常见的跟单宾语的及物动词主要有：accept, admire, admit, affect, afford, discover, educate, enjoy, explain, forget, guess, invent, love, post, raise等。
1. 直、间接宾语易位需加to的动词：bring, give, hand, pass, post, promise, read, return, show, teach, tell, lend等。
2. 直、间接宾语易位需加for的动词：buy, choose, cook, draw, find, fetch, make, order, paint, purchase, save, spare等。
3. 既可加to，也可加for的动词：do, get, play, sing等。
apologize, appear, arrive, come, go, cry,
dance, die, disappear, dream, exist, fall, flow,
graduate, sit, stand, stay, wait, rise, lie,
延续性动词可用于完成时，与以下几种时间状语连用：for +段时间，since +点时间，since +一段时间+ago，since +从句（一般过去时）等。常见的这类动词有：have, possess, keep, know, learn, live, read, sleep, wait, work, look, hear, smell等。
终止性动词不可用于现在完成时，不能与表示一段时间的状语连用，其否定形式多与until / till连用，构成“not+终止性动词+until / till ...”的句型，意为“直到……才……”。如：
I will not go to bed until I finish drawing the picture tonight.
“动词+介词”构成的短语相当于一个及物动词，后面跟宾语。被动语态中，整个短语不可分开。这类短语动词常用的有：agree on, burst into, call on, consist of, deal with, depend / rely on, die of / from, dream of, feel like, get into, hear from, insist on, look / stare?/ glare at, prepare for, result in, set about等。
bring up, cut off, figure out, put out, take
down, take over, throw away, turn down,
break down, die away, give in, go ahead,
hang on, run away, stand out, set off, wake
3. 动词+名词+介词。这类短语动词常用的有：catch sight of, compare notes with, declare war on / upon, get rid of, have a word with, make fun of, make use of, make preparations for, pay attention to, take care of, take hold of, take advantage of, take charge of等。
4. 动词+副词+介词。这类短语动词常用的有：catch up with, come up with, date back to, put up with, go in for, run out of等。
5. be +形容词+介词。这类短语动词常用的有：be accustomed / used to, be afraid of, be devoted to, be fond of, be familiar with, be famous for, be fit / suitable for等。
If steel is heavier than water, why are ships able to ____ on the sea? 【2015·浙江】
A. float B. drown
C. shrink D. split
2. 动词短语辨析。主要包括同根动词短语的辨析、同根介词或副词的动词短语辨析、 不同动词构成的动词短语的辨析以及“动词+副词+介词”短语的辨析。在动词词组的测试中，绝大多数为基础动词，出现频率较高的词有：get, turn, make, put, go, give, break, cut, come, look, keep, bring, show, pick, hold, fall, carry, pull, catch, call, take等。
polish抛光， 磨光(本意)→修正，文饰(引申); sniff嗅，闻(本意)→鄙视地说(引申); break down发生故障，失灵，失效(本意)→坍塌，崩溃，瓦解，中断，中止(引申); look into向里面看(本意)→调查，研究(引申)，同时还有“浏览”之意；work out基本意思为“解决， 算出，制订出”，还有“锻炼”的意思。
Body language can _____ a lot about your mood, so standing with your arms folded can send out a signal that you are being defensive. 【2015·浙江】
take away B. throw away
C. put away D. give away
Studies have shown that the right and left ear ______ sound differently. 【2015·浙江】
A. produce B. pronounce
C. process D. download
See, your computer has broken down again! It doesn’t ______ sense to buy the cheapest brand of computer just to save a few dollars.
have B. make
C. display D. bring
热点考向 1 动词词义辨析?
1. 主要考点: 考查常见动词词义辨析。强调
2. 突破技巧: 这类试题的选项往往结构相同, 词形或意义相近。要做好这类试题, 必须从各个动词的语意差别、用法特点等方面入手, 然后结合题意选用合适的动词。
热点考向 2 高频动词短语意义辨析?
主要考点: 考查主要集中于高频的动词短语, 如break, bring, call, come, get, go, make, take, turn, put, pick, hold, keep, look, carry, set, cut, show, pull等构成的短语。需要特别关注:
break away from 放弃, 打破; 脱离关系
break down 发生故障; (计划等)失败;
break in 闯入, 插嘴
break into 闯入
break out (战争、瘟疫等)爆发, 突然发生
break up 打碎, 分手, 分开, 关系破裂
bring about 导致, 造成, 引起
bring down 使倒下, 使降低
bring in 引进; 带来; 赚得; 收获
bring forward 提出; 提前
bring out 出版; 生产; 使显现
bring up 抚养, 教育; 提出; 呕吐
call for 要求; 需要; 去取或去接
call back 回电话; 回忆起
call in 召集; 请; 召来; 顺便来访
call up 打电话给; 召集; 使想起
call off 取消
call on 号召, 拜访
come about 发生
come to 苏醒; 总计
come across 偶遇; 无意中发现
come true 实现, 成为现实(不及物)
come out 出版; 结果是
come up (建议、计划等)被提出
come up with 提出(建议、计划等)
come on (催促)快点; (鼓励)加油;
get across 解释清楚; 使……被理解
get away from 避免; 摆脱, 逃离
get away with 侥幸成功; 侥幸做成
get around 四处走动; 传播开来
get down to 开始认真做某事
get along/on with 进展; 与……相处
get over 克服; 恢复
get rid of 摆脱; 除去
get through 通过; 完成; 接通电话
give away 赠送; 泄露; 分发
give back 归还
give in 屈服; 让步; 投降; 认输
give out 分发; 发出; 公布; 用尽
give up 放弃
go against 违背; 不利于; 反对
go ahead 开始(做某事); (表同意)
go around 参观; (消息)传播
go by 过去; 经过
go down 下降; 下沉
go on 继续; 发生; 进行
go over 复习, 仔细检查
go through 穿过; 经历; 仔细检查
go with 与……相配
go without 没有……也行
hold back 犹豫; 隐瞒; 阻止
hold on=hang on 别挂断; 等一会儿;
hold out 坚持; 伸出
hold up 举起; 阻挡, 使耽搁
hold on to 紧紧抓住; 保留; 不放弃
keep away from 远离; 避开
keep back 留下; 隐瞒; 克制(感情)
keep on 继续; 坚持下去
keep out of 置身于……外; 避开
keep up 保持; 继续; 不低落
keep up with 跟上;
keep an eye out for 密切注意; 留心; 警惕
keep an eye on 照看; 密切注视
leave alone 不打扰; 不理, 不管
leave behind 留下; 丢下, 丢弃
leave out 遗漏, 忽略
look around 环顾四周
look away from 把目光从……移开
look into 调查; 窥视
look back on/upon 回忆，回顾
look up 查找, 查询; 向上看
look up to 尊敬; 敬仰
look down upon 歧视, 看不起
look forward to 盼望; 期待
look through 浏览; 快速查看
look out (for) 当心, 留意, 小心
look on 旁观
make use of 利用
make up 组成; 编造; 化妆; 和解
make up for 补偿; 弥补
make for 走向; 有助于; 促成, 导致
make sense 有意义; 有道理; 讲得通
make sense of 理解; 弄明白
make out 理解; 分辨出, 辨认出
make it 成功
put aside 撇开; 暂不考虑; 储蓄
put away 收拾, 整理; 储存
put back 把……放回原处; 推迟
put forward 提出; 拨快
put down 记下, 写下, 镇压
put out 伸出; 扑灭; 生产; 出版
put up 建造, 张贴; 提供住宿
put up with 忍受; 容忍
put on 穿上, 增加, 上演
set aside 划出; 留出; 拨出
set about doing sth. 着手做某事
set out 出发, 动身
set out to do sth. 着手做某事
set off 动身; 引起; 使爆炸
set up 建立, 创立
turn away 走开; 转过脸去
turn down 拒绝; 关小, 调低
turn up 开大; 出现, 到场
turn out 结果是, 证明是; 生产
turn over 翻转; 翻阅, 仔细考虑
turn against 反对; 背叛
turn to 转向; 求助于
take after 长得像某人
take apart 拆开; 拆卸
take back 收回, 撤销
take down 记下; 拆卸; 取下
take away 带走, 拿走, 剥夺
take up 从事; 占据(时间、空间);
take in 吸收; 接受; 理解, 欺骗
take off 起飞; 脱下; 成功,
take on 呈现; 具有; 承担; 雇用
take over 接管, 接收
take advantage of 利用
take it easy 放松, 别紧张
take your time 慢慢来, 别着急
take measures to do sth. 采取措施做某事
take action 采取行动
热点考向 3 常见的系动词的用法
1. 表示变化类的系动词，如: become, go, turn, grow, get, fall, make等。
2. 表示感觉类的系动词，如: feel, smell, taste, look, sound等。
3. 表示状态类的系动词，如: keep, remain, stand, stay, lie等。
4. 表示“像”类系动词，主要有seem, appear, look, 表示“看起来，似乎，显得”。
热点考向 4 动词的一词多义用法
1. act (v. & n. 行动)
e.g. It will take several hours before the
drug really acts. ( vi. 起作用)
2. address (n. 地址；vt. 写地址)
e.g. President Obama was scheduled to
address the American people on the
evening of May 7. (vt. 向……做演说)
3. appreciate (vt. 欣赏，感激，感谢)
e.g. They soon appreciated that it must be a well-designed trap. (v. 意识到)
4. attend (vt. 参加，出席)
e.g. With several patients to attend that night, the nurse felt very tired. (vt. 照料，照顾)
With three kids attending high school in the town, the couple had to work day and night to earn more money. (vt. 上学)
5. count (n. & v. 计数，数)
e.g. It is not what you are thinking but what you are doing that counts. (v. 重要，有价值)
6. escape (vi. 逃跑，逃脱)
e.g. I saw a familiar face in the crowd. However, his name escaped me for the moment. (vt. 被忘掉)
The harmful gases are escaping from the pipe. (vi. 泄漏，漏出)
7. fail (vi. 失败)
e.g. Fresh vegetables used to fail in winter. (vi. 不足，缺乏)
With time passing by, his memory is failing. (vi. 衰退)
Try as the family might, they failed to find the lost child in the town. (vi. 未能)
8. introduce (vt. 介绍)
e.g. When tomatoes were first introduced into Europe, they didn’t accept them at all. (vt. 引入)
9. make (vt. 制造)
e.g. New laws have been made to protect the interests of the farmers. (vt. 制定)
He is making his own trouble by doing this. (vt. 引起，导致，造成)
She will make a great teacher. (vt. 成为，使形成)
10. observe (vt. 观察)
e.g. Having lived abroad for many years, he still observed the old traditions and customs. (vt. 遵守)
Every year, we will observe the traditional Spring Festival in different ways. (vt. 庆祝)
11. work (v. & n. 工作)
e.g. The medicine will soon work. (vi. 起作用)
The machine works very well. (vi. 运转)
1. Tom had to ____ the invitation to the
party last weekend because he was too
A. turn in B. turn down
C. turn over D. turn to
因为他太忙了。turn in 上交；turn down拒
绝；turn over 移交；turn to求助。
2. We tend to have a better memory for things
that excite our senses or ___ our emotions
than for straight facts. 【2015·浙江】
A. block off B. appeal to
C. subscribe to D. come across
们的。block off 封锁，appeal to 吸引，
subscribe to 订阅，come across遇到。
3. If you have any doubts about your health,
you’d better______ your doctor at once.
A. convince B. consult
C. avoid D. affect
4. Peter will _____ his post as the head of the
travel agency at the end of next month.
A. take up B. put up
C. add up D. break up
的职位。take up拿起，开始从事；put up竖
立；搭建；add up加起来；break up结束；分
5. The whole team _____ Cristiano Ronaldo,
and he seldom lets them down.【2015·江苏】
A. wait on B. focus on
C. count on D. call on
6. If you come to visit China, you will ______ a
culture of amazing depth and variety.
A. develop B. create
C. substitute D. experience
7. In order not to be heard, she pointed her
finger upwards to ____ that someone was
moving about upstairs. 【2015·湖北】
A. whisper B. signal
C. declare D. complain
1. Mary was silent during the early part of
the discussion but finally she ________
voice to her opinion on the subject. （天津
2. I’m going to ________ advantage of this
tour to explore the history of the castle.
3. I hate it when she calls me at work — I’m
always too busy to ________ on a
conversation with her.（天津2016）
4. Many businesses started up by college
students have ________ off thanks to the
comfortable climate for business creation.
5. We can achieve a lot when we learn to let
our differences unite, rather than ________
1. We all agreed that the cottage would
________ (make / turn) a perfect holiday
home for the family.
2. The beautiful clouds maybe ________
(promise / record) a fine day tomorrow.
3. While I’m working I don’t want people to
come to my desk just to ________ (ignore /
4. It is said that a plan is being made that will
________ (cost / charge) users for
downloading music from the Internet, but
the price will be very low.
5. Parents and children should communicate
more to ________ (narrow / leave) the gap
between them so that they can understand
each other better.
6. With the heavy burden of study, more and
more children’s eyesight is beginning to
________ (fall / fail).
7. According to scientists, our mental abilities
begin to ________ (decline / differ) from the
age of 27 after reaching the highest level at 22.
8. The parents only __________ (concerned /
involved) themselves with making money and
ignored the left-behind children’s education
9. During the Spring Festival, friends may get
together to ________ (comfort / greet) each
other and wish each other good luck.
10. In general, do not ask people questions such
as how much they ________ (gain / earn) in
1. Rod loves _____________ clocks.
However, he never manages to put them
2. You have to ______________ the things
behind you that you may not be aware of.
watch out for
account for, agree on, break down, come
about, keep up, live up to, make good use of,
put down, take apart, watch out for
3. After many years’ hard work, he __________
his parents’ expectation and went to a key
4. Mary is really good at taking notes in class.
She can ________ almost every word her
5. That Peter has spent too much time reading
novels recently may ____________ his poor
grade in the exam.
lived up to
account for, agree on, break down, come
about, keep up, live up to, make good use of,
put down, take apart, watch out for
6. The six-party talk is a practical way to solve
issues and we should ________________ the
7. Mary, as well as Jim, will be very busy at
that time. We’d better ___________ another
time for the activity.
8. He had to pause from time to time to wipe
the sweat from his forehead, because the
air-conditioning system ____________.
make good use of
account for, agree on, break down, come
about, keep up, live up to, make good use of,
put down, take apart, watch out for
9. How did it ____________ that you missed so
good a chance, which was very important for
your promotion in the company?
10. Walking alone in the dark, the boy whistled
to ________ his courage.
account for, agree on, break down, come
about, keep up, live up to, make good use of,
put down, take apart, watch out for
1. 如果陈述句的主语是that, this, those, these，反意疑问句的主语要用it 或they。 e.g. That is your sister, isn't it?
Those are mine, aren't they?
2. 如果陈述句的主语是表示人的不定代词，如anyone, someone, no one, everybody, nobody, somebody等，反意疑问句的主语可用they，也可用he 。
e.g. Everybody enjoyed the party, didn't
they / he?
3. 如果陈述句的主语是表示物的不定代词，如anything, nothing, something, everything 等，反意疑问句的主语用it 。
e.g. Nothing could make her change her
ideas, could it?
4. 如果陈述句的主语是非谓语动词或主语从句，反意疑问句的主语用it 。
e.g. Learning how to repair motors takes a
long time, doesn't it?
That he missed the exam made his
parents worried, didn't it?
5. Let's与Let us / me 后的反意疑问句的主语不同。
e.g. Let's not discuss it now, shall we?
Let us / me have a look at your book,
6. 陈述句如果是there be句型，反意疑问句的主语用there。
e.g. There is something wrong, isn't there?
1. 在含I am 的陈述句之后，反意疑问句的助动词用aren't。
e.g. I'm older than you, aren't I?
2. 陈述句的谓语动词为have to 时，反意疑问句用do作助动词。
e.g. He had to look carefully to see it, didn't
3. 陈述句的谓语动词含有used to 时，反意疑问句可用use(d)或did作助动词。
e.g. She used to help you with cooking,
use(d)n't / didn't she?
4. 陈述句含有ought to 时，反意疑问句用ought或should 作助动词。
e.g. You ought to tell me about it, oughtn't /
5. 当陈述句中有实义动词dare或need 时，反意疑问句用do作助动词；
e.g. They don 't dare to come, do they?
They dare not come, dare they?
6. 陈述句中有情态动词must 时，反意疑问句用什么样的助动词依must 的含义而定：
1) must 意为“一定，准是”时，反意疑问句中的助动词要与must 后面的动词相照应，但有时亦可用mustn't。
当陈述句谓语是must have done，且句中有明确的表示过去的时间状语时，反意疑问句用did或must 作助动词。
He must be very tired, isn't / mustn't he?
He must have waited here for a long time, hasn't /mustn't he?
You must have seen the play last week, didn't / mustn't you?
2) must 意为“必须”时，反意疑问句中的助动词可用needn't 或mustn't。如：
e.g. You must go home right now, needn't /
3) mustn't 意为“禁止”时，反意疑问句中的助动词要用may。
e.g. The children mustn't play in the street,
如果陈述句含有表示否定或半否定意义的单词，如not, no, never, none, little, seldom, hardly, few, nowhere, nothing等，这个句子被看成否定句，反意疑问句用肯定式。
e.g. She seldom goes to the cinema, does she?
1. 陈述句是主从复合句时，反意疑问句通常与主句保持一致。但主句中如果有I think / believe / suppose等时，反意疑问句应与其宾语从句保持一致。
e.g. She says that I did it, doesn't she?
I don't think he is right, is he?
e.g. She pretended to be angry, but she
was not, was she?
3. 感叹句的反意疑问句通常用否定式，助动词一般用be 。
e.g. How well the job has been done,
4. 祈使句的反意疑问句通常用will 或can 作助动词。祈使句为肯定句时，反意疑问句常用will /won't / can / can't you；祈使句为否定句，反意疑问句则常用will / can you。
e.g. Carry this box for me, will / won’t /
can / can’t you?
Don't forget to phone me, will / can you?
—I spent two weeks in London last summer.
—Then you must have visited the British
Museum during your stay, _____ you? (重
A. mustn’t??? ??????????????????B. haven’t???
C. didn’t????? ?????????????????? D. hadn’t
1. You have to arrive before half past eight, ____________?
2. That's the shop where you used to work, ________?
3. You would tell me if you knew, ____________?
4. That 's the guy who was on TV the other night, ________?
5. She won't be here for another hour,
6. You may think you know the answer but you don't, ________?
7. After working so hard he didn't deserve to fail the exam, ________?
8. There is a lot of work to do today, ___________?
9. You don't happen to know if the No. 50
bus has already passed here, ________?
1. A. Birds rarely build nests in our garden, don' t they?
B. As a student, you used to work part-time at a coffee shop, didn't you?
C. Judging by the smell, the food must be good, is it?
D. You used to be in the same history class as me, weren't you?
2. A. Nobody is absent today, aren't they?
B. This pie looks delicious, isn't it? It 's making my mouth water.
C. We can pick up a bottle of milk on the way home, can't we?
D. That's a new pair of boots, are they?
3. A. You couldn't recommend a good place to have a quick meal, can you?
B. You weren't paying attention to me, are you?
C. It 's cold today, so wear warm clothing, will you?
D. You've never come to this park before, did you?
名词+名词：postman, girlfriend, flowerbed, notebook
形容词+名词：blackboard, supermarket, greenhouse
名词+动词：daybreak, sunrise, breastfeed
动词-ing形式+名词：reading room, washing machine
形容词 / 数词+名词+ed：warm-hearted,
某些不定代词some, any, every, no等+
副词+名词：indoors, overhead, upstairs
副词+动词：overhear, overwork, underline
有些词在转化过程中词义变化不大，如try, swim, shout, cry, kiss, wash, guess等。有些动词转化为名词时意义有一定的变化，如feed（v. 喂养→n. 饲料），draw（v. 画画，抽，拉→n. 平局）等。
①有些形容词可以转化为动词。如：quiet（adj. 安静的 → v. 使安静）。
②有些形容词可以转化为名词。如：quiet (adj. 安静的，寂静的 → n. 安静，寂静); calm (adj. 镇静的 → n. 泰然自若)。
③有些形容词可以转化为副词。如：dear, high, low, cheap, full, near, close, long等。
They forwarded his mail to his new address. (adv.→ v.)
The people are walking north. (n.→ adv.)
1）in-, il-, im-, ir-, un-, non- (表否定):
incomplete, illegal, impossible,
irregular, unwise, non-smoker
2）dis-, un- (表反向或反义): disconnect,
3）mis- (表贬义): misunderstand, mislead
4）over-, super-, under- (表程度):
overweight, supermarket, undercharge
5）fore-, trans-, inter- (表位置): forehead,
6）re-, post-, pre- (表次序、时间): rebuild,
7）bi-, tri-, multi-, semi- (表数量): bicycle,
tricycle, multi-racial, semicircle
8）a-, en- (转化词类): asleep, endanger
-ery, -ry (表性质、场所): bravery, nursery
-hood (表身份、性质): motherhood,
形容词后面加-ism (表主义、行为): socialism,
名词后加-ship (表状态、身份): friendship,
动词或者名词后加-ess (表女性): waitress
动词后加-ee (表动作承受者): employee
动词后加-er或-or (表施事者): employer, actor
-ist (表主义者、从事某种职业): socialist,
-al (表行为、结果): refusal, arrival
过程、状态): translation, election
动词后加ment (表……的行为): arrangement,
-ity, -ness (形容词转名词): diversity, happiness
-ed (动词后加ed表具有): excited, amazed
-ful (名词后加ful表充满): hopeful, thankful
-ish (表类似): childish
-less (名词后面加less, 表没有……的):
-like (表“像”): childlike
-ly (表特色、“每”): motherly, daily
-y (表具有……特征): sandy
-able, -ive (动词转形容词): changeable, attractive
-al, -ial, -ical (名词后加, 表具有……特点，与……有关): accidental, professorial, psychological
形容词或名词后加-ly: calmly, carefully
表示地点或方位的词后加-ward(s)变为副词。如：southward(s), backward(s), outward(s)等。
-en, -ify, -ize: widen, simplify, beautify, symbolize
1. While there are 68. ________ (amaze) stories of instant transformation, for most of us the changes are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. Just be 70. ________ (patience). (2014年新课标全国卷I第三部分)
2. There were many people waiting at the bus stop, and some of them looked very anxious and 43. ______________ (disappoint). ?(2014年新课标全国卷II第二部分)
3. Jonny: Bend your knees slightly and reach out your arms like tree branches, naturally and 62. ______ (soft). Try to keep your body straight. Move slowly, then be sure to keep your balance and don’t let your body shake.
Peter:? I cannot control my body well. My legs become 63. ________ (pain). ?(2014年辽宁卷第三部分)
4. In addition to their simple beauty, what
makes the adobe dwellings admirable is
their ?63 ?(able) to “air condition” a
5. Chengdu has dozens of new millionaires,
Asia’s biggest building, and fancy new
hotels. But for tourists like me, pandas are
its top 61. ________ (attract). （2016 新课
6. Then, handle the most important tasks
first so you’ll feel a real sense of 42.
____________ (achieve). （2016 新课标
1. I’m happy that my 80-year-old grandma has learned how to ________? (下载) from the Internet.? (2014年陕西卷单词拼写)
2. They failed to reach a settlement, because they _________ (不同意) too much with each other. ?(2014年陕西卷单词拼写)
1. I don’t think we’ll go down to the beach today.
It’s too ________ (cloud).
2. It took us quite a long time to get to the Art
Gallery. It was a(n) _________ (三小时的)
3. We decided to take the flat because it was quite
large and the rent was very __________ (reason).
4. This bike is ____________ ( 二手的) but
it’s still in good condition.
5. Drug ________ (addict) is a problem
causing great concern.
6. My brother is really ____________ (辛
勤工作的). He often works in his office far
into the night.
7. After losing her job she was ___________
(employ) for a month.
8. I’m not sure at all. I really can’t say with
Eve: I think it necessary to have some cultural
1. ______________ (communicate)
between children in different countries.
Ben: I couldn’t agree more. It is 2. ___________
(mean). Not only can it broaden our 3.
______________ (多种文化的) knowledge
and enrich our lives, it can also enable us
to develop unlimited love and 4. ________
(friend) with others from various
social 5. ____________ (背景).
Although my sister and I have a(n) 1. ________ (differ) mother, we are 2. ________ (certain) alike. This is not just a matter of 3. ___________ (appear) though we are small with curly hair and have a tendency to overeat and put on weight. The resemblance goes much further than that. Throughout our 4. _________ (child) we were brought up to be very adaptable and our 5. _______ (able) to accept change is another characteristic we share.
Another would be 6. ________ (shy). We all hate parties where you have to walk into a(n) 7. ________ (room) of strange faces. We are all interested in wearing 8. __________ (fashion) clothes and we often share our clothes. 9. _____________ (fortune), this causes arguments. We really should come to a(n) 10. __________ (agree) about who can borrow what from whom.
I woke up with a bad headache, yet by the
evening the pain had gone.??
The moon turns round the earth.
Drivers always sit on the left of buses.
明。如：The tiger is a dangerous animal.
We are said to be living in the Information
Age, a time of new discoveries and great
As is known to all, the People’s Republic of
China is the biggest developing country in the world.
的词组中：on the left, in the east / west,?on
the other hand, in the end, the other day等。
poor / rich / young / dying / good / unknown
二人。如：The Smiths are sitting at the table.
—It’s said John will be in a job paying over
$60,000 a year.
—Right, he will also get paid by the week.
The development of industry has been a
gradual process throughout human existence,
from stone tools to modern technology.??
It is generally accepted that a boy must learn to
stand up and fight like a man. ?
He had a strong dislike for cold weather.
He missed the gold in the high jump, but will
get a second chance in the long jump. ?
Experts think that the recently discovered
painting may be a Picasso.
(6) 用在某些固定词组中：all of a sudden, as a
matter of fact, go out for a walk, have a good
time, make a difference, make a living, have
an idea of, have a good knowledge of等。如：
I don’t understand what the engineer means,
but I’ve got a rough idea of the project plan.
The accident happened on a rainy Sunday
towards the end of July.
The Smiths don’t usually like staying at hotels,
but last summer they spent a few days at a very
nice hotel by the sea.?
Jack’s English book is lying on his desk.
Sarah looked at the finished painting with
We’re going to watch a match on Sunday.
Sam has been appointed manager of the engineering
department to take place of George.
(6) 在某些固定搭配中, 如：at dawn, on second thoughts,
come to light, come to power, give birth to, out of
control, in public, ahead of time, in debt, hand in
hand, in place of, do harm to等。
on office执政 in the office在办公室
in prison 坐牢 in the/a prison在监狱
go to church 去做礼拜 go to the church 去教堂
go to sea 当水手 go to the sea 去海边
in charge of 负责，管理 in the charge of 由……负责
out of question 不成问题 out of the question不可能
have/take a rest 休息一会儿
have/take a look 看一下
have/take a bath 洗个澡
(2) “go out for a(n)＋名词”，表示从事某项活动。
go out for a picnic去野餐
as a matter of fact; in a hurry; in a word; a
waste of; in a way; come to an end; all of a
sudden; have a(n)...knowledge of; have
a(n)...understanding/grasp /feeling off
in the morning; on the other hand; on the
contrary; on the air; in the end; come to the point; the ABC of...
at night; at home; day after day; by telephone; in danger; on purpose; out of control; under+n.; be home to
1. I can’t tell you _____ way to the Wilson’s because we don’t have _____ Wilson here in the village.? (重庆2014)
A. the; a??????? ???????? B. a; 不填
C. a; the??????? ???????? D. the; 不填
2. They chose Tom to be _____ captain of the team because they knew he was _____ smart leader. (江西2014)
A. a; the???????? ????????????? B. the; the
C. the; a ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? D. a; a
3. ______ more learned a man is, ______ more modest be usually become. (2015·陕西)
A. The; the B. A; a
C. The; a D. A; the
4. Brian is gifted in writing music; he is very likely to be _____ Beethoven. (2015·四川)
A. a B. an C. the D. 不填
5. Jane’s grandmother had wanted to write ______ children’s book for many years, but one thing or another always got in _____ way. (2015·浙江)
A. a;不填 B. the; the C. 不填; the D. a; the
指，第二个in the way 是固定搭配，意为挡道
6. I just heard ____ bank where Dora
works was robbed by ____ gunman
wearing a mask. (2015·重庆)
A. the; / B. a; / C. the; a D. a; the
7. Now I am living in a city, but I miss my
home in countryside.? （2015新课标全国卷I
8. Mr. Johnson lived in the woods with his wife
and children. He owned ?16 ?farm, which
looked almost abandoned.? （广东2015语法
9. Now, years later, this river is one
of ?63 ?most outstanding examples of
environmental cleanup.? （2014新课标全国
10. There are all kinds of the flowers and
trees around the classroom buildings.
11. ... while one is being bottle-fed, 70.
___ other is with mum ... （2016 新
12. Give your body and brain a rest by
stepping outside for 48. ___ while,
exercising, or doing something you enjoy.
1. Tunisia achieved independence from French colonial rule after _____ long struggle.
2. You wouldn’t have caught such _____
bad cold if you hadn’t been caught in
3. If you go by train, you can have quite a comfortable journey, but make sure you get _____ fast one.
4. You really ought to make _____ most of the
opportunity, because you won’t get _____ second chance.
5. I know the accident happened on _____ Saturday of last month because none of my children went to school.
1. After ?a? hour?or?so?we?began?to?feel
2. I decided to climb the tree to see
where we were.
3. Modern people know more about the
health, have better food, and live in
4. Maybe you could come during a
5. Each player must obey captain, who is the leader of the team.
Ms Parrot, 1. ____ most famous lady
detective of 2. ____ twenty-first century, was born in the United Kingdom in 3. ____ 1960s. Since then, she has been to many countries, including Portugal, Singapore and 4. ____ Australia. She can speak 5. ___ English, French and Portuguese. Like Sherlock Holmes, she plays the violin, and sometimes practises up to five times 6. __ day.
She is also 7. ____ only person in the world to have performed Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture in one breath on the recorder.
She has been a detective for thirty years and claims that although many people think that being a detective is 8. __ piece of cake, detectives generally work very hard
and it is not all fun and games.
单复数同形 deer, sheep, Chinese, means, series, species, works, headquarters, aircraft
形单意复 people, police, youth, cattle, staff
形复意单 news, physics, politics
如filmgoer → filmgoers。
in-law → sons-in-law。
man doctor → men
词形变化 man→men, child→children，tooth→teeth, foot→feet, mouse→mice，medium→media
in surprise“惊讶地”，a surprise“一件令人惊讶
的事”；win success“获得成功”，a success“一个/件成功的人/事”；
by experience“靠经验”，an experience“一次经
with pleasure“乐意”，a pleasure“一件乐事”。
some coffee“一些咖啡”，three coffees“三杯
some drink“一些饮料”，three drinks“三杯
his hair“他的头发”，a few grey hairs“几根
如：game游戏，比赛 → games运动会；mass大
量，众多，团，块 → masses群众，民众等。
注意：名词作定语时，一般用单数形式，如：shoe repairers, pencil boxes, tooth brushes。但也有例外，如：a sports car, a customs officer, a clothes shop，a goods train等。
另外，“man / woman +名词”变为复数时，作定语的man / woman和中心词都要变复数。如：men teachers。
Peter and Tom’s school。
Tom and Mike’s room (共有)
Tom’s and Mike’s books (不共有)
3. of所有格（名词+ of +名词）多用来表示无生
命的东西，如：the legs of the chair, the door
of the house。
4. 双重所有格指“of +名词的’s所有格”或“of +
名词性的物主代词”，如：a friend of my
brother’s, a picture of mine。
today’s papers; ten minutes’ walk; five
weight; ten dollars’ worth of coffee; the
population; China’s industry; New York’s
后省去。如：the tailor’s; the doctor’s, my
1.【2014江苏】She was put under house arrest two years ago but remained a powerful _____ in last year’s election.?
A. symbol B. portrait C. identity ??D. statue
2.【2015·湖北】When he was running after his brother, the boy lost his ___ and had a bad fall.
A. balance B. chance C. memory D. place
3.【2015·湖北】He gave himself a new name to hide his ____ when he went to carry out the secret task.
A. emotion B. talent C. identity D. treasure
4.【2015·安徽】There is no need to tell
me your answer now. Give it some ______
and then let me know.
A. thought B. support
C. protection D. authority
—Go and say sorry to your Mom, Dave.
—I’d like to, but I’m afraid she won’t be happy
with my ______.
A. requests B. excuses C. apologies D. regrets
的关键词“say sorry to”就可以锁定正确答案。
6.【2015·江苏】Some schools will have to make ______ in agreement with the national soccer reform.
A. judgments B. adjustments
C. comments D. achievements
7.【2015·福建】The failure was a big ______ to him, but he wasn’t discouraged and soon got as enthusiastic as ever.
A. blow B. issue C. excuse D. factor
考查名词辨析A. blow打击; B. issue问题; C. excuse借口; D. factor要素。该句意思为：这个失败对他来说是一个打击，但是他没有泄气，很快振作恢复了原来的热情。故选A。
8.【2015·浙江】One of the most effective ways to reduce _____ is to talk about feeling with someone you trust.
A. production B. stress
C. energy D. passive
【考例】You are working too hard. You’d better keep a _____ between work and
relaxation. (天津 2012)
A. promise ? B. lead C. balance ? ?D. diary
balance between ... and ...意为
When I finally arrived at my friend’s he lent me lots of clothes. ?（2011新课标全国卷短文改错）
1. Since then — for all these year — ... ?(2014
2. While there are amazing stories of instant
transformation, for most of us the 69.
_______ (change) are gradual and require a
lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a
polluted river. (2014年新课标全国卷I第三
?（Key: 69. changes）
3. ... are pictured by artists in so many
Chinese ??65 ? (painting).? （2015新课标全国
（Key: 65. paintings）
3. The nursery team switches him every few
69. ____ (day) with his sister ...
4. Recent 46. ________ (study) show that we are
far more productive at work if we take short
breaks regularly. （2016 新课标全国卷II）
5. Some people think that the great Chinese
scholar Confucius ... influenced the 68.
___________ (develop) of chopsticks.（
6. Any smell might attract natural 65. ________
(enemy) that would try to eat the little panda.
7. My uncle tells me that the key to his success is
________ (honest). （2016新课标全国卷I）
1. I keep medicines on the top shelf, out of the
2. The doctor said a fun and relaxing
____________ (气氛) could help the injured
3. Read these notes carefully and keep them for
4. Did you break the ________ (习惯) of getting
up too late on weekends?
5. People get most of their news about the
world through the mass m________.
6. There have been _____ (迹象) of
improvement seen in the economy of our
7. —It’s a w_____ of time trying to
persuade Lucy to change her mind.
—I can’t agree more. She is too stubborn.
8. The success of the product was largely due to
good ________ (设计).
1. The company’s ____________ (commit) to
guaranteeing customer satisfaction is vital to
its success in promoting sales.
2. I’m very proud of my ____________ (achieve)
as program director.
3. There was complete silence in the room as the
play came to its ____________ (conclude).
4. The forest and the land left their __________
(impress) on the people.
5. The purpose of the campaign is to raise the
public’s __________ (aware) of the dangers of
名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句。名词性从句主要有四种从句结构：以that引导的从句；以whether/ if引导的从句，以特殊疑问词引导的从句；以what或wh-ever等连接代词引导的名词性关系从句。此外，as if/ as though也可引导表语从句。具体用法见下表：
2. 连接代词：who, whom, whose, which, what, whatever, whoever等。它们除起连接作用外，还可在从句中充当主语、宾语、定语、表语等成分。
3. 连接副词：when(＝the time when什么时候，何时)，where(＝the place where什么地方，何地)，how(＝the way that/in which怎样，以……方式，如何)，why＝the reason why为什么)。它们除起连接作用，还在从句中作状语。
而且在从句中充当主语、 宾语、 表语、 定
He was not certain what should be done first.
What they need is a good textbook.
Your mother's health is not what it ought to
She saw what food I bought.
e.g. That she will refuse the offer seems
I have found (that) all the tickets have
been sold out.
It is a pity that you missed such a fine
e.g. That we are invited to a concert this
evening is good news to us.
＝It is good news to us that we are
invited to a concert this evening.
2) whether引导的主语从句可放在句首，也可放在句尾；if引导的主语从句只能放在句尾，前面需要it作形式主语。whether/ if 起连接作用，“是否”，在从句中不作成分。
e.g. Whether he will go there or not is not
It is doubtful whether/ if the work
can be completed.
wh?类连接词包括wh?类的连接代词(who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever等)和连接副词(when, where, how, why, whenever, wherever, however等)。what, when和wh-ever类的词有时可不表疑问。wh?类连接代词在句中既起连接作用，又可充当主语、宾语、表语、定语等成分。wh?类连接副词在句中起连接作用，在从句中可充当时间、地点、原因、方式状语。
e.g. That he will come and help us is certain.
Who will go to the energy conference is
e.g. What he said is true.
What he needs are books.
e.g. I know that he is friendly and
Go to stamp sales and buy whatever
you can afford.
that, whether, if的选择。
①当doubt, doubtful用于肯定句时，后面的名词性从句的连接词常用whether或if；当doubt, doubtful用于否定句或疑问句时，后面名词性从句的连接词用that。
e.g. I doubt whether/ if he is at home.
We don’t doubt that they can complete
the task ahead of time.
It is doubtful whether it is true or not.
②当be sure用于肯定句时，后面的宾语从句的连接词常用that；当be sure用于否定句时，后面的宾语从句的连接词常用whether或if。
e.g. We are sure that he is innocent.
The old man didn’t seem to be sure
whether/ if he had met me.
e.g. We are talking about whether we admit students into our club.
He was interested in whatever he saw there.
He is pleased that he has passed a tough test.
e.g. I am surprised at what he said.
e.g. You may depend on it that they will
③介词except, but, besides及in后可接that从句。
e.g. I know nothing about him except
that he lives here.
④常接宾语从句的形容词有sure, certain, glad, pleased, happy, afraid, surprised, satisfied, sorry等。
e.g. I’m afraid he won’t attend our
e.g. We are glad that so many old friends will
attend our tea party.
The headmaster said that the school
reports had been sent off.
在suggest, demand, order, insist等动词之后的宾语从句中用虚拟语气，“(should＋)动词原形”。
e.g. He suggested that we (should) set about
doing the work at once.
4) whether/ if 引导的宾语从句：
e.g. I’ll try to find out whether/ if the
machine is in good condition.
e.g. I don’t care if he doesn’t come.
由who, what, how, which, whose, where, why等词引导的宾语从句，可作动词、介词及形容词的宾语。
e.g. I can’t imagine how he did it.
We are worrying about what we
should do next.
I wasn’t certain whose house I was
e.g. I didn’t know in which building they
＝I didn’t know which building they
e.g. She says that she works from
Monday to Friday.
I know he didn’t tell you that he
would come then.
He will tell me what happened to him
during my absence.
e.g. He said there were no classes
He asked me if I was reading the
book Red and Black when he came in.
e.g. The teacher said that the world is
made up of matter.
e.g. My idea is that you should make good
use of your time.
It seems that he has been to America.
2) as if/ as though引导的表语从句，系动词通常为look，seem，sound等，从句可以用陈述语气，也可以用虚拟语气。
e.g. It looks as if it is/ were going to snow.
e.g. Our plan is that we’ll go there once a
That’s what he said.
e.g. That is where the great writer used
That is why he didn’t pass the exam.
That was when I was thirty.
e.g. The reason why he was absent from
the meeting was that he fell ill suddenly.
The reason for such a serious
accident is that the driver was too
careless and drunk.
e.g. The question is whether he has signed the
如果主句的主语是名词idea, advice, suggestion, order, request, requirement等时，则表语从句的谓语应用虚拟语气，“(should＋)动词原形”。
e.g. My suggestion is that we (should) set out at
The doctor’s advice is that you (should)
rest more and drink more.
连接代词和连接副词一般都表疑问，但what, when和where等连接词有两种含义，一种表示疑问，一种表示陈述。表陈述时，相当于the thing that, the time when, the place where, 常意为“……的人/事”、“……的时间”、“……的地点”等。
e.g. This is where he once lived.
This is what I want to know.
That was when he did the experiment.
句式 意义 例句
That is why＋结果 “那就是……的原因” That is why we don’t trust him.
That is because＋原因 “那是因为……” That is because he often lies.
The reason why...is that... “……的原因是……” The reason why we don’t trust him is that he often lies.
1. 能接同位语从句的名词：fact, idea, news, promise, information, message, belief, doubt, hope, opinion, possibility, thought, wish, truth, question, problem, reply, answer, report, suggestion, advice, order, warning等等。
e.g. We were very excited at the news that our Chinese athletes won many gold medals.
The problem that they can’t get here early is hard to solve.
同位语从句通常由that引导，但根据接同位语的名词不同，也可由whether, when, who, how, what, why等引导。
e.g. I have no idea when he will be back.
The question who was to blame has
never been settled.
e.g. Whether he can finish the work on
time is not clear.
e.g. The problem is whether the meeting
will be held.
e.g. I have no idea whether he is willing to
e.g. Whether they will join in the Winter Camp I don’t care.
e.g. We aren’t interested in whether he will agree with us or not.
e.g. We are now discussing whether we should group these three companies.
e.g. Can you tell me whether to go or to
8. 与or not直接连用时，用whether，即whether or not，如果分开时，两者都可以，即whether/ if... or not。
e.g. I don’t care whether or not he has a
＝I don’t care whether/ if he has a
holiday or not.
e.g. We are delighted at the news that we
are going to spend our summer
vacation in Dalian. (同位语从句)
Neither of us showed any interest in
the news that John told us yesterday.
e.g. The news (that) he told me surprised
The news that he gave in surprised
引导同位语从句的词除连接词that外，还可用whether，连接代词who，what及连接副词when, where, how, why等；引导定语从句的词除that外，还有关系代词who, whom, whose, which, as以及关系副词when, where, why。
（九） wh?ever和“no matter＋wh?”
wh?ever既可引导名词性从句，又可引导让步状语从句，而no matter wh?只能引导让步状语从句。
e.g. Whatever/ No matter what I said，he
wouldn’t listen to me. (让步状语从句)
He would believe whatever/ anything
that I said. (宾语从句)
1. 名词性从句的连接词。如：有词义的连接代词who, whose, whom, what, which; 连接副词when, where, why, how; 从属连词that, whether, if, as if; 无词义的that在从句中不担任成分，有时可省略。
3. it作形式主语、形式宾语的情况。 如：
4) It＋不及物动词(appear, happen等)＋that从句
1) It is (was)＋essential (important, natural…)＋that…；
2) It is (was) suggested (demanded, wished, desired…) that…等。
5. what引导名词性从句时的语义功能和语法功能。如：what＝the thing that/ anything that…；what＝the place that…；what＝the time that…；what＝the person that…等。
6. whoever, whatever, whichever引导名词性从句时的语义功能和语法功能。
重点考查连接词that, what的用法； 特殊疑问词引导的名词性从句； wh-ever引导的名词性从句。
1. I truly believe ______beauty comes from
A. that B. where C. what D. why
2. You have to know ________ you're going if
you are to plan the best way of getting there.
A. what B. that C. where D. who
3. A ship in harbor is safe, but that’s not
______ ships are built for. 【2015·安徽】
A. what B. whom
C. why D. when
4. _____ Li Bai, a great Chinese poet, was
born is known to the public, but some won’t
accept it. 【2015·江苏】
A. That B. Why
C. Where D. How
【解析】李白是中国一位伟大的诗人，他的出生地是众所周知的，但有些人不愿接受这一事实。a great Chinese poet做Li Bai的同位语，is前面是主语从句。where在从句中做地点状语。
5. _____we understand things has a lot to do
with what we feel. 【2015·北京】
A. Where B. How
C. Why D. When
1. The most pleasant thing of the rainy season is ________ one can be entirely free from dust.【北京2016】
2. The manager put forward a suggestion ________ we should have an assistant. There is too much work to do.【天津2016】
3. ... the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly
________ thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.
4. ________ the delayed flight will take off depends much on the weather.【陕西2014】
5. Some people believe _____________ has happened before or is happening now will repeat itself in the future. 【北京2014】
6. It is difficult for us to imagine ________ life was like for slaves in the ancient world.
热点考向 1 主语从句?
1) that引导主语从句时, 常用it作形式主语, 常见的句型:
①It+ be+形容词+ that从句
②It+ be+名词 (短语)+ that从句
③It+ be+过去分词(said/told/reported/decided等)+ that从句
④It+ 特殊动词 (seems/ appears/ happens/ matters)+ that从句
what引导主语从句时在从句中充当句子成分, 如主语、宾语、表语, 而that引导从句, 不充当成分。
e.g. What you said yesterday is right.