[ID:4-5442422] (原创)2019中考人教英语九全Units 11—12知识点讲解+练习附答案(共12页 ...
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第 12 页 共 12 页 (原创)2019中考人教英语九全Units 11—12知识点讲解+练习附答案 类别 课标考点要求 词汇拓展 appoint → disappoint(*make an appointment with sb = date with sb与...约会,date还有红枣的意思) late → lately(lately=recently用现在完成时) examine → examination(缩写为exam) weigh → weight oversleep → overslept → overslept burn → burned/burnt → burned/burnt(burned用被动,burnt作定语) discover → discovery believe → believable embarrass → embarrassed → embarrassing appear → disappear(*appeal呼吁) 短语归纳 越...越...the more..the more...成为某人的朋友be friends with sb不包括,不提及,忽略leave out 11、对某人苛刻be hard on sb起初,开始时to start with 12、发出响声、爆炸go off开除某人kick sb off 13、排队wait in line(没有a啊!)齐心协力,通力合作pull together 14、变成change/turn into招来,叫来call in 15、熬夜stay up捎某人一程give sb a lift 16、开玩笑play tricks/a trick on赶到、露面show up 17、减肥lose weight卖光sell out 18、不相信、怀疑in disbelief 语法结构 make sb do sth;make sb+adj的用法过去完成时 江西考点聚焦 1、drive:(v)迫使 [搭配] drive sb. crazy/mad使某人发疯/发狂 Eg:The loud music drives me mad.吵闹的音乐使我发狂。 2、rather:(adv)宁愿,相当 [点拨] rather常用于rather than结构,意为“而不是”,通常连接两个并列成分。 Eg:Peter went to soccer practice with courage rather than fear in his heart. [搭配] (1) prefer to do…rather than do…宁愿……而不愿……(2) would rather…than…宁愿……而不愿…… *(3)rather than = instead of 替代,后加ing形式 Eg:He was a hero. He would rather die than give in.他是个英雄,宁死不屈 3、agreement:(n)一致、同意 [搭配] (1) be in agreement with sth. /sb.和……意见一致 Eg:Your idea is good. I'm in agreement with you. (2)be in agreement on/about/upon sth.对某事意见一致 Eg:We are in agreement on/about/upon that point. (3)be in agreement that...+从句:同意…… Eg:I am in agreement that he is so clever. 4、disappoint:(v)使失望 5、miss:(v)错过,未得到:[点拨] miss常用于“miss doing sth.”结构,表示“错过做某事”。 [拓展] (1) miss还有“思念;怀念”的意思。(2) Miss表示“小姐;女士”。 6、alive/lively/live/lovely/living (1) alive意为“活着的;在世的;活跃的”,用作表语,可修饰人或物。alive作定语时,通常放在所修饰的名词后面。(即作后置定语) Eg:She's very alive and active in class. 她在课堂上非常活跃,也非常积极。 (2)lively表示“活泼的,有生气的”,既可作定语,又可作表语。 Eg:The patient seems a little lively this morning.这个病人(的病情)今天上午好像有点好转了。 (3) live作动词,意为“生活,居住”。作形容词,意为“直播的”。 (4)lovely作形容词,意为“可爱的”,常用作定语或表语。 (5)living 活着的,现存的,生活,作前置定语,如:a living fish (即a fish alive) 7、辨析above,over,on与up (1) above意为“高于;在……之上”,温度的高低用above不用over。它表示一物于另一物更高的位置,但不一定在正上方,反义词为below。表示在地位、级别、能力、资历、重要性等方面“超过”、“在……之上”、“比……强”,表示在程度或限度等方面“超过”、“超越”等,这类短语通常用作表语。如:The book is above me (my understanding). 这本书我读不懂。 (2)A、表示覆盖意义时,通常用over。如:Spread a cloth over the table. 在桌上铺一块桌布。    B、表示横过或越过时,通常用over。此时也可用across。如:    The terrorists escaped across [over] the border. 恐怖分子越过边境逃走了。   C、当表示数量的“多于”,含有类似more than的意思时,原来可用over,也可用above。但在现代英语中,通常只用over。如: The blue whale grows to over 30 metres long. 蓝鲸可长到三十多米长。    D、涉及速度时,若要表示“高于”“多于”,通常用介词over。如:    At the time he was diving at over 100 mph. 这时他的车速为每小时一百多英里。    E、涉及年龄时,若要表示“高于”“多于”,通常用介词over。此时也可用past。如:   She didn’t marry until she was over fifty. 她直到五十多岁才结婚。 (3)on表示在...上面,接触。 (4)up作介词用时,表示动作的方向,意为“沿……往上;沿……向上”。其反义词为down。 8、辨析at the end of,by the end of,in the end与to the end (1)at the end of+时间名词、地点名词或其他物品,表示“在....末,在...尽头。 He left for London at the end of last week. (2)by the end of+时间名词,表示“到…在……以前。 by the end of +将来时间,用将来完成时/将来进行时(will have done/will be doing) +过去时间,用过去完成时(had done) +现在时间,用现在完成时(have/has done) (3)in the end意为“最后,终于”,相当于at last,后面不能踉of。 (4) to the end表示“到……底”,作状语,指的是把某种行为持续到底。 9、let.…down意为“使…失望或沮丧”,为固定短语 【拓展】与let相关的短语:let sb do sth让某人做某事,let alone更不用说,let sb/sth go放开某人/某物,let me see/let's see让我/我们想想看,let sth out泄密;把(衣服)放宽 10、leave sth in spl 把...忘在某处,不可以用forget! 11、be about to do...when 意为“正要做...突然...”,when意为“突然这时” 辨析:be going to/be about to/be to be going to 有打算、预兆(if引导条件状从用will) be about to 时间上最接近的将来 be to 事先有安排、有责任、商定、义务,可能性最大 2019经典新题训练 一、单项选择。 ( )1、As long as we ____together,we’ll succeed one day. A.pull B.push C.take D.turn ( )2、He is not a ___.Don’t try to ___him. A.foolish,fool B.fool,fool C.fool,foolish D.foolish,foolish ( )3、Waiting for Alice in the strong wind for an hour __Julie mad. A.calls B.wants C.drives D.has ( )4、After a long discussion,they came to a(n)_____on this matter. A.instruction B.agreement C.suggestion D.position ( )5、I ___go shopping when the telephone rang. A.wanted to B.was just to C.had to D.was about to ( )6、Jin Yong is one of the greatest and oldest _______ writers. He is still ______. A.living; alive B.living; living C.alive; living D.alive; alive 二、阅读理解。 The famous Roman philosopher(哲学家) Augustine of Hippo once said:"1、_________" Summer is a great time for us to"read" more pages of the world. But before hitting the road, have you ever thought of why we travel? What are the positives of traveling? The cool stories-If someone asks you about your past year, what stories would jump to your mind? It would most likely be the traveling you did, the amazing experiences you had and the surprising things you found. Gives you perspective (看法) ——Seeing the world lets you learn things that can't be taught in a classroom. 2、__________It will also teach you that the way you look at the world is not the only way of viewing life. Meet new people——3、__________A simple "hi, where are you from?" always breaks the ice. 4、_________——It would be exciting to be able to throw around a few words of French or knowing how to say hello and thanks in Thai. You will eat food like you never have before——Yes, you will be often surprised at the flavors(味道) the world has to offer. To prove to yourself you can——5、_________Finding an address in downtown New York, reaching the top of a mountain, or simply ordering what you wanted at a foreign restaurant. Overcoming the challenges will give you some of the greatest joys of all. A.Traveling is full of challenges. B.You could learn a language C.The world is a book and those who do not travel read only one page. D.People you meet while on the road usually become some of your lifelong friends. E.Traveling is full of danger F.It teaches you topics like economics,politics,history and geography. G.You could make some new friends. 三、短文填空。 choose ; consider ; before; kind ;keep; importance; them; provide; courage; human Do you know that pigs are the fourth most intelligent animal on the planet? They are the fourth on the list after 【小题1】, primates(灵长类动物), dolphins and whales. Most of us can’t【小题2】a whale or a dolphin as a pet, so if intelligence is rated high on your choice of pet, you really should【小题3】pot-bellied(大腹便便的)pigs . Before getting a pig , you need to consider if you can 【小题4】it with a healthy environment. Of course, they are not a good 【小题5】if you live in an apartment . If you do not have time to spend with your pig, it may develop a lot of troubles---pigs love rooting(用鼻或嘴拱土觅食)and digging. It’s【小题6】to provide it with time, attention and 【小题7】. Being highly intelligent, pigs can be trained to do tricks just like dogs.【小题8】can even be house trained in the same way as a dog. You just need a little patience and time and【小题9】you know it. Your pig will know not to make a mess indoors. They respond to praise and【小题10】, so always praise your pig if it has done well. 1、____________ 2、____________ 3、_____________ 4、____________ 5、_______________ 6、____________ 7、____________ 8、_____________ 9、____________ 10、______________ 语法聚焦(三)——过去完成时和make的“使役”用法 【考点一】过去完成时 一、过去完成时的概念与结构特点 概念:过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作,即“过去的过去( past-in-the-past )”。 ----|-------------------------- |-------------------------------|----------------------------> 那时以前  那时  现在   构成:过去完成时由“助动词 had + 过去分词”构成,其中 had 通用于各种人称。   They had already had breakfast before they arrived at the hotel. 二、过去完成时的判断依据 1. 由时间状语来判定 一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有: ( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点。如: I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night. ( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点。如: We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term. ( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点。如: They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday. 2. 由“过去的过去”来判定。 过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在: ( 1 )宾语从句中   当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。如: She said that she had seen the film before. ( 2 )状语从句中   在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。如: When I got to the station, the train had already left.   注意: before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。如: Where did you study before you came here? ( 3 )表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…" 如:We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 三、过去完成时的主要用法  1. 过去完成时表示一个动作或状态在过去某一时间或动作之前已经完成或结束,即发生在“过去的过去”。如: When I woke up, it had stopped raining. 我醒来时,雨已经停了。(主句的动作发生在“过去的过去”) 2. 过去完成时是一个相对的时态,表示的是“过去的过去”,只有和过去某一时间或某一动作相比较时才使用它。如: He told me that he had written a new book. (had written 发生在 told 之前 ) 3. 过去完成时需要与一个表示过去的时间状语连用,它不能离开过去时间而独立存在。此时多与 already , yet , still , just , before , never 等时间副词及 by , before , until 等引导的短语或从句连用。 如:Before she came to China, Grace had taught English in a middle school for about five years.  4. 过去完成时表示某一动作或状态在过去某时之前已经开始,一直延续到这一过去时间,而且动作尚未结束,仍然有继续下去的可能。 如: By the end of last year, he had worked in the factory for twenty years. ( had worked 已有了 20 年,还有继续进行下去的可能) 5. 过去完成时也用于hardly...when...(刚…就…), no sooner...than... (刚…就…), It/That was the first time + that等一些固定句型中。(注:This/It is the ...次数 time+ that+现在完成时)如:He had no sooner left the room than they began to talk about him. 他刚离开房间,他们就议论起他来。;It was the first time that he had ever spoken to me in such a tune.他用这样的语调跟我讲话,这是第一次。 四、过去完成时与现在完成时的区别 现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去,但侧重对现在产生的结果或造成的影响,与现在有关,其结构为“助动词 have (has) + 过去分词”;过去完成时则是一个相对的时态,它所表示的动作不仅发生在过去,更强调“过去的过去”,只有和过去某时或某动作相比较时,才用到它。试比较: I have learned 1000 English words so far. 到目前为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。 I had learned 1000 English words till then.到那时为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。 — I'm sorry to keep you waiting. 对不起,让你久等了。 — Oh, not at all. I have been here only a few minutes. 没什么,我只等了几分钟。(“等”的动作从过去某一时间点持续到现在) — John returned home yesterday. 约翰昨天回到家的。 — Where had he been? 他去哪儿了?(答语中使用过去完成时是指约翰在 returned home 之前去了哪些地方,即“过去的过去”) 五、过去完成时与一般过去时的区别   虽然这两种时态都表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,但在使用时应注意以下几点:  1. 时间状语不同:过去完成时在时间上强调“过去的过去”;而一般过去时只强调过去某一特定的时间。试比较:   They had arrived at the station by ten yesterday. They arrived at the station at ten yesterday. 2. 在没有明确的过去时间状语作标志时,谓语动词动作发生的时间先后须依据上下文来判断:先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的则用一般过去时。如: She was very happy. Her whole family were pleased with her, too. She had just won the first in the composition competition. 3. 当两个或两个以上接连发生的动作用 and 或 but 连接时,按时间顺序,只需用一般过去时来代替过去完成时;另外,在 before , after , as soon as 引导的从句中,由于这些连词本身已经表示出时间的先后,因此也可以用过去时来代替过去完成时。如:   He entered the room, turned on the light and read an evening paper. I (had) called her before I left the office. 【考点二】make的使役用法: 1. 形容词作宾语补足语,即:make + 宾语 + 形容词。这一结构表示“使某人 / 某事(变得)……”。形容词作宾语补足语用来说明宾语所处的状态。例如:Singing makes me happy. 唱歌使我愉快。 2. 名词作宾语补足语,即: make + 宾语 +名词。这一结构表示“让某人 / 某物(成为)……”。例如:They made him their head.他们使他成为他们的首领。 3. 动词不定式作宾语补足语,即:make + 宾语 +不带to的动词不定式。这一结构表示“使某人 / 某物做某事”。例如:Can you make the machine work?你能使机器运转吗?注意:在被动语态中,make后面的动词不定式要带to。(主动加原形,被动要加to!)例如:When my grandfather was young, he was made to work from morning till night.祖父年轻的时候被迫从早到晚地干活。 4. 过去分词作宾语补足语,即:make + 宾语 + 过去分词。这一结构表示“使某人 / 某物被……”。其宾语与宾语补足语之间存在被动关系。例如:This has made the students interested in the film.这使得学生们对那部电影感兴趣。 2019语法聚焦(三)新题训练 一、单项选择。 ( )1.Colors can change our moods and make us ________ happy or sad, energetic or sleepy. A: to feel B: feeling C: felt D: feel ( )2._____got into the room___the telephone rang. A.He no sooner had,then B.No sooner had he,when C. No sooner had he,than D.Not had he,when ( )3.Time goes by so fast. We must never miss the chance to show love for our parents and make them _____how much they mean to us. A: to know B: knowing C: know D: knew ( )4.Tom said that he ________ lunch with his friends.He was quite full. A.had had B.was having C.had D.has eaten ( )5.By the time I _____up,my mother _____to work. A.got,went B.have got,had gone C.got,had gone D.had got,went 二、阅读理解。 Now students' English handwriting gets worse and worse. That makes their teachers feel worried.1、___________If not, here are four steps that really work! Use paper with lines Using paper with lines can keep you writing straight instead of up or down when you write English words or sentences. Those lines on the paper can help you to write words in the right size. Be sure to fill the lined space completely. And make sure those capital letters are written properly. Slow down 2、_______For some kids, going slower makes the handwriting clearer. If you write too quickly, it's hard for you to stop where you should, and even worse, you may make more mistakes. Hold your pencil right When you hold your pencil in the correct way, writing is much better. Some kids press down really hard when they write. 3、_________Try to be relaxed and don't hold the pencil so hard. Let your writing appear nice and clean. If you do so, people will guess you are a student with a good habit. Draw more pictures 4、_______You need to use the skills to control your pencil better while you are drawing pictures. Even though you have no chance to draw at school, you can practice by yourself at home. 5、_________Imagine you are a famous movie star or a well-known sports player, what do you do when your fans run up to you? Give them your autographs,of course! A、Writing quickly is good for your handwriting B、Is your English handwriting beautiful? C、That makes the handwriting bad. D、Handwriting is very important E、Drawing can improve your handwriting. F、Giving your autographs to others is important. G.If your writing is hard to read,try slowing down a little. Units11——12习题答案 经典新题训练: 一、单项选择:ABCBDA【解析】2、fool作名词为傻子,动词为戏弄,愚弄 二、阅读理解:【精析】 本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了旅行的意义。文申把世界比作一本书,而旅行则可以阅读世界这本书,同时还介绍了旅行中能够获得的体验和阅历。 1、C 由后文中“...to‘read' more pages' of the world",可知空格处应是把世界比怍一本书,故选C。 2、F 由前文说“看世界能使你学到在教室里不可能被教到的东西”及后句“It will also teach you that.”可知空格处还是旅行教会你的事情,故选F。 3、D 由空前的“Meet new people”以及空后的打招呼可知D项最符合文意。 4、B由空后“throw around a few words of French”和“knowing how to say hello and thanks in Thai”可知此处主要讲在国外会学一些简单的语专,故选B。 5。A 由后又的“Overcoming the challenges will give you some of the greatest joys of all”可知旅行也 会充满挑战,故选A。 三、短文填空:humans,keep,consider,provide,choice,important,encouragement,They,before,kindness 语法聚焦(三)新题训练: 一、单项选择:DCCAC 【解析】2、注意搭配:no sooner...than...,hardly when... 二、阅读理解:【精析】 本文主要针对目前学生英语书写中存在的相关问题提出了四点建议,以使书写更漂亮。同时还指出了写好书法的重要性。 1、B 由后句If not....really work可知空格处应为一个阀句,故只有B项符合。 2、G 由黑体部分-“Slow down”和下文中“…going slower makes the handwriting clearer.”可知写慢会让书写看上去更清楚,故选G。 3、C 由上文的“Some, kids....they write.”及下文建议“尽量放松,不要把铅笔握得太用力”可知空格处应为书写时大用力的后果。故选C。 4、E 由此段下文内客可知空格处是介绍画画可以提高你的书写,故选E。 5.D 空格后列举了一个成名之后要给别人签名的例子。以此来说明练好书法是很重要的,故选D。 【中考典例】 I will my family when I go abroad for further study this autumn. ( B ) A. use B. miss C. show D. look
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