Inanother video, the actor appears at the same crowded place and repeats the actions in exactly thesame way. But this time, no one comes to help. What's the difference? He's wearing untidy clothesand looks like a homeless person. In a situation like this, the clothes you're wearing could mean thedifference between life and death. It seems that our clothing doesn't only change the way others view us, but also the way we seeourselves. In an experiment testing students' ability to pay attention to details(细节), the groupwearing white lab coats did the best.Why? Researchers told them that they were wearing thedoctors coats. The experiment didn't show whether such influences would last long. Moreexperiments are needed in the future before we decide to make the doctors' coats a must of fashion. (1)Mark Zuckerberg is not considered serious by some people because   . A. he does not listen to others'advice B. he sets up a network of video games C. he wears jeans and a T﹣shirt to work D. he often plays jokes at business meetings (2)Which of the following is Gino's opinion according to Paragraph 2?    A. It is necessary to buy expensive clothes. B. Wearing less formal clothes is in fact good. C. It is bad to dress differently from people around you. D. Wearing sports clothes makes you look less important. (3)In Paragraph 3, the writer proves(证明) his ( her ) opinion mainly   . A. by giving reasons B. by using pictures C. by comparing facts D. by listing numbers (4)What can we learn from the passage?    A. What we wear makes a difference. B. Formal clothing makes a wise man. C. Our value depends on what we wear. D. Our clothing influences our characters. 三、词汇运用(本题有15小题,每小题5分,共计15分) 6.(5分)用方框中所给词语的适当形式填空,每词仅用一次. nine, ours, beside, punish, after all (1)Don't lose heart. You are new to the work   . (2)According to the present law, drunk driving must    seriously. (3)I always keep a dictionary    me when I'm doing crosswords. (4)Last Sunday the whole family celebrated my sister's    birthday. (5)The main difference between our brains and those of monkeys is that    are bigger. 7.(10分)阅读下面短文,然后根据括号内所给汉语意思写出单词的正确形式(每空一词). Cooking was once regarded as a necessary part of education in England. But in recent years, it has become less important in schools. As a result (1)   (基础的) cooking and food preparation skills are being lost. It is also making more children overweight, as parents use too much fast food that is(2)   (有害的) to their health. The government is worried and is looking for ways to (3)    (解决) the problem. A new law has been passed. All secondary schools should offer cooking (4)   (课程 ) to students aged from 11 to 14 years old. They hope that this will encourage people to cook instead of eating (5)    (准备好的) meals, fast food and snacks. Students will learn to cook for one hour a (6)   (星期) for one term. They will learn to use simple and fresh ingredients(原料) to prepare healthy, tasty food, following (7)   (说明). These cooking skills will be helpful in their future life. Schools are also setting up cooking clubs all over the country. The clubs will (8)   (提供) more children with the chance to learn to cook. There are still difficulties. Head teachers are worried about the things they will need for the cooking. And about 15% of schools do not have (9)   (厨房) and there are not enough teachers. The speaker from the government (10)   (允诺) to train 800 teachers and to give schools million pounds a year to help children from poorer families to pay for ingredients. 四、语法填空(本题有10小题,每小题10分,共计10分) 8.(10分)阅读下面短文,在空白处填入一个适当的词,或填入括号中所给单词的正确形式. A group of boys were playing basketball in the park. The playground was great,(1)    there was no fence(栅栏)around it.If one boy missed the ball, someone had to catch it at once, so it wouldn't go too far away. One boy threw the ball too hard and it flew like a rocket over the (2)   (head)of all the other boys, and kept on flying. Anna was sitting nearby and watching the ducks swim in the river. Suddenly, she (3)   (hear)some shouting and turned to see a big, orange object coming towards (4)   (she). "Stop the ball," one of them shouted. The ball landed close to the river. The ducks flew away quickly. Anna opened her arms, just in time (5)   (stop) the ball as it was going to fall into the river. "Could you please bring it over here?"asked one boy (6)   (polite). Anna walked to them with the ball. She was nervous because the boys were (7)   (old) than her. However, they were very nice and thanked her (8)    saving the ball. "Can I join you?" Anna asked. The boys agreed, but they were not sure (9)    she could throw the ball even close to the basket. Anna took the ball and then had (10)    try. The boys watched in surprise as the ball wentstraight into the basket. Anna smiled as the boys cheered loudly for her. 五、任务型阅读(本题有5小题,每小题5分,共计5分) 9.(5分)下面短文中有四处(第1﹣4题)需要添加小标題.阅读短文,然后从方框中所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出符合各段意思的小标题,并完成第5题. Sleep plays an important role in our life. A lack of sleep can influence our ability to work and study. (1)    Normal people need 7 to 9 hours of sleep every night. But for teenagers, a healthy amount(数量) is about 8 to 10 hours. Sadly, only of people manage that. (2)    Tiredness usually reaches its highest twice a day, at 2 a.m. and 2 p.m. That explains whys students easily fall asleep in afternoon classes. So sleeping at noon for a while helps us work betterin the rest ofthe day. (3)    People can make mistakes if they don't get enough sleep. Students cannot pay attention in classor do well in sports. Drivers who have fallen asleep while driving have caused 1%﹣10% of thetraffic accidents in our life. And we can imagine what will happen if a doctor feels sleepy at theoperating﹣table! (4)    There are several ways that can help us sleep better, such as avoiding drinks that make usexcited late in the day, going to sleep at the same time each night, and sleeping in a comfortableplace that is dark, quiet and warm. A. Bad influences B. Sleeping hours C. The most tiring moments D. Good sleeping habits (5)The passage mainly encourages us to   . (不得超过5个单词) 六、书面表达(本题有1小题,共计15分) 10.(15分)假设你是李华.你在某英文网站上看到一则招募中国志愿者(volunteer)的广告.请根据该广告中所提供的两个志愿者项目,选择其中一个,结合自己的实际情况,给项目负责人写一封电子邮件,表达你希望参加这个项目的愿望,并阐述理由. 注意:(1)邮件中必须包含招募广告中的信息,可适当发挥. (2)文中不得出现与你身份相关的信息. (3)词数:80~100.邮件的开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数. Dear Sir/Madam, I'm Li Hua,a middle school student from China. I want to be a volunteer.    Looking forward to your early reply! Yours, LiHua 2019年浙江省嘉兴市中考英语试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一、完形填空(本题有15小题,每小题15分,共计15分) 1.【解答】1.C 考查形容词, 根据Our once lively house became quiet and我们曾经热闹的房子变得安静,此处是讲我们曾经热闹的房子变得安静而孤独,lonely孤独的,符合语境,故选C. 2.A 考查名词 , 根据 I missed him so much that I started sending him messages on the phone我太想他了,所以我开始给他发消息,可知此处是讲主要是打个招呼或者给他一句警告,故选A 3.A 考查动词 , 根据If you don't try hard to mend your careless ways如果你不努力改正你粗心的方式,可知此处是讲所以你告诉我你丢失了你的信用卡,lost丢失,符合语境,故选A 4.B 考查词组, 根据 find your brain missing,可知这里是讲有一天你会醒来发现你的大脑不见了, wake up醒来,符合语境,故选B. 5.C 考查名词, 根据 "I bought a new pair of shoes. They cost me ﹩90. Please help!""我买了一双新鞋.他们让我损失了﹩90.请帮忙!,此处是讲大部分是关于钱,故选C. 6.A 考查介词 ,A.on 在B. across 穿过C. behind 在……后面D.opposite 在……对面, 根据语境,可知此处是讲但大部分都是关于他在家时留在白板上的留言,故选A 7.D 考查动词,根据I've bought some books for my research paper,可知此处是表示原因,讲钱快用完了,因为我为我的研究论文买了一些书,故选D. 8.C 考查副词, 根据 however, Eric begins to send me all kinds of articles,此处是讲然而,最近埃里克开始给我发各种各样的文章, Recently最近,符合语境,故选C. 9.C 考查动词,A.copying 复制B. writing 写C. thinking思考 D.correcting改正, 根据语境,此处是讲埃里克开始给我发各种各样的文章:一些有趣,一些感人,一些值得思考,故选C. 10.D 考查形容词,根据 I read the articles slowly我慢慢地读文章,可知此处是讲像一个仔细的学生,故选D. 11.B 考查动词, 根据 He says they will help me understand young men better and keep up with the times他说他们将帮助我更好地理解年轻人,跟上时代.上文讲到我慢慢地读文章,像一个仔细的学生,可知这里是讲我的儿子现在成为了我的老师,故选B. 12.D 考查代词,根据语境,可知此处是讲我会把它们当成一个慈爱的儿子对他母亲的期望,take后面接宾格,用them指代articles,故选D. 13.A 考查形容词 , 根据 He says they will help me understand young men better and keep up with the times他说他们将帮助我更好地理解年轻人,跟上时代,可知此处是讲他一定认为他妈妈还年轻,可以接受新事物,故选A 14.B 考查动词,A.fight 打架B. change改变 C. exercise运动 D.remember 记得, 根据上文讲到他一定认为他妈妈还年轻,可以接受新事物,可知此处是讲像一个仔细的学生,可知这里是讲我们父母所缺乏的最重要的是学习能力和改变,故选B. 15.D 考查动词,A.watch 看B. invite邀请 C. protect保护 D.encourage 鼓励,根据语境,可知此处是讲我们以这种方式分享主意和鼓励彼此,故选D. 二、阅读理解(本题有15小题,每小题6分,共计30分) 2.【解答】(1)C.细节理解题.题干句意:在四个小孩中,______可能最喜欢新学校的生活.根据文中Jerek所说的"I'm lucky here because the English boy next door is very friendly and kind"和"I like teachers here"可知, 我很幸运的是,隔壁的英国男孩很友好、善良;我喜欢这里的老师.故知Jerek最喜欢他的新学校的生活.故选C. (2)D.细节理解题.题干句意:在Zinah的眼里,她的印度数学老师可能_____.根据文中"I love the maths class because the teacher is really funny, just like my maths teacher in India"可知,我喜欢数学课,因为老师非常有趣,就像我的印度老师一样.故知她的印度老师很风趣幽默.故选D. (3)B.细节理解题.题干句意:本文可能选自_______.根据本文说的是波兰的Jerek,印度的Zinah和美国的Daisy 与Luck等四人在某个国家的某所学校学习的体验和感受.故知本文可能选自教育网站.故选B. 3.【解答】1.B.细节理解题.根据 Daniel Kish was born with a special eye illness and lost his eyesight before he was only 14 months old.Soon after, however, he started to do an amazing thing. He learned to make clicks with his tongue to help him move around丹尼尔?基什生来就患有一种特殊的眼病,在他只有14个月大的时候就失明了.然而,不久之后,他开始做一件惊人的事情.他学会了用舌头发出咔哒声帮助他四处走动,可知是为了帮助他"看见"世界,故选A. 2.B细节理解题.根据"When I make a click sound, it produces sound waves. These waves reflect off surfacesall around and return to my ears. My brain then deals with the sound and turns it into pictures in my mind. Each click is like a camera flash, which helps me make a 3﹣D picture of my surroundings for hundreds of feet当我发出咔哒声时,它会产生声波.这些波朝四周反射,回到我的耳边.然后,我的大脑处理声音,并在脑海中将其转化为图象.每一次点击就像相机闪光灯,帮助我拍下数百英尺的周围三维图象,可知正确顺序为发出咔哒声、声波反射、声波到达耳朵,大脑形成图象,故选B. 3.C细节理解题.根据And he started the organization World Access for the Blind(WAFTB) in 2000, teaching others how to use sonar他在2000年创立了世界盲人通道组织,教其他人如何使用声纳,可知是教盲人如何使用声纳,故选C. 4.D主旨大意题.根据Many students are surprised how quickly results come. Seeing isn't in the eyes. It's in the mind."许多学生对结果来得如此之快感到惊讶.看不一定要用眼睛.它在心里,结合文章内容,Daniel Kish 因为先天性眼睛失明,用声呐帮助自己行动,D放眼世界,符合语境,故选D. 4.【解答】(1)B.细节理解题.根据 The 9, 500﹣square﹣metre Augustenborg Botanical Garden may look just like any other well﹣organized park but there's a difference. It lies on the roofs(屋顶) of industria land office buildings in the city of Malmo in Sweden.这座占地9500平方米的奥古斯登堡植物园看起来可能和其他任何组织良好的公园一样,但也有不同之处.可知是为了介绍绿色的屋顶是什么样.故选B. (2)D.词义猜测题.根据They also help to moderate the city temperature.它们也有助于﹣﹣﹣城市温度. On a green roof, however, with its plants and water, temperatures change only a little, as they do in a park.然而,在有植物和水的绿色屋顶上,气温变化很小,就像在公园里一样.可知意思是调节,控制.故选D. (3)A.细节理解题.根据 And small animals and birds can make their homes on it. Thanks to this, the city may become part of nature, rather than something completely separate from it.小动物和小鸟可以在它上面安家.正因为如此,这座城市可能成为自然的一部分,而不是与它完全分离的东西.可知说的是绿色屋顶是有生气的alive.故选A. (4)D.主旨大意题.根据Green roofs are not just pretty. They also help to moderate the city temperature绿色屋顶不仅漂亮,而且有助于调节城市温度可知介绍了绿色屋顶的优点.故选D. 5.【解答】(1)C.细节理解题.根据第一段中Mark Zuckerberg, often wears jeans and a T﹣shirt to work, including to important business meetings.Some people say he doesn't look serious this way.马克?扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)经常穿着牛仔裤和T恤去上班,包括参加重要的商务会议.有些人说他看起来不那么严肃.有些人认为马克?扎克伯格是不认真,是因为他穿着牛仔裤和t恤去上班.故选C (2)B. 推理判断题.根据第二段最后When her researchers, wearing sportswear, visited the expensive shops an Italy, they were usually viewed as wealthier and more important people than those who were well﹣dressed indesigner clothes.当她的研究人员穿着运动装去参观意大利一家昂贵的商店时,他们通常被视为比那些穿着体面的独立服装的人更富有、更重要的人.可以推测,吉诺认为:事实上,穿不那么正式的衣服是件好事.故选B (3)C.推理判断题.根据第三段内容研究人员做了两个实验:一个穿着剪裁考究的西装和闪亮的鞋子的演员,当他求救时,人们都争先恐后地去帮助他.另一个穿着凌乱的衣服的演员,却没有人来帮忙.可以看出:作者用"比较事实"来证明了他的观点.故选C (4)A.推理判断题.根据本文内容及最后一段中It seems that our clothing doesn't only change the way others view us, but also the way we seeourselves. 似乎我们的衣着不仅改变了别人对我们的看法,也改变了我们对自己的看法.可以推测出,我们从文中可以学到的是"我们的穿着很重要".故选A 三、词汇运用(本题有15小题,每小题5分,共计15分) 6.【解答】1.after all 考查短语,after all 毕竟,句意:别灰心.对这份工作你毕竟是新手.故答案是after all 2.be punished 考查被动语态,主语drunk driving 和punish是被动关系,结合句型用情态动词的被动语态,情态动词+be+过去分词,句意:根据现行法律,酒后驾车必须受到严厉惩罚.故答案是be punished 3.beside 考查介词,根据keep a dictionary…me 结合选项可知句意:我做填字游戏时,我总是在我旁边放一本字典.beside介词,在旁边,故答案是beside 4.ninth 考查序数词,根据celebrated my sister's…birthday结合选项可知填序数词ninth 第九,句意:上星期天全家庆祝我妹妹九岁生日.故答案是ninth 5.ours 考查名词性物主代词,根据between our brains and those of monkeys 结合选项可知句意:我们的大脑和猴子的大脑主要区别在于我们的大一些.ours 我们的,故答案是ours 7.【解答】(1)basic 考查形容词,结合语境,结果基础的烹饪和食物储备技能正在丢失,判断为形容词原级,故答案为basic. (2)harmful 考查形容词,短语be harmful to对……有害,结合语境,它也正让更多的孩子超重,因为父母使用太多的快餐,这对他们的身体有害,故答案为harmful. (3)solve 考查动词,结合语境,政府担心并正在寻找解决这个问题的办法,to后动词用原形,故答案为solve. (4)courses 考查可数名词复数,课程course,结合语境,所有中学应该为11﹣14岁的学生提供烹饪课程,course为可数名词,此处表示多个,因此用复数形式,故答案为courses. (5)ready 考查形容词,准备好的ready,结合语境,他们希望这将鼓励人们做饭而不是吃准备好的食物、快餐和点心,故答案为ready. (6)week 考查可数名词单数,星期翻译为week,a为不定冠词,后跟可数名词单数,句意理解为,学生将在一个学期内一星期学一个小时烹饪.故答案为week. (7)instructions 考查可数名词复数,following为形容词,修饰名词,说明翻译为instruction,句意理解为,根据说明,学生将学习用简单和新鲜原材料准备健康好吃的食物.instruction为可数名词,这个用复数形式表示多个.故答案为instructions. (8)provide 考查动词,will将要,后跟动词原形表示将要,固定搭配provide sb with sth为某人提供某物,句意理解为,这些俱乐部将会为更多的孩子提供学习烹饪的机会.故答案为provide. (9)kitchens 考查可数名词复数,厨房翻译为kitchen,结合语境,大约15%的学校没有厨房也没有足够的老师.判断为多个厨房,因此要用复数形式,故答案为kitchens. (10)promises 考查动词,允诺翻译为promise,结合语境,政府发言人允诺培训800名老师并给学校一年百万英镑去帮助更加贫困家庭的孩子们购买原材料.本文通篇使用一般现在时,the speaker为主语,单数,故动词要用单三形式,故答案为promises. 四、语法填空(本题有10小题,每小题10分,共计10分) 8.【解答】1.but. 考查连词.根据前句,The playground was great,操场非常棒,后一句there was no fence(栅栏)around it,没有任何一个栅栏在它周围.这两句话有对比的关系,需要表示转折,可知需要填入but.故答案为but. 2.heads. 考查名词.根据后一句,of all the other boys,所有男孩的..可知head要用复数形式.故答案为heads. 3.heard 考查动词.根据句意,突然,她听到一些呼喊声,结合时态是一般过去时时态,可知用hear的过去式heard.故答案为heard. 4.her. 考查代词.根据句意,看到一个大的橙色的物品朝她走来,可知需要用she的宾格her.故答案为her. 5. to stop. 考查动词.根据前句Anna opened her arms安娜张开手臂,及时地让球停了下来,可知空缺处表示目的,要用动词的不定式to do来表达,可知用to stop.故答案为to stop. 6. politely 考查副词.根据空缺处前面,Could you please bring it over here?"asked one boy 您能帮我把它拿过来吗?一个男孩…问,空缺处需要填入一个副词来修饰askd,可知用politely表示"礼貌地",也就是一个男孩礼貌地问.故答案为 politely. 7. older 考查形容词.根据后文than her,可知需要用比较级,空缺前有were,可知需要填入形容词的比较级,结合括号内的词,可知需要用older.故答案为older. 8. for.考查介词.根据句意,they were very nice and thanked her …saving the ball.他们是很善良且因为拯救了那个球而感谢她.可知填入一个介词,构成thank sb for sth因为…而感谢某人.故答案为for. 9. if.考查连词.根据but they were not sure ..she could throw the ball even close to thebasket.可知需要表达的是,但是他们不太确定,她是否能够扔球到篮框里,即使离它很近,可知需要填入连词 if.f故答案为 if. 10.a 考查冠词.根据Anna took the ball and then had..try. 安娜拿到球且试了起来,结合提示have a try试一试.故用a.故答案为a. 五、任务型阅读(本题有5小题,每小题5分,共计5分) 9.【解答】1.B.段落大意题.根据文中"Normal people need 7 to 9 hours of sleep every night"和"But for teenagers, a healthy amount is about 8 to 10 hours"可知,正常人每天需要睡眠7到9小时;但是对于青少年来说,有益健康健康的睡眠时长是8到10小时.故知本段说的是"睡眠时长",故选B. 2.C. 段落大意题.根据文中"Tiredness usually reaches its highest twice a day, at 2 a.m. and 2 p.m"可知,疲劳通常每天两次达到高潮,在凌晨2点和下午2点.故知本段说的是"最令人感到疲劳的时刻".故选C. 3.A. 段落大意题.根据文中"People can make mistakes if they don't get enough sleep"可知,如果人们没有获得充足的睡眠,他们会犯错误.以下分别列举的学生、司机等会出现的情况,故知此处说的是"睡眠不足产生的坏影响".故选A. 4. D.段落大意题.根据文中"There are several ways that can help us sleep better, such as"可知,有几种方式可以帮助我们睡得更好,例如…….故知此处说的是"好的睡眠习惯".故选D. 5. develop good sleeping habit.主旨大意题.根据文中"Sleep plays an important role in our life"和"A lack of sleep can influence our ability to work and study"及"There are several ways that can help us sleep better"可知,睡眠在我们的生活中起着重要作用.缺少什么会影响我们的工作和学习.有几种方式可以帮助我们睡得更好.故知本文说的是要"养成好的睡眠习惯".故填develop good sleeping habit. 六、书面表达(本题有1小题,共计15分) 10.【解答】Dear Sir/Madam, I'm Li Hua,a middle school student from China. I want to be a volunteer.I'm willing to go to a small village in the west of China. I know something about China.I will be glad to take part in the Project 1.(写明选择) I have been good at English since I was a student.【高分句型一】 I'm also willing to be a teacher to teach children English. In my opinion,helping people in need is meaningful. I can help people work on the farm because both my father and my mother are farmers. I can do a lot of work on the farm.Also,I can visit the old people's home to help the old wash clothes and clean the house and so on.(一一写出原因) It's meanfuling for me to do something for others. 【高分句型二】 Looking forward to your early reply! Yours Li Hua

  • ID:4-6032239 2019年四川省达州市中考英语试卷解析版无听力材料和音频

    初中英语/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年四川省达州市中考英语试卷 第I卷(选择题 共85分)第一部分 听力(共两节,满分5分)第一节(本题共5小题,每小题1分,共计5分)听下面五段对话,每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三幅图片中选出最佳选项,并将答题卡上对应题号的答案标号涂黑.听完每段对话后,你将有5秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题.每段对话读两遍. 1.(1分)Which festival does the woman like best? 2.(1分)How does Amy go to school now? 3.(1分)What is Mike going to do after school? 4.(1分)Where does Ling ling want to go after this examination? 5.(1分)What does the girl's father do? 第二节(本题共5小题,每小题2分,共计15分)听下面四段对话和一段独白,每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并将答题卡上对应题号的答案标号涂黑.听每段对话或独白前,你将有5秒钟的时间阅读各小题;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间.每段对话或独白读三遍. 6.(2分)听第6段材料,回答下列小题. (1)Which hobby does Frank like best now? A. Collecting the pictures of cars. B. Collecting the coins. C. Collecting the theater and movie tickets. (2)How long has Frank collected theater and movie tickets? A. For four vears. B. For five vears. C. For six vears. 7.(3分)听第7段材料,回答下列小题. (1)Why doesn't Jim want to give away this book. A. He has had it for four years. B. He has already read it three times. C. He likes it. (2)What does Jim's mother want to give away? A. The soft toys. B. The old bread maker. C. The lion toy. (3)What will Jim give away to the children's home? A. The magazine and the panda toy. B. The tiger toy and the sweater. C. The soft toys and the hat. 8.(3分)听第8段材料,回答下列小题. (1)Why does Paul practice listening to tapes? A. He is weak in listening. B. He is good at listening. C. He loves listening. (2)Which subject does Anna like best? A. History. B. Ceography. C.Art. (3)Where would Paul like to go this year? A. Berjing. B. Guangzhou. C. Xi'an. 9.(3分)听第9段材料,回答下列小题. (1)What could Jimmy do after the dinner? A. See the mot. B. Sing. C. Dance. (2)When would Jimmy have to come back? A. At eleven. B, At half past eleven. C. At half past ten. (3)Who might drive Jimmy to the town for the dinner tonight? C. Martin. A. Her dad. B. Martin's dad. 10.(4分)听第10段材料,回答下列小题. (1)How old was Nana? A. Three years old. B. Seven years old. C. Five years old. (2)What did both of them have for lunch? A.Noodles. B. Rice. C. Dumplings (3)Where was Nana in the afternoon? A. In the near park. B. At home. C. At school. (4)How did the writer feel in the evening? A. Energetic. B. Tired. C. Moved. 第二部分 基础知识运用(共两节满分15分)第一节 单项选择(本题共15小题,每小题1分,共计15分)从每小题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案. 11.(1分)﹣﹣Mike! Our country is building the third aircraft carrier(航空母舰). Xinhua News Agency reported last month ﹣﹣What___ unusual thing!I'm proud___it.(  ) A.a;of B.an; of C.the; in D./: in 12.(1分)﹣﹣Hello, Lucy, please give me some____on how to improve my English! ﹣﹣You'd better keep___more English books.(  ) A.advices;read B.advice;read C.advice;reading D.advices;reading 13.(1分)﹣﹣Hey, Jenny, which are my gifts for Father's Day? ﹣﹣The yellow gifts are ___and the red____belong to grandpa.(  ) A.your;one B.yours;one C.you;ones D.yours;ones 14.(1分)﹣﹣As we know, its very difficult to live in a foreign country like the UK, the US and so on. ﹣﹣I agree._____ if you don't understand the local language.(  ) A.Especially B.Generally C.Naturally D.Exactly 15.(1分)﹣﹣___is the population of China,Jack? ﹣﹣Let me think for a moment, it is about___.(  ) A.How many;1,400 million B.What;1,400 million C.What;140 million D.How many;140 million 16.(1分)﹣﹣Maling's Chinese isn't so____as Wangming's. ﹣﹣I know them very much, But now Maling studies____than Wangming does.(  ) A.good; harder B.good; hard C.better; harder D.better;better 17.(1分)﹣﹣Anny, my mother never gets up late for my breakfast. What about your mother? ﹣﹣My mother,____.Mothers in China do more for us children. (  ) A.too B.also C.either D.neither 18.(1分)﹣﹣Where will the 2022 Winter Olympics____,Cindy? ﹣﹣In Beijing, the capital of China,the first city to host both Summer and Winter Olympi.(  ) A.be taken place B.take place C.take part D.be taken part 19.(1分)﹣﹣Can I____ Robinson Crusoe? Mrs Zhao. ﹣﹣Sure, it's very interesting, but you can only ____it for two weeks.(  ) A.borrow; lend B.lend;borrow C.borrow;keep D.lend;keep 20.(1分)﹣﹣Dr.Bethune helped a lot of Chinese in the 1930s, he is a great international soldier. ﹣﹣I know. so he___still___in both China and Canada now.(  ) A.has;remembered B.is;remembered C.well;remember D.is;remembering 21.(1分)﹣﹣Alex, why didn't you answer my call at nine last night? ﹣﹣Sorry.I___my mobile phone at home. I___basketball in the park with my friends.(  ) A.forgot;played B.forgot;was playing C.left;played D.left;was playing 22.(1分)﹣﹣Jeff, could you tell me if it___tomorrow.If it____tomorrow, I will stay at home. ﹣﹣It's reported that it will be sunny, let's go camping on the Fenghuang mountain.(  ) A.rain;rain B.rains;rains C.will rain;rains D.will rain;will rain 23.(1分)﹣﹣Frank, look! Who are the children under the tree___waiting in a line? ﹣﹣They are the students from No. 1 Primary School.(  ) A.that are B.where are C.which is D.who is 24.(1分)﹣﹣Linda,could you remember___? ﹣﹣Have you forgotten we agreed to go to Hongkong?(  ) A.where are we going after exam B.where we are going after the exam C.where are we going to after the exam D.where we are going to after the exam 25.(1分)﹣﹣Mom, I spent a whole night preparing for the exam. ﹣﹣My God.___don't stay up too late, or you' ll be tired out.(  ) A.You can't put your eggs in one basket B.The grass is always greener on the other side C.You can't burn the candle at both ends D.Do as Romans do when in Rome 四、完形填空(本题共2小题、每小题5分,共计15分)阅读下面的短文,掌握其大意,然后从短文后各题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出可以填入相应空白处的最佳答案 26.(5分) On April 23.2019,a series of events to celebrate the (1)    anniversary of the Chinese People's Liberation Army(PLA)Nay(中国人民海军)was held in Qingdao. Destroyers(驱逐舰) sailed in the sea, submarines(潜艇) slid under the surface and fighter jets flew across the sky. It wasn't a scene from a war movie, indeed, it was a real grand naval parade. As a large country (2)    more than 18,000 kilometers of coastline, China needs a strong navy. This was a hard lesson(3)    by history. According to Xinhua, from the 1850s until 1949.foreign forces used the sea to make about 470 invasions of China. Therefore, the PLA Navy has become a key line of the nation's defense. As President Xi Jinping said, the oceans are of great significance as they sustain life and connect the world. "The blue planet that humans inhabit is not divided into islands by the oceans.(4)   is connected by the oceans to form a community with a shared future, where people of all countries share weal and woe,"said Xi during his (5)   at the event. (1)A.seventy B. seventieth C. seventith Dseventeen (2)A.has B. have C. with D. of (3)A.teach B. taught C. learn D. learned (4)A.But B. and C.or D. with (5)A.speak B. talk C. chat D. speech 27.(10分) In the new sci﹣fi film. The Wandering Earth《流浪地球》, humans save the Earth without leaving it. In many﹣even most﹣ space﹣themed films, whenever Earth faces a disaster(灾难),the(1)    is always running away from the planet in spaceships. But the latest Chinese sci﹣fi movie, The Wandering Earth ,offers a different and more ambitious idea. In the film,based on a short story by Chinese sci﹣fi writer Liu Cixin,Earth is in danger of being destroyed by the dying sun. In reply, humans around the world work (2)    to build a huge engine system that will push Earth away from the dying sun.(3)    giving up Earth﹣again﹣ this time we're taking it with us. This"ambition"didn't come from nowhere, For thousands of years,"homeland" has had a soft point in (4)    of Chinese people. One old idiom is "luoyeguigen", which means returning to one's homeland at the old age, like (5)    leaves return to the roots of their trees. Or there is an ancient poem, "The season called the White Dew begins tonight: Nowhere as in our native place is the moon so bright". These(6)    show the tight link that Chinese people have had with their homeland. This special cultural background is probably the key (7)   separates The Wandering Earth from Hollywood﹣style space films. "What is Chinese sci﹣fi?"Guo Fan, the film's director. said in an interview. "A movie that can really (8)   our cultural and spiritual view can be called Chinese sci﹣fi. Or, we're just copying others and telling the same American stories." And the makers of The Wandering Earth may have chosen the best time to tell its Chinese sci﹣fi story.The film was released on Feb 5th, the first day of Chinese New Year. It was a time when many people had just made the (9)   journey back to their hometowns. So to them, there is only one possible way to tell the story. Earth(10)   wherever humans go, because it's our home forever. (1)A. question B. solution C. problem D. difficulty (2)A, together B. along C. with D. nearly (3)A. Instead B. Instead of C. Rather than D. Rather (4)A. body B.bodies C. mind D. minds (5)A. falling B. fallen C. fell D. falls (6)A. either B. none C. neither D. both (7)A.that B. where C. what D. how (8)A. express B. know C.tell D. report (9)A. sadly B. sad C. hard D. hardly (10)A. went B. go C. going D. goes 第三部分 阅读理解(共两节 满分22分)第一节 阅读下面的短文,根据短文内容,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出最佳答案.(本题共3小题,每小题8分,共计22分) 28.(8分) Shanghai University of Engineering Science has become the first university in China to be covered by a 5G network,the university announced on Tuesday. Chinese mobile carriers(运营商) are expected to spend 1.2 trillion yuan(US$176.5 billion) on 5G by 2025,50 percent more than their total 4G investment (投资), Nomura said yesterday. Carriers including China Mobile,China Telecom and China Unicom, are expected to build over 4.9 million 5G base stations by 2025. 5G is a"game﹣changing" opportunity for carriers as they can explore new business like smart manufacturing, super high definition video and smart driving, instead of just being a "pipeline" for voice and data services. China will supply "temporary "5G licenses in several aimed cities this year. Consumers(消费者) will be able to use the first batch of 5G smart﹣phones and tablet computers in the second half.It's the first time that China's top industry regulator clarified the 5G industry timeline, especially the first appearance of 5G phones. But 5G services will become accessible to normal consumers later than expected. More work needs to be done to make the 5G industry fully developed, which won't happen until 2020, said UBS recently. New business projects and organizations, rather than normal consumers, will enjoy 5G services at first. The first batch of 5G services will be available to consumers in about 10 cities only. (1)How much did Chinese mobile carriers spend on 4G?    A. About 1.2 trillion yuan. B. About US$176.5 million. C. About 0.8 trillion yuan. D. About US$0.8 billion. (2)What does the underlined word"accessible" probably mcan in Chinese?    A.易获得的 B.困难的 C.让人理解的 D.费解的 (3)Which part of a newspaper may the article come from?    A. Lifestyle. B. Health. C. Education. D. Technology. (4)What's the main idea of the article?    A. Mobile carriers plan to spend much on 5G and it will come into our life soon. B. China will supply "temporary"5G licenses in several aimed cities this year. C, 5G services will become accessible to normal consumers later than expected. D. The first batch of 5G services will be available to consumers in about 10 cities only. 29.(8分) Thanks to the hybrid rice that was discovered by Yuan Longping, the hunger problem of thousands of Chinese people was mostly fixed in the 1980s. On Sept 8th,Yuan, together with two other scientists,won China's 2018 Future Science Prize, for his continuous research on rice. Even on his 88th birthday on Sept 7th,he took part in the International Development Forum of Rice Production in Hunan province. Although he was recovering from an illness at the time, he was happy to talk to reporters about his latest work on seawater rice. Yuan has been researching on rice since he was at college. In 1964. he discovered a natural hybrid rice plant in Hainan. Since then, he has focused on developing high﹣yield, hybrid rice varieties (多样性).In 1973. he became the first to successfully cultivate(培育) a type of hybrid rice species in the world.With the hard work of Yuan's group for about ten years, the production of the rice was increased.(From 150 kg per mu (亩) to 500 kg per mu and more. )These varieties now take up about two thirds of China's rice crop, according to China News. So, it's no wonder that he's known as the "Father of Hybrid Rice". And because of China's Belt and Road (一带一路)initiative. Yuan's hybrid rice is helping to solve food problems around the world. Indeed, according to Xinhua News Agency, hybrid rice plants in Kenya produce four to five times more rice than the country's usual nice plants. With a rising fame all over the world, Yuan gave a speech in English at the 9th Shandong High﹣Level Talents Forum in Qingdao last year. His speech made him an internet sensation.Beginning with"I speak broken English", his 20﹣minute speech turned out to be a huge success,with barely any pauses or mistakes. The humble Yuan was simply being modest during his speech.According to an article in 1999 by CNN, the scientist speaks both English and Russian fluently. "I never need an interpreter when I go overseas," he told the US news network. But in spite of his great knowledge, Yuan understands that even the wisest people should still be open to learn new things. "The farmers of our country possess rich experience in planting rice,"he told Xinhua." We should learn from them." (1)Where was the International Development Forum of Rice Production held?    A. Hainan. B. Hunan. C. Shandong. D, Kenya. (2)Which is the main reason that Yuan Longping is known as the "Father of Hybrid Rice"?    A. He has focused on developing high﹣yield, hybrid rice varieties. B. He was the first to successfully cultivate a type of hybrid rice species in the world. C. Because of Yuan's group, the production of the rice was increased. D. Hybrid rice plants in Kenya produce four to five times more rice than the country's usual nice plants. (3)Yuan Longping can speak the following languages EXCEPT   ? A. Chinese. B. English. C. Russian. D. French. (4)The passage is mainly about   . A. Yuan Longping won China's 2018 Future Science Prize. B. Yuan Longping's hybrid rice is helping to solve food problems around the world. C. Yuan Longping got fame around the world. D. The character and contribution (贡献) of Yuan Longping. 30.(6分) Many emvironmental groups are warning that oceans of the world are in great danger. In the past 50 years,the number of water with zero oxygen(氧气) in the open ocean has increased more than four times. In the near coast water bodies, including the river mouth and seas, low﹣oxygen areas have increased more than 10 times since 1950.Scientists discover that oxygen continues dropping ever outside these zones as the Earth warms. To stop the drop,the world needs to control in both climate change and nutrient(养分) pollution. Oxygen is a must to life in the oceans. The drop in ocean oxygen is among the most serious effects of human activities on the Earth's environment. This is the first time for the scientists to take such a deep look at the causes, results and solutions to low oxygen worldwide, in both the open ocean and the near coast waters.About half of the oxygen on Earth comes from the ocean. However, mixed effects of nutrient loading and climate change are greatly increasing the number and size of "dead zones" in the open ocean and the near coast waters, where oxygen is too low to support most sea life. In the areas traditionally called"dead zones". like those in Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, oxygen drops to levels so low that many animals have trouble in breathing and die.As fishes run away from these zones, their living areas become smaller and smaller. But the problem goes far beyond "dead zones". Even smaller oxygen drops can hold up the growth in animals and lead to disease or even death. Low oxygen also can cause the release of dangerous chemicals.Although a few animals can grow well in dead zones, overall biodiversity(多样性)falls. (1)How to stop the drop of ocean oxygen in the article?    A.By controlling in both climate change and nutrient pollution around the world. B. By taking a deep look at the causes, results and solutions to low oxygen worldwide. C. By running away from these zones, for the living areas become smaller and smaller. D. By cutting down the number of animals in the oceans. (2)Why are these waters called"dead zones" from the article?    A. Because the oxygen in these areas is too low for most sea life to live. B. Because nutrient loading and climate change are greatly increasing. C. Because there are no animals living in these areas. D. Because low oxygen also can cause the release of dangerous chemicals. (3)Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the article?    A. Only a few animals living in the sea need oxygen. B. Climate change can help cut down the dead zones. C. Fishes grow faster and better in low oxygen areas. D. Human activities have many serious effects on ocean environment. 六、根据短文内容,从下面方框中选择适当的选项补全短文(本题共1小题,每小题8分,共计8分) 31.(8分) Do you have a tail? Of course not, we know. But tails are like opinions. actually, everyone has them: fishes, birds, most reptiles, and even some of our closest relatives Since tails tirst evolved(进化) at least 500 million years ago. Geckos (壁虎)use them to store fat. birds use them to steer through the air, But for most mammals (哺乳动物).(1)   Yet, as you get closer to humans on the evolutionary tree, tails disappear, Gorillas(大猩猩)don' t have them, and neither do chimps(黑猩猩) or any other apes (类人猿) including us, of course, To understand why, take a look at how we walk. (2)   walking like this gives us a huge advantage because unlike four﹣legged animals.which have to pour energy into every step they take, two legs take advantage of gravity(重力),which does some of the work for us. You see, each time we take a step, gravity pulls us forward.The end result is that when we walk, we use around 25% less energy than walking on all fours, and this way of getting around also totally climinates(淘汰) the need for a tail. It's said that you can still see a reminder of a time when our ancient ancestors had one. Just look at a human spine(脊椎).(3)   That's your tailbone. It's all that's the rest of our tail. Now, babies are bom with what looks like a tail, but that's not what's really going on. Most often, these tails are actually a parasitic twin(寄生虫). These types of tails usually form as a birth fect(瑕疵).(4)    So the tail of humans has gone, it's the result of evolution millions of years Will humans be much taller, stronger or smarter in the future? A. Nowadays, humans can walk completely upright.B. And in these situations, doctors will advise to remove the tails with no harm to the babiesC. they serve one major purpose﹣﹣balance.D. You can see how the last few bones are partly fused(融合) together 第四部分 口语应用(共1小题,每小题5分,满分5分)根据对话内容,从下面的方框中选择适当的选项补全对话.(有两项是多余的) 32.(5分)A: Excuse me, do you know where the Dazhou Museum is? B: Sure,(1)    A: Could you tell me how to go there? B: Certainly. Go along this street and tum right at the third turning. Then walk until you see the building of Dazhou TV station(2)    A: Oh, you mean it's across from the building of Dazhou TV station? B: Exactly. A:(3)    B: Two kilometers. A:(4)    B: No. You'd better take a taxi. It's fast and convenient. A: Great! Oh, and one more thing. What time does the museum close? B: (5)   You' d better ask for the dctailed information in the museum. A: Thank you very much. B: You're welcome. (1)    (2)    (3)    (4)    (5)    A. Can I walk there?B. How far is it from here?C. It's next to the building of Dazhou TV station.D. It's on Jinlong Road.E. It's opposite the building of Dazhou TV station.F. Perhaps at 8 p.m.G. Haw can I get there? 第II卷(非选择题 共35分)第五部分 任务型阅读(共1小题,每小题5分,满分5分)根据短文后所给的任务,完成1-5小题.温馨提示:只要有大小写、单词拼写、语法等错误,均不给分. 33.(5分) "I am so busy with my study. I don't even have enough time to have breakfast."said Zhangli, a middle school student. Do you have the same problem __A__ Zhangli? However, missing breakfast could raise your risk of heart problem by 87 percent, according to a new study. Researchers at the University of Iowa analyzed 18 years of data on 6,550 people over 40 years old who had no history of heart problems.They were given regular surveys __B__ included the question, "how ofen do you eat breakfast? Most (59 percent)ate breakfast every day,but 5.1 percent never did,10.9 percent rarely did, and 25 percent would miss for a few days. The team found that①早餐习惯与心脏病风险之间存在明显关联.Those who didn't eat in the morning were up to 87 percent more likely to develop heart problems. " It's believed that ②an, important, day, breakfast, the, is, meal, of, but there has been an increasing prevalence (普遍)uf missing breakfast over the past 50 years in the United States, with as many as 23.8 percent of young people missing break fast every day," the researchers said."However, studies on the health effects of missing breakfast are rare." The team pointed out a few factors which could underlie this connection. ③Firstly, those who don't eat breakfast may be more likely to snack unhealthily.Secondly, breakfast may help to balance blood sugar levels and control blood pressure. The findings were published on the American College of Cardiology. Some days later a similar study showed people who missed breakfast and ate a late dinner were less likely to survive a heart attack. And Borja Ibanez, a doctor of medicine, also pointed out those who didn't eat breakfast were more likely to smoke, be lack of exercise, and drink alcohol. As for us teenagers, what are your opinions on breakfast? Do you think breakfast is important for us? 任务一:请分别在文中A、B两处的横线上填入适当单词(每空一词) (1)A   B    任务二:请将文中①处句子译成英语. (2)The team found that    任务三:请将文中②处的斜体单词连成句子 (3)It's believed    任务四:请将文中③处划线句子译成汉语 (4)    任务五: What can we learn from the passage? (5)    一、词汇运用(共1小题,每小题10分,满分10分)用方框中所给单词的适当形式填空,使短文完整、通顺.每词限用一次.温馨提示:只要有大小写、单词拼写、语法等错误,均不给分. 34.(10分) have;true;say;as; patient;well;like; I;do; run Last year I was 14 years old. I had an " enemy", a girl who liked to point out my shortcomings(缺点). Day by day her list grew: I was very thin; I was (1)   ;I sometimes didn't respect the teachers, I talked too much: I was too proud, and so on. At last, I couldn't stand it. I cried and(2)   to my father. He listened to me quietly.Then he asked,"Alfred, are the things she says true or not? Didn't you ever wonder what you are really(3)   ? Well, you now have that girl's opinion. Go and make a list of everything she(4)   and find out the points that are true. Pay no attention to the other things you heard." I did (5)   my father told. To my surprise, I discovered that about half the things were true. Some of them I couldn't change (like being very thin), but a large number I could and suddenly I wanted to change. For the first time I got a fairly clear picture of (6)   . I brought the list back to Daddy. He refused to take it. "It's just the case for you. he said,"you know better than anyone the (7)   .about yourself But you have to leam to listen, not just close your ears in anger and feeling hurt. When something said about you is true, you'll find it will be of great help to you. Our world is full of people who think they know your duty. Don't shut your ears, listen to them all, but hear the fact only and do what you know is right thing(8)   . In my life. I've never (9)   a better piece of advice. Thanks for the shortcomings that someone has pointed out for us. They can make us know ourselves more and improve us(10)   as we grow up. 第七部分 成句子(共两节 满分5分)温馨提示:只要有大小写,单词拼写、语法等错误,均不给分。第一节句型转换(本题共5小题,每空0.5分)共计5分)按要求完成下面各句.每空一词.缩写算一词. 35.(1分)China has been able to make big planes like C919 with scientists great efforts.(变为一般疑问句)    China   able to make big planes like C919 with scientists' great efforts? 36.(1分)Steve with me read yu Gong Moves a mountain in the library last month.(变为否定句) Steve with me      Yu Gong Moves a mountain in the library last month. 37.(1分)China's Chang'e 4 landed successfully on the far side of the moon on January 3,2019.(对画线部分提问)    did China's Chang'e﹣4   successfully on January 3Id,2019? 38.(1分)A major fire destroyed Notre﹣Dame(巴黎圣母院) built in the 12 and 13 centuries in Panis on April 5,2019.(改为被动语态) Notre﹣ Dame built in the 12 and 13 centuries in Paris      by a major fire on Apri1 5,2019. 39.(1分)If we work harder, we will make more progress in science and technology.(改为同义句)    harder,    we will make more progress in science and technology. 第二节 汉译英(本题共5小题,每空0.5分,共计5分)根据所给的中文意思完成句子,每空一词,缩写算一词. 40.(1分)习总书记说:我们都在努力奔跑,我们都是追梦人. "We are      very hard, we are all dream chasers. "President Xi Jinping said. 41.(1分)正如专家所说:"学习效能的好坏取决于你的学习习惯. As the experts said, "Whether or not you can study well      your learming habits. 42.(1分)"知识来源于质疑."朋友,今天你提问题了吗? "Knowledge comes      ."My dear friends, do you ask any questions today? 43.(1分)据最新报道,生活在中国的野生大熊猫现在已经不到2000只了. It's recently reported that there are now      2,000 pandas living in the wild forests in china. 44.(1分)我将永远记得这三年以来总是严格要求我的老师们. I will remember the teachers forever who have always been      me for 3 years. 第八部分 书面表达(10分)随着我们不断成长,生活不仅给予了我们许多快乐时光,同时伴随不少烦恼.仔细阅读下面小华写给英语报社的信,结合自己的实际,运用所学知识,请你以编辑的名义,就他的频恼在回信中给出好的建议. 45.(10分)Dear sir, I'm Xiaohua,15,a middle school student. I have some problems to tell you, my parents always say to me, "Study, study, do homework, do your homework. " when I come back. However,they don' t know how hard I study at school from 7:00 am to 8:30 p.m. every day. And last Sunday, my 3﹣year﹣old brother troubled me again and again while I was studying for the coming exam. I really wanted to get better grades, so I couldn't stand him any more, I shouted at him in anger, thus he cried loudly. Then my mother came in, she blamed me without asking"why". My eyes were full of tears at that time. It was not my fault. Why did she treat me like that?Didn't mother love me? After all. I'm also her birth child, My dear editor, what can I do? Could you give me some suggestions? Sincerely, Xiaohua 要求: (1)卷面整洁(无污迹),书写工整(有美感). (2)全文字数不少于90词.书信开头和结尾已给出,不计入单词总数. (3)条理清楚,句式规范,标点符号和大小写使用正确. (4)内容尽量就小华的烦恼给出好的建议,并适当发挥:文中不能出现真实的人名、地名. Dear Xiaohua, I'm glad to receive your letter. I have ever had the same experience. I even had a fight with my parents.But now, I fully understand them. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ I hope these help! Tony 2019年四川省达州市中考英语试卷 参考答案与试题解析 第I卷(选择题 共85分)第一部分 听力(共两节,满分5分)第一节(本题共5小题,每小题1分,共计5分)听下面五段对话,每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三幅图片中选出最佳选项,并将答题卡上对应题号的答案标号涂黑.听完每段对话后,你将有5秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题.每段对话读两遍. 1.【解答】略 2.【解答】略 3.【解答】略 4.【解答】略 5.【解答】略 第二节(本题共5小题,每小题2分,共计15分)听下面四段对话和一段独白,每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并将答题卡上对应题号的答案标号涂黑.听每段对话或独白前,你将有5秒钟的时间阅读各小题;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间.每段对话或独白读三遍. 6.【解答】略 7.【解答】略 8.【解答】略 9.【解答】略 10.【解答】略 第二部分 基础知识运用(共两节满分15分)第一节 单项选择(本题共15小题,每小题1分,共计15分)从每小题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案. 11.【解答】a,an,the三者都是冠词,a,an 是不定冠词 ,放在单数可数名词前面 ,表示某类人或事物中的"一个 、一名",表泛指,a用于以辅音音素开头的字母或单词前、an用于以元音音素开头的字母或单词前.the 是定冠词,表特指,意为"这、那、这些、那些".放在可数名词和不可数名词前.in"在…之内";on"在…之上、在…时候",二者都是介词.What a/an+adj+可数名词单数!be pround of " 对…感到骄傲",由题干"﹣﹣﹣麦克!我国正在建造第三艘航空母舰.新华社上月报道.﹣﹣﹣多不寻常的事啊!我对此感到骄傲."可知,因unusual是以元音音素开头的单词,第一个空格用an;第二个空格用of ,因此答案应是an;of. 故选:B. 12.【解答】根据句意:﹣你好,露西,关于如何提高我的英语请给我一些建议. ﹣你最好坚持读英语书.advice是不可数名词,没有复数形式;keep doing sth坚持做某事. 故选:C. 13.【解答】本题考查的是代词的相关知识.物主代词有形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词.形容词性物主代词后需要接名词才能使用,名词性物主代词在意思上相当于一个形容词性物主代词加上名词的意思.因此可直接排除A和C. one 在本句中是代词,代替上文提到的名词,one 代替单数名词,ones代替复数名词.从题干中belong to的使用可知,答案D符合要求. 故选:D. 14.【解答】Especially特别;尤其;Generally通常;普遍地;Naturally自然地;Exactly恰好地.根据语境可知在英国、美国等外国生活是非常困难的特别是如果你不懂当地的语言. 故选:A. 15.【解答】根据句意:﹣中国的人口是多少,杰克? ﹣让我想想,大约是14亿.提问人口用what;结合语境,1,400 million符合实际情况. 故选:B. 16.【解答】根据句意:﹣﹣马林的汉语不如王明的好.﹣﹣我对他们很了解,但现在马林比王明更努力地学习.可知考查句型as…as和…一样,中间用形容词原形,than用于比较级形式. 故选:A. 17.【解答】考查副词,too也,用于肯定句句末,also也,用于句中,either也,用于否定句句末,neither两者都不, my mother never gets up late for my breakfast.是一个否定句. 故选:C. 18.【解答】根据句意:﹣2022年冬奥会将在哪里举行,Cindy? ﹣在北京,中国的首都,第一个同时举办夏季和冬季奥运会的城市,可知是一般将来时will 动词原形,take place没有被动语态. 故选:B. 19.【解答】borrow 借,强调借入,短暂性动词;lend 借,强调借出,短暂性动词;keep 也有借的意思,强调保管,延续性动词;Can I borrow Robinson Crusoe?强调借入,所以用borrow;由句子中的for two weeks第二个空应该用延续性动词keep. 故选:C. 20.【解答】主语Dr.Bethune和动词"remember"是被动关系,再根据句意"我知道.所以他现在仍然被中国和加拿大人记得"可知,要用一般现在时的被动语态,其构成为am/ is/ are done,其它选项不符合语法,也语意不通. 故选:B. 21.【解答】forgot,forget的过去式,忘记,主要强调忘记某事或忘记做某事.left ,leave的过去式,主要强调把某物落在某个地方.本题的第一个空强调手机落在家里,所以本空上填left.由题中的at nine确定第二个空是过去进行时表示在那时我正在打篮球. 故选:D. 22.【解答】考查主从复合句,第一句为if引导的宾语从句,主句为一般现在时,从句中tomorrow为明天,用于一般将来时,谓语动词用will do的形式,第二句为if引导的条件状语从句,从句用一般现在时,主语it为第三人称单数,动词要用第三人称单数形式. 故选:C. 23.【解答】根据句意:﹣弗兰克,你看!树下排队的孩子们是谁? ﹣他们是来第一小学的学生.可知先行词是children ,指人,作主语,故选代词用who/that,先行词是复数,动词用are. 故选:A. 24.【解答】根据句意:﹣琳达,你还记得考试后我们要去哪里吗?﹣你忘了我们答应去香港了吗?考查宾语从句,用陈述语序,排除 A C;where不跟介词连用.排除D. 故选:B. 25.【解答】考查谚语,You can't put your eggs in one basket.不要把鸡蛋放到一个篮子里.The grass is always greener on the other side.邻家芳草绿,you can't burn the candle at both ends精力不能过度消耗.Do as Romans do when in Rome.入乡随俗.结合语境,妈妈,我花了一整夜准备考试.我的天啊.精力不能过度消耗,不要熬太晚,否则你会筋疲力尽的. 故选:C. 四、完形填空(本题共2小题、每小题5分,共计15分)阅读下面的短文,掌握其大意,然后从短文后各题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出可以填入相应空白处的最佳答案 26.【解答】(1)B 考查数词.seventy七十;seventieth第七十;seventith干扰项;seventeen十七.根据"On April 23.2019,a series of events to celebrate"因此可知从1949年建国,到2019年,是70年,又根据空格后面的词语是anniversary,所以要用序数词来填空,因此可知这句话的意思是"在2019年4月23号,在青岛隆重庆祝中国人民海军建军70周年."故选B. (2)C 考查介词.has有;have有;with具有;of 属于…根据"more than 18,000 kilometers of coastline"所以要用介词with来填空,构成介词短语作定语修饰country ,因此可知这句话的意思是"作为一个有18000多公里海岸线的国家,中国需要一个强大的海军."故选C. (3)B 考查动词.teach教;taught教;learn学;learned 学.根据空格前面的词语是lesson,因此可知这句话考查的是短语"teach a lesson"意思是"给…以教训"又根据后面的词语是by history,所以要用过去分词来填空,因此可知这句话的意思是"历史上曾经给我们惨痛的教训."故选B. (4)A 考查连词.But 但是;and和;or或者;with 有.根据"The blue planet that humans inhabit is not divided into islands by the oceans."因此可知这句话考查的是短语"not…but…"意思是"不是…而是…"因此可知这句话的意思是"人们居住的这个蓝色的星球不是被大海分成了一些岛,而是被海洋连接成了一个可以分享未来的大家庭."故选A (5)D 考查名词.speak说,指的是说某种语言;talk谈论;chat 聊天;speech 演讲.根据空格前面的词语是代词his,所以要用名词来填空,因此可知这句话的意思是"习近平在庆祝仪式上的演讲中说道,人们居住的这个蓝色的星球不是被大海分成了一些岛,而是被海洋连接成了一个可以分享未来的大家庭."故选D. 27.【解答】1. B.考查名词.question问题; solution 解决办法; problem难题; difficulty困难.根据语境可知,在大多数以天空为主体的电影中,不管何时地球面临灾难,解决办法总是乘坐宇宙飞船逃离行星(地球).故选B. 2. A 考查介词.together一起;along 沿着;with和……一起; nearly接近.根据语境可知,作为回应,全世界的人类团结协作,一起建造一个很大的引擎系统,该系统将把地球从垂死的太阳边缘推走.work together一起工作.故选A. 3. B 考查介词(短语);Instead 相反; Instead of 相反(而不是); Rather than 宁愿;Rather相当.根据语境可知,这次我们不是放弃地球,而是把它带走.instead of doing sth不是做某事.故选B. 4. D.考查名词.body身体;bodies 身体; mind 思维(头脑);minds思维(头脑).根据语境可知,数千年来,"家乡"在中国人民的头脑中已经有个软点.mind在此是可数名词,故用复数表示"头脑"这个整体概念.故选D. 5. B.考查动名词.四个选项分别是fall的动名词(现在分词)、过去分词、过去式和三单形式.空格处为介宾leaves的宾语,故用动名词(现在分词)或过去分词作为定语.falling leaves正在降落的树叶;fallen leaves已经落下来的树叶.根据句意:一个古老的谚语 "落叶归根",其意思是在年老时回到故乡,就像已经落在地上的树叶返回树根一样.故选B. 6. D.考查副词.either(两者中)每个; none 没有一个;neither(两者中)一个也不;both两者都.根据语境可知,它们两者都表明了中国人跟家乡的紧密联系.故选D. 7. A.考查关系代词(副词).that那个;where在哪里; what 什么;how怎样.根据语境可知,这种特殊的文化背景也许是使《流浪地球》跟好莱坞式太空电影区别开来的关键因素.that代知先行词key,且作为从句的主语,同时引导定语从句.故选A. 8. A.考查动词.express 表达; know 知道;tell 告诉; report报告.根据语境可知,真正能表达我们的文化和精神思想的就可以叫做中国的科幻.故选A. 9. C.考查形容词(副词).sadly 伤心地; sad 伤心的;hard 困难的; hardly几乎不.根据上文"The film was released on Feb 5th. the first day of Chinese New Year"可知,这部电影在2月5日发行,即在中国新年的第一天.此时正是中国人艰难地踏上回乡之旅时.故选C. 10. B.考查动词.四个选项分别是go的过去式、原形、动名词和三单形式.空格处为主句的谓语,且表示现在的事实或真理.故用一般现在时.句意:人类到哪里去,地球就到哪里.故选B. 第三部分 阅读理解(共两节 满分22分)第一节 阅读下面的短文,根据短文内容,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出最佳答案.(本题共3小题,每小题8分,共计22分) 28.【解答】(1)C.计算题.根据Chinese mobile carriers(运营商)are expected to spend 1.2 trillion yuan(US$176.5 billion)on 5G by 2025,50 percent more than their total 4G investment可知对5G的投入比对4G投入多了50%,对5G的投入是1.2 trillion yuan,计算得出对4G的投入是1.2÷(1+50%)=0.8 trillion yuan.故答案是C. (2)A.词义猜测题.猜测出意思是可使用的,与A项意思一致,故答案是A. (3)D. 细节理解题.根据Shanghai University of Engineering Science has become the first university in China to be covered by a 5G network,the university announced on Tuesday上海工程大学于本周二宣布,它已成为中国第一所5G网络覆盖的大学.与科技有关,故答案是D. (4)C.主旨大意题.根据 But 5G services will become accessible to normal consumers later than expected. 但5G服务将比预期的更晚为普通消费者所接受.故主要讲了5G服务将比预期的更晚为普通消费者所接受.故答案是C. 29.【解答】1. B.细节理解题.题干句意:水稻生产国际发展论坛在哪里举办?根据文中"Even on his 88th birthday on Sep7th,he took part in the International Development Forum of Rice Production in Hunan province"可知, 甚至在9月7日他的88岁生日之时,他还参加了在湖南省举办的水稻生产国际发展论坛.故选B. 2. C.细节理解题.题干句意:袁隆平被人称作"杂交水稻之父"的主要原因是哪个?根据文中"With the hard work of Yuan's group for about ten years, the production of the rice was creased"和"These varieties now take up about two thirds of China's rice crop. according to China News"和"So, it's no wonder that he's known as the ‘Father of Hybrid Rice'"可知,袁隆平团队经过大约十年的艰苦工作,这种水稻的产量增加了.根据《中国新闻》报道,这些品种约占中国水稻作物的三分之二.因此毫不奇怪,袁隆平被称为"杂交水稻之父".故选C. 3. D.细节理解题.题干句意:袁隆平不会说下列语言中的哪一种?根据文中"According to an article in 1999 by CNN, the scientist speaks both English and Russian fluently"可知,根据1999年CNN报道,这位科学家会说流利的英语和俄语.再加上他的母语汉语,故知他会说英、俄、汉三门语言.因此他不会法语.故选D. 4. 细节理解题.题干句意:本文主要说的是_____.根据文中"Thanks to the hybrid rice that was discovered by Yuan Longping. the hunger problem of thousands of Chinese people was mostly fixed in the 1980s"可知,用于袁隆平发现的杂交水稻,中国人民的吃饭(饥饿)问题在1980年代基本解决了.故知本文说的是袁隆平及其贡献.故选D. 30.【解答】(1)A.细节理解题.根据 To stop the drop,the world needs to control in both climate change and nutrient(养分) pollution.为了阻止这种下降,世界需要控制气候变化和营养污染.故选A. (2)A. 细节理解题.根据 where oxygen is too low to support most sea life.氧气太低,无法维持大部分海洋生物.可知这些水域被称为"死区",因为这些地区的氧气太低,大多数海洋生物无法生存.故选A. (3)D. 细节理解题.根据 The drop in ocean oxygen is among the most serious effects of human activities on the Earth's environment.海洋氧的减少是人类活动对地球环境最严重的影响之一.可知人类活动对海洋环境有许多严重的影响.故选D. 六、根据短文内容,从下面方框中选择适当的选项补全短文(本题共1小题,每小题8分,共计8分) 31.【解答】细节推理题. 1.C 根据前句But for most mammals (哺乳动物).但对于大多数哺乳动物.可知结合选项,应说它们有一个主要的目的﹣﹣平衡.故选C. 2.A 根据后句walking like this gives us a huge advantage because unlike four﹣legged animals.像这样走路给了我们巨大的优势,因为不像四条腿的动物.可知结合选项,应说如今,人类可以完全直立行走.故选A. 3.D 根据前句Just look at a human spine(脊椎).看看人类的脊椎,可知结合选项,应说你可以看到最后几根骨头是如何部分融合在一起的.故选D. 4.B 根据前句These types of tails usually form as a birth fect(瑕疵).这些类型的尾巴通常形成一个瑕疵.可知结合选项,应说在这种情况下,医生会建议在不伤害婴儿的情况下切除尾巴.故选B. 第四部分 口语应用(共1小题,每小题5分,满分5分)根据对话内容,从下面的方框中选择适当的选项补全对话.(有两项是多余的) 32.【解答】(1)D.语境推理题.根据上一句do you know where the Dazhou Museum is?问你知道达州博物馆在哪里吗?可知回答在金龙路.故选D. (2)E.语境推理题.根据下一句 you mean it's across from the building of Dazhou TV station?你是说它在达州电视台对面?可知说就在达州电视台大楼对面.故选E. (3)B.语境推理题.根据下一句Two kilometers两公里.可知问离这儿有多远?故选B. (4)A.语境推理题.根据下一句No. You'd better take a taxi. It's fast and convenient.不,你最好乘出租车.它既快又方便.可知说我能步行去那儿吗?故选A. (5)F.语境推理题.根据上一句 What time does the museum close?博物馆什么时候关门?可知回答也许在晚上8点,故选F. 第II卷(非选择题 共35分)第五部分 任务型阅读(共1小题,每小题5分,满分5分)根据短文后所给的任务,完成1-5小题.温馨提示:只要有大小写、单词拼写、语法等错误,均不给分. 33.【解答】1.(A) as.考查固定词组the same…as…和……一样,结合句意,你和张丽有同样的问题吗?故填:as. (B).that/which.考查定语从句中的关系代词用法.根据.They were given regular surveys __B__ included the question.中先行词为regular surveys,在定语从句中充当主语,指代物,可用that或者which,不可省略.结合句意:他们接受了包括这个问题的定期调查.故填:that/which. 2.breakfast habits were significantly associated with heart disease risk.考查英汉互译题,与……有关联可用词组be associated with…,修饰动词用副词significantly明显地,心脏病风险可用词组heart disease risk.故填:breakfast habits were significantly associated with heart disease risk. 3.breakfast is an important meal of the day.考查连词成句题,根据所给的单词,主语为breakfast, an important meal重要的一餐,of the day表示所属,故填:breakfast is an important meal of the day. 4.首先,不吃早餐的人更有可能不健康地吃零食.考查英汉互译题,根据who don't eat breakfast是定语从句,修饰先行词those,be more likely to do sth.更有可能做某事,故填:首先,不吃早餐的人更有可能不健康地吃零食. 5.Breakfast is an important meal of the day.考查细节理解题,根据倒数第二段可知:首先,不吃早餐的人更有可能不健康地吃零食.其次,早餐可能有助于平衡血糖水平和控制血压.由此可以推断出:早餐是一日三餐中重要的一餐.故填:Breakfast is an important meal of the day. 一、词汇运用(共1小题,每小题10分,满分10分)用方框中所给单词的适当形式填空,使短文完整、通顺.每词限用一次.温馨提示:只要有大小写、单词拼写、语法等错误,均不给分. 34.【解答】1. impatient 考查形容词.根据语境"我没有耐心",考虑选择形容词patient,意为"有耐心的",由缺点推断此处填反义词形式,故答案为 impatient; 2.ran 考查动词.根据语境"我哭着跑向我父亲",考虑选择动词run,意为"跑",由and前的动词cried推断此处也填过去式形式,故答案为 ran; 3.like 考查介词.根据语境"你没想过你是什么样的人吗?",考虑选择介词 like,意为"像",故答案为 like; 4.said 考查动词.根据语境"去把她说的每一件事都列出来,找出正确的地方",考虑选择动词,意为"说",因是女孩以前说的,推断填过去式形式,故答案为 said; 5.as 考查介词.根据语境"我照我父亲说的做了",考虑选择介词as,意为"按照",故答案为 as; 6.myself 考查代词.根据语境"我第一次对自己有了一个相当清晰的印象",考虑选择代词 I,因此处是我自己的印象,推断此处填反身代词形式myself,意为"我自己",故答案为 myself; 7.truth 考查名词.根据语境"你比任何人都清楚真相",考虑选择形容词true,意为"真的",由空前的冠词the推断此处填名词形式truth,故答案为 truth; 8.to do 考查动词.根据语境"但是只听事实,做你知道是正确的事",考虑选择动词 do,意为"做",由动词不定式to do作thing的后置定语,故答案为 to do; 9.had 考查动词.根据语境"我从来没有得到过更好的建议",考虑选择动词have,意为"有,得到",由空前的I've推断本句为现在完成时,此处填过去分词形式,故答案为 had; 10.better 考查副词.根据语境"它们能使我们更加了解自己,并且在我们成长过程中更好地改善我们",考虑选择副词well,意为"好地",由and前的more推断此处填比较级形式,故答案为 better. 第七部分 成句子(共两节 满分5分)温馨提示:只要有大小写,单词拼写、语法等错误,均不给分。第一节句型转换(本题共5小题,每空0.5分)共计5分)按要求完成下面各句.每空一词.缩写算一词. 35.【解答】原句是现在完成时的句子,变一般疑问句要提前助动词has,放在句首,后面不变. 故答案为Has,been. 36.【解答】由题干"Steve with me read yu Gong Moves a mountain in the library last month.史蒂夫和我上个月在图书馆读《愚公移山》,及要求."可知,是含有实义动词的一般过去时的陈述句改为否定句,因含有实义动词的句子变成否定句时,在实义动词原形前加助动词的否定形式didn′t.因此句子可变成:Steve with me didn′t read Yu Gong Moves a mountain in the library last month. 故答案为: didn′t read. 37.【解答】由题干"China's Chang'e 4 landed successfully on the far side of the moon on January 3,2019.2019年1月3日,中国的嫦娥四号成功降落在月球的另一边.及要求."可知,是含有实义动词的一般过去时的陈述句的划线部分提问.因划线的时地点,因此选用疑问副词where ,选用助动词did,原来的动词过去式变成动词原形.因此句子可变成:Where did China's Chang'e﹣4 land successfully land on January 3Id,2019? 故答案为: Where;land. 38.【解答】由题干"A major fire destroyed Notre﹣Dame built in the 12 and 13 centuries in Panis on April5,2019.一场大火摧毁了2019年4月5日在帕尼斯建于12世纪和13世纪的巴黎圣母院.及要求."可知,是含有实义动词的一般过去时的陈述句的主动语态改为被动语态.因原句中的宾语变成被动语态的主语,原来的主语变乘被动语态的by +宾语.因此句子可变成:Notre﹣ Dame built in the 12 and 13 centuries in Paris was destroyed by a major fire on Apri15,2019. 故答案为:was destroyed. 39.【解答】由题干"If we work harder, we will make more progress in science and technology.如果我们更加努力,我们将在科学和技术方面取得更大的进步.及要求."可知,是以if 引起的条件状语从句改为同义句.因以if 引起的条件状语从句用一般现在时代替将来时,主句用将来时.这时可以改成祈使句的句子,If 主语+谓语部分,主语+will+谓语部分.就相当于V(动词原形+其他),and +主语+will+谓语部分.因此句子可变成: Work harder,and we will make more progress in science and technology. 故答案为: Work…and.. 第二节 汉译英(本题共5小题,每空0.5分,共计5分)根据所给的中文意思完成句子,每空一词,缩写算一词. 40.【解答】run very hard 努力奔跑,根据句意用现在进行时,be doing. 故答案是 all running 41.【解答】depend on 取决于,Whether or not you can study well是主句从句,在句中作主语,指单数,根据句意可知用一般现在时,所以谓语动词用三人称单数形式depends. 故答案是depends on. 42.【解答】come from 来自,question动词,质疑,介词from后用动名词. 故答案是from questioning. 43.【解答】less than 不到,少于,less than 2,000 pandas 不到2000只熊猫. 故答案是less than. 44.【解答】be strict with sb 严格要求某人,定语从句使用了现在完成时have been strict with me. 故答案是strict with. 第八部分 书面表达(10分)随着我们不断成长,生活不仅给予了我们许多快乐时光,同时伴随不少烦恼.仔细阅读下面小华写给英语报社的信,结合自己的实际,运用所学知识,请你以编辑的名义,就他的频恼在回信中给出好的建议. 45.【解答】Dear Xiaohua, I'm glad to receive your letter. I have ever had the same experience. I even had a fight with my parents.But now, I fully understand them.(开篇表明自己也碰到过) First,As parents,their dream is that one day you can get good grades.So they put emphasis on homework every day.Why not talk with your parents?【高分句型一】 you can tell them that you finished your homework if you really did it.Or you can help them do some housework after school.Second,For your little brother,He is just a baby.He is glad to see you after your coming back from school.So he wants to play with you.Why don't you play with him for a few minutes.And you also can tell him that you have something important to do.Maybe he will get your point.At last,Believe your parents.They all love you forever.All you need to do is communication.Then you will get on well with your parents and brother【高分句型一】.(针对对方的信提出三点建议) I hope these help!(结尾给出期望) Tony

  • ID:11-6032238 2019年辽宁省辽阳市中考生物试卷(Word版含解析)

    初中生物/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年辽宁省辽阳市中考生物试卷 一、选择题(共24小题,每小题0.5分,计12分。每小题只有一个正确选项) 1.(.5分)下列食品中,不需要发酵的是(  ) A.酱油 B.腐乳 C.香油 D.泡菜 2.(.5分)处方药与非处方药在使用时有所不同,处方药的购买与使用(  ) A.需要医生的处方 B.需要医生在场 C.无须医生监控指导 D.标识为OTC 3.(.5分)下列各项中,标志着细胞工程取得重大进展的是(  ) A.“巨型小鼠”实验 B.抗虫植物的栽培 C.抗生素的生产 D.“多莉”羊的诞生 4.(.5分)人喝酒喝醉了,走路摇晃,站立不稳,这是由于酒精麻痹了(  ) A.大脑 B.小脑 C.脑干 D.大脑皮层 5.(.5分)控制生物性状的遗传信息主要储存在(  ) A.细胞壁 B.细胞膜 C.细胞质 D.细胞核 6.(.5分)人和动物细胞的基本结构包括(  ) A.细胞壁、细胞质、染色体 B.细胞膜、细胞质、细胞核 C.细胞膜、细胞质、叶绿体 D.细胞核、染色体、细胞壁 7.(.5分)使用显微镜观察装片时,物像位于视野的左上方,要使物像移到视野的中心,装片移动的方向应该是(  ) A.右下方 B.右上方 C.左上方 D.左下方 8.(.5分)如图是细胞发生一系列变化的过程示意图,下列有关分析正确的是(  ) A.过程①表示细胞生长 B.过程②表示细胞分化 C.过程②染色体数会减半 D.过程③表示细胞分裂 9.(.5分)“垂杨拂绿水,摇艳东风年。”诗句中提到的植物所属的植物类群是(  ) A.苔藓植物 B.蕨类植物 C.裸子植物 D.被子植物 10.(.5分)下列生物中有真正细胞核的是(  ) A.乳酸菌 B.醋酸菌 C.酵母菌 D.幽门螺杆菌 11.(.5分)下列动物不是腔肠动物的是(  ) A.珊瑚虫 B.水螅 C.海葵 D.涡虫 12.(.5分)下列不属于与鸟类空中飞翔相适应的身体特征是(  ) A.身体呈流线型 B.体内有脊柱 C.前肢变成翼 D.体表被覆羽毛 13.(.5分)哺乳动物子代的成活率大大提高,其主要原因是(  ) A.体温恒定 B.大脑发达 C.胎生、哺乳 D.活动范围大 14.(.5分)下列各反射活动中,属于非条件反射的是(  ) A.新生儿吮吸 B.画饼充饥 C.望梅止渴 D.谈虎色变 15.(.5分)根据动物行为获得的途径,下列行为与“猴子骑车”属于同一类型的是(  ) A.孔雀开屏 B.蜜蜂采蜜 C.蜘蛛结网 D.老马识途 16.(.5分)植物进行光合作用的主要器官和场所分别是(  ) A.保卫细胞、气孔 B.叶、叶绿体 C.叶脉、气孔 D.叶、线粒体 17.(.5分)绿色植物被称为“食物之源”,是因为它能进行(  ) A.蒸腾作用 B.呼吸作用 C.光合作用 D.吸收作用 18.(.5分)要提高冬季大棚蔬菜的产量,可采取的有效措施是(  ) ①适当提高二氧化碳浓度 ②提高氧气浓度 ③适当延长光照时间 ④形成高温环境 ⑤人工形成昼夜温差较大的条件 A.①③④ B.②③④ C.①③⑤ D.②④⑤ 19.(.5分)甲流肆虐之际,多数同学都注射甲流疫苗来提高免疫能力。其中,甲流疫苗和注射甲流疫苗的免疫类型分别属于(  ) A.抗原、特异性免疫 B.抗体、特异性免疫 C.抗原、非特异性免疫 D.抗体、非特异性免疫 20.(.5分)以下不属于我国为保护生物多样性而采取的措施是(  ) A.建立濒危动物繁殖中心 B.建立梵净山国家级自然保护区 C.颁布野生动物保护法 D.放宽引进国外物种限制 21.(.5分)染色体是存在于真核细胞细胞核中的重要结构,组成染色体的主要物质是(  ) A.糖类和蛋白质 B.脂肪和DNA C.蛋白质和DNA D.脂肪和蛋白质 22.(.5分)下列有关人类性别决定的叙述,不正确的是(  ) A.男性的每一个体细胞都只含有X、Y两条染色体 B.含有Y染色体的精子与卵细胞结合形成的受精卵发育成男孩 C.含有X染色体的精子和含有Y染色体的精子与卵细胞结合的机会是均等的 D.自然状态下,世界各国新生儿男女比例接近1:1 23.(.5分)以下有关达尔文自然选择学说的选项,错误的是(  ) A.各种生物普遍都具有很强的繁殖能力 B.生物要生存下来,就得为了获得食物和空间而进行生存斗争 C.生物产生的变异一定都有利于其适应环境 D.不适应环境的生物将被淘汰 24.(.5分)白化病是由隐性基因(a)控制的遗传病,肤色表现正常的一对夫妇,生了一个白化病孩子,再生一个白化病孩子的基因组成和概率分别是(  ) A.Aa、25% B.aa、12.5% C.Aa、12.5% D.aa、25% 二、非选择题(共6小题,每空0.5分,计18分) 25.(2分)粽子是端午节不可缺少的美食,主要原料是糯米,有的也加入豆子、猪肉等。请据图回答下列问题。(在“[]”内填序号,在“___“上填名称) (1)粽子中的蛋白质在[   ]胃中初步消化。 (2)人体的器官①能分泌   ,促进粽子中脂肪的消化。 (3)粽子被消化后,营养物质主要通过消化道的[   ]   进行吸收。 26.(5分)如图是桃花的结构和果实的结构示意图,请据图回答下列问题。(在“[]”内填序号,在“____”上填名称) (1)雌蕊和雄蕊是桃花的主要部分,其中雄蕊由图甲中的[   ]和[   ]组成。 (2)桃花开放后,要形成果实和种子必须经过   和   两个生理过程。 (3)如图中过程A所示,桃花的花粉从一朵花雄蕊的   传到另一朵花雌蕊的   上的过程,叫做   。 (4)花瓣等结构凋落后,图乙中的[9]   将发育成桃的果实,图丙中的[14]桃仁是桃的   ,它是由图乙中的[10]   发育而来的。 27.(3分)如图展示了某生态系统中各种生物之间的关系,请据图回答下列问题。 (1)从生态系统的组成成分看,图中的草和灌木属于   ;图中的田鼠、兔、蝗虫、麻雀、鹰等动物都是   。 (2)若要表示一个完整的生态系统,图中还缺少的成分是   和   。 (3)图中共画出了   条食物链,它们互相交错,形成食物网。 (4)在生态系统中,虽然各种生物的数量是在不断变化的,但在一般情况下,各种生物的数量和所占比例是相对稳定的,这说明生态系统具有一定的   能力。 28.(3分)请回答在“制作人的口腔上皮细胞临时装片”和“制作洋葱鳞片叶表皮细胞临时装片”实验中的有关问题。 (1)两实验的过程基本相同,第一步都是用干净的   将盖玻片和载玻片擦拭干净;但第二步,制作人的口腔上皮细胞临时装片的实验,在载玻片的中央滴的是   ,而制作洋葱鳞片叶表皮细胞临时装片的实验滴的是   。 (2)盖盖玻片的方法:用镊子夹起盖玻片,让它的一边先接触载玻片上的液滴,然后再缓缓地盖在被观察的材料上,避免产生   。 (3)染色的方法:在盖玻片的一侧滴加   ,用   从盖玻片的另一侧吸引,使染液浸润标本全部。 29.(3分)春天到了,随着气温的升高又到了播种的季节,农民伯伯在雨后或浇地后,先给地松土,然后进行播种。某生物学习小组针对这一生活常识设计了“探究影响种子萌发的环境条件”的实验(以大豆种子为材料),实验设计如图所示,请分析回答问题。 (1)当选择2、5两个编号的种子作为一组对照实验时,他们探究的问题是:   ?几天后,2号种子萌发了,5号种子没有萌发。根据这一现象,他们得出的结论是   。 (2)大豆种子能萌发成幼苗的结构是   。 (3)如果探究种子萌发需要一定的水分,应选择编号   和2的种子做对照实验。 (4)3号种子没有萌发的原因是   。 (5)指出本实验设计中的不足之处:   。 30.(2分)资料:乙肝是乙型病毒性肝炎的简称,是一种常见的传染病。据世界卫生组织报道,全球约有20亿人曾感染过乙肝病毒,其中35亿人为慢性感染者,每年约有100万人死于感染所致的肝衰竭、肝硬化和肝癌。 请分析回答问题。 (1)乙肝这种传染病的病原体是   ,它在结构上与人体细胞明显不同,其显著特点是   。 (2)从传染病流行的基本环节分析,乙肝患者属于   。 (3)婴儿出生后就需要注射乙肝疫苗,这样能够有效地预防乙肝病毒感染。从预防传染病的措施分析,给婴儿进行预防接种属于   。 2019年辽宁省辽阳市中考生物试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一、选择题(共24小题,每小题0.5分,计12分。每小题只有一个正确选项) 1.【解答】解:制酱油、腐乳要用到霉菌,制泡菜要用到乳酸菌,都与微生物的发酵有关。 而香油是用芝麻炒熟、研磨、分离出芝麻油而成的,与微生物的发酵无关。可见C正确。 故选:C。 2.【解答】解:处方药是必须凭执业医师或执助理医师才可调配、购买和使用的药品,简称Rx.因此处方药不可以随意购买;非处方药是不需要医师处方、即可自行判断、购买和使用的药品,简称OTC.这些药物大都用于多发病常见病的自行诊治,非处方药要严格按说明书服用;处方药是必须凭执业医师或执助理医师才可调配、购买和使用的药品,非处方药不必医生嘱咐下使用,根据病情需要,恰当选择药物,可见A正确。 故选:A。 3.【解答】解:“克隆”的含义是无性繁殖,即由同一个祖先细胞分裂繁殖而形成的纯细胞系,该细胞系中每个细胞的基因彼此相同。如克隆绵羊“多莉”就是用乳腺上皮细胞(体细胞)作为供体细胞进行细胞核移植的,它利用了胚胎细胞进行核移植的传统方式克隆羊多利就是利用细胞工程的最大突破。“巨型小鼠”实验、抗虫植物的栽培属于转基因技术,抗生素是从青霉中提取的利用微生物发酵技术。 故选:D。 4.【解答】解:中枢神经系统由脑和脊髓组成,脑位于颅腔内,包括大脑、小脑和脑干三部分,大脑由两个大脑半球组成,大脑半球的表层是灰质,叫大脑皮层,大脑皮层是调节人体生理活动的最高级中枢;小脑位于脑干背侧,大脑的后下方,小脑的主要功能是使运动协调、准确,维持身体的平衡;脑干位于大脑的下方和小脑的前方,它的最下面与脊髓相连,脑干的灰质中含有一些调节人体基本生命活动的中枢(如心血管中枢、呼吸中枢等);脊髓位于脊柱的椎管内,上端与脑相连,下端与第一腰椎下缘平齐,脊髓有反射和传导的功能。因此人喝醉了酒,走路摇晃,站立不稳,这是由于酒精麻痹了小脑。 故选:B。 5.【解答】解:细胞核中容易被碱性染料染成深色的物质称做染色体,染色体是由DNA和蛋白质两种物质组成;DNA是遗传信息的载体,它由两条长长的、互相盘绕的链组成,构成双螺旋结构。上面有特定遗传效应的片段叫做基因。基因控制生物的性状。生物的各种性状都是分别由这些不同的基因控制的。一条染色体有一个DNA分子组成,一个DNA分子上有许多个基因。可见,选项D符合题意。 故选:D。 6.【解答】解:人和动物细胞的基本结构包括,细胞膜、细胞质、细胞核。动物细胞没有的结构是细胞壁、液泡、叶绿体等。 故选:B。 7.【解答】解:在显微镜中成的像是倒像的,如果发现物像位于视野的右下方,它实际上位于玻片标本的左上方,所以要移到中央,应向右下方移动。我们可以这样记忆:物像位于视野的哪个方向,就向哪个方向移动,才能移到视野的中央。 故选:C。 8.【解答】解:A、细胞生长是指构成生物体的细胞要不断从周围环境中吸收营养物质,并且转变成组成自身的物质,体积会由小变大。但是细胞不能无限制的长大,一部分细胞长到一定的大小,就会进行分裂。图中①的过程表示细胞的生长。该选项的分析是正确的。 B、在个体发育过程中,一个或一种细胞通过分裂产生的后代,在形态、结构和生理功能上发生差异性的变化,这个过程叫做细胞的分化。细胞分化产生了不同的组织。图中③过程表示细胞分化形成不同的组织。该选项的分析是不正确的。 C、在细胞的分裂过程中,染色体的变化最为明显。在细胞分裂时,染色体会进行复制,细胞分裂过程中,染色体均分成完全相同的两份,分别进入两个新细胞中。也就是说,两个新细胞的染色体形态和数目相同,新细胞与原细胞染色体形态和数目也相同。该选项的分析是不正确的。 D、细胞分裂是指一个细胞分成两个细胞。细胞分裂的结果是使细胞的数量增多,但细胞的形态、结构和功能未发生变化。图中②过程表示细胞的分裂。该选项的分析是不正确的。 故选:A。 9.【解答】解:诗句中提到的垂杨具有六大器官,种子包被上果皮构成果实,因此属于被子植物。 故选:D。 10.【解答】解:ABD、乳酸菌、醋酸菌、幽门螺杆菌都是细菌,只有DNA集中的区域,没有核膜,因此都没有真正的细胞核,ABD不正确; C、酵母菌是真菌,有真正的细胞核,C正确。 故选:C。 11.【解答】解:A、珊瑚虫,B水螅,C海葵,生活在水中;身体呈辐射对称;体壁由内胚层、外胚层和中胶层构成;体内有消化腔;有口无肛门;有网状神经系统。属于腔肠动物; D、涡虫属于扁形动物,身体背腹扁平、左右对称(两侧对称)、体壁具有三胚层、有梯状神经系统、无体腔,有口无肛门。 故选:D。 12.【解答】解:多数鸟类营飞行生活,其结构特征总是与其生活相适应的。如体表被羽毛,前肢变成翼,适于飞行;身体呈流线型,可以减少飞行时的阻力;体内有气囊,辅助肺完成双重呼吸,可以供给充足的氧气;有的骨中空,有的骨愈合,直肠很短,能减轻体重;胸肌发达,利于牵动两翼完成飞行动作,而体内有脊柱与飞行生活没有直接关系。 故选:B。 13.【解答】解:哺乳动物的生殖方式是胎生,胚胎在母体子宫里发育成胎儿,胎儿从母体生出来,这种生殖方式为胎生,刚出生的幼体只能靠母体乳腺分泌的乳汁生活为哺乳,胎生哺乳大大提高了后代的成活率。可见C符合题意。 故选:C。 14.【解答】解:A、吮吸是生来就有的先天性非条件反射,A正确。 BCD画饼充饥、望梅止渴、谈虎色变,都是在非条件反射的基础上,经过一定的过程,在大脑皮层参与下完成的条件反射,BCD不正确; 故选:A。 15.【解答】解:ABC、孔雀开屏、蜜蜂采蜜、蜘蛛结网是生来就有的,由动物体内的遗传物质决定的先天性行为,ABC不符合题意; D、老马识途是动物出生后通过学习得来的行为。因此与“猴子骑车”属于同一类型,符合题意。 故选:D。 16.【解答】解:绿色植物的光合作用通过叶绿体利用光能把二氧化碳和水转变成储存能量的有机物并释放出氧气。光合作用表达式为:二氧化碳+水有机物(储存能量)+氧气,光和叶绿体是不可缺少的条件,其中光能供给能量,叶绿体提供光合作用的场所。而植物的叶片中含有大量叶绿体,叶绿体中的叶绿素能够吸收光能,把光能转化成化学能储存在其制造的有机物中,因此光合作用的主要器官是叶。 故选:B。 17.【解答】解:在生物圈中只有绿色植物才能进行光合作用制造有机物,为其它生物提供食物。因此绿色植物被称为“食物之源”是因为它能进行光合作用。 故选:C。 18.【解答】解:光合作用进行的场所是叶绿体,表达式为:二氧化碳+水有机物(储存能量)+氧气。 呼吸作用进行的场所为线粒体,表达式为:有机物+氧→二氧化碳+水。 白天有光植物能进行光合作用、呼吸作用和蒸腾作用,所以二氧化碳的浓度越高、光照时间越长,植物的光合作用越强,制造的有机物就越多,而在夜晚无光植物只能进行呼吸作用和蒸腾作用,由于在一定范围内,温度越低,植物的呼吸作用就越弱,消耗的有机物就越少,所以蔬菜的产量越高。 ①二氧化碳是光合作用的原料,原料越多合成的有机物就越多,所以适度增加大棚中的二氧化碳气体的含量能增产。故符合题意。 ②氧气是呼吸作用的原料,增加氧气促进了呼吸作用,促进了有机物的分解,作物就减产。故不符合题意。 ③适当延长光照时间,一般情况下植物光合作用的时间越长合成的有机物就越多,能增产。故符合题意。 ④植物需要的二氧化碳是通过气孔从外界吸收的。炎热夏季的中午,阳光过强导致气孔关闭,植物吸收不到二氧化碳。因此在高温环境中植物体的气孔关闭,植物的生理作用受限。故不符合题意。 ⑤因为二氧化碳是植物进行光合作用的原料;大棚中的昼夜温差越大,说明大棚的夜间的温度低,低温可以抵制植物的呼吸作用,使消耗的有机物减少,蔬菜的产量就越高。故符合题意。 故选:C。 19.【解答】解:由分析可知组织学生注射疫苗,是由甲流病原体病毒制成的,只不过经过处理之后,其毒性减少或失去了活性,但依然是病原体,进入人体后不会使人得病,但能刺激免疫细胞产生相应的抗体,因此接种的疫苗相当于抗原,其产生的抗体只对引起抗体的病原体起作用,对其他病原体无效,可见其免疫作用是特定的,有针对性的,属于特异性免疫。可见C符合题意。 故选:A。 20.【解答】解:A、人们有时把濒危物种迁出原地,移入动物园、水族馆和濒危动物繁育中心,进行特殊的保护和管理。不符合题意。 B、建立自然保护区是保护生物多样性最为有效的措施,自然保护区是人们把包含保护对象在内的一定面积的陆地或水体划分出来,进行保护和管理。不符合题意。 C、为保护生物的多样性,我国相继颁布了《中华人民共和国野生动物保护法》、《中国自然保护纲要》等法律,对于我国生物多样性的保护起到了重要的作用。不符合题意。 D、引进外来物种,一般不引进它的天敌,因此外来物种会大量繁殖,进而影响其它生物的生存,反而会破坏生物的多样性。符合题意。 故选:D。 21.【解答】解:染色体是细胞核内的容易被碱性颜料染成深色的物质,由DNA和蛋白质分子组成,DNA是最主要的遗传物质,它的结构像一个螺旋形的梯子,即双螺旋结构;DNA分子上具有特定遗传信息、能够决定生物的某一性状的片段叫做基因。因此组成染色体的主要物质是DNA和蛋白质。 故选:C。 22.【解答】解:人的性别遗传过程如图: 。 从性别遗传图解看出: A、男性的每一个体细胞中都含有23 对染色体,可表示为22对+XY,A错误; B、人的性别是在受精卵时形成的,含X染色体的卵细胞和含有Y染色体的精子结合发育成男孩XY,B正确; C、含有X染色体的精子和含有Y染色体的精子与卵细胞结合的机会均等,各占50%,C正确; D、男性产生X型和Y型两种精子,且比例是1:1,女性只产生一种X型卵细胞,男性产生的两种精子与卵细胞结合的机会相等。所以,自然状态下,世界各国新生儿男女比例接近1:1,D正确。 故选:A。 23.【解答】解:A、达尔文认为,生物普遍具有很强的繁殖力,即过度繁殖,A正确; B、生物赖以生存的空间和食物是有限的,因此任何一种生物在生活过程中都必须为生存而斗争,即生存斗争;生存斗争包括生物与无机环境之间的斗争,生物种内的斗争,以及生物种间的斗争,B正确; C、不是环境的改变使生物产生适应性变异,而是环境的改变对生物产生的变异进行了选择,C错误; D、在激烈的生存斗争中,凡是生存下来的生物都是适应环境的,而被淘汰的生物都是对环境不适应的,这就是适者生存,D正确。 故选:C。 24.【解答】解:在一对相对性状的遗传过程中,子代个体中出现了亲代没有的性状,新出现的性状一定是隐性性状,由一对隐性基因控制,亲代的性状是显性性状,亲代的基因组成是杂合的。由上图可以看出亲代都正常而子代出现了白化病,因此白化病是隐性遗传病。如果用A和a分别表示显性基因和隐性基因,则白化病孩子的基因组成是aa,亲代的基因组成是Aa,遗传图解如图:   从遗传图解中看出,若这对夫妇再生一个孩子,患白化病的几率为25%。 故选:D。 二、非选择题(共6小题,每空0.5分,计18分) 25.【解答】解:(1)食物的消化分物理性消化和化学性消化,两种情况,物理性消化指牙齿的咀嚼舌的搅拌,把食物与消化液混合的过程。口腔内有唾液,唾液含有唾液淀粉酶,能把淀粉转化成麦芽糖。淀粉在口腔内就开始消化了。蛋白质在口腔内只进行物理性消化,到胃内,胃内有胃蛋白酶,使蛋白质初步消化。 (2)肝脏是人体最大的消化腺,分泌的消化液是胆汁,能初步消化脂肪。 (3)小肠是消化和吸收的主要场所,小肠内有肠液、胰液。胆汁三中消化液,肠液和胰液含有淀粉酶,脂肪酶,蛋白质酶,是消化的主要场所,同时也是吸收的主要场所。小肠长约5~6米,小肠的内部有皱襞,皱襞上有小肠绒毛,增加消化和吸收的面积。 故答案为:(1)③;(2)胆汁;(3)④;小肠。 26.【解答】解:(1)雌蕊和雄蕊是花的主要结构,因为与果实和种子的形成有直接关系,雄蕊由5花药、6花丝组成,雌蕊由1柱头、2花柱、3子房组成。 (2)一朵花要形成果实和种子,必须要经过传粉和受精两个过程。 (3)花粉位于花药中,桃花的花粉从一朵花的花药中散发出来,落到另一朵花的柱头上的过程,叫做传粉,分为自花传粉和异花传粉,图中A是异花传粉的过程。 (4)子房受精后的发育情况为: 可见,将来发育成果实的是9子房,图中14是桃仁是桃的种子,由10胚珠发育而来,12属于果皮,由子房壁发育而来。 故答案为:(1)5;6;(2)传粉;受精;(3)花药;柱头;异花传粉;(4)子房;种子;胚珠。 27.【解答】解:(1)、(2)一个完整的生态系统包括非生物部分和生物部分。生物部分包括生产者、消费者、分解者。图中的草和灌木属于生产者;“图中的田鼠、蝗虫、兔、麻雀、鹰等动物,必须直接或间接地以绿色植物为能量来源,通过消耗绿色植物合成的有机物来维持生活”,所以,动物是生态系统中的消费者。因此图中所有生物若要构成一个完整的生态系统,还缺少非生物部分和分解者。 (3)从图中可以看出“→”表示捕食关系(或吃与被吃的关系)。“该生态系统中,各种生物通过营养关系构成食物链”。图中食物链有:草→田鼠→鹰、草→兔→鹰、灌木→兔→鹰、草→蝗虫→麻雀→鹰、草→麻雀→鹰、灌木→麻雀→鹰。所以,图中食物链共有6条,它们相互关联,形成食物网。生态系统中的物质和能量是沿着食物链和食物网流动的。 (4)在生态系统中,各种成分并不是一成不变的,而是始终处于一种动态的平衡之中,各种生物的数量和所占的比例总是维持在相对稳定的状态,是因为生态系统具有自动调节能力。 故答案为:(1)生产者;消费者; (2)分解者;非生物部分 (3)6 (4)自动调节 28.【解答】解:(1)两个实验的过程基本相同,第一步都是用干净的纱布将盖玻片和载玻片擦拭干净。由于植物细胞与动物细胞生活的液体环境浓度不同,因此第二步,在制作人的口腔上皮细胞临时装片的实验中,在载玻片中央滴加的液体是生理盐水,而在洋葱鳞片叶内表皮细胞临时装片的实验中滴加的液体是清水。 (2)盖盖玻片的方法是用镊子夹起盖玻片,让它的一边先接触载玻片上的水滴,然后再缓缓地盖在被观察的材料上,避免产生气泡; (3)染色的方法是在盖玻片的一侧滴加碘液,用吸水纸从盖玻片的另一侧吸引,使染液浸润标本全部。 故答案为:(1)纱布;生理盐水;清水; (2)气泡; (3)碘液;吸水纸。 29.【解答】解:(1)2和5只有温度不同,其它条件都相同,探究温度对种子萌发的影响,应选择2和5两个编号的种子对照。提出的问题是种子萌发需要适宜的温度吗?几天后,2号种子萌发了,5号种子没有萌发,根据这一现象,他们得出的结论是种子萌发需要适宜的温度。 (2)胚由胚芽、胚轴、胚根、子叶组成,种子的主要部分是胚。大豆种子萌发的过程是:种子的胚根首先突破种皮,向地生长,并发育为幼苗的根,随后胚轴的细胞也相应生长和伸长,发育成根与茎的连接部分,胚芽发育成幼苗的茎和叶。 (3)2的条件适合会萌发,1干燥缺水不萌发,要探究种子萌发需要适量的水分,变量是水分,应该选择1和2号作为对照实验。 (4)3号种子浸没在水中,缺少种子萌发的充足的空气。 (5)该生物学习小组设置的每组实验中只用了一粒种子,这样得出的实验结果具有很大的偶然性,得出的实验结论不能令人信服。 故答案为:(1)种子萌发需要适宜的温度吗?种子萌发需要适宜的温度; (2)胚; (3)1; (4)缺少充足的空气; (5)种子数量少,实验结果具有偶然性。 30.【解答】解:(1)传染病的流行必须同时具备传染源、传播途径和易感人群这三个基本环节。乙肝病人或携带乙肝病毒的人是能够散播病原体的人,因此属于传染源。 (2)预防传染病的一般措施可分为:控制传染源、切断传播途径、保护易感者,乙肝患者属于传染源。 (3)注射乙肝疫苗是预防乙肝的最有效方法,乙肝疫苗注射到人体内会刺激人体的淋巴细胞产生抵抗乙肝病毒的抗体,产生抗体属于免疫的第三道防线,对婴儿进行预防接种属于保护易感人群。 故答案为:(1)乙肝病毒;没有细胞结构;(2)传染源;(3)保护易感人群。

  • ID:4-6032235 2019年湖南省邵阳市中考英语试卷解析版无听力材料和音频

    初中英语/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年湖南省邵阳市中考英语试卷 第一部分听力技能(三节,共5小题,满分5分)A)反应根据你所听到的内容,选择正确答语完成对话。(共5小题,每小题1分) 1.(1分)A. Yes, he is. B. No, it isn't. C. It's a book. 2.(1分)A. Last night. B. Terrible! C. At the crossing. 3.(1分)A. With my classmates. B. Once a month. C. About two hours. 4.(1分)A. Some coffee, please. B. Come on! C. Help yourself! 5.(1分)A. Not at all. B. You're welcome. C. Sounds great! B)理解 根据你听到的对话,选择最佳答案回答问题.(共4小题,) 6.(2分)听下面的对话,完成下列小题. (1)How old is Alice? A. 13. B. 14. C. 15. (2)When is Frank's birthday? A. On October 2nd. B. On December 3rd. C. On December 4th. 7.(2分)听下面的对话,完成下列小题. (1)How long does it take Tom to get home from school? A. About one and a half hours. B. About two hours. C. About three hours. (2)How does Peter usually go back home? A. On foot. B.By bike. C. By bus. 8.(3分)听下面的对话,完成下列小题. (1)What's the probable relationship between the two speakers? A. Classmates. B.Mom and son. C. Neighbors. (2)What did Eric do last night? A. He watched TV. B. He played games. C. He did his homework. (3)What subject does Eric do well in? A. Math. B.Physics. C. English. 9.(3分)听下面的对话,完成下列小题. (1)What was Kate doing when the football match started? A.Having breakfast. B. Having a class. C.Walking to school. (2)Why did Kate go back home? A.Because she was hurt. B. Because she left her hag at home. C. Because a dog was hurt. (3)What do you think of Kate? A. Kind. B. Cold. C. Cruel. C)听写 根据你听到的内容,填写下面的表格,每空不超过3个单词.(共1题,每小题10分) 10.(10分) Shaoyang(Baoqing) Location In the(1)   of Human Province (2)    Over 2,000 years Population Over(3)   million (4)    Wei Yuan, Cai E, He Luting… Scenic spots The West Lake Bridge; many parks Snacks Pig blood balls. They are (5)   but delicious. 第二部分 知识运用(两节,共10小题,满分10分)A)语法填空 从A、B、C三个选项中选择最佳答案填空.(共10小题,每小题1分) 11.(1分)The Wandering Earth,_______Chinese film, has become one of _____ most popular films this year.(  ) A.a;不填 B.a;the C.a;a 12.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Which singer do you like, Zhang Liangying or Zhou Bichang? ﹣﹣﹣______.I love their songs very much.(  ) A.All B.Neither C.Both 13.(1分)﹣﹣﹣________ different life is today! ﹣﹣﹣Yeah. We are all living a happy and rich life now.(  ) A.What a B.How C.What 14.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Will Sam go to the cinema with us tonight? ﹣﹣﹣I'm not sure.He_________not be free.(  ) A.may B.should C.can 15.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Let's go climbing Langshan Mountain this Saturday ______the weather is fine. ﹣﹣﹣Good idea!(  ) A.though B.if C.unless 16.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Jack, you look more handsome in your new shirt today. ﹣﹣﹣Oh. really? I____it in a cheap store with my mom.(  ) A.buy B.will buy C.bought 17.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Could you please tell me_______mooncakes traditionally in China, Li Hua? ﹣﹣﹣During the Mid﹣autumn Festival.(  ) A.when people ate B.when people eat C.when do people eat 18.(1分)﹣﹣﹣How do you improve your spoken English? ﹣﹣﹣By practicing_______to my teachers and classmates.(  ) A.talking B.to talk C.talk 19.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Waiter! I'd like some Shaoyang rice noodles. ﹣﹣﹣Sorry, sir. Rice noodles________only in the morning.(  ) A.serve B.will serve C.are served 20.(1分)﹣﹣﹣Shaoyang has changed a lot in the past few years. ﹣﹣﹣Yes. It is getting_________.(  ) A.clean B.cleaner C.cleanest B)完形填空 阅读短文,掌握其大意,从A、B、C三个选项中选择最佳答案填空.(共1小题,每小题10分) 21.(10分)One day a young lady was driving along with her father. They met a strong (1)    , and the young lady (2)    her father, "What should I do?" Her father said, "Keep driving." But later, many cars began to pull over (向路边停靠)(3)    the storm was getting worse and worse. "What should I do?" the young lady asked her father again. "Keep driving," her father replied (4)    the same answer. After driving a few miles, she (5)    that more cars were also pulling over. She told her father, "I must pull over. I can (6)    see ahead. It is terrible, and everyone is pulling over!" Her father told her, "Don't give up. Just keep driving." After a couple of miles she was again on dry land, (7)    the sun came out. Her father said, "Now you can pull over and get out." She asked, "(8)    now?" Her father said, "Look back at all the people that gave up. They are (9)    in the storm. Because you didn't give up, your storm is now over." When you (10)    hard times, keep going and soon your storm will be over and the sun will shine upon your face again. (1)A.storm B.wind C.rain (2)A.told B.asked C.ordered (3)A.until B.as long as C.because (4)A. by B. in C. with (5)A. noticed B. believed C. wondered (6)A. seldom B. hardly C. nearly (7)A. and B. so C. but (8)A. What B. How C. Why (9)A. also B. still C. ever (10)A. go by B. go out C. go through 第三部分 阅读技能 (四节,共1小题,每小题10分,满分10分)A)正误判断 阅读短文,根据短文内容判断所给句子正(T)误(F).(共1小题,每小题10分) 22.(10分)When you look up into the night sky, you can see the moon. But do you know that you're only seeing one side of the moon? The other side, also known as the far side of the moon, has long been a secret to us. But now, we have a chance to see what's on the far side. On January 3rd,China's Chang'e 4 probe(探测器) landed on the far side of the moon. It is the first probe in history to land there. Chang'e 4 probe has already done a lot of things on the moon. One of its jobs is to grow plants. Chang'e 4 probe took six living things to the moon. Such as cotton, potatoes and fruit flies(果蝇). The cotton has already started growing. This is the first time humans have grown plants on the moon. Chang'e 4 probe also took a lot of pictures of the moon's far side. With these pictures, scientists will learn more about the moon. (1)According to the passage, we can see both sides of the moon.   (判断对错) (2)Growing plants on the moon is Chang'e 4 probe's only task.   (判断对错) (3)Chang'e 4 probe is the first probe to land on the far side of the moon.   (判断对错) (4)Seven living things were brought to the moon by Chang'e 4 probe.   (判断对错) (5)The cotton has already begun growing on the moon.   (判断对错) B)阅读选择 阅读短文,从A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳答案回答问题或完成句子. (共1小题,每小题10分) 23.(10分)A woman bought a parrot from a pet store. However, the woman decided to return the parrot to the shop the next day. "This bird doesn't talk," she told the pet shop owner. "Does he have a mirror in his cage(笼子)?" the owner asked. "Parrots love mirrors." The woman bought a mirror and left. The next day she came back,saying that the bird still wasn't talking. "How about a ladder? Parrots love ladders," the owner said. The woman bought a ladder and left. But the next day, she was back. "Does your parrot have a swing? No? Well, once he starts swinging, he'll talk,"the owner said. The woman then bought a swing and left. When she walked into the store the next day, she began to cry. "The parrot died," she said. The pet store owner was shocked. "I'm sorry. Tell me, did he ever say anything?" he asked. "Yes, right before he died," the woman answered, "in a low voice, he asked me, 'Don't they sell any food at that pet store?'" Sometimes we forget what's really necessary in life. We sometimes have lots of things to do at once, but we forget to deal with the most important things first. We have to remember to "feed the parrots" in our lives. (1)The underlined word "parrot" in paragraph 1 means "   " in Chinese. A.孔雀 B.鹦鹉 C.鸽子 (2)The woman bought   from the pet shop owner. A.a mirror and a ladder B.a ladder and a swing C.a mirror, a ladder and a swing (3)Why did the parrot die?    A.Because he didn't eat any food. B.Because the woman killed him. C.Because the pet shop owner killed him. (4)Did the parrot say anything before he died?    A. Yes, he did. B. No, he didn't. C. We don't know. (5)Which is NOT true according to the passage?    A.The woman forgot to buy any food for the parrot. B.The parrot liked the mirror most. C.We shouldn't forget to deal with the most important things first. C)阅读匹配 阅读短文,从所给的A-F六个选项中,选出正确的选项填空,使短文通顺, 内容完整.(共1小题,每小题10分) 24.(10分)Many students think it is too difficult to learn English well, though they know it is important.(1)    Firstly, (2)    A lot of people can't speak English well because they are afraid of making mistakes. But in order to improve your spoken English, you need to be brave and confident. Don't care too much about the mistakes in your spoken English. Being able to express your ideas is the most important thing. Secondly, (3)    You can watch Hollywood movies like Spider﹣Man and Captain America. Listen to what they say carefully and try to understand the main ideas of the movies. Lastly, (4)    I know that students are tired nowadays and you always have to do exercises of different subjects. But practice makes perfect. Only by doing a lot of exercises can you get better English skills. (5)    and you just have to find the best way for you. A.watch English movies. B.don't be afraid to speak English. C.listen to English songs. D.Here are some ideas on how to learn English well. E.All in all, there are many ways to learn English well, F.do a lot of English exercises. D)信息摘录 阅读短文,然后完成内容摘要.每空不超过三个单词.(共1小题,每小题10分) 25.(10分) Do you know the Tantou New Year Picture? It's a famous traditional art form in Shaoyang. It is used for the Spring Festival. The Tantou New Year Picture appeared in the Tang Dynasty first. And it has a long history ﹣ more than 1,300 years. Since the end of the Ming Dynasty, the Tantou New Year Picture has got its special features(特点)一 bright colors, old and exaggerated images(夸张的图象), ordinary materials and special skills. There are more than 20 steps to make the Tantou New Year Picture. All these steps, from making paper by hand to producing the New Year Picture, are finished in one place. This is not usual in our country. In 1994, the Tantou New Year Picture won the silver medal at the folk arts fair. However, fewer people know the skill well now and most young people are not interested in it. The Tantou New Year Picture is in danger of disappearing in the world. Luckily, the government has taken action to protect and save it. Tantou New Year Picture History It appeared in the Tang Dynasty and has a long history ﹣ more than (1)    years. (2)    ?Bright colors?Old and exaggerated images?Ordinary materials and special skills Producing steps There are more than 20 steps to make the Tantou New Year Picture, and finishing all these steps in one place in a country is (3)   . Prize It won the (4)   medal at the folk arts fair in 1994. Situation The Tantou New Year Picture is in danger of disappearing, but the government has taken action to(5)   it. 第四部分 写作技能(三节,共1小题,满分10分)A)英汉互译 阅读下面短文,将文中画线的句子译成汉语或英语.(共1小题,每小题10分) 26.(10分)英汉互译 阅读下面短文,将文中画线的句子译成汉语或英语. In April, the second Belt and Road Forum(论坛) for International Cooperation(合作) was held in Beijing. Heads of states from 37 foreign countries attended it. (1)The main goal of it is to make the countries work together in more areas. It has won the support of 152 countries and international groups. As a Chinese student, (2)你应该了解一些有关丝绸之路的事. (3)Long ago, traders brought treasures from the East to the West. Trips to the West became more favorable when traders found silks and spices(香料). These treasures were not ordinary goods that were easy to get. (4)丝绸之路不是一条真正的路.It was a route(路线) between the East and the West.It went through China, Turkey and Greece. Some traders traveled over land and others sailed across the sea. There was danger along both routes. Over time, the Silk Road changed people in both the East and the West. Traders shared stories about faraway lands. They brought back drawings of the places and things they had seen, which helped people learn about new cultures. (5)Because of the Silk Road, the world seemed much smaller. (1)   ; (2)   ; (3)   ; (4)   ; (5)   . B)阅读简答 阅读下面短文,根据短文内容简要回答问题.(共1小题,每小题10分) 27.(10分)Nowadays, a new method is used to decide who are the top students in school. The best students are those who not only get high marks, but also follow the rules and the behavior standards for middle school students. Here are some of the new rules and standards. Tell The truth. Have you ever copied someone else's work on an exam? If you have, then don't do it again! That's not something an honest student should do. If you have played computer games for two hours in your room, don't tell your parents you were doing homework. Learn to work together with others. It would be more fun when more people work together. Did you fight with your teammates when your basketball team lost? Only working together can make your team stronger. Be friendly to the people you are with. Try to think of others, instead of only yourself. Be open to new ideas. Have you ever thought that people could live on the moon? Perhaps you'll discover Earth II someday. Don't look down on new ideas. Everyone's ideas are important. You should welcome them, because new ideas make life better for everyone. Use the Internet carefully. Some websites on the Internet aren't for kids, so make sure to visit the web pages that are good for you. You can visit the websites for fun or homework. Can't you find any good websites for children? (1)How many new rules and standards are mentioned in the passage?    (2)Should we learn to work together with others?    (3)Why should we welcome the new ideas?    (4)What kind of web pages should we visit?    (5)Who can be the best students according to the new standards?    C)情景作文(共1小题,满分15分) 28.(15分)每年三月的最后一个星期一是"全国中小学生安全教育日".为了提高同学们的安全意识,学校决定在毕业前再举行一次以安全教育为主题的班会.请根据所给提示,就日常生活中需要注意的安全写一篇英语发言稿. 提示:1.上学、放学途中的安全; 2.校园里的安全; 3.家里的安全. 要求:1. 80词左右,开头与结尾已给出,不计入总词数; 2.语法正确,语句通顺、流畅; 3.文中不得出现真实姓名、校名. Hello, everyone! The last Monday in March every year is National Safety Education Day of Primary and Middle School Students. As middle school students, we should _______. Safety is very important. We should always keep it in mind. Thank you! 2019年湖南省邵阳市中考英语试卷 参考答案与试题解析 第一部分听力技能(三节,共5小题,满分5分)A)反应根据你所听到的内容,选择正确答语完成对话。(共5小题,每小题1分) 1.【解答】略 2.【解答】略 3.【解答】略 4.【解答】略 5.【解答】略 B)理解 根据你听到的对话,选择最佳答案回答问题.(共4小题,) 6.【解答】略 7.【解答】略 8.【解答】略 9.【解答】略 C)听写 根据你听到的内容,填写下面的表格,每空不超过3个单词.(共1题,每小题10分) 10.【解答】略 第二部分 知识运用(两节,共10小题,满分10分)A)语法填空 从A、B、C三个选项中选择最佳答案填空.(共10小题,每小题1分) 11.【解答】根据句意:《流浪地球》,一部国产电影,成为今年最受欢迎的电影之一.第一空表示泛指,用a;第二空考查one of the+形容词最高级+名词复数,表示最…之一. 故选:B. 12.【解答】all三者及以上都,both两者都,neither两者都不;根据句意"你喜欢哪一位歌手,张靓颖还是周笔畅? 都喜欢.我非常喜欢她们的歌"可知,两者都,用both,其它选项语意不通,也不符合语法. 故选:C. 13.【解答】分析句子结构可知考查感叹句,在感叹句中,what修饰名词,how修饰形容词/副词,根据different life is today可知句型结构为:How +形容词+主语+谓语动词!different形容词,不同的, life生活,主语 故选:B. 14.【解答】根据句意:﹣山姆今晚和我们一起去看电影吗?﹣我不知道.他可能没空.结合选项,A.可能 B.应该 C.可以,根据I'm not sure.可知这里是不确定的推测,选项A符合题意. 故选:A. 15.【解答】根据句意:﹣这个星期六如果天气好,我们去爬山吧.﹣好主意.结合选项,A.虽然 B.如果 C.除非,选项B符合题意. 故选:B. 16.【解答】根据题干中you look more handsome in your new shirt today.可知说话人夸赞杰克今天穿这件新衬衫更帅气了,杰克说他在一家便宜的店里和妈妈买的,买衬衫这个动作则应发生在过去,则此处应用一般过去时态,其结构是主语+动词过去式. 故选:C. 17.【解答】根据句意:﹣你能告诉我人们什么时候吃中国传统的月饼吗,李辉?﹣在中秋节期间.可知考查宾语从句,用陈述语序,故排除C;从句时态是一般现在时. 故选:B. 18.【解答】根据句意:﹣你如何提高你的英语口语的?﹣通过跟我的老师和同学练习讲话.考查句型practice doing sth练习做某事.、 故选:A. 19.【解答】主语Rice noodles与serve是被动关系,根据语境用一般现在时的被动语态,由be(am,is are)+过去分词构成, 故选:C. 20.【解答】根据句意:﹣在过去的几年里邵阳有了很大的变化.﹣是的它变得更干净了.可知是指以前和现在作比较,用比较级. 故选:B. B)完形填空 阅读短文,掌握其大意,从A、B、C三个选项中选择最佳答案填空.(共1小题,每小题10分) 21.【解答】1.A 考查名词. 句意:他们遇到了大风暴. 选项中,storm意为"风暴";wind意为"风";rain意为"雨",根据下文中the storm was getting worse and worse(风暴变得越来越严重)可知,此处应选storm,故选:A. 2.B 考查动词. 句意:年轻女士就问她父亲:"我应该做什么?" 选项中,told意为"告诉";asked意为"询问";ordered意为"命令",结合句意可知,此处应填入asked,故选:B. 3.C 考查连词. 句意:但是之后,许多汽车开始靠边停车,因为风暴变得愈发糟糕. 选项中,until意为"直到";as long as意为"只要";because意为"因为",结合句意,此处应填入"因为"一词,即becase,故选:C. 4.C 考查介词. 句意:"继续开车"她的父亲回复了同样的答案. 选项中,by意为"通过";in意为"用,以";with意为"用,以",这三个介词中,by强调通过某种媒介、或者工具,in指使用某种表达方式(语言、语调等)或书写方式(墨水,钢笔等),with表示"使用某事物(物品、内容等)",结合题意,题干中意为"使用同样的答案",故采用介词with,故选:C. 5.A 考查动词. 句意:在开了几英里之后,她注意到更多的车子靠边停车了. 选项中,noticed意为"注意到";believed意为"相信";wondered意为"想知道",结合句意,此处填入noticed最为恰当,故选:A. 6.B 考查副词. 句意:我必须靠边停车,我几乎不能看到前方. 选项中,seldom意为"很少";hardly意为"几乎不";nearly意为"将近,几乎",结合句意,此题填入"几乎不"最为恰当,即hardly,故选:B. 7.A 考查连词. 句意:开了几英里之后,她再次开上了干燥的地面,并且太阳也出来了. 选项中,and意为"并且";so意为"所以";but意为"但是",结合题意可知,这句话前后并没有转折和因果关系,故选择and表示并联,故选:A. 8.C 考查特殊疑问词. 句意:她父亲说:"现在你可以靠边停车并且出去了",她问道:"为什么是现在?" 选项中,what意为"什么";how意为"怎样";why意为"为什么",结合文意,前几次在暴风雨中,她的父亲都不让她停车,而现在暴风雨俨然过去,她的父亲却让她停车,这一定会让她感到不解,所以她会问出Why,故选:C. 9.B 考查副词. 句意:往后看那些放弃了的人们,他们仍然在风暴中,但是你没有放弃,所以你的风暴结束了. 选项中,also意为"同样";still意为"仍然";ever意为"曾经",结合句意,此处填入still最为合适,故选:B. 10.C 考查动词短语. 句意:当你通过困难的时光时,一直向前,很快你的风暴就会结束,太阳会重新照耀在你的脸上. 选项中,go by意为"通过…去";go out意为"出去,外出";go through意为"通过…,度过…",结合句意,此处填入go through最为恰当,故选:C. 第三部分 阅读技能 (四节,共1小题,每小题10分,满分10分)A)正误判断 阅读短文,根据短文内容判断所给句子正(T)误(F).(共1小题,每小题10分) 22.【解答】细节判断题. 1.T 根据When you look up into the night sky, you can see the moon. But o you know that you're only seeing one side of the moon? The other side, also known as the far side of the moon, has long been a secret to us. But now, we have a chance to see what's on the far side.当你仰望夜空时,你可以看到月亮.但是你知道你只看到月亮的一边吗?另一边,也被称为月亮的背面,一直是我们的秘密.但是现在,我们有机会看到背面的东西.可知根据这篇文章,我们可以看到月球的两面.故答案为T. 2.F 根据One of its jobs is to grow plants.它的工作之一是种植植物.可知在月球上种植植物是嫦娥四号探测器的唯一任务是错误的.故答案为F. 3.T 根据On January 3rd,China's Chang'e 4 probe(探测器) landed on the far side of the moon. It is the first probe in history to land there.1月3日,中国的嫦娥四号探测器在月球背面着陆.这是历史上第一个在那里着陆的探测器.可知嫦娥四号探测器是第一个登陆月球背面的探测器.故答案为T. 4.F 根据Chang'e 4 probe took six living things to the moon.嫦娥四号探测器把六种生物带到月球上.可知7种生物被嫦娥四号探测器带到月球上是错误的.故答案为F. 5.T 根据The cotton has already started growing.棉花已经开始生长了.可知棉花已经开始在月球上生长了.故答案为T. B)阅读选择 阅读短文,从A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳答案回答问题或完成句子. (共1小题,每小题10分) 23.【解答】1.B.词语理解题.根据 "This bird doesn't talk," she told the pet shop owner"这只鸟不会说话,"她告诉宠物店老板.可知买的应该是鹦鹉,故选B. 2.C. 细节理解题.根据 The woman bought a mirror 、The woman bought a ladder 、The woman then bought a swing ,可知在店家的建议之下,女人买了镜子、梯子、秋千,故选C. 3.A.细节理解题.根据 "Yes, right before he died," the woman answered, "in a low voice, he asked me, ‘Don't they sell any food at that pet store?'""是的,就在他死前,"女人回答,"他低声问我,‘那家宠物店不卖任何食物吗,可知因为他没有吃东西,故选A. 4.A. 细节理解题.根据"I'm sorry. Tell me, did he ever say anything?" he asked. "Yes, right before he died," the woman answered."对不起.告诉我,他说过什么吗?"他问道."是的,就在他死前,"女人回答,可知鹦鹉说话了,故选A. 5.B 内容理解题.根据 The woman bought a mirror and left. The next day she came back,saying that the bird still wasn't talking那个女人买了一面镜子就走了.第二天,她回来了,说那只鸟还没说话和"Yes, right before he died," the woman answered, "in a low voice, he asked me, ‘Don't they sell any food at that pet store?'""是的,就在他死前,"女人回答,"他低声问我,‘那家宠物店不卖任何食物吗.可知鹦鹉最喜欢的不是镜子,故选B. C)阅读匹配 阅读短文,从所给的A-F六个选项中,选出正确的选项填空,使短文通顺, 内容完整.(共1小题,每小题10分) 24.【解答】1.D 细节推理题.根据前句Many students think it is too difficult to learn English well, though they know it is important许多学生认为学好英语太难了,尽管他们知道这很重要.可知结合选项,应说下面是一些关于如何学好英语的建议.故选D. 2.B 细节推理题.根据后句But in order to improve your spoken English, you need to be brave and confident. Don't care too much about the mistakes in your spoken English.但是为了提高你的英语口语,你需要勇敢和自信.不要太在意你的英语口语中的错误.可知结合选项,应说不要害怕说英语.故选B. 3.A 细节推理题.根据You can watch Hollywood movies like Spider﹣Man and Captain America. Listen to what they say carefully and try to understand the main ideas of the movies.你可以看好莱坞的电影,比如《蜘蛛侠》和《美国队长》,仔细听他们说些什么,试着理解电影的主要思想.可知结合选项,应说看英语电影.故选A. 4.F 细节推理题.根据后句Only by doing a lot of exercises can you get better English skills.只有做大量的练习,你才能获得更好的英语技能.可知结合选项,应说做大量的英语练习.故选F. 5.E 细节推理题.根据后句and you just have to find the best way for you.你只需要找到最好的方法.可知结合选项,应说总之,学好英语有很多方法.故选E. D)信息摘录 阅读短文,然后完成内容摘要.每空不超过三个单词.(共1小题,每小题10分) 25.【解答】1.1,300.考查数词及语境的理解,根据And it has a long history ﹣ more than 1,300 years.可知:潭头年画历史悠久,已有1300多年的历史.故填:1,300. 2.Features.考查信息归纳题,根据 the Tantou New Year Picture has got its special features(特点)一 bright colors, old and exaggerated images(夸张的图象), ordinary materials and special skills.可知:谭头年画具有鲜明的色彩、夸张的图象、普通的材料和特殊的技法等特点.故填:Features. 3.unusual.考查形容词及语境的理解,根据. There are more than 20 steps to make the Tantou New Year Picture. All these steps, from making paper by hand to producing the New Year Picture, are finished in one place. This is not usual in our country.可知:制作谭头年画的步骤有20多个,制作年画,都是在一个地方完成的,这在我国是不常见的.not usual可以转换成unusual不寻常的,故填:unusual. 4.silver.考查名词及语境的理解,根据 In 1994, the Tantou New Year Picture won the silver medal at the folk arts fair.可知:1994年,谭头年画在民间艺术博览会上获得银牌.故填:silver. 5. protect/save.考查动词及语境的理解,根据 Luckily, the government has taken action to protect and save it.可知:幸运的是,政府已经采取了行动保护和拯救它.故填:protect/save. 第四部分 写作技能(三节,共1小题,满分10分)A)英汉互译 阅读下面短文,将文中画线的句子译成汉语或英语.(共1小题,每小题10分) 26.【解答】(1)它主要的目的是让这些国家在更多领域更好地合作.英文翻译中文题,根据原文,make the ccountries work together in more areas 让这些国家在更多领域更好地合作.the main goal of it它的主要目的.故得此答案. (2)You should know something about the Silk Road中文翻译英文题,根据原文,了解know,一些关于丝绸之路的事,something about the Silk Road故得此答案. (3)很久以前,商人把财宝从东方带去了西方.英文翻译中文题,根据原文,long ago很久以前,brought treasures from the East to the West.把财宝从东方带去了西方.故得此答案. (4)The Silk Road is not a real road.中文翻译英文题,根据原文,丝绸之路The Silk Road ,不是一条真正的路 is not a real road,一般现在时.故得此答案. (5)因为丝绸之路,世界看起来要小得多.英文翻译中文题,根据原文,because of 因为,seemed much smaller看起来要小得多.故得此答案. B)阅读简答 阅读下面短文,根据短文内容简要回答问题.(共1小题,每小题10分) 27.【解答】1. Four. 归纳概括题.根据第二段第一句Tell The truth,第三段第一句 Learn to work together with others, 第四段第一句Be open to new ideas,第五段第一句Use the Internet carefully. 可知文中提到了4种新规则.故答案为 Four; 2. Yes, we should. 细节理解题.根据第三段第一句 Learn to work together with others 可知要学会和别人一起工作,此处作肯定回答.故答案为 Yes, we should; 3. Because new ideas make life better for everyone.细节理解题.根据第四段最后一句You should welcome them, because new ideas make life better for everyone 可知你应该欢迎他们,因为新的想法让每个人的生活变得更好. 故答案为 Because new ideas make life better for everyone; 4. We should visit the web pages that are good for us.细节理解题.根据第五段第二句 Some websites on the Internet aren't for kids, so make sure to visit the web pages that are good for you.可知互联网上的一些网站不适合孩子,所以一定要访问对你有好处的网页.故答案为 We should visit the web pages that are good for us; 5. The students who is open to new ideas. 开放作答题.通读全文可知文中提到了4种成为最好学生的新规则,只要遵守这些规则之一的学生都有可能成为最好的学生.故答案可为 The students who is open to new ideas. C)情景作文(共1小题,满分15分) 28.【解答】Hello, everyone! The last Monday in March every year is National Safety Education Day of Primary and Middle School Students. As middle school students, we should pay more attention to safety.To be safe,we must follow rules. When we go to school or go home from school,we must follow the traffic rules.For example,we must walk on walk﹣side.When we cross zebra﹣crossing, stop and look right and left,then go across the road fast.【高分句型一】We mustn't run through red lights when crossing the road.Don't play football on the road.(上学、放学途中的安全) At school ,don't push when we go upstairs or downstairs,or we may hurt ourselves or others.Never use sharp things like the knife when we play with our classmates. We should get on well with our classmates.Don't fight with them, or we'll be hurt.(上学、放学途中的安全) At home, we should be careful when we use electricity.If there is a fire or a thief,we should call the police for help in time.(家里的安全.)Also, food satety is important. Never eat the food that goes bad. 【高分句型二】 Safety is very important. We should always keep it in mind. Thank you!

  • ID:4-6032232 2019年广西玉林市中考英语试卷解析版无听力材料和音频

    初中英语/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年广西玉林市中考英语试卷 一、听力理解(共30分) (一)听句子,选图画.(每小题5分,共5分)你将听到5个句子.请根据所听到的内容,选出与句子内容相符的图画选项.每个句子读一遍. 1.(5分) (1)    (2)   (3)   (4)    (5)    (二)对话理解。(每小题1分,共10分) 第一节:听下面五段短对话,每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。每段对话仅读一遍。 2.(1分)What will the woman probably do at 7: 00? A. She will brush her teeth. B. She will take a walk C. She will have breakfast. 3.(1分)Where does the girl usually read a novel?. A. In a car B. On the bus. C. On the subway, 4.(1分)Which direction is the restroom in? A. On the right B. In the front C.On the left 5.(1分)How much does the man pay for the suit? A.$30. B.$40 C.$50 6.(1分)Why can't Lucy go to play tennis? A. She is busy B. She doesn't like it C. She has to do homework 第二节:听下面两段长对话,每段对话后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B.C三个选项中选出最佳选项。每段对话读两遍 7.(2分)听第一段长对话,回答下列小题. (1)Who might go to the movies yesterday? A. Gina. B. Clark. C.Tom. (2)How often does Clark play the erhu? A. Every day. B. Once a we. C. Twice a month. 8.(3分)听第一段长对话,回答下列小题. (1)It's the   time for the man to go to the club. A. first B.secon C. third (2)What is the man wearing now? A. Sports clothes B. A shirt C. Jeans. Where does the conversation take place? A. In an art club. B.In a sports club. C. In an English club. (三)短文理解。(每小题10分,共10分) 你将听到一篇短文。请根据所听到的短文内容,选择正确的答案。短文读两遍。 9.(10分)(1)Jim went to a fish shop to buy a fish for   . A. breakfast B. lunch C. dinner (2)Why did Jim put up the fish? A. Because he wanted to smell it. B.Because he wanted to chat with it. C. Because he wanted to give it to the shopkeeper. (3)How did the shopkeeper feel when hearing Jim said he was talking to the fish? A. Worried B. Surprised C. Excited (4)When did Jim think the fish was caught? A. An hour ago. B. Three weeks ago. C.Over three weeks ago. (5)What can we lean from the passage? A. The fish was fresh. B. Jim wasn't smart. C. The shopkeeper didn't tell the truth. 四,听短文,填信息(,每小题5分,共5分)你将听到一篇短文请根据所听到的短文内容,填入信息(每空一词),短文读两遍。 10.(5分) A Journey to Sunshine Farm Our class are going to have some (1)    and learning activities. Everyone is expected to meet at the school gate at 8: 00 a.m. on (2)    5th We will learn how to plant trees and (3)    vegetables It's,(4)    to go swimming in the river, sowe mustn't do that We should keep (5)    二.语言知识运用(共20分)(一)单项选择(每小题1分,共10分) 11.(1分)﹣____Smiths are used to living in Shanghai now. ﹣We hope more and more foreign friends live____better life in China.(  ) A./;a B.The; an C.The; a D./;the 12.(1分)﹣Chinese govemment sent two pandas, Ruyi and Dingding, to Russia several days ago ﹣The relationship____China____Russia will be closer than before, I think.(  ) A.both:;and B.not only;but also C.either; or D.between; and 13.(1分)﹣Are those____keys, Jack? ﹣No, they aren't. They're Uncle____.(  ) A.yours;Sam′s B.your;Sam C.your;Sam′s D.yours;Sam 14.(1分)﹣Students' life shouldn't just be about grades. Free time activities like sports and ____ with friends are important too. ﹣I think so.(  ) A.hanging out B.giving out C.handing out D.taking out 15.(1分)﹣﹣Can I help you, Madam? ﹣Yes____,please(  ) A.Two pair of socks B.Two pairs of socks C.Two pairs of sock D.Two pair of sock 16.(1分)﹣﹣Hey, Anna, Would you like to see The White Storm with me? ﹣You mean, the new police story____was filmed by Chen Musheng(  ) A.who B.what C.whose D.which 17.(1分)﹣Jenny, your new tape player looks great. ﹣Oh, it's not new. I____it for three years(  ) A.buy B.have had C.bought D.have bought 18.(1分)﹣Wow!____clean air we have today! ﹣Yes. Look! A lot of adults are doing kung fu over there(  ) A.How B.What a C.How a D.What 19.(1分)﹣ New China was set up in 1949. ﹣Every Chinese knows her 70th birthday is____October 1. 2019(  ) A.in B.at C.on D.by 20.(1分)﹣Ben, could you tell me____? ﹣He's my cousin from Shenzhen(  ) A.who he is B.where is he C.who is he D.where he is (二)完形填空(每小题10分,共10分) 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从各小题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出最佳选项。 21.(10分) Years ago, I celebrated my 40th birthday with friends in a(1)    restaurant. Many arrived earlier and waited outside the restaurant, As I was on the roadside, a homeless man came near to me and(2)   money. I let him know I didn't have any cash (现金)with me. With a quiet smile on his face, he moved on. Just then a friend arrived and called out, "Happy Birthday! "Hearing this, the man turned and asked,"Hey, man, it's your birthday?""Yes, "I said. He walked (3)   , smiled and said, "Happy Birthday!"I was not(4)    ready for what happened next. He took out a dollar from his dirty bag, and gave it to me, saying, "Here man, take this. Happy Birthday! "That's(5)   . I expected he was making a joke! Although I(6)    deeply by his generosity (慷慨), accepting money from a homeless man was embarrassing for me. I felt very uncomfortable.(7)   I replied, "Thanks, but…"Looking directly into my eyes, he said, "God,s so good to me Every night, I always end up with a place to sleep and enough food to eat. Please take this. "I held out my hand﹣(8)    thinking twice.saying," thank you" This was one of my(9)    life lessons﹣ however poor we may feel, we always have something valuable to share with others. From then on I often helped people in need and treated everyone with kindness and (10)   , spreading love and joy everywhere I went. (1)A. two floors B. two﹣floors C. two floor's D. two﹣floor (2)A. asked for B. looked for C. paid for D.cared for (3)A. down B.along C.back D.ahed (4)A.completely B. wisely C. Hardly D.simply (5)A. enjoyable B. lucky C. impolite D.amazing (6)A. moved B.was moved C.was moving D.am moved (7)A. But B. As C.So D.Since (8)A.with B.in C. without D. for (9)A. great B. greatest C. bad D. worst (10)A. fame B. warmth C. disbelief D.power 三.阅读理解(共30分)阅读下面A、B、C、D四篇短文,根据短文内容,从下列各小题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳答案.(共30分) 22.(6分) Perhaps the only test score that I remember is the 55 I got when I was in high school. The test was the last one of the term. I remember waiting nervously as my teacher Mr. Right gave out our papers one after another. It was a rather difficult test. I heard my classmates groaning(叹息),and I could guess by the groans that the scores were not looking good. Mr Right put my paper on my desk. There in big red numbers, circled to catch attention, was my score, 55! I let my head go down, and covered the score up quickly. A 55 is not something that you wanted your classmates to see. "The scores were not very good, none of you passed," Mr Right said. "The highest score in the class was a 55." A 55. That's me! Suddenly I didn't feel so bad. I had the highest score. I was getting a little better. I walked home alone that day with the low but high score. My mother knew that I had a big test that day and asked me as soon as I got home, "How did you do in your test? ""I got 55, "I said.A frown (皱眉) appeared on my mother's face I knew I had to explain at once. "But Mum, I had the highest score in the class, "I said proudly. "You failed, Dave! "my mother replied. "But it's the highest! "I insisted (坚持). "I don't care what scores others had, you failed. The important thing is what you do! "my mother said in a strong way. For years, my mother was always in that way. She didn't care what others did, only cared what I did and that I did it excellently. My mother's words have made a big difference to my life. (1)When did the test take place?    A. At the beginning of the term. B. In the middle of the term. C. At the halfway term. D. At the end of the term. (2)   of the students failed the test. A. Both B. None C. All D. Neither (3)How did Dave′s mother feel when she knew his score?    A. She was upset. B. She felt very happy. C. She felt embarrassed. D. She was really excited. 23.(8分) Dubai (迪拜) is a good place to travel to. There, you can find many tall buildings, taste lots of delicious food and experience some interesting things.Have you ever been to this city? If you go to Dubai during the summer holiday, you may see a special kind of"taxi". It is a drone (无人机). It flies in the sky by itself! It is said that Dubai plans to use Chinese﹣made droes as a self ﹣flying air taxi in July. The drone taxi is named EHang 184. A Chinese company(公司)made it. The city of Dubai will start using it in July. It will be the world's first passenger drone, according to Yahoo News. The drone taxi can fly up to 3, 500 meters high. It can fly at a top speed of 160 kilometers an hour. It can only take one person. How do you call an EHang1842 You use its app(应用程序) on your phone. When the drone comes, you choose the place you want to go to on a touch screen. There is no pilot in the drone.But some people on the ground will be watching it. They will make sure your trip is safe. You don't have to worry about it. EHang 184's battery(电池) can only keep about 30 minutes, So it cannot take you further than 50 kilometers. Would you like to take a trip in this flying drone? Don't wait. Let's go! (1)EHang 184 was made by a(n)   company, A. Dubai's B. American C. Japanese D. Chinese (2)Which statement (陈述) about EHang 184 is correct?    A. There is a pilot in it. B. Its battery can keep around half an hour. C. It can fly up to 4, 500 kilometers. D. The trip in it isn't safe. (3)Where may we find this article?    A. On the Internet. B.In a guide book. C. In a story book. D. In a novel. (4)What's the best title of the passage?    A. The Exciting Vacation B. The Special Trip C. The Drone Taxi D.The Computer Company 24.(8分)An eight﹣year﹣old girl named Tina heard her parents talking about her little brother. All she knew was that he was very sick and they had no money. When she heard her dad say to her mom, "Only a miracle(奇迹)can save him now", Tina went to her bedroom and took all her money out of a small box and counted it carefully. Then she made her way six blocks to the local drugstore(药店). "And what do you want? "asked the owner of the store. "It's for my little brother. "Tina answered. "He's really, really sick and I want to buy a miracle. His name is Mike and he is two years younger than me. Now he has something bad growing inside his head and my dad says only a miracle can save him. "We don't sell miracles here, child. I'm sorry, "the owner said, smiling sadly at Tina. In the store there was a well﹣dressed customer. He asked Tina. "What kind of miracle does your brother need? "I don't know, "she replied. "He's really sick and my mom says he needs an operation (手术),But my dad can't pay for it ,so i have brought all my him." "How much do you have?"asked the man. "One dollar and seven cents, but I can try and get some more, "she answered quietly. " Well, what a coincidence (巧合), smiled the man. "One dollar and seven cents﹣﹣the exact price of a miracle for a little brother. Take me to where you live. I want to see your brother and meet your parents. That well﹣dressed man was Carlton Armstrong, a famous doctor. The operation was completed without money. Two weeks later, Mike became well and was home again. Tina was happy. She knew exactly how much the miracle cost_﹣﹣ one dollar and seven cents﹣﹣and the faith(信念) of a little child. (1)Why did Tina go to the drugstore? Because she wanted to   . A. visit her brother B. see a doctor C. buy a miracle D. buy some medicine (2)Which of the following is not true according to the passage?    A. The operation was free. B. Tina had less than 2 dollars C. The owner of the drugstore couldn't help Tina. D. There was something wrong with Mike's heart (3)What do you think of Carlton Armstrong    A. He's mean B. He's honest C. He's shy D. He's kind (4)The passage mainly tells us the importance of   . A. faith B.wealth C. knowledge D. communication 25.(8分) The date﹣﹣ July 22, 2018﹣ has meaning to Cui Qingtao, a boy of seventeen. He will remember it forever. Cui Qingtao was working at a construction site(建筑工地) with his parents on Sunday when he received his admission letter(录取通知书) from Peking University, which is considered as one of the best universities in China. In last year's gaokao, the young man from a poor family scored 669 points and applied for( 申请) Peking University, where he was accepted as a student in the School of Journalism(新闻)and Communication. Cui's home is in a small village in southwest China's Yunnan Province. He is the family's oldest son, with a younger brother in high school and a sister in the fourth grade. Cui is a caring son. To support his family, he'd get up at 3 o'clock in the morming to water plants in the family's greenhouses with his brother when he came home during the school breaks. On Sunday, Cui's family were doing construction work when he saw the letter. Cui and his family were excited as they finally received the admission letter, which they had expected for a long time. Cui Qingtao made his parents very proud because neither of them went to university. When his mother read the admission letter to his father, who cannot read, a big smile appeared on his father's face. "No pain, no gain(不劳无获)Don' t complain what a terrible life you have. As long as you work hard and try your best, your dream may come true. Now I'm leaving my home village for college, but I'll return and some day change the poor conditions of our village, "Cui said. His starting point is different from other students, but I hope his future will be bright, "one Internet user said on Chinese social media (媒体)site Weibo. (1)Where was Cui Qingtao when he got his admission letter?    A. At home B. At school C. At a construction site. D. In a greenhouse (2)The underlined word"complain"means   in Chinese. A.抱怨 B.炫耀 C.评价 D.夸大 (3)What is Cui Qingtao going to do after he graduates from college?    A. Stay in beijing B. Serve his village C. Build houses D. Work for a TV station (4)What can we know about Cui Qingtao?    A. His mother can't read B. He cares about his parents C. He comes from Guizhou Province D. His brother is a primary school student. 四、情景交际(每小题5分,共5分)从方框中选择恰当的句子补全下面对话.(其中有两项是多余的选项) 26.(5分)Helen: Hi. Frank! Frank: Hi, Helen! Long time no see. Helen: What are you busy doing these days? Erank: (1)    Helen: Oh, what's it about? Frank: (2)    Helen: Environment? What do you actually mean? Frank: Um. I mean we have two main problems. One is that the rivers are badly polluted. The water is very dirty. Helen:(3)    Frank: Oh. the other is that the trees in the mountains are getting fewer and fewer Helen: It's true. We should do something to make the rivers cleaner and the mountains greener. Frank: You are right.(4)    Helen: And next? Frank: We should also plant more trees. Helen: Yes. Everyone is supposed to help make a green hometown Frank: I agree with you. Everyone should play a part. Helen:(5)    Frank: Why not? Welcome! Let's take action A.It's about our school life. B.We′re having a new project ﹣Green Hometown, We Are in Action. C.Can I join you? D.What's the other one? E.First, we should stop littering into the rivers and clean them. F.Can you tell me some of the problems you' ve seen? G.It's about how to protect the environment. 五、语法填空(每小题10分,共10分)阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 27.(10分) Twenty years ago, I drove a taxi for my life and sometimes I had to work at night. One late night, I got a telephone call (1)   a neighborhood. When I arrived there at 2: 30 am, the only building was dark except a single light in the (2)   (five) floor window. So I walked up and knocked at the door. Just a minute, "answered a weak voice. After a long time, the door opened and a small woman(3)   (stand) in front of me. Next to her was a small box. Quickly I took her box to the car and then retuned to hold her. She kept(4)   (thank)me. When we got in the car, she asked, "Can you drive me through the blocks? "(5)    it's too late now, "I replied. "I don' t mind, "she said slowly. "I'm in no hurry. The doctor says I don't have much time to live…" I (6)   (quiet) turned off the meter(计费器), For the next two hours, we drove through the city and passed the building where she had once worked, the neighborhood where she and her husband had lived ,and some other places.As(7)   sun was rising ,we stopped in front of a low building. Two young(8)   (woman) were waiting there. They were both the nurses who would look after her. "How much do I have to pay? " she asked. "Nothing, "I replied. I was sure I would never forget this(9)   (pain)experience. She looked surprised, "You gave a woman who is dying a little moment of pleasure, "she said. "Thank you". Sometimes people may not remember exactly what you did or said. However, they'll always remember how you make (10)   (they) feel. And they'll never forget it. 六、短文改错(每小题10分,共10分) 28.(10分)此题要求改正所给短文中的错误.对标有题号的每一行做出判断:如无错误,在该行右边横线上画一个勾(√);如有错误(每行只有一个错误),则按下列情况改正: 此行多一个词:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉,在该行右边横线上写出该词,并也用斜线划掉. 此行缺一个词:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(^),在该行右边横线上写出该加的词. 此行错一个词:在错的词下划一横线,在该行右边横线上写出改正后的词. 注意:原行没有错的不要改. Exercising is one of the most important thing we can do for our bodies. (1)    Eating good food and drinking water are not enough to make us (2)    stronger and much healthy. A person should exercise at least three times a week (3)    for an hour or more. This is even more important if a person is too heavily. (4)    If they want to lose weigh, they may have to exercise five to six times (5)    a week. Running and walking are good with your heart. (6)    You will feel really relaxing after you finish the exercise (7)    When you run, you have to use your legs and arms. This make your legs (8)    stronger If you' ve never exercised in before, it is best to start slowly (9)    It is also a good idea chat with your doctor before you start exercising (10)    七、书面表达(共15分) 29.(15分)每周星期一的升旗仪式( Flag﹣raising ceremony)是你们学校的常规活动,你的英国笔友Bob对你校的升旗仪式很感兴趣.假定你是张华,请你给Bob写一封电子邮件,介绍下你校升旗仪式的情况. 内容要点: 1.升旗的时间和地点; 2.参加升旗的人员; 3.升旗活动的意义; 4.你的感想; 参考词汇:(仅供参考) 要求: 1.包括所有内容要点,不要逐句翻译,可以适当发挥. 2.80词左右,语法正确.(开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数) 3.文中不得出现考生真实的姓名、地点和所在的学校名称. Dear Bob, Hearing that you are interested in Flag﹣raising ceremony of our school ,I am glad to tell you something about it. ___________. Hope you can experience the Flag﹣raising ceremony of our school. Yours, Zhang Hua 2019年广西玉林市中考英语试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一、听力理解(共30分) (一)听句子,选图画.(每小题5分,共5分)你将听到5个句子.请根据所听到的内容,选出与句子内容相符的图画选项.每个句子读一遍. 1.【解答】略 (二)对话理解。(每小题1分,共10分) 第一节:听下面五段短对话,每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。每段对话仅读一遍。 2.【解答】略 3.【解答】略 4.【解答】略 5.【解答】略 6.【解答】略 第二节:听下面两段长对话,每段对话后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B.C三个选项中选出最佳选项。每段对话读两遍 7.【解答】略 8.【解答】略 (三)短文理解。(每小题10分,共10分) 你将听到一篇短文。请根据所听到的短文内容,选择正确的答案。短文读两遍。 9.【解答】略 四,听短文,填信息(,每小题5分,共5分)你将听到一篇短文请根据所听到的短文内容,填入信息(每空一词),短文读两遍。 10.【解答】略 二.语言知识运用(共20分)(一)单项选择(每小题1分,共10分) 11.【解答】根据句意:﹣史密斯现在习惯住在上海.﹣我们希望越来越多的外国朋友在中国过着更好的生活.可知第一空是the+姓的复数,表示一家人;第二空表泛指,better发音以辅音音素开头,用a. 故选:C. 12.【解答】根据句意:﹣几天前,中国政府派出如意和丁丁两只熊猫到俄罗斯.﹣我认为,中国和俄罗斯的关系将比以前更加密切.结合选项,A.两者都 B.不仅…而且…C.或者…或者…D.两者之间,选项D符合题意. 故选:D. 13.【解答】根据题干可知说话人询问杰克这些钥匙是不是他的,第一空缺一个形容词修饰keys,则应填写形代your,表示你的.其次根据No可知这些钥匙是萨姆叔叔的,Sam和key是所属关系,则第二空应填写Sam's. 故选:C. 14.【解答】hang out表示闲逛、逛街,give out表示分发,hand out也表示分发,take out表示拿出.根据题干可知学生的生活不应该只和成绩有关,像运动、和朋友逛街这些业余活动也是非常重要的. 故选:A. 15.【解答】sock袜子,可数名词,a pair of 一双,two pairs of socks 两双袜子 故选:B. 16.【解答】根据句意:﹣嗨,安娜,你想和我一起看《白色风暴》吗? ﹣你是指陈慕生拍摄的新警察故事.可知考查定语从句的关系代词,先行词是story,指物.作主语 ,关系代词用which/that, 故选:D. 17.【解答】根据句意"﹣詹妮,你的新录音机看起来不错.﹣噢,这不是新的.我已经用了三年了. "和for three years可知,要用现在完成时,其构成为have/ has done,动词用延续性动词,buy不能延续,这里用have. 故选:B. 18.【解答】分析句子结构可知考查感叹句,在感叹句中,what修饰名词,how修饰形容词/副词,根据clean air we have today可知句型结构为:What +形容词+不可数名词+主语+谓语动词! 故选:D. 19.【解答】on"在…之上、在…时候";at"在、以、向";in"在…之内";by"通过、被、由",四者都是介词.on 用于具体的某一天,in用于年、月,用于上、下午和晚上,季节,世纪前.at 用于时刻前.由题干"﹣﹣﹣新中国成立于1949年.﹣﹣﹣每个中国人都知道她70年的诞生日是在10月1日.2019年."可知,空格是"在…时候"指具体的某一天,用on,因此答案应是on. 故选:C. 20.【解答】根据句意:﹣Ben,你能告诉我他是谁吗?﹣他是我深圳的表弟.可知考查宾语从句,用陈述语序,故排除B C;结合 He's my cousin from Shenzhen,可知问的是谁,用连词who. 故选:A. (二)完形填空(每小题10分,共10分) 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从各小题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中选出最佳选项。 21.【解答】1.D.考查数词.A,两个楼层,B,两层楼,C,两个楼层的,D,两层楼的.句意:我在一间两层楼的饭店与我的朋友们庆祝我的40岁生日.两层楼的用数字﹣名词,从而构成形容词,两层楼的,two﹣floor,故选:D. 2.A.考查动词.A,询问,B,寻找,C,支付,D,关心.句意:一个无家可归的男人走向了我并向我讨钱.根据上文"a homeless man came near to me "可知他是个无家可归的人,所以他想向我讨钱,ask for sth.请求要某物,故选:A. 3.C.考查介词.A,向下,B,一起,C,在..后面,D,在..前面.句意:他走回来.根据上文" he moved on"他走开了,而又根据下文"He took out a dollar from his dirty bag"他给来了我一英镑,可知他是又回来了,walk back走回来,故选:C. 4.A.考查副词.A,完全地,B,机智地,C,几乎不,D,简单地.句意:对于接下来发生的事情我完全没有准备好接受.根据上文"a homeless man "他是个无家可归的人,而此时却在得知我生日就"He took out a dollar from his dirty bag, and gave it to me"给我一英镑,可知作者是完全不能接受的,文中not是不的意思,结合选项,故选:A. 5.D.考查形容词.A,享受的,B,幸运的,C,不礼貌的,D,惊奇的.句意:那很惊奇.根据下文"I expected he was making a joke"我期待他只是在和我开玩笑的,因为他的行为让我很惊讶,不可思议,结合选项,故选:D. 6.B.考查动词.A,感动,B,被感动的,C,过去正感动的,D,被感动的.句意:尽管我被他的慷慨深深感动.根据下文"by his generosity (慷慨)"被他的慷慨,be done ..by sth.被sth.所怎么样,联系上文,一个无家可归的人在我生日也慷慨地给了我一英镑,我是被他的行为所感动的,全篇是过去的事所以用过去式,结合选项,故选:B. 7.C.考查连词.A,但是,B,作为,C,所以,D,自从.句意:所以我回复谢谢.根据上文"I felt very uncomfortable"接受一个无家可归的人的钱让我觉得很不舒服,所以我回复一句谢谢的,可知这两句话存在因果关系的,结合选项,故选:C. 8.A.考查介词.A,和…一起.B,在…里面,C,在…之外,D,为…句意:我再三思考后还是伸出了双手.根据上文"accepting money from a homeless man was embarrassing for me"接受他的钱让我觉得很尴尬的,但经过再三思考后我就"I held out my hand"伸出双手接受他的好意的,再三思考,with twice thinking,故选:A. 9.B.考查形容词.A,很好的,B,最好的,C,很坏的,D,最坏的.句意:这是我一生中最好的教育课中的一课.根据"one of my…life lessons"…之一用最高级,结合选项,本文通篇是讲了一个暖心的无家可归的人,所以是最好的,故选:B. 10.B.考查名词.A,名声,B,温暖,C,不相信,D,力量.句意:从那以后,我经常帮助有需要的人,我自己的热心和爱心对待他们.根据上文"with kindness "有爱心的,结合选项,and是并列连词,所以此空填的也是和kindness相似的词,故选:B. 三.阅读理解(共30分)阅读下面A、B、C、D四篇短文,根据短文内容,从下列各小题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳答案.(共30分) 22.【解答】(1)D. 细节理解题.根据 The test was the last one of the term,可知这是学期的最后一次考试,故选D. (2)C.细节理解题.根据The scores were not very good, none of you passed," Mr Right said. "The highest score in the class was a 55.分数不是很好,你们都没及格,"Right先生说."班上最高分是55分,可知所有人都没有通过考试,故选C. (3)A.细节理解题.根据A frown appeared on my mother's face I knew I had to explain at once. "But Mum, I had the highest score in the class, "I said proudly. "You failed, Dave! "my mother replied. "But it's the highest! "I insisted ,"I don't care what scores others had, you failed. The important thing is what you do! "我母亲皱眉了,我知道我必须马上解释."但是妈妈,我在班上得分最高,"我自豪地说."你失败了,戴夫!"我母亲回答."但这是最高的!"我坚持,"我.重要的是你做了什么,可知得知分数,他的母亲很沮丧,故选A. 23.【解答】(1)D.细节理解题.根据It is said that Dubai plans to use Chinese﹣made droes as a self ﹣flying air taxi in July.据说迪拜计划使用中国制造的无人机作为空中出租车.故选:D. (2)B.正误判断题.根据 EHang 184's battery(电池) can only keep about 30 minutes.可知 EHang 184's 电池可以持续30分钟.故选:B. (3)A.文章出处题.本文主要讲述了迪拜将开始投入空中出租车的事情,与小说,故事和导游手册无关,故选:A. (4)C.主旨大意题.本文主要讲述了迪拜将开始投入名叫 EHang 184空中出租车.故选:C. 24.【解答】1.C 细节理解题.根据Tina answered. "He's really, really sick and I want to buy a miracle. His name is Mike and he is two years younger than me. Now he has something bad growing inside his head and my dad says only a miracle can save him蒂娜回答."他真的,真的病了,我想买一个奇迹.他叫迈克,比我小两岁.现在他脑子里有了不好的东西,我爸爸说只有奇迹才能救他.可知是想要买一个奇迹,故选C. 2.D 细节理解题.根据Tina answered. "He's really, really sick and I want to buy a miracle. His name is Mike and he is two years younger than me. Now he has something bad growing inside his head and my dad says only a miracle can save him蒂娜回答."他真的,真的病了,我想买一个奇迹.他叫迈克,比我小两岁.现在他脑子里有了不好的东西,我爸爸说只有奇迹才能救他,可知她弟弟是脑袋里出了问题,不是心脏,故选D. 3.D 内容理解题.根据That well﹣dressed man was Carlton Armstrong, a famous doctor. The operation was completed without money. Two weeks later, Mike became well and was home again那个穿着考究的男人是卡尔顿?阿姆斯特朗,一位著名的医生.在没有收钱的情况下帮他们做手术.两周后,迈克康复了,又回家了,结合文章内容,医生免费帮男孩做手术,可知他人很好,故选D. 4.A 内容理解题.根据Tina was happy. She knew exactly how much the miracle cost_﹣﹣ one dollar and seven cents﹣﹣and the faith of a little child蒂娜很开心.她知道奇迹到底值多少钱﹣﹣1美元7美分﹣﹣还有一个小小的孩子的信念,可知主要告诉我们信念的重要性,故选A. 25.【解答】1.C.细节理解题.根据Cui Qingtao was working at a construction site with his parents on Sunday when he received his admission letter崔陶青在一个建筑工地工作,当他收到录取通知书时,可知是在建筑工地,故选C. 2.A.词语理解题.根据 what a terrible life you have. As long as you work hard and try your best, your dream may come true你的生活多么糟糕.只要你努力工作,尽力而为,你的梦想就会实现,可知这里是讲不要抱怨你的生活多么糟糕,complain意思是抱怨,故选A. 3.B. 细节理解题.根据Now I'm leaving my home village for college, but I'll return and some day change the poor conditions of our village, "Cui said在我要离开家乡去上大学,但我会回来,总有一天会改变我们村子的恶劣条件,"崔说,可知他要来建设家乡,故选B. 4.B. 内容理解题.根据Cui is a caring son. To support his family, he'd get up at 3 o'clock in the morming to water plants in the family's greenhouses with his brother when he came home during the school breaks,崔是一个孝顺的儿子.为了养家,他会在放学回家时,和哥哥一起在3点起床,去家里的大棚浇水.可知他很关心父母,故选B. 四、情景交际(每小题5分,共5分)从方框中选择恰当的句子补全下面对话.(其中有两项是多余的选项) 26.【解答】语境理解题. (1)B.根据上一句What are you busy doing these days?这几天你忙什么?可知说我们有一个新项目.﹣绿色家乡,我们在行动.故答案是:B. (2)A.根据上一句what's it about?这是关于什么的?可知说这是关于我们的学校生活.故答案是:A. (3)D.根据下一句the other is that the trees in the mountains are getting fewer and fewer另一个是山上的树越来越少了..可知说另一个是什么?故答案是:D. (4)E.根据下一句 And next?下一个呢?可知说一个是河流污染严重.水很脏.故答案是:E. (5)C.根据下一句Why not? Welcome! Let's take action.Why not? Welcome! Lets take action.可知说我能和你一起去吗?故答案是:C. 五、语法填空(每小题10分,共10分)阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 27.【解答】1.from考查介词,根据 I got a telephone call ,结合上下文可知句意:天深夜,我接到一个邻居打来的电话.from介词,从,故答案是from 2.fifth考查,根据the …floor window可知用序数词 fifth修饰名词,结合上下文可知句意:当我凌晨2:30到达那里时,除了五楼的窗户上只有一盏灯外,唯一的一栋楼是漆黑的.故答案是fifth 3.stood考查一般过去时,根据the door opened and a small woman可知用一般过去时,结合上下文可知句意:过了很长一段时间,门开了,一个小女人站在我面前.故答案是stood 4.thanking考查动名词,keep doing sth 坚持做某事,结合上下文可知句意:她一直在感谢我.故答案是thanking 5.But考查连词,根据Can you drive me through the blocks,结合上下文可知句意:但现在太晚了.but连词,但是,故答案是But 6.quietly考查副词,根据 turned off the meter可知用副词修饰动词,结合上下文可知句意:我悄悄地关掉了计费器.故答案是quietly 7.the考查定冠词, 世界上独一无二的事物sun前加 the,结合上下文可知句意:太阳升起时,我们停在一幢低矮的建筑前.故答案是the 8.women考查名词复数,根据Two young可知用复数,woman的复数是women,结合上下文可知句意:两个年轻女人在那里等着.故答案是women 9.painful考查形容词,根据experience可知用形容词修饰名词pain名词痛苦,painful形容词,痛苦的,结合上下文可知句意:我确信我永远不会忘记这痛苦的经历.故答案是painful 10.them考查宾格,动词make后跟宾格them作宾语,结合上下文可知句意:然而,他们会永远记得你给他们的感觉.故答案是them 六、短文改错(每小题10分,共10分) 28.【解答】(1)thing改成things.one of 后面加名词复数.故答案是:thing改成things. (2)water前面加much.water不可数名词,故用much修饰.故答案是:water前面加much. (3)healthy改成healthier. much 修饰形容词比较级.故答案是:healthy改成healthier. (4)heavily改成heavy.is后面加形容词.heavily是副词.故答案是:heavily改成heavy. (5)weigh改成weight. lose weight减肥.故答案是:weigh改成weight. (6)with改成for.be good for对..有益,故答案是:with改成for. (7)relaxing改成relaxed.feel relaxed感到放松的,故答案是:relaxing改成relaxed. (8)make改成makes.一般现在时态,主语是单数this,谓语用单数第三人称.故答案是make改成makes. (9)in去掉.根据意思:如果你以前从未锻炼过,before前面不加介词.故答案是:in去掉. (10)chat改成to chat.It is also a good idea to do 干..是个好主意.故答案是:chat改成to chat. 七、书面表达(共15分) 29.【解答】Dear Bob, Hearing that you are interested in Flag﹣raising ceremony of our school ,I am glad to tell you something about it.Every Monday morning at eight o'clock, we hold a flag﹣raising ceremony on the school playground. (升旗的时间和地点)All teachers and students must attend the ceremony. (参加升旗的人员)When the national flag is rising, we must sing the national anthem and salute it. 【高分句型一】 Raising the national flag is an important means of patriotism education and collectivism education.(升旗活动的意义)The national flag is the symbol of a country. At this moment, a sense of mission and responsibility appears in my mind.I'm proud of my motherland. I must work hard to make our country more and more beautiful.【高分句型二】(感想) Hope you can experience the Flag﹣raising ceremony of our school. Yours, Zhang Hua

  • ID:6-6026805 2019年山东省东营市中考物理试卷(解析版)

    初中物理/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年山东省东营市中考物理试卷 一、本大题包括10小题,每小题3分,共30分.在每小题给出的四个选项中,只有一项符合题目要求. 1.(3分)下列数据中,最接近生活实际的是(  ) A.人的正常体温为37℃ B.九年级物理教科书的重力为10N C.教室门的高度为140cm D.人体安全电压不高于60V 2.(3分)如图所示,目前声纹锁在门禁系统得到很好的应用,实现了传说中“芝麻开门”的神话。声纹锁辨别声音主要依据的是(  ) A.音调 B.响度 C.音色 D.频率 3.(3分)1月6日,新年第一场天文奇观﹣﹣“日偏食”如约而至,如图是东营市民拍摄的日偏食照片。下列光现象与日偏食形成原因相同的是(  ) A.筷子“折断” B.小孔成像 C.雨后彩虹 D.水中倒影 4.(3分)关于质量和密度,下列说法正确的是(  ) A.从地球带到太空中的铅笔能“悬浮”于舱内,是由于质量变小了 B.同种物质的状态发生变化,质量和密度均不变 C.水从0℃升高到4℃的过程中,密度逐渐变小 D.氧气罐中的氧气用去一半,密度减小一半 5.(3分)生活中蕴含着丰富的物理知识,以下说法正确的是(  ) ①用细线容易分割熟鸡蛋属于增大压强 ②堵住茶壶盖的小孔,水不容易被倒出是由于大气压强的作用 ③软包装饮料的吸管下端被削得很尖是为了减小压强 ④教室的门窗打开时,“过堂风”会把门关闭是由于空气流速变大,压强变小 A.①②③ B.①③④ C.②③④ D.①②④ 6.(3分)下列说法不正确的是(  ) A.一切物体,不论温度高低,都具有内能 B.钻木取火是利用做功来改变内能的 C.物体温度不变,内能一定不变 D.热传递可以改变物体的内能 7.(3分)如图所示,我国自主研发的彩虹﹣4无人机正在进行航空物探试验飞行,下列说法正确的是(  ) A.无人机在空中飞行时,始终受到平衡力的作用 B.无人机匀速下降时,重力势能转化为动能 C.地面操作人员通过超声波向无人机传递信息 D.试验飞行中的无人机相对于地面是运动的 8.(3分)如图所示,研究磁场对通电导线作用的实验装置,当闭合开关,电流由a至b通过导线ab时,导线ab向左运动,下列说法正确的是(  ) A.只改变电流方向时,导线ab向右运动,机械能转化为电能 B.只改变磁场方向时,导线ab向左运动,电能转化为机械能 C.电流方向和磁场方向同时改变时,导线ab向左运动,电能转化为机械能 D.电流方向和磁场方向同时改变时,导线ab向右运动,机械能转化为电能 9.(3分)如图所示,下列简单机械中,忽略杠杆、滑轮的自重、绳重及摩擦,当提起同一重物时,最省力的是(  ) A. B. C. D. 10.(3分)如图所示,测量小灯泡电功率的电路图,电源电压恒为6V,电流表量程0~0.6A,电压表量程0~3V,滑动变阻器规格“50Ω 1A”,小灯泡规格“2.5V 0.625W”,若不考虑小灯泡阻值随温度的变化,小灯泡两端电压不允许超过额定值,闭合开关,下列说法正确的是(  ) A.滑片向右滑动,电流表示数变小,电压表示数变大 B.电流表的示数允许变化范围是0.1~0.25A C.滑动变阻器的阻值允许调节的范围是24~50Ω D.电路的最大电功率是2.5W 二、填空题(本大题包括7小题,每小题2分,共14分) 11.(2分)目前,人类利用核能发电的主要方式是   (选填“核裂变”或“核聚变”)。随着科技的发展,人类   (选填“会”或“不会”)制造出永动机。 12.(2分)1月14日,东营出现罕见的雾凇景观,分外漂亮。“雾凇”是由空气中的水蒸气   (填物态变化名称)   (选填“吸热”或“放热”)形成的。 13.(2分)如图所示,酸甜多汁的水果提供的电力足以点亮一排发光二极管,在此电路中水果扮演的角色是   :它为发光二极管提供了   ,使自由电荷在电路中定向运动起来。 14.(2分)某汽车在平直公路上由于行驶速度过快,   能大,危害性就大,为防止意外,汽车不能超速行驶。乘客必须使用安全带,一旦发生碰撞,车身就停止运动,而乘客身体由于   会继续向前运动造成伤害。 15.(2分)1月3日,嫦娥四号着陆器带着玉兔二号巡视器顺利驶抵月背表面。如图为嫦娥四号着陆器监视相机拍摄的巡视器走上月面影像图。着陆器监视相机的镜头相当于一个   (选填“凸透镜”或“凹透镜”)。巡视器的车轮表面凹凸不平,目的是   (选填“增大”或“减小”)摩擦力。 16.(2分)汽车在平直公路上匀速行驶9.2km,消耗燃油1kg,已知汽车的牵引力是2000N,则汽车发动机的效率是   。(燃油热值取4.6×107J/kg) 17.(2分)如图所示,某物理小组在用做条形磁体“吸附”能力实验时,用酒精灯给条形磁体加热一段时间后,发现大头针纷纷下落。请根据这一现象提出一个可探究的科学问题:    。 三、作图、实验与探究题(本大题包括5小题,共34分) 18.(2分)如图所示,在平直的地面上,沿着水平方向用力使物体匀速向右运动,请以O为作用点画出物体所受拉力F和滑动摩擦力f的示意图。 19.(2分)根据入射光线和折射光线,请在图中的虚线框内画出适当类型的透镜。 20.(7分)图甲是探究“水的沸腾”实验装置。 (1)安装实验器材时,应按照   (选填“自下而上”或“自上而下”)的顺序进行。 (2)A、B、C三种读数方法正确的是   (填字母代号)。 (3)由图乙可知,水的沸点是   ℃.水沸腾过程中不断吸热,温度   (选填“升高”、“降低”或“保持不变”)。 (4)实验器材中纸板的作用:   、   。 (5)实验结束后,移开酒精灯,发现烧杯内的水没有立即停止沸腾,可能的原因是   。 21.(11分)如图所示,物理实验小组探究“电流通过导体产生热的多少与什么因素有关”的实验装置。两个透明容器中封闭着等量的空气,且都有一段电阻丝。将透明容器与U形管相连,接入电路。 (1)组装之前,U形管内注入适量红墨水,U形管   (选填“属于”或“不属于”)连通器。 (2)图甲是探究在通电时间相同和   相同的情况下,导体产生的热量与   大小是否有关的装置。 (3)实验中通过观察   的变化反映密闭空气温度的变化,在研究许多物理问题时都会用到这种方法,下列研究实例采用研究方法与此相同的是   。 A.探究电流与电压、电阻的关系B.用铁屑显示磁体周围磁场分布 C.研究光的传播时,引入“光线”D.扩散现象表明分子在不停地做无规则运动 (4)由图乙所示,电流表的示数为   A,在这种情况下,右侧容器中定值电阻在10s内产生的热量是   J。 (5)某实验小组发现通电一段时间后,其中一个U形管中的液面高度几乎不变,发生此现象的原因可能是   。 22.(12分)如图所示,物理兴趣小组用金属块研究浮力的实验。 (1)金属块浸没在水中时,受到的浮力是   N。 (2)比较   (填字母代号)三图可得出结论:金属块受到的浮力大小与其排开液体的体积有关。 (3)比较   (填字母代号)三图可得出结论:金属块受到的浮力大小与其浸没在液体中的深度无关。 (4)金属块的密度为   kg/m3。 (5)在实验中,排除测量误差因素的影响,兴趣小组发现金属块排开水的重力明显小于所受的浮力,请指出实验操作中可能造成这种结果的原因:   。 (6)纠正了错误,继续实验,兴趣小组得出结论:物体所受浮力的大小等于它排开液体所受的重力。有同学对此结论提出质疑,他认为仅采用浸没的金属块做实验不具备普遍性,使用漂浮的蜡块做实验未必遵循以上结论。针对这个质疑,实验室提供了如下器材:弹簧测力计、蜡块、细线、量筒、烧杯、小木块、小桶、轻质塑料袋(质量可忽略)、适量的水。请你根据需要选择器材并设计实验,研究使用漂浮的蜡块做实验是否遵循兴趣小组所得出的结论。 实验器材:   ; 实验步骤:   ; 分析与论证:   。 四、计算题(本大题包括2小题,共22分.解答时应写出必要的文字说明、公式和重要的演算步骤,只写出最后答案的不能得分) 23.(10分)图甲为新型风暖浴霸,因其安全性能好、发热柔和,深受大家喜爱。它是利用电动机鼓动空气流动,通过加热元件加热冷空气带动室内升温。图乙是某型号风暖浴霸的简化电路图,其发热元件是两根阻值不变的电热丝R1、R2.主要参数如下表。 项目 参数 额定电压(V) 220 R1额定功率(W) 1936 R2额定功率(W) 968 电动机功率(W) 44 适用面积(m2) 10 (1)开关均闭合,求浴霸正常工作时的干路电流是多少? (2)正常工作时,求R1的阻值是多少? (3)实际电压为200V时,求R2的实际功率是多少? (4)浴霸正常工作时,使容积为20m3的房间空气温度升高20℃,求室内空气吸收的热量是多少?(ρ空气取1.2kg/m3,c空气取1.0×103J/(kg?℃),不考虑其他因素影响) 24.(12分)3月12日,我国自主研发建造的“天鲲号”绞吸挖泥船正式投产首航,其智能化水平以及挖掘系统、输送系统的高功率配置均为世界之最。(g取10N/kg,ρ水取1.0×103kg/m3)主要参数如下表。 项目 参数 总长度(m) 140 宽度(m) 27.8 吸/排管径(mm) 1000/1000 满载排水量(t) 1.7×104 满载吃水深度(m) 6.5 泥泵输送功率(W) 1.7×107 (1)满载时,求“天鲲号”受到水的浮力是多少? (2)满载时,求“天鲲号”底部受到水的压强是多少?若船底需要安装探测仪器,其面积为40cm2,求探测仪器受到水的压力是多少? (3)“天鲲号”去某水域执行任务,其工作量相当于将1.36×104t的淤泥输送至15m高的台田上。假设“天鲲号”绞吸挖泥船泥泵的机械效率为30%,求完成此任务需要的时间是多少? 2019年山东省东营市中考物理试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一、本大题包括10小题,每小题3分,共30分.在每小题给出的四个选项中,只有一项符合题目要求. 1.【解答】解:A、正常情况下,人的体温在37℃左右,变化幅度很小。故A符合实际; B、九年级物理教科书的质量在300g=0.3kg左右,受到的重力在G=mg=0.3kg×10N/kg=3N左右。故B不符合实际; C、老师的身高在170cm左右,教室门的高度略大于此数值,在200cm左右。故C不符合实际; D、经验证明,只有不高于36V的电压对人体才是安全的。故D不符合实际。 故选:A。 2.【解答】解:在声音的三要素中,音调和响度都可以模仿到相同的程度,只有音色是独一无二的,所以声纹锁在门禁系统中主要依靠辨别声音的音色来辨别声音,故AB错误,C正确。而频率是用来描述音调的,所以D也错误。 故选:C。 3.【解答】解: 月球遮住太阳的一部分形成的日食叫日偏食,属于光的直线传播现象, A、筷子好像在水面折断是由于来自筷子的光从水中进入空气中发生了折射,折射光线进入人眼,人眼逆着光线看去,所看到的是筷子的虚像,像比物体的位置高,属于光的折射,故A不符合题意; B、小孔成像,是光在同一均匀介质中沿直线传播形成的。故B符合题意; C、雨后彩虹是光色散现象,实质上是光折射现象形成的,故C不符合题意; D、水中倒影属于平面镜成像,这是利用了光的反射。故D不符合题意。 故选:B。 4.【解答】解: A、从地球带到太空中的铅笔,只是位置发生了变化,组成铅笔的物质多少没有变化,所以质量不变,“悬浮”是因为铅笔处于失重状态,故A错误; B、同种物质的状态发生变化,一般体积会发生变化,质量不变,由ρ=可知,其密度会发生变化,故B错误; C、水从0℃上升到4℃时,其体积变小,由ρ=可知,水的质量不变,体积减小,则密度增大,故C错误; D、因为氧气瓶的容积不变,当瓶内氧气用去一半后,体积不变,质量减半,由ρ=可知,瓶内氧气的密度变为原来的一半,故D正确。 故选:D。 5.【解答】解:①用细线容易分割熟鸡蛋是在压力一定时,通过减小受力面积来增大压强;故正确; ②堵住茶壶盖的小孔,当壶内的水流出部分后,壶内气压减小,小于外界大气压,大气压压着里面的水不易流出来。茶壶的盖上留一小孔,使内外气压相等,水才容易倒出来;故正确; ③软包装饮料的吸管下端被削得很尖是在压力一定时,通过减小受力面积来增大压强;故错误 ④教室的门窗打开“过堂风”经过时,门外空气流速大压强小,门内空气流速小压强大,在压强差的作用下门被关闭。故正确。 故选:D。 6.【解答】解:A、一切物体都具有内能,不论温度高低,都具有内能,故A正确; B、钻木取火是克服摩擦做功,使木头的内能增加、温度升高,达到木头的着火点而燃烧,故B正确; C、内能的大小跟质量、温度、状态有关,因此单凭温度,不能判断内能一定大,故C错误; D、热传递可以改变物体的内能,故D正确。 故选:C。 7.【解答】解: A、无人机在空中飞行时,不一定做匀速直线运动,其受到的力不一定是平衡力,故A错误。 B、无人机匀速下降时,质量不变,速度不变,则动能不变;高度减小,重力势能减小,所以在该过程中,重力势能没有转化为动能,故B错误。 C、地面操作人员通过电磁波向无人机传递信息,故C错误; D、试验飞行中的无人机与地面有位置的变化,所以无人机相对于地面是运动的,故D正确; 故选:D。 8.【解答】解: A、磁场方向不变,只改变电流方向时,导线ab的运动方向改变,则导线ab向右运动,电能转化为机械能,说法错误。 B、电流方向不变,只改变磁场方向时,导线ab的运动方向改变,则导线ab向右运动,电能转化为机械能,说法错误。 CD、电流方向和磁场方向同时改变时,导线ab的运动方向不变,即导线ab向左运动,电能转化为机械能,C项说法正确,D项错误。 故选:C。 9.【解答】解: A.由图可知,动力臂是阻力臂的4倍,所以拉力F1=G; B.由图可知,动滑轮省一半的力,所以拉力F2=G; C.设斜面的高度为h,斜面长度为s,则=sin30°=,由功的原理可得,F3s=Gh,所以F3=G=G; D.由图可知,滑轮组绳子的有效股数为3,所以拉力F4=G, 综上可知,当提起同一重物时,最省力的是A。 故选:A。 10.【解答】解:由电路图可知,滑动变阻器与灯泡串联,电压表测灯泡两端的电压,电流表测电路中的电流。 (1)当滑动变阻器滑片向右滑动,接入电路中的电阻变大时,根据欧姆定律可知电路中的电流变小,即电流表示数变小;根据U=IR可知灯泡两端的电压变小,即电压表示数变小;故A错误; (2)根据P=UI可得,灯的额定电流: IL额===0.25A, 因串联电路中各处的电流相等,且电流表的量程为0~0.6A, 所以,电路中的最大电流为Imax=0.25A, 由I=可得,灯泡的电阻: RL===10Ω, 电路中的总电阻: Rmin===24Ω, 因串联电路中总电阻等于各分电阻之和, 所以,滑动变阻器接入电路中的最小阻值: R滑min=Rmin﹣RL=24Ω﹣10Ω=14Ω;故C错误; 该电路的最大功率: Pmax=UImax=6V×0.25A=1.5W,故D错误; (2)当滑动变阻器接入电路中的电阻最大时,灯泡的功率最小,此时电路中的电流: Imin===0.1A, 则电流表示数的变化范围是0.1A~0.25A,故B正确。 故选:B。 二、填空题(本大题包括7小题,每小题2分,共14分) 11.【解答】解:由于核裂变是可控的,故核电站中的核反应堆就是通过核裂变过程中释放核能带动发电机发电的;据能量的转化和守恒定律知,由于能量的转化或转移具有方向性,人类是无法制成永动机的。 故答案为:核裂变;不会。 12.【解答】解:“雾凇”是固态的小冰晶,它是由空气中的水蒸气遇冷直接变成的,属于凝华现象,凝华放热。 故答案为:凝华;放热。 13.【解答】解:水果在这里扮演了电源的角色,点亮一排发光二极管,它为发光二极管提供了电压,使自由电荷在电路中定向移动起来,形成电流。 故答案为:电源; 电压。 14.【解答】解: (1)汽车在平直公路上由于行驶速度过快,质量不变,速度很大,动能很大,危害性很大,所以要控制车速。 (2)汽车在行驶过程中,乘客和汽车一起运动,一旦发生碰撞,车身就停止运动,而乘客身由于惯性保持原来的运动状态会继续向前运动,容易造成伤害,所以乘客必须要系好安全带。 故答案为:动;惯性。 15.【解答】解:着陆器监视相机的镜头相当于凸透镜,是根据物距大于2倍焦距时凸透镜成倒立、缩小实像的原理制成的; 巡视器的车轮表面凹凸不平,是通过增大接触面面的粗糙程度来增大轮子与月球表面间的摩擦力。 故答案为:凸透镜;增大。 16.【解答】解: 汽车牵引力所做的功: W=Fs=2000N×9.2×103m=1.84×107J; 消耗的燃油完全燃烧放出的热量: Q放=mq=1kg×4.6×107J/kg=4.6×107J; 汽车发动机的效率: η==×100%=40%。 故答案为:40%。 17.【解答】解:磁体“吸附”的大头针越多,说明磁性越强;用酒精灯给条形磁体加热一段时间后,磁体温度升高,同时发现大头针纷纷下落。说明磁体的磁性减弱了。由此提出猜想: 磁体磁性强弱与温度是否有关? 故答案为:磁体磁性强弱与温度是否有关?(磁体的“吸附”能力与温度是否有关?磁体磁性强弱与温度有什么关系?磁体磁性强弱与温度有关吗?温度是否影响磁体磁性强弱?) 三、作图、实验与探究题(本大题包括5小题,共34分) 18.【解答】解:物体沿着水平方向匀速向右运动,处于平衡状态,受到的拉力和摩擦力是一对平衡力,大小相等,方向相反,多物体重心,分别沿水平向右和向左的方向画一条有向线段,并分别用F和f表示,注意两条线段长度要相等,答案如下图。 19.【解答】解:由给出的光线可知,原本向中间会聚的光线经透镜折射后变得平行不再会聚,即经过透镜后,折射光线变得发散了,故虚线框内的是凹透镜。 20.【解答】解:(1)实验器材的安装遵循由左到右,自下而上的原则,首先确定点燃酒精灯的高度,再把铁圈固定在酒精灯的外焰处,然后依次放烧杯纸板温度计; (2)读取温度计示数时,视线应与温度计内液面相平,故B正确; (3)水在沸腾过程中,虽然不断吸热,但温度保持不变。由数据知,水在沸腾过程中温度保持98℃不变,所以沸点是98℃。 (4)使用中心有孔的纸板盖住烧杯,可以减少热量的散失,同时也可以防止热水溅出伤人(防止水蒸气遇冷液化成小水珠附在温度 计上影响读数)。 (5)石棉网的温度高于水的沸点,水继续吸热,故水没有立即停止沸腾; 故答案为:(1)自下而上;(2)B;(3)98;保持不变;(4)减少热量散失;防止热水溅出伤人(防止水蒸气遇冷液化成小水珠附在温度计上影响读数);(5)石棉网的温度高于水的沸点,水能继续吸热。 21.【解答】解:(1)由图知,U形管内注入适量红墨水,上端开口,下端相连通,所以属于连通器; (2)由图知,阻值不同的电热丝串联在两个密闭容器中,通过的电流和通电时间都相同,所以探究的是电流产生热量与电阻的关系; (3)电流通过导体产生热量的多少不能直接观察,但液体温度的变化可以通过液面高度差的变化来反映。采用的是转换法; A、探究电流与电压、电阻的关系,采用的是控制变量法; B、用铁屑显示磁体周围磁场分布,采用的是转换法; C、研究光的传播时,引入“光线”,采用的是模型法; D、扩散现象表明分子在不停地做无规则运动,采用的是转换法。故选BD; (4)由图知,电流表选择的是~3A量程,对应的分度值是0.1A,电流表示数为2A; 右侧容器中定值电阻在10s内产生的热量是Q=I2Rt=(2A)2×5Ω×10s=200J; (5)由Q=I2Rt可知,电阻丝R1和R2在相同时间内产生的热量不同,则U形玻璃管中应该出现液面高度差;而其中一个U形玻璃管中液面高度几乎不变,说明与此相连的空气盒有可能漏气,也可能是对应的容器内的电热丝短路。 故答案为:(1)属于; (2)电流;电阻; (3)U形管液面高度;BD; (4)2;400; (5)透明容器密闭性不好(透明容器漏气、对应电阻丝短路)。 22.【解答】解:(1)由图A、C(或D),金属块浸没在水中时受到的浮力: F浮=G﹣F示=2.7N﹣1.7N=1N; (2)研究金属块受到的浮力大小与其排开液体的体积有关,要控制排开液体的密度相同, B、C两图中物体浸入的是同种液体,液体的密度是一定的,C图中物体排开水的体积比较大; C图中物体受到的浮力等于:2.7N﹣1.7N=1N,B图中物体受到的浮力等于:2.7N﹣2.2N=0.5N。 由此得出:在液体的密度一定时,物体排开液体的体积变大时,物体受到的浮力就会变大,由此说明金属块受到的浮力大小与其排开液体的体积有关; (3)研究金属块受到的浮力大小与其浸没在液体中的深度的关系,要控制排开液体的密度和体积相同,故 比较 ACD三图可得出结论:金属块受到的浮力大小(大小相同)与其浸没在液体中的深度无关; (4)金属块浸没在水中时受到的浮力: F浮=1N;根据阿基米德原理,F浮=ρ水gV排=ρ水gV物=1N; 故金属块的密度: ρ==×ρ水=×1.0×103kg/m3=2.7×103kg/m3; (5)在实验中,排除测量误差因素的影响,兴趣小组发现金属块排开水的重力明显小于所受的浮力,可能造成这种结果的原因:溢水杯没有装满水,造成溢出水的体积小于排开水的体积: (6)实验器材: 小木块、弹簧测力计、蜡块、细线、小桶、水; 实验步骤: ①用测力计测量出空小桶的重力G桶; ②将木块垫在烧杯下一侧作为溢水杯用,将烧杯内装满水, ③将蜡块用细线拴好,用测力计测量出蜡块的重力G, ④将蜡块取下轻轻放入烧杯内的水中,用小桶接排开的水, 用测力计测量出空小桶的和水的总重力G桶总; 分析与论证 根据漂浮的特点,蜡块的重力G即其受到的浮力, G桶总﹣G桶即为排开水的重力, 比较G与G桶总﹣G桶的大小,若相等,则得出使用漂浮的蜡块做实验遵循以上结论;否则不遵循以上结论 故答案为:(1)1;(2)ABC(ABD); (3)ACD; (4)2.7×103; (5)溢水杯没有装满水; (6)实验器材: 小木块、弹簧测力计、蜡块、细线、小桶、水; 实验步骤: ①用测力计测量出空小桶的重力G桶; ②将木块垫在烧杯下一侧作为溢水杯用,将烧杯内装满水, ③将蜡用细线拴好,用测力计测量出蜡块的重力G, ④将蜡块取下轻轻放入烧杯内的水中,用小桶接排开的水, 用测力计测量出空小桶的和水的总重力G桶总; 分析与论证: 根据漂浮的特点,蜡块的重力G即其受到的浮力, G桶总﹣G桶即为排开水的重力, 比较G与G桶总﹣G桶的大小,若相等,则得出使用漂浮的蜡块做实验遵循以上结论;否则不遵循以上结论。 四、计算题(本大题包括2小题,共22分.解答时应写出必要的文字说明、公式和重要的演算步骤,只写出最后答案的不能得分) 23.【解答】解: (1)开关均闭合时,R1、R2和电动机同时工作,电路总功率为: P=P1+P2+P3=1936W+968W+44W=2948W, 由P=UI 可得,浴霸正常工作时的干路电流: I===13.4A; (2)由P=可得R1的阻值为: R1===25Ω; (3)由P=可得R2的阻值为: R2===50Ω, 实际电压为200V时,R2的实际功率为: P2′===800W; (4)室内空气的质量为: m=ρ空气V=1.2kg/m3×20m3=24kg, 空气吸收的热量为: Q吸=c空气m△t=1.0×103J/(kg?℃)×24kg×20℃=4.8×105J。 答:(1)开关均闭合,浴霸正常工作时的干路电流是13.4A。 (2)正常工作时,R1的阻值是25Ω。 (3)实际电压为200V时,R2的实际功率是800W。 (4)室内空气吸收的热量是4.8×105J。 24.【解答】解:(1)“天鲲号”受到的浮力为: F浮=G排=m排g=1.7×104×103kg×10N/kg=1.7×108N; (2)“天鲲号”底部受到水的压强为: p=ρ水gh水=1.0×103kg/m3×10N/kg×6.5m=6.5×104Pa, 由p=得,探测仪器受到水的压力为: F=pS=6.5×104Pa×40×10﹣4m2=260N; (3)淤泥的质量为:m=1.36×104t=1.36×104×103kg=1.36×107kg, 淤泥所受的重力为:G=mg=1.36×107kg×10N/kg=1.36×108N, “天鲲号”绞吸挖泥船泥泵做的有用功为: W有用=Gh=1.36×108N×15m=2.04×109J, “天鲲号”绞吸挖泥船泥泵做的总功为: W===6.8×109J, “天鲲号”绞吸挖泥船泥泵需用时间为: t===400s; 答:(1)“天鲲号”受到水的浮力是1.7×108N; (2)“天鲲号”底部受到水的压强是6.5×104Pa,面积为40cm2探测仪器受到水的压力是260N; (3)完成此任务需要的时间是400s。

  • ID:4-6026804 2019年湖南省湘潭市中考英语试卷解析版无听力材料和音频

    初中英语/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年湖南省湘潭市中考英语试卷 第一部分 听力技能(共5小题,计20分)第一节 听对话(共5小题,计5分)选择相应的图片或正确的答案.断每段对话前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟:听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间. 1.(1分)How's the weather today? A. B. C. 2.(1分)What was wrong with Jim? A. B. C. 3.(1分)What festival are they talking about? A.The Mid﹣autumn Festival. B.The Dragon Boat Festival. C.The Lantern Festival 4.(1分)What does Sarah do? A. A teacher. B. A student. C. An engineer. 5.(1分)What does the boy have to do first? A.Play computer games. B. Do his homework. C. Take out the trash. 第二节 听下面6段对话或独白(共6小题,计15分)每段对话或独白后有2-3个小题.从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间,每段对话或独白读两遍。 6.(2分)听下面的对话,回答下列各小题. (1)When did the movie begin? A.At 6:45 p.m. B. At 7: 00 p.m. C. At 7: 1 p.m. (2)Why didn't Paul ride his bike to the movie theater? A. Because his bike was broken. B. Because his bike was not at home. C. Because it's a long way from his home. 7.(2分)听下面的对话,回答下列各小题. (1)Where may the conversation happen? A.In a shop. B. In a restaurant. C. In a library. (2)How much did the man pay? A.﹩98. B.﹩86. C.﹩68. 8.(2分)听下面的对话,回答下列各小题. (1)What will happen if students don't follow the rules in the reading room? A. They will be punished. B. The teacher will be angry. C. They will have to leave. (2)How many rules do they have in the reading room? A.Two. B. Three. C. Four. 9.(3分)听下面的对话,回答下列各小题. (1)What's Lisa doing now? A. She's reading an article. B. She's watching TV. C. She,s listening to music. (2)Where would Lisa like to fly? A. To the sun. B. To the moon. C. To Mars. (3)How will Lisa achieve her dream? A. By working hard. B.By becoming an astronaut. C.By borrowing much money. 10.(3分)听下面的对话,回答下列各小题. (1)What is Jack going to do this summer vacation? A. To visit his aunt. B. To go to his hometown. C. To go to the beach. (2)How are they going there? A. By bus. B. By car. C. By train. (3)How long will it take Jack to get there? A. day. B. Three hours. C. Three days. 11.(3分)听下面的对话,回答下列各小题. (1)Why will Nancy's school hold a walk competition? A. To keep healthy. B. To support charity. C. To be the best walkers. (2)Who will not join the walk competition? A. Sam. B. Helen. C. Mary. (3)How long will they keep training? A. For seven days. B. For nine days. C.For ten days. 第二部分 知识运用(共10小题,计25分)第一节 语法填空(共10小题,共10分)从所给的A、B、C三个选项中选择最佳选项填空。 12.(1分)This year is_____70th anniversary(周年)of the founding of the People's Republic of China(  ) A.a B.an C.the 13.(1分)﹣Who is singing in the next room? ﹣It____be Lisa, but I'm not sure.(  ) A.must B.may C.need 14.(1分)﹣What subject do you like____English, math or physics? ﹣Of course, English(  ) A.good B.better C.best 15.(1分)My English teacher took a photo of me while I______at the sports meeting.(  ) A.run B.was running C.ran 16.(1分)If you have a sore throat, you could drink some hot tea_____honey.(  ) A.with B.At C.on 17.(1分)______is unhealthy for us to go to school without eating breakfast in the moming.(  ) A.That B.This C.It 18.(1分)﹣﹣Have you ever______the Terracotta Army in Xi'an? ﹣﹣Yes, I went there last year.(  ) A.gone to B.been to C.been in 19.(1分)On Monday April 15, 2019, the fire_______broke out in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris shocked the world.(  ) A.that B.who C.where 20.(1分)﹣﹣Alex. would you mind_______down the music? It's too noisy. ﹣﹣Sorry, dad. I 'll do it right away.(  ) A.turn B.turning C.to turn 21.(1分)﹣﹣Can you tell me______on Father's Day? ﹣﹣Guess what? Well I wrote a poem for my dad.(  ) A.when did you shop B.where you go C.what you did 第二节 完形填空(共1小题,计15分)通读下面的短文,掌握其大意,然后从各题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。 22.(15分) The winter holiday is usually a good time to sleep in. But Gao Yuqi, a 14﹣year﹣old student from Xiangtan, (1)   at 7: 00 a.m. to run at least 2 kilometers every day during the holiday. In fact, this exercise was part of his(2)   . Gao was not (3)    Many schools across the country asked students to (4)    during the winter holiday. Part of the reason is that physical education test scores are now worth more on the senior high school entrance examination(中考).In Xiangtan, the score is now worth up to 50 points. Because of this, Gao's school asked students to run on(5)    days and exercise indoors if the weather was bad. Students had to post exercise photos in (6)    classes' QQ groups. At the Golden Apple Jincheng No I Secondary School in Chengdu, students have daily exercise plans. For example, they have to skip rope(跳绳)for two (7)   and do three sets of sit﹣ups each day. Their parents sign off on their plans after they finish exercising. This has been a big challenge for many students,(8)    it has also helped to make exercise become a bigger part of their daily lives. Huang Zhicheng, a 14﹣year﹣old student at the same school as Gao, used to(9)    running. But he is now able to run for half an hour every day."I have decided to keep doing this in the future, " he said. Luo Zikun, a 12﹣year﹣old student at the Golden Apple School in Chengdu, fell in love with exercise during the holiday. He skips rope for more than 10 minutes every day. "I didn't exercise a lot in the past. Now it's time to (10)    "he said (1)A. got up B. went to bed C. went to the library (2)A. job B.amusement C. homework (3)A. shy B. alone C. sad (4)A.exercise B.read C. write (5)A. cold B. rainy C. sunny (6)A. his B. their C. our (7)A. seconds B. minutes C. hours (8)A. but B.or C. for (9)A. hate B. like C. keep (10)A.catch up B. have a rest C. go to school 第三部分 阅读技能(共5小题,计40分)阅读下面五篇材料,从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中,选出最佳选项回答问题或完成句子. 23.(6分)Look at the foods around you.From grapes and wainuts(核桃)to cucumbers and spinach(菠菜),they make our diets special.But did you know that none of the foods above are native to China?They came to China through the Silk Road hundreds of years ago.Are there any foods that are native toChina?Of course there are.Rice,soy beans,chestmuls栗子),Chinese cabbage and hawthorns(山植)were all grown in China first. Where are these foods from? Food Home country Time to enter China Luffa India Tang Dynasty(AD 618﹣907) Eggplant India and Southeast Asia Han Dynasty(206BC﹣AD220) Cucumber South Asia Han Dynasty(206BC﹣AD202) Watermelon Africa Tang Dynasty(AD 618﹣907) (1)    came to China through the Silk Road. A. Watermelons and rice B. Grapes and walnuts C. Cabbage and hawthoms (2)    came to China at the same time. A. Cucumbers and eggplants B. Watermelons and eggplants C. Cucumbers and watermelons (3)From the text, we know that   . A. luffas are from Africa B. eggplants are from China C. none of the foods above in the chart are native to China 24.(4分) 2019 Beijing International Horticultural Expo Time: April 29﹣October7 Theme: Live Green, Live Better. Many flowers and herbs from both home and abroad are on display at the expo. There are also lots of wildflowers. Around 110 countries and intemational organizations take part in the expo. The expo has 4l outdoor display centers and about 2,500 activities. 注: International Horticultural Expo世界园艺博览会 (1)How long will the expo last?    A. More than 5 months. B.More than 6 months. D.Less than 5 months. (2)Which of the following about the 2019 Beijing Intemational Horticultural Expo is true?    A. You can' t see wildflowers at the expo. B. There are many flowers and herbs from both China and other countries. C. About 4l countries and intemational organizations take part in the expo. 25.(10分)It's late evening.Sun Tian is using her smartphone do her homework.The 15﹣year﹣old girl from Zhejiang uses an app to read Engish articles according to her teachers instructions. These days,it's normal for teachers to give homework on apps.For example,students are asked to practice English or do math exercises.Some teachers also use Wechat chat groups to give homework.Bu now,Zhejiang province is moving io ban(禁止)teachers fom giving homework on mobile apps because they worry about sudents' eyesight.More than 70 percent of middle school students in China are found to be nearsighted,according to the World Health Organization.Using mobile phones for long periods of time is bad for our eyes. Do students like to do their homework on their phones?Zhang Hua,a 13﹣year﹣old boy from Fujian,said he doesn't."Sometimes the apps can't recognize what I'm reading in English.I have to work on them for a long time to get a high score,"he said.He said his eyesight has gotten worse since he started using apps to do his homework. Howevwer,Wang Xidi,from Anhui,15,enjoys doing homework on apps."The apps have big databases(数据库)of math exercises!And I can revise(修改)my answers easily,"She said."But the bad part is that I can't help playing with other apps while doing nmy homework." Zhou Tianyi,12,from Sichuan,also thinks it's fun to do homework with apps.Her teachers ask their students to dub(配音)English videos and make their own short videos."But if I have too much other homework to do,I feel like it's too much for me to finish,"she said. (1)From Paragraph 2. we know that   . A. all teachers must give homework on mobile apps B. it's unusual for teachers to give homework on apps C. using mobile phones for a long time is bad for our eyes (2)Wang Xidi   while doing her homework on apps. A. can't play with other apps B. often plays with other apps C. doesn't play with other apps (3)According to the passage,   doesn' t like to do homework on apps. A.Zhang Hua B.Wang Xidi C. Zhou Tianyi (4)The text is most probably from   . A. an ad B.a newspaper C.a story book (5)What's the best title of this text?    A. Protecting our eyes B. Playing games on a phone C. Doing homework on a phone 26.(10分)When he was nine years old,an American bey called Milo Cress had a question:How many plastic srrauws(吸管)do Americans use every day? He quickly leamed there wasn't a simple answer.The boy tried to find it out himself.Through lots of research,Cress found out that Americans use about 500 milion straws every day.In hopes of cuting down plastic waste,he founded the Be Straw Free project in 2011. Cress started the project in his hometown Burlington. Vermont. He asked a local restaurant to stop offering straws with every drink order. It was a simple change. However, it would save money.And by doing that, the restaurant would cut down on its straw use by 50 percent. For the year that followed, Cress tried to spread his proicct across the United States. More and more restaurants agreed to join. They stop providing the customer with a straw unless he or she asks for one. Last April, Seattle became the first American city to completely ban plastic straws. After his project became popular, Cress took his findings on the road. He has spoken to tens of thousands of students around the worid. He wants to encourage more people to say no to plastic straws. "Focusing on straws is one simple step we all could take,"Cress says."And it makes me feel that I, as a kid, could make a difference, too." (1)Cress found out that Americans use   straws every day. A. about 50 million B. abou 500 million C. about 10 million (2)Cress founded the Be Straw Free project in order to   . A. save money B. become popular C. cut down plastic waste (3)Which American city first completely banned plastic straws?    A. Burlington. B. New York. C. Seattle. (4)What does the sentence "Cress took his findings on the road"mean?    A. Cress took a walk on the road. B.Cress spread his project sround the world. C. Cress was doing his research all the time. (5)According to the last paragraph, Cress thinks   . A.he could be famous B.he has made much money through his project C. he could also do something meaningful although he is a child 27.(10分)A man once visited a temple that was still being built.He saw a sculptor making a sculpture(雕塑).As he watched the man work on the sculpture,he noticed that there was a similar sculpture lying nearby. He felt very strange and asked the sculptor,"Why are you making two same sculptures?Do you need two to put in different places?" "No,"the man said without looking up,"We need only one,but the first one became damaged before I could finish it,so I'm making a new one." The visitor picked up the damaged sculpture and examined it.But he couldn't find anything wrong with it. "Where is the damage?"he asked. "There is a scratch(擦痕)on the sculpture's nose."the sculptor said while continuing his work. The man then asked,"Where are you going to place the sculpture?" The sculptor replied that it would be placed on a 20﹣foot﹣high platform(平台)."If the sculpture is up that high, who is going to notice that there is a scratch on the nose?"the man asked. The sculptor stoppead his work,looked up at the man and said,"I will know it". The sculptor chose to stick to a high standard of excellence in his work. Even if other people didn't notice it,it mattered to him that his work should be of the best quality. This is an attitude we should all work hard to keep. (1)Why did the visitor feel strange at first?    A.Becausc he could take one of the sculptures. B.Because the sculptor was making two same sculptures. C.Because he thought the sculptor needed two sculptures. (2)The underlined word "damaged" in Paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to"   ". A.broken B.fallen 倒下的 C.beaten 被打败的;被打了的 (3)What was wrong with the first sculpture's nose?    A.It was too big. B.There was a scratch on it. C.There was nothing wrong with it. (4)Where would the sculpture be placed?    A.Outside the temple. B.At the sculptor's home. C.On a 20﹣foot﹣high platform. (5)From the story,we know that   . A.the sculptor was very serious about his work B.the sculptor always made two sculptures C.the sculptor didn't mind the danage 第四部分 写作技能(计35分)第一节 双向翻译(共1小题,计10分)请根据上下文内容,将文中划线部分译成汉语或者英语. 28.(10分)When I was a tiny baby crying all night, my mom sang to me and stayed by my side. (1) When I was tired and hungry, she gave me food and warm arms to sleep in. When I was two running through the field, she made sure I was safe and kept me from danger. When I fell and hurt myself,(2)给我一个拥抱并且把我举起. When I was seven coughing badly, she said no ice﹣cream for me. But I talked back loudly, (3)I should be allowed to eat some!Give it to me now. When I was nine watching scary movies, she said it'd give me awful dreams.But I shouted back angrily." I should be allowed to watch it! I'm not a baby!" When I was a teen going out with friends, she said, (4)"请在十点之前回来". But I talked back again﹣"I should not be told what to do! I' m seventeen now!" Now I'm an adult, thinking back to those times. I coughed for days after eating that ice﹣cream and had scary dreams after watching that film. I was late for school from staying out past ten. (5)I regret talking back, not listening to mom. Mom knows best, and for me she wanted only the best! (1)    (2)    (3)    (4)    (5)    第三节 情景作文(计15分) 29.(15分)哈佛大学的一项研究表明,爱做家务的孩子更容易体验到幸福感,更有前途.请你以"Help with Some Housework"为题写一篇8o词左右的英语短文,描述你平时所做的家务以及你对做家务的看法. 参考词汇: Chores take out the rubbish sweep the floorwash the clothes do the disheswater the flowers cook breakfast/lunch …… Opinions Pros:develop our independence take care of ourselves…Cons:a waste of time no need to …… 注意:文中不得出现真实的校名和人名. Help with Some Housework It is reported that children who love doing chores have a better future and are easy to feel happy. As for me, I____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2019年湖南省湘潭市中考英语试卷 参考答案与试题解析 第一部分 听力技能(共5小题,计20分)第一节 听对话(共5小题,计5分)选择相应的图片或正确的答案.断每段对话前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟:听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间. 1.【解答】A 2.【解答】略 3.【解答】略 4.【解答】略 5.【解答】略 第二节 听下面6段对话或独白(共6小题,计15分)每段对话或独白后有2-3个小题.从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间,每段对话或独白读两遍。 6.【解答】略 7.【解答】略 8.【解答】略 9.【解答】略 10.【解答】略 11.【解答】略 第二部分 知识运用(共10小题,计25分)第一节 语法填空(共10小题,共10分)从所给的A、B、C三个选项中选择最佳选项填空。 12.【解答】a,an,the三者都是冠词,a,an 是不定冠词 ,放在单数可数名词前面 ,表示某类人或事物中的"一个 、一名",表泛指,a用于以辅音音素开头的字母或单词前、an用于以元音音素开头的字母或单词前.the 是定冠词,表特指,意为"这、那、这些、那些".放在可数名词和不可数名词前.由题干"今年是中华人民共和国成立70周年."可知,因在序数词前用定冠词the,因此空格用the ,所以答案应是the. 故选:C. 13.【解答】根据句意:﹣谁正在隔壁房间唱歌? ﹣可能是Lisa,我不确定.由I'm not sure推出是没有把握的猜测.A.一定 B.可能 C.需要,选项B符合题意. 故选:B. 14.【解答】根据English, math or physics可知用动词well的最高级,句意:你最喜欢什么科目的,英语、数学或物理? 故选:C. 15.【解答】whlie 当…时候,本句话的意思当我正在跑步时,老师拍了照片,是进行时形式,又因为took是一般过去时,所以用过去进行时. 故选:B. 16.【解答】on"在…之上、在…时候";at"在、以、向";with"用、和…一起",三者都是介词.因in +颜色"穿…颜色的衣服".由题干"如果你喉咙痛,你可以喝点带有蜂蜜的热茶."可知,空格是"带有",用with,因此答案应是with. 故选:A. 17.【解答】根据句意"我们早上不吃早餐去上学是不健康的"和语法可知,后面的不定式to go to school without eating breakfast in the moming是真正的主语,前面用it作形式主语,that和this都不能作形式主语. 故选:C. 18.【解答】have/has gone to 去某地了, have/has been to 去过某地,have has been in 在某地,根据答句 I went there last year可知句意:你去过西安的兵马俑吗? 故选:B. 19.【解答】根据句意:2019年4月15日,周一,巴黎圣母院发生的大火震惊了全世界.可知考查定语从句的关系代词,先行词是 fire,指物,作主语,关系代词用which/that. 故选:A. 20.【解答】根据句意:﹣亚历克斯.你介意调小音乐吗?太吵了.﹣对不起,爸爸.我马上就去做.考查mind doing sth介意做某事. 故选:B. 21.【解答】根据句意:﹣你能告诉我在父亲节你做什么吗?﹣猜猜是什么?我给我爸爸写了一首诗.可知考查宾语从句,用陈述语序,故排除 A;结合 I wrote a poem for my dad,可知连词是what. 故选:C. 第二节 完形填空(共1小题,计15分)通读下面的短文,掌握其大意,然后从各题所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项。 22.【解答】(1)A 考查动词短语.句意:但是这个来自湘潭的14岁的男生高玉琪早上7点就起床了.根据"The winter holiday is usually a good time to sleep in."寒假是睡觉的好时机.But表示转折,说明这个男孩在假期不睡懒觉.B去睡觉,C去图书馆.故选:A (2)C 考查名词.句意:事实上,这次的锻炼是他的家庭作业的一部分.根据"Many schools across the country asked students to exercise during the winter holiday"很多学校要求学生在寒假期间锻炼身体.A工作,B娱乐.故选:C (3)B 考查形容词.句意:高不是独自一人.根据"Many schools across the country asked students to exercise during the winter holiday"很多学校都要求学生在寒假期间锻炼身体.所以并不是只有高这样做.A害羞的,C伤心的.故选:B (4)A 考查动词.句意:多学校都要求学生在寒假期间锻炼身体.根据" Gao's school asked students to run on sunny days and exercise indoors if the weather was bad."高的学校要求学生们在晴天的时候出去跑步,如果天气不好就在室内锻炼.可知学校要求孩子们锻炼身体.B阅读,C写字.故选:A (5)C 考查形容词.句意:高的学校让学生们在晴天的时候跑步.根据" exercise indoors if the weather was bad"如果天气不好就在室内锻炼.可知,前面应该说的是天气好的时候,A寒冷的,B下雨的.故选:C (6)B 考查代词.句意:学生们不得不在他们的班级QQ群里发送锻炼的照片.根据"Students "可知,学生们是复数,A他的;C我们的.故选:B (7)B 考查名词.句意:例如,他们不得不每天跳绳两分钟,并且每天要做三套仰卧起坐.根据"do three sets of sit﹣ups each day"每天做三套,可知锻炼强度适中,A秒,B分钟.故选:B (8)A 考查连词.句意:这对于很多学生来说是一个很大的挑战,但是它也能对让锻炼成为日常生活的更大一部分有所帮助.根据" also helped"和前面的challenge形成反差,故用:A (9)A 考查动词.句意:黄志成是高的同校同学,今年14岁,他过去很讨厌跑步.根据"But he is now able to run for half an hour every day"但是现在他能够每天跑步半小时.前后形成反差,所以过去他应该是讨厌跑步的.B喜欢,C保持.故选:A (10)A 考查动词短语.句意:现在是时候补上了.根据"I didn't exercise a lot in the past."我过去没怎么锻炼过.可知,他现在喜欢锻炼是对过去的一种弥补.B休息,C去学校.故选:A 第三部分 阅读技能(共5小题,计40分)阅读下面五篇材料,从每题所给的A、B、C三个选项中,选出最佳选项回答问题或完成句子. 23.【解答】(1)B细节理解题.根据第一段From grapes and wainuts(核桃)to cucumbers and spinach(菠菜),They came to China through the Silk Road hundreds of years ago.从葡萄和核桃到黄瓜和菠菜,它们几百年前通过丝绸之路来到中国.可知,葡萄和核桃都是从丝绸之路来到的中国.故选B (2)A细节理解题.根据表格二和三Luffa, India ,Tang Dynasty(AD 618﹣907). Eggplant , India and Southeast Asia ,Han Dynasty(206BC﹣AD220).茄子,印度与东南亚,汉代(206BC﹣AD220);黄瓜,南亚,汉代(206BC﹣AD202).可知,茄子和黄瓜都来自汉代.故选A (3)C 细节理解题.根据文字还有表格可知,文字和上面图表中的食物都不是中国本土的.故选C 24.【解答】(1)A细节理解题,根据原文,Time: April 29﹣October7,可知时间是4月29日到10月7日,一共有5个多月.故选A. (2)B细节理解题,根据原文Many flowers and herbs from both home and abroad are on display at the expo来自国内和国外的花卉和草本植物都会展示在博览会中,可知该信息与选项B吻合,故选B. 25.【解答】1.C细节理解题.根据"Using mobile phones for long periods of time is bad for our eyes."长时间的使用手机对眼睛有害.故选C. 2.A细节理解题.根据"But the bad part is that I can't help playing with other apps while doing nmy homework."不好的地方是我在做作业的时候,不能在其他的app上玩了.故选A. 3.A细节理解题.根据"Zhang Hua,a 13﹣year﹣old boy from Fujian,said he doesn't."张华,福建的一个13岁的男孩,说他不这样做.故选A. 4.B推理判断题.根据"These days,it's normal for teachers to give homework on apps."这些日子以来,老师在app上布置作业是很普遍的.因此可以推知这篇文章有可能是选自报纸.故选B. 5.C标题概括题.根据"These days,it's normal for teachers to give homework on apps.For example,students are asked to practice English or do math exercises.Some teachers also use Wechat chat groups to give homework."这些日子以来,老师在app上布置作业是很普遍的.例如,有的学生让在app上练习英语或做数学作业.有的老师通过微信群布置作业.因此可知本文主要介绍了在手机上做作业的事情.故选C. 26.【解答】1.B 细节理解题.由Cress found out that Americans use about 500 milion straws every day,可知克雷斯波发现美国人每天使用大约5亿根吸管,故选B. 2.C 细节理解题.根据In hopes of cuting down plastic waste,he founded the Be Straw Free project in 2011为了减少塑料垃圾,他在2011年创建了无稻草项目,可知为了减少塑料垃圾,故选C. 3.C 细节理解题.根据 Last April, Seattle became the first American city to completely ban plastic straws去年四月,西雅图成为第一个完全禁止塑料吸管的美国城市,可知西雅图成为第一个完全禁止塑料吸管的美国城市,故选C. 4.B 内容理解题.由He has spoken to tens of thousands of students around the worid. He wants to encourage more people to say no to plastic straws他已经和世界各地成千上万的学生交谈过.他想鼓励更多的人对塑料吸管说不,可知此处是指克雷斯波把他的项目传遍了全世界,故选B 5.C 细节理解题.根据 "Focusing on straws is one simple step we all could take,"Cress says."And it makes me feel that I, as a kid, could make a difference, too."关注吸管是我们都可以采取的一个简单的步骤,"克雷斯安说."这让我觉得,作为一个孩子,我也可以有所作为,可知他认为作为一个孩子,也可以有所作为,故选C. 27.【解答】1.B 细节理解题.根据第二段He felt very strange and asked the sculptor,"Why are you making two same sculptures他觉得很奇怪,于是问雕塑家,"你为什么要做两件相同的雕塑?可知因为雕塑家做了2个一样的雕塑,故选B. 2.A 细节理解题.根据第六段There is a scratch on the sculpture's nose."the sculptor said while continuing his work"在雕塑的鼻子上有划痕."雕塑家在继续工作时说道,可知此处是讲第一个在我完成之前就损坏了,damage意思是破坏、损坏,与broken意思相近,故选A. 3.B 细节理解题.根据There is a scratch on the sculpture's nose."the sculptor said while continuing his work"在雕塑的鼻子上有划痕."雕塑家在继续工作时说道,可知是鼻子上有划痕,故选B. 4.C 内容理解题.根The sculptor replied that it would be placed on a 20﹣foot﹣high platform,可知雕塑将被放置在一个20英尺高的平台上,故选C. 5.A 细节理解题.根据 The sculptor chose to stick to a high standard of excellence in his work. Even if other people didn't notice it,it mattered to him that his work should be of the best quality雕塑家选择在工作中坚持高标准.即使其他人没有注意到这一点,对他来说,他的工作质量最好也很重要,可知雕塑家认真地做好自己的本职工作,故选A. 第四部分 写作技能(计35分)第一节 双向翻译(共1小题,计10分)请根据上下文内容,将文中划线部分译成汉语或者英语. 28.【解答】(1)当我疲惫又饥饿时,她给我食物,也给我温暖的可以入睡的臂弯.英文翻译中文翻译题.根据,tired and hungry疲惫又饥饿,gave me food and warm arms to sleep in给我温暖的可以入睡的臂弯.故得此答案. (2)She gave me a hug and lifted me up.中文翻译英文题.根据时态是一般过去时态,给我一个拥抱gave me a hug.把我举起,lifted me up.故得此答案. (3)我应该被允许吃一些,现在就给我!英文翻译中文翻译题.根据,should be allowed 是被动语态,表示被允许,eat some吃一些.give it to me now!现在就给我.故得此答案. (4)Please be back by ten.中文翻译英文题.根据,by 表示"在…之前",by ten表示十点前,请回来,please be back.故得此答案. (5)我不悔不该顶嘴,不该不听妈妈的忠告.英文翻译中文翻译题.根据,regret talking back不悔不该顶嘴,not listening to mom不该不听妈妈的忠告.故得此答案. 第三节 情景作文(计15分) 29.【解答】Help with Some Housework It is reported that children who love doing chores have a better future and are easy to feel happy. As for me, I often help them do housework. I take out the rubbish away and sweep the floor in the morning. I help my mother cook the lunch.I always wash clothes and do the dishes for my family. My parents are very happy. Besides, Watering the flowers is also my duty. I like them very much and take good care of them. After supper, I always wash dishes.(平时所作家务) I think it can develop our independence and take good care of ourselves.【高分句型一】 In a word, the more housework I do, the happier my parents will be.(家务的看法)【高分句型二】

  • ID:3-6026803 2019年广西柳州市中考数学试卷(word解析版)

    初中数学/中考专区/中考真题

    2019年广西柳州市中考数学试卷 一、选择题(本大题共11小题,每小题3分,满分30分,在每个小题给出的四个选项中,只有一项是正确的,每小题选对得3分,选错、不选或多选均得0分.) 1.(3分)据CCTV新闻报道,今年5月我国新能源汽车销量达到104400辆,该销量用科学记数法表示为(  ) A.0.1044×106辆 B.1.044×106辆 C.1.044×105辆 D.10.44×104辆 2.(3分)如图,这是一个机械零部件,该零部件的左视图是(  ) A. B. C. D. 3.(3分)下列四个标志是关于安全警示的标志,在这些标志中,是轴对称图形的是(  ) A.当心吊物安全 B.当心触电安全 C.当心滑跌安全 D.注意安全 4.(3分)计算:x(x2﹣1)=(  ) A.x3﹣1 B.x3﹣x C.x3+x D.x2﹣x 5.(3分)反比例函数y=的图象位于(  ) A.第一、三象限 B.第二、三象限 C.第一、二象限 D.第二、四象限 6.(3分)如图,A,B,C,D是⊙O上的点,则图中与∠A相等的角是(  ) A.∠B B.∠C C.∠DEB D.∠D 7.(3分)如图,在?ABCD中,全等三角形的对数共有(  ) A.2对 B.3对 C.4对 D.5对 8.(3分)阅读【资料】,完成第8、9题. 【资料】:如图,这是根据公开资料整理绘制而成的2004﹣2018年中美两国国内生产总值(GDP)的直方图及发展趋势线.(注:趋势线由Excel系统根据数据自动生成,趋势线中的y表示GDP,x表示年数) 2004﹣2018年中美两国国内生产总值(GDP,单位:万亿美元)直方图及发展趋势线 依据【资料】中所提供的信息,2016﹣2018年中国GDP的平均值大约是(  ) A.12.30 B.14.19 C.19.57 D.19.71 9.(3分)阅读【资料】,完成第8、9题. 【资料】:如图,这是根据公开资料整理绘制而成的2004﹣2018年中美两国国内生产总值(GDP)的直方图及发展趋势线.(注:趋势线由Excel系统根据数据自动生成,趋势线中的y表示GDP,x表示年数) 2004﹣2018年中美两国国内生产总值(GDP,单位:万亿美元)直方图及发展趋势线 依据【资料】中所提供的信息,可以推算出中国的GDP要超过美国,至少要到(  ) A.2052年 B.2038年 C.2037年 D.2034年 10.(3分)已知A、B两地相距3千米,小黄从A地到B地,平均速度为4千米/小时,若用x表示行走的时间(小时),y表示余下的路程(千米),则y关于x的函数解析式是(  ) A.y=4x(x≥0) B.y=4x﹣3(x≥) C.y=3﹣4x(x≥0) D.y=3﹣4x(0≤x≤) 11.(3分)小李与小陈做猜拳游戏,规定每人每次至少要出一个手指,两人出拳的手指数之和为偶数时小李获胜,那么,小李获胜的概率为(  ) A. B. C. D. 12.(3分)定义:形如a+bi的数称为复数(其中a和b为实数,i为虚数单位,规定i2=﹣1),a称为复数的实部,b称为复数的虚部.复数可以进行四则运算,运算的结果还是一个复数.例如(1+3i)2=12+2×1×3i+(3i)2=1+6i+9i2=1+6i﹣9=﹣8+6i,因此,(1+3i)2的实部是﹣8,虚部是6.已知复数(3﹣mi)2的虚部是12,则实部是(  ) A.﹣6 B.6 C.5 D.﹣5 二、填空题(本大题共6小题,每小题3分,满分18分.请将答案直接填写在答题卡中相应的横线上,在草稿纸、试卷上答题无效.) 13.(3分)计算:7x﹣4x=   . 14.(3分)如图,若AB∥CD,则在图中所标注的角中,一定相等的角是   . 15.(3分)柳州市某校的生物兴趣小组在老师的指导下进行了多项有意义的生物研究并取得成果.下面是这个兴趣小组在相同的实验条件下,对某植物种子发芽率进行研究时所得到的数据: 种子数n 30 75 130 210 480 856 1250 2300 发芽数m 28 72 125 200 457 814 1187 2185 发芽频率 0.9333 0.9600 0.9615 0.9524 0.9521 0.9509 0.9496 0.9500 依据上面的数据可以估计,这种植物种子在该实验条件下发芽的概率约是   (结果精确到0.01). 16.(3分)在半径为5的圆形纸片上裁出一个边长最大的正方形纸片,则这个正方形纸片的边长应为   . 17.(3分)如图,在△ABC中,sinB=,tanC=,AB=3,则AC的长为   . 18.(3分)已知一组数据共有5个数,它们的方差是0.4,众数、中位数和平均数都是8,最大的数是9,则最小的数是   . 三、解答题(本大题共8小题,满分66分,解答时应写出必要的文字说明、演算步骤或推理过程请将解答写在答题卡中相应的区域内,画图或作辅助线时使用铅笔画出,确定后论须使用黑色字的签字笔描黑在草稿纸、试卷上答题无效.) 19.(6分)计算:22+|﹣3|﹣+π0. 20.(6分)已知:∠AOB. 求作:∠A′O′B′,使得∠A′O′B′=∠AOB. 作法: ①以O为圆心,任意长为半径画弧,分别交OA,OB于点C,D; ②画一条射线O′A′,以点O′为圆心,OC长为半径画弧,交O′A′于点C′; ③以点C′为圆心,CD长为半径画弧,与第②步中所画的弧相交于点D′; ④过点D′画射线O′B′,则∠A′O′B′=∠AOB. 根据上面的作法,完成以下问题: (1)使用直尺和圆规,作出∠A′O′B′(请保留作图痕迹). (2)完成下面证明∠A′O′B′=∠AOB的过程(注:括号里填写推理的依据). 证明:由作法可知O′C′=OC,O′D′=OD,D′C′=   , ∴△C′O′D′≌△COD(   ) ∴∠A′O′B′=∠AOB.(   ) 21.(8分)据公开报道,2017年全国教育经费总投入为42557亿元,比上年增长9.43%,其中投入在各学段的经费占比(即所占比例)如图,根据图中提供的信息解答下列问题. (1)在2017年全国教育经费总投入中,义务教育段的经费总投入应该是多少亿元? (2)2016年全国教育经费总投入约为多少亿元?(精确到0.1) 22.(8分)平行四边形的其中一个判定定理是:两组对边分别相等的四边形是平行四边形.请你证明这个判定定理. 已知:如图,在四边形ABCD中,AB=CD,AD=BC. 求证:四边形ABCD是平行四边形. 证明: 23.(8分)小张去文具店购买作业本,作业本有大、小两种规格,大本作业本的单价比小本作业本贵0.3元,已知用8元购买大本作业本的数量与用5元购买小本作业本的数量相同. (1)求大本作业本与小本作业本每本各多少元? (2)因作业需要,小张要再购买一些作业本,购买小本作业本的数量是大本作业本数量的2倍,总费用不超过15元.则大本作业本最多能购买多少本? 24.(10分)如图,直线AB与x轴交于点A(1,0),与y轴交于点B(0,2),将线段AB绕点A顺时针旋转90°得到线段AC,反比例函数y=(k≠0,x>0)的图象经过点C. (1)求直线AB和反比例函数y=(k≠0,x>0)的解析式; (2)已知点P是反比例函数y=(k≠0,x>0)图象上的一个动点,求点P到直线AB距离最短时的坐标. 25.(10分)如图,AB是⊙O的直径,弦CD⊥AB于点E,点F是⊙O上一点,且=,连接FB,FD,FD交AB于点N. (1)若AE=1,CD=6,求⊙O的半径; (2)求证:△BNF为等腰三角形; (3)连接FC并延长,交BA的延长线于点P,过点D作⊙O的切线,交BA的延长线于点M.求证:ON?OP=OE?OM. 26.(10分)如图,直线y=x﹣3交x轴于点A,交y轴于点C,点B的坐标为(1,0),抛物线y=ax2+bx+c(a≠0)经过A,B,C三点,抛物线的顶点为点D,对称轴与x轴的交点为点E,点E关于原点的对称点为F,连接CE,以点F为圆心,CE的长为半径作圆,点P为直线y=x﹣3上的一个动点. (1)求抛物线的解析式; (2)求△BDP周长的最小值; (3)若动点P与点C不重合,点Q为⊙F上的任意一点,当PQ的最大值等于CE时,过P,Q两点的直线与抛物线交于M,N两点(点M在点N的左侧),求四边形ABMN的面积. 2019年广西柳州市中考数学试卷 参考答案与试题解析 一、选择题(本大题共11小题,每小题3分,满分30分,在每个小题给出的四个选项中,只有一项是正确的,每小题选对得3分,选错、不选或多选均得0分.) 1.【解答】解:104400用科学记数法表示应为1.044×105, 故选:C. 2.【解答】解:题中的几何体从左面看,得到的图形是一个长方形及其内部一个圆,如图所示: 故选:C. 3.【解答】解:D答案的图形是轴对称图形, 故选:D. 4.【解答】解:x(x2﹣1)=x3﹣x; 故选:B. 5.【解答】解:∵k=2>0, ∴反比例函数经过第一、三象限; 故选:A. 6.【解答】解:∵∠A与∠D都是所对的圆周角, ∴∠D=∠A. 故选:D. 7.【解答】解:∵四边形ABCD是平行四边形, ∴AB=CD,AD=BC;OD=OB,OA=OC; ∵OD=OB,OA=OC,∠AOD=∠BOC; ∴△AOD≌△COB(SAS);① 同理可得出△AOB≌△COD(SAS);② ∵BC=AD,CD=AB,BD=BD; ∴△ABD≌△CDB(SSS);③ 同理可得:△ACD≌△CAB(SSS).④ 因此本题共有4对全等三角形. 故选:C. 8.【解答】解: 由图象可知,2016年至2018年的GDP值分别为:11.19,12.24,13.46. 则 =≈12.30 故选:A. 9.【解答】解:由图表信息,联立中美GDP趋势线解析式得 解得x= ∴2018+(﹣15)= 故选:B. 10.【解答】解:根据题意得: 全程需要的时间为:3÷4=(小时), ∴y=3﹣4x(0≤x≤). 故选:D. 11.【解答】解:画树状图如图: 共有25个等可能的结果,两人出拳的手指数之和为偶数的结果有13个, ∴小李获胜的概率为; 故选:A. 12.【解答】解:∵(3﹣mi)2=32﹣2×3×mi+(mi)2=9﹣6mi+m2i2=9+m2i2﹣6mi=9﹣m2﹣6mi, ∴复数(3﹣mi)2的实部是9﹣m2,虚部是﹣6m, ∴﹣6m=12, ∴m=﹣2, ∴9﹣m2=9﹣(﹣2)2=9﹣4=5. 故选:C. 二、填空题(本大题共6小题,每小题3分,满分18分.请将答案直接填写在答题卡中相应的横线上,在草稿纸、试卷上答题无效.) 13.【解答】解:7x﹣4x=(7﹣4)x=3x, 故答案为:3x. 14.【解答】解:∵AB∥CD, ∴∠1=∠3. 故答案为 15.【解答】解:概率是大量重复试验的情况下,频率的稳定值可以作为概率的估计值,即次数越多的频率越接近于概率 ∴这种种子在此条件下发芽的概率约为0.95. 故答案为:0.95 16.【解答】解:如图所示,连接OB、OC,过O作OE⊥BC,设此正方形的边长为a, ∵OE⊥BC, ∴OE=BE=, 即a=5. 故答案为:5. 17.【解答】解:过A作AD⊥BC, 在Rt△ABD中,sinB=,AB=3, ∴AD=AB?sinB=1, 在Rt△ACD中,tanC=, ∴=,即CD=, 根据勾股定理得:AC===, 故答案为: 18.【解答】解:∵5个数的平均数是8, ∴这5个数的和为40, ∵5个数的中位数是8, ∴中间的数是8, ∵众数是8, ∴至少有2个8, ∵40﹣8﹣8﹣9=15, 由方差是0.4得:前面的2个数的为7和8, ∴最小的数是7; 故答案为:7.. 三、解答题(本大题共8小题,满分66分,解答时应写出必要的文字说明、演算步骤或推理过程请将解答写在答题卡中相应的区域内,画图或作辅助线时使用铅笔画出,确定后论须使用黑色字的签字笔描黑在草稿纸、试卷上答题无效.) 19.【解答】解:原式=4+3﹣2+1=6. 20.【解答】解:(1)如图所示,∠A′O′B′即为所求; (2)证明:由作法可知O′C′=OC,O′D′=OD,D′C′=DC, ∴△C′O′D′≌△COD(SSS) ∴∠A′O′B′=∠AOB.(全等三角形的对应角相等) 故答案为:DC,SSS,全等三角形的对应角相等. 21.【解答】解:(1)42557×45%=19150.65亿元, 答:义务教育段的经费总投入应该是19150.65亿元; (2)42557÷(1+9.43%)≈38.9亿元, 答:2016年全国教育经费总投入约为38.8亿元. 22.【解答】证明:连接AC,如图所示: 在△ABC和△CDA中,, ∴△ABC≌△CDA(SSS), ∴∠BAC=∠DCA,∠ACB=∠CAD, ∴AB∥CD,BC∥AD, ∴四边形ABCD是平行四边形. 23.【解答】解:(1)设小本作业本每本x元,则大本作业本每本(x+0.3)元, 依题意,得:=, 解得:x=0.5, 经检验,x=0.5是原方程的解,且符合题意, ∴x+0.3=0.8. 答:大本作业本每本0.8元,小本作业本每本0.5元. (2)设大本作业本购买m本,则小本作业本购买2m本, 依题意,得:0.8m+0.5×2m≤15, 解得:m≤. ∵m为正整数, ∴m的最大值为8. 答:大本作业本最多能购买8本. 24.【解答】解:(1)将点A(1,0),点B(0,2),代入y=mx+b, ∴b=2,m=﹣2, ∴y=﹣2x+2; ∵过点C作CD⊥x轴, ∵线段AB绕点A顺时针旋转90°得到线段AC, ∴△ABO≌△CAD(AAS), ∴AD=AB=2,CD=OA=1, ∴C(3,1), ∴k=3, ∴y=; (2)设与AB平行的直线y=﹣2x+h, 联立﹣2x+b=, ∴﹣2x2+bx﹣3=0, 当△=b2﹣24=0时,b=,此时点P到直线AB距离最短; ∴P(,); 25.【解答】解:(1)如图1,连接BC,AC,AD, ∵CD⊥AB,AB是直径 ∴,CE=DE=CD=3 ∴∠ACD=∠ABC,且∠AEC=∠CEB ∴△ACE∽△CEB ∴ ∴ ∴BE=9 ∴AB=AE+BE=10 ∴⊙O的半径为5 (2)∵= ∴∠ACD=∠ADC=∠CDF,且DE=DE,∠AED=∠NED=90° ∴△ADE≌△NDE(ASA) ∴∠DAN=∠DNA,AE=EN ∵∠DAB=∠DFB,∠AND=∠FNB ∴∠FNB=∠DFB ∴BN=BF, ∴△BNF是等腰三角形 (3)如图2,连接AC,CE,CO,DO, ∵MD是切线, ∴MD⊥DO, ∴∠MDO=∠DEO=90°,∠DOE=∠DOE ∴△MDO∽△DEO ∴ ∴OD2=OE?OM ∵AE=EN,CD⊥AO ∴∠ANC=∠CAN, ∴∠CAP=∠CNO, ∵ ∴∠AOC=∠ABF ∵CO∥BF ∴∠PCO=∠PFB ∵四边形ACFB是圆内接四边形 ∴∠PAC=∠PFB ∴∠PAC=∠PFB=∠PCO=∠CNO,且∠POC=∠COE ∴△CNO∽△PCO ∴ ∴CO2=PO?NO, ∴ON?OP=OE?OM. 26.【解答】解:(1)直线y=x﹣3,令x=0,则y=﹣3,令y=0,则x=3, 故点A、C的坐标为(3,0)、(0,﹣3), 则抛物线的表达式为:y=a(x﹣3)(x﹣1)=a(x2﹣4x+3), 则3a=﹣3,解得:a=﹣1, 故抛物线的表达式为:y=﹣x2+4x﹣3…①; (2)过点B作直线y=x﹣3的对称点B′,连接BD交直线y=x﹣3于点P, 直线B′B交函数对称轴与点G,连接AB′, 则此时△BDP周长=BD+PB+PD=BD+B′B为最小值, D(2,1),则点G(2,﹣1),即:BG=EG, 即点G是BB′的中点,过点B′(3,﹣2), △BDP周长最小值=BD+B′B=; (3)如图2所示,连接PF并延长交圆与点Q,此时PQ为最大值, 点A、B、C、E、F的坐标为(3,0)、(1,0)、(0,﹣3)、(2,0)、(﹣2,0), 则CE=,FQ=CE, 则PF=CE﹣CE=, 设点P(m,m﹣3),点F(﹣2,0), PF2=13=(m﹣2)2+(m﹣3)2, 解得:m=1,故点P(1,﹣2), 将点P、F坐标代入一次函数表达式并解得: 直线PF的表达式为:y=﹣x﹣…②, 联立①②并解得:x=, 故点M、N的坐标分别为:(,)、(,), 过点M、N分别作x轴的垂线交于点S、R, 则S四边形ABMN=S梯形NRSM﹣S△ARN﹣S△SBM=.