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词汇拓展 perform → performance 6、shut → shut-shut
gradual → gradually 7、full → empty
prefer → preferred-preferred 8、behave → behavior/behaviour
electronic → electricity 9、sad → sadly → sadness
suggest → suggestion（suggestion可数，advice不可数）
短语归纳 既然那样：in that case 13、毕竟：after all坚守：stick to 14、作出努力：make an effort大量：plenty of/lots of 15、把...擦掉：clean...off关闭，停止运转：shut off 16、脱衣服，起飞：take off间或，偶尔地：once in a while 17、特地做某事：go out of one’s way to do sth（way无复数！）查阅、抬头看：look up 不怕麻烦做某事：get out of one’s way to do sth 总共，合计：in total/all 18、习惯于：get/be used to doing（*=be accustomed to doing）使...高兴：cheer sb up 19、大动肝火：get mad尽某人最大努力：do/try one’s best to do 20、一...就....as soon as （主将从现）结婚：get married 21、与...不同be different from到...结束：by the end of 22、盼望期待：look forward to doing顺便访问，随便进入：drop by 23、使...宾至如归：make sb feel at home
be supposed to do（be expected to do）的用法
It is +adj+to do sth 的用法
搭配：（1）prefer A to B 比起B更喜欢A；（2）prefer to do sth更喜欢做...；（3）prefer doing to doing 比起做某事更喜欢做某事。（4）prefer to do...rather than do... = would do ...rather than do... = would rather do...than do...宁愿做...而不愿做...
（1） suppose + that 从句，表示“猜测；假定”。如： You can suppose that A equals B. 你可以假定A等于B。
（2） suppose +名词 / 代词 + to be...，表示“认为……是……”。如：Many people suppose him to be over 50.
（3） suppose用于祈使句中，表示“让……”。如：Suppose we go for a swim.? (= Let's go for a swim.) 让我们去游泳吧。
be supposed to do的用法：
（4）be supposed to... 其中to是动词不定式符号，不是介词，其后要跟动词原形。当be supposed to... 的主语是“人” 时，意为“应该……?”；“被期望……”，它可以用来表示劝告、建议、义务、责任等，相当于情态动词should。
（5）当be supposed to... 的主语是“物”时，它表示“本应；本该”，用于表示“某事本应该发生而没有发生”。如：
The new laws are supposed to prevent crime. 这些新法令本应该起到防止犯罪的作用。
（6）be supposed to后面接“have + 过去分词”时，表示“本应该做某事而没做”。如：
??????????You are supposed to have handed in your homework by now.现在你应该已经把作业交上来了。
（7）be supposed to... 的否定结构为be not supposed to...,它常用于口语中，意为“不被许可；不应当”。如：
??????????She was not supposed to be angry about that. 她本不该为那件事而生气的。
（1）look up查阅、抬头看（2）look for寻找（3）look at看（=have a look at）（4）look after（=take care of）照顾（5）look like看起来像（6）look through浏览（7）look out小心，注意（=watch out）（8）look on 旁观（9）look over检查身体
（1）take away拿走（2）take up占据，开始做（3）take place（无被态，有计划的）【拓展】（4）take after长得像，效仿（5）take over（=take charge of接管）（6）take in欺骗（7）take down（=put、write down）写下（8）take to养成...的习惯，沉溺于...（+n/V-ing）
5、worth：（1）be worth+n，...值....（2）sth be worth doing某事值得被做【拓展】be worthy of sth值得...；be worthy of being done/to be done值得做....
6、plenty of/lots of/a lot of+cn/un；a number of +cn；an amount of +un；a great deal of+un；a great many+cn
except for 排除非同类，美中不足
1、dance to随着...跳舞，dance to the music 随着音乐跳舞，
2、sing along with the song，along with = together with 常作伴随状语，主语+with 或者along with 时，谓语动词不受这些词的影响，仍然跟着主语变。
3、in case of/in case that/in that case/case
in case of “万一，如果那样的话”，是介词短语，后面+名词，代词或动名词
in case that “防备，加入，如果发生”，是连词短语，+从句，构成条件状语从句
in that case 既然那样，如果那样的话
4、stick to 坚持，信守，沿着，紧跟，to是介词，stick to doing sth。相关短语：stick sth in/into/through sth 插入或刺穿某事；stick at sth坚持做...；stick by sb坚持忠于某人；stick out 突出，醒目；stick to one's guns 固执己见
5、provide sb with sth = provide sth for sb 为某人提供某物
6、offer sb sth = offer sth to sb给某人提供某物；offer to do sth乐意做某事
7、once in a while 偶尔，间或 = sometimes = from time to time = at times = once or twice
8、sense（v）感觉到，意识到；（n）感觉，意识，观念；common sense常识；sense还可以表示意义，短语：make sense 有意义，讲得通；in a sense在某种意义上
9、pain（cn/un）在同一语境中用pain，a pain/pains都是可能的；painful令人痛苦的；painless无痛的；短语：have a pain in，be in pain
10、perform（v）扮演，演奏，执行，运转，行动，履行；perform on the flute吹奏长笛；performer（n）表演者；performance（n）表演，演出；perform a experiment 做实验
12、touch the hearts of 触动...的心弦
13、electronic（adj）电子的，electronic equipment电子设备，an electronic engineer电子工程师；electrical（adj）电的，电学有关的
15、in one's spare/free time 在某人的空闲时间，spare（adj）空闲的，（v）抽出；spare some time for sb 为某人留出一些时间
16、shut off 关闭，停止运转；shut up 闭嘴；shut down停业，关闭；shut up shop打烊，关店，停止做
laugh at sb嘲笑某人
make fun of sb 开某人的玩笑
play a joke/jokes/a trick/tricks on sb
18、grow：栽培，常指使某种植物从种子起在某地生长，不移走；plant：种植，常指移植已长成秧苗的某种植物，可用于“plant+场地+with 结构”。同义句转换：They planted some trees on the hillside. = They planted the hillside with some trees.
18、reflect（v）反映，reflect the reality反映现实，reflect in the lake在湖里映出，reflection（n）反映
19、pity（n）遗憾，（v）怜悯，同情。take pity on sb 怜悯某人，have pity on 同情...；out of pity出于同情pity poor villagers同情可怜的村民；pitiful（adj）怜悯的，令人同情的
20、praise（v/n）表扬，赞扬；give praise给予表扬；prasie...for...因...而表扬；in praise of...赞扬...；full of praise赞不绝口；表示赞扬的程度时，可以用highly修饰
21、recall（v）回忆起；recall old friends 回想起老朋友，recall doing sth回忆起做某事
22、get married to sb 和某人结婚；marry sb 嫁给某人；be married to 与...结婚
23、by the end of +过去时间用过去完成时，+将来时间用将来完成时，+现在时间用现在完成时；at the end of 既可以与表示时间的词连用，也可以与表示地点的词连用
24、How does/do sb feel about...? = How does/ do sb like...? = What does/do sb think of ...?
25、be well known for 因...而出名，比较级/最高级为be better/best known for
26、be/get angry with sb at sth；be/get mad at sb/sth
27、bow（n/v）鞠躬、弓形物、蝴蝶结，bow(vi) to sb，bow(vt) one’s head
drop in/by on sb 顺便拜访某人
drop by spl.顺便访问、随便进入（=look in spl=come over to spl）
drop in at spl.拜访某地（无“顺便”之意）
29、not a little=very，not a bit=not at all
30、knock有关词组：knock at/on 敲门；knock against 与...相撞；knock down/off撞倒；knock into 撞进...
32、clean有关词组：clean off把...擦掉；clean out把...清理出去；clean up打扫干净
33、begin，start后面只能用to do 的情况：
（1）本身为进行时（beginning,starting）（2）后面加understand，realize，know等词语（3）主语为物（eg：The ice begins to melt）
34、be comfortable/uncomfortable doing sth 感觉舒适/不舒服做某事
（ ）1、_____the sun comes out,the mist（薄雾）will pass away. A.Before B.As soon as C.Until D.Unless
（ ）2、—All the workers went home yesterday ________ Mr. White. Why?—Because he was on duty.
A: except B: besides C: except for D: beside
（ ）3、It’s necessary to ____every word you don’t know when reading a passage.
A.look over B.look at C.look after D.look up
（ ）4、The book is well worth ________. I plan _________ one.
A. read; to buy B. reading; buying C. reading; to buy D. to read; buy
（ ）5、Lucy has a great sense of humor and always keeps her colleagues with her stories.
A.amusing B.amused C.to amuse D.having amused
（ ）6、In the good care of the nurses, the boy is _____ recovering from his heart operation .
A: quietly B: actually C: practically D: gradually
（ ）7、The teacher _______some old friends on his vacation trip to Paris.
A．dropped by B．dropped in C．dropped by on D．dropped in at
（ ）8、We frequently drop by the neighbor’s house for a cup of coffee.
A.give a ride to B.give up visiting C.forget to visit D.come over to
（ ）9、______Liu Yang,Jing Haipeng and Liu Wang are the greatest astronauts in China.
A.But B.Except C.And D.Besides
（ ）10、You did a good job.You deserved（应得，应受）so much ___. A.praise B.sadness C.pressure D.problem
Once upon a time, a young man was standing in the middle of the town announcing that he had the most beautiful heart in the world. A large crowd gathered, and they all praised his heart for it was perfect.
Suddenly, an old man appeared and said, "Why, your heart is not as beautiful as mine."
The old man's heart was full of scars (伤疤). Some pieces of his heart were removed and some pieces from other people were put in, but they didn't fit quite right. So there were several jagged (锯齿状的) edges. In fact, there were still some holes in his heart where the pieces were missing.
The young man laughed, "Comparing yours with mine, mine is perfect and yours is a mess."
"Yes," said the old man. "But, every scar shows that I took out a piece of my heart and gave it to a person, and often he gave me a piece of his heart in return."
"Why do you have some jagged edges in your heart?" asked the young man. "Because the shapes of the pieces weren't the same." "Then the holes?" "Sometimes I gave pieces of my heart away, and the other person hasn't given back a piece of his, so...but I don't care." "How come?" "They remind me of the love we shared."
The young man was deeply moved. He walked up to the old man, took a piece of his heart out and gave it to the old man.
The old man placed it in his heart, then took a piece from his old scarred heart and placed it in the wound (伤口) in the young man's heart. It fitted, but not perfectly, as there were some jagged edges.
The young man looked at his heart, not perfect any more but more beautiful than ever.
How sad it must be to go through life with a whole untouched heart!
（ ）1. The young man stood in the town to _______.
A: meet the old man B: compare his heart with others' C: show his beautiful heart D: give pieces of his heart to others
（ ）2. It's clear that the old man was________.
A: a silly man B: a humorous man C: a well-known man D: a kind-hearted man
（ ）3. The old man said "...but I don't care" means_______.
A: he didn't expect others' return B: he didn't feel pain C: he didn't think it serious D: he cared nothing
（ ）4. We can get more beautiful hearts by sharing . A: ideas B: scars C: love D: beauty
关系词 先行词 从句成分 例句 备注
关系代词 who 人 主语 Do you know the man who is talking with your mother? whom, which和that在从句中做宾语时，常可以省略，但介词提前时后面关系代词不能省略，也不可以用that
whom 人 宾语 Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am working
The boy (whom) she loved died in the war..
whose 人，物 定语 I like those books whose topics are about history.
The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate.
that 人，物 主语，宾语 A plane is a machine that can fly.
She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much.
which 物 主语，宾语 The book (which) I gave you was worth $10.
The picture which was about the accident was terrible.
as* 人，物 主语，宾语 He is such a person as is respected by all of us.
This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. as做宾语一般不省略
关系副词 when 时间 时间状语 I will never forget the day when we met there. 可用on which
where 地点 地点状语 This is the house where I was born. 可用in which
why 原因 原因状语 I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer. 可用for which
II. that与which, who, whom的用法区别：
情况 用法说明 例句
只用that的情况 先行词为all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时。先行词被all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few等修饰时先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时先行词既指人又指物时先行词被the only, the very,the same修饰时句中已经有who或which时，为了避免重复时，只能用thattime作先行词且前面有序数词或last修饰，用that引导（可省略），无序数词或last，可用that或when引导 1.He told me everything that he knows.
2.All the books that you offered has been given out.
3.This is the best film that I have ever read.
4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered.
5.He is the only man that I want to see.
6.Who is the man that is making a speech?
7.This is the last time that I shall give you a lesson.
只用which, who, whom的情况 在非限制性定语从句中，只能用which指代物，用who/whom指人在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中，只能用which指物，whom指人。先行词本身是that时，关系词用which, 先行词为those, one, he时多用who。“-one；-body”式的不定代词，只用who不用that。 He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study.
I like the person to whom the teacher is talking.
Those who respect others are usually respected by others.
Anyone who plays with fire will get burnt.
定语从句 区别 例句
限制性定语从句中 名词前有such和the same修饰时，关系代词用as,不能用which He is not such a fool as he looks.
Don’t read such books as you can’t understand.
非限制性定语从句中 as和which都可以指代前面整个主句。如果有“正如，象”的含义，并可以放在主句前，也可以放在后面，那么用as；而which引导的从句只能放主句后，并无“正如”的意思。 They won the game, as we had expected.
They won the game, which we hadn’t expected.
As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s.
类别 语法意义及特征 例句
限制性定语从句 对先行词起修饰限制作用，如果去掉，主句意思就不完整明确，这种从句与主句的关系十分密切，写时不用逗号分开。 The accident happened at the time when I left.
非限制性定语从句 对先行词作附加的说明，与主句的关系不十分密切，较松散。从句和主句之间用逗号分开，相当于一个插入语，不能用that引导，关系代词做宾语时也不能省略。 His mother, whom he loved deeply, died ten years ago.
（二） 正误辨析 ?
［误］ I won't tell you the name of the person who teach me English? ?
［正］ I won't tell you the name of the person who teaches me English? ?
［析］ 在定语从句中，关系代词作主语时，从它本身看不出其数的形式，这时要由它的先行词决定。这里who 应由 the person 单数决定，应该用单数谓语动词。又如：I who am a student? want to find a spare time job?这里的 who 应与 I 是一致的，所以其谓语动词应该用am。?
［误］ We talked about the things and the people who we met during the Second World War? ?
［正］ We talked about the things and the people that we met during the Second World War? ?
［析］ 这里的关系代词不要用 who， 因为其先行词有两个一个是 things (物)，而另一个是people (人)，这时既不可用 who， 又不可用 which， 因前者只能用于先行词是人的情况下，而后者则用于先行词是物的情况下，所以只能用 that， 因为它的先行词既可以是人又可以是物。?
［误］ The book， that I bought yesterday， was very good?
［正］ The book， which I bought yesterday， was very good? ?
［析］ 先行词与定语从句被逗号分割开来时，即作为非限制性定语从句。在非限制性定语从句中 which， when， who， whom， where， when， whose 等都可以和限制性定语从句中的作用一样，而独有 that 不易用于非限制性定语从句。?
［误］ The dictionary which I lent it yesterday is a very useful tool? ?
［正］ The dictionary which I lent yesterday is a very useful tool? ?
［误］ The teacher I want to learn English from is the one which comes from America
［正］ The teacher I want to learn English from is the one who comes from America
［析］ the one， anyone， those 作代词并且是指某人、物时，其关系代词不能用 which 应用 who。?
［误］ This is the room in that the old man lives? ?
［正］ This is the room in which the old man lives? ?
［正］ This is the room which the old man lives in? ?
［正］ This is the room that the old man lives in? ?
［析］ that 不能紧跟在介词后作介词宾语，但如果介词不前置仍放于句尾，则可用 that 作引导词，而且可以省略。如： This is the room the old man lives in??
［误］ I can do everything which is good for you? ?
［正］ I can do everything that is good for you? ?
［析］ 在先行词是 all， much， little， something， everything， anything， nothing， none， the one 等不定代词时，虽然它们指的是物体，但不要用 which 而用 that 作定语从句的引导词。?
［误］ The only thing which the students can do is studying hard? ?
［正］ The only thing that the students can do is studying hard? ?
［析］ 在先行词前有 only， any， few， little， no， all， one of 等词修饰时，虽然先行词指的是物，也不要用 which 作关系代词，而要用 that。?
［误］ This is the first American film which I've ever seen? ?
［正］ This is the first American film that I've ever seen? ?
［析］ 在先行词是序数词，或由序数词修饰时，其关系代词不可用 which? 这样的用法还有在形容词最高级修饰的先行词之后，如： This is the best book that I have ever seen
（ ）1、--Do you know____our Chinese National Symbol of Day is?--Yes,it’s on December 13th.It’s in memory of people_____were killed in Nanjing Massacre.
A.whether,that B.when,who C.how,which D.why,that
（ ）2、— Do you know the kid with Bob is talking to over there?— Yes, it's my cousin.
A: who B: that C: whose D: whom
（ ）3、Who is the man is reading a book over there? A: who B: which C: whose D: that
（ ）4、I’ve become good friends with several of the students in my school___helped me in the English speech contest last year. A．where B．who C．when D．which
（ ）5、I can't forget the time the earthquake happened in Yushu.
A: when B: which C: where D: how
（ ）6、There is nothing _____ I want to say. A、which B、what C、whatever D、that
（ ）7、Without friendship, one can’t be happy although he is rich enough. As for me , I will never forget the days______ I spent with my dearest friend. A. that B. when C. who D. where
（ ）8、There will be a flower show in the park __ we visited last week. A. who B. when C. what D. which
（ ）9、We depend on the land from ____we get food. A.that B.where C.which D.what
（ ）10、That is the last train____is leaving for Britain. A.who B.that C.where D.which
【解析】1、as soon as主将从现；5、非谓语动词充当宾补成分，且her colleagues（同事）与amused之间存在动宾关系，故选B；6、gradually渐渐地；7、drop in/by on sb；8、drop by spl = come over to spl；9、包含关系用besides
1. 细节题。由第一段第一句 a young man was standing in the middle of the town announcing that he had the most beautiful heart in the world 可知，这个人站在小镇里展示他漂亮的心。A项意为“遇见老人”，B项意为“拿自己的心和别人比”，D项意为“把心的碎片给别人”，均不符合题意。故正确答案为C。
2. 推断题。由第五段第二句 But, every scar shows that I took out a piece of my heart and gave it to a person, and often he gave me a piece of his heart in return 可知，这个老人把心给别人，同时得到了回报，说明他是一个善良的人。A项意为“愚蠢的人”，B项意为“幽默的人”，C项意为“著名的人”，均不符合题意。故正确答案为D。
3. 推断题。由第六段最后一句 They remind me of the love we shared 可知，这个老人不在乎别人是否回报他，这些行为让他记得“我们”分享的爱。B项意为“他不觉得疼”，C项意为“他不把这当回事”，D项意为“他什么都不关心”，均不符合题意。故正确答案为A。
4. 主旨题。根据倒数第二段 The young man looked at his heart, not perfect any more but more beautiful than ever 可知，不完美的心更美丽了，因为它懂得了分享爱。故C项正确。A项意为“观点”，B项意为“伤疤”，D项意为“美好”，均不符合题意。故正确答案为C。
1、Could you tell me the way to the toy shop? 2、Need I take a bus? 3、I don’t have much time.
4、Why are you going there 5、Can you go with me? （第5题前bargain（v）意为：交易、议价）
Mike reading playing computer games.
A: prefers; than B: prefers; to C: would rather; than D: would rather; to