[ID:4-5945924] 高考英语语法专项复习(15份打包)
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一、及物动词与不及物动词 常见的跟单宾语的及物动词主要有:accept, admire, admit, affect, afford, discover, educate, enjoy, explain, forget, guess, invent, love, post, raise等。 常见的跟双宾语的及物动词主要有: 1. 直、间接宾语易位需加to的动词:bring, give, hand, pass, post, promise, read, return, show, teach, tell, lend等。 2. 直、间接宾语易位需加for的动词:buy, choose, cook, draw, find, fetch, make, order, paint, purchase, save, spare等。 3. 既可加to,也可加for的动词:do, get, play, sing等。 常见的不及物动词主要有:ache, agree, apologize, appear, arrive, come, go, cry, dance, die, disappear, dream, exist, fall, flow, graduate, sit, stand, stay, wait, rise, lie, happen等。 二、延续性动词与终止性动词 延续性动词可用于完成时,与以下几种时间状语连用:for +段时间,since +点时间,since +一段时间+ago,since +从句(一般过去时)等。常见的这类动词有:have, possess, keep, know, learn, live, read, sleep, wait, work, look, hear, smell等。 终止性动词不可用于现在完成时,不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,其否定形式多与until / till连用,构成“not+终止性动词+until / till ...”的句型,意为“直到……才……”。如: I will not go to bed until I finish drawing the picture tonight. 三、常见的短语动词有以下五种: 1. 动词+介词 “动词+介词”构成的短语相当于一个及物动词,后面跟宾语。被动语态中,整个短语不可分开。这类短语动词常用的有:agree on, burst into, call on, consist of, deal with, depend / rely on, die of / from, dream of, feel like, get into, hear from, insist on, look / stare?/ glare at, prepare for, result in, set about等。 2. 动词+副词 1) 用作及物动词。常用的这类短语动词有 bring up, cut off, figure out, put out, take down, take over, throw away, turn down, turn over等。 2) 用作不及物动词。常用的这类短语动词有 break down, die away, give in, go ahead, hang on, run away, stand out, set off, wake up等。 3. 动词+名词+介词。这类短语动词常用的有:catch sight of, compare notes with, declare war on / upon, get rid of, have a word with, make fun of, make use of, make preparations for, pay attention to, take care of, take hold of, take advantage of, take charge of等。 4. 动词+副词+介词。这类短语动词常用的有:catch up with, come up with, date back to, put up with, go in for, run out of等。 5. be +形容词+介词。这类短语动词常用的有:be accustomed / used to, be afraid of, be devoted to, be fond of, be familiar with, be famous for, be fit / suitable for等。 动词及其词组的灵活运用是英语的特色,也是难点,每年均为重点。历年试题中动词所占的比例最大,设题时都是给出不同的动词或短语来测试考生在具体语境中对动词(短语)意义的理解和运用。考点主要包括: 1. 动词词义辨析。包括常见动词用法辨析、近义词辨析、相近词辨析和用法相近词辨析。 If steel is heavier than water, why are ships able to ____ on the sea? 【2015·浙江】 A. float B. drown C. shrink D. split 2. 动词短语辨析。主要包括同根动词短语的辨析、同根介词或副词的动词短语辨析、 不同动词构成的动词短语的辨析以及“动词+副词+介词”短语的辨析。在动词词组的测试中,绝大多数为基础动词,出现频率较高的词有:get, turn, make, put, go, give, break, cut, come, look, keep, bring, show, pick, hold, fall, carry, pull, catch, call, take等。 除了考查其基本含义辨析外,更注重动词(短语)的新义和引申义,如: polish抛光, 磨光(本意)→修正,文饰(引申); sniff嗅,闻(本意)→鄙视地说(引申); break down发生故障,失灵,失效(本意)→坍塌,崩溃,瓦解,中断,中止(引申); look into向里面看(本意)→调查,研究(引申),同时还有“浏览”之意;work out基本意思为“解决, 算出,制订出”,还有“锻炼”的意思。 Body language can _____ a lot about your mood, so standing with your arms folded can send out a signal that you are being defensive. 【2015·浙江】 take away B. throw away C. put away D. give away 3. 考查无关联的动词辨析 做这类试题时,应充分理解题干,然后结合各选项的词义,看哪个选项符合题意。 Studies have shown that the right and left ear ______ sound differently. 【2015·浙江】 A. produce B. pronounce C. process D. download 4. 考查动词搭配 这类试题主要考查常见动词的固定搭配。 See, your computer has broken down again! It doesn’t ______ sense to buy the cheapest brand of computer just to save a few dollars. 【2015·天津】 have B. make C. display D. bring 热点考向 1 动词词义辨析? 1. 主要考点: 考查常见动词词义辨析。强调 语言的情境化, 把动词放在语境中进行考查。 2. 突破技巧: 这类试题的选项往往结构相同, 词形或意义相近。要做好这类试题, 必须从各个动词的语意差别、用法特点等方面入手, 然后结合题意选用合适的动词。 热点考向 2 高频动词短语意义辨析? 主要考点: 考查主要集中于高频的动词短语, 如break, bring, call, come, get, go, make, take, turn, put, pick, hold, keep, look, carry, set, cut, show, pull等构成的短语。需要特别关注: 1. break break away from 放弃, 打破; 脱离关系 break down 发生故障; (计划等)失败; (精神、身体)垮掉; 分解 break in 闯入, 插嘴 break into 闯入 break out (战争、瘟疫等)爆发, 突然发生 break up 打碎, 分手, 分开, 关系破裂 2. bring bring about 导致, 造成, 引起 bring down 使倒下, 使降低 bring in 引进; 带来; 赚得; 收获 bring forward 提出; 提前 bring out 出版; 生产; 使显现 bring up 抚养, 教育; 提出; 呕吐 3. call call for 要求; 需要; 去取或去接 call back 回电话; 回忆起 call in 召集; 请; 召来; 顺便来访 call up 打电话给; 召集; 使想起 call off 取消 call on 号召, 拜访 4. come come about 发生 come to 苏醒; 总计 come across 偶遇; 无意中发现 come true 实现, 成为现实(不及物) come out 出版; 结果是 come up (建议、计划等)被提出 come up with 提出(建议、计划等) come on (催促)快点; (鼓励)加油; (不耐烦)得了, 算了吧! 5. get get across 解释清楚; 使……被理解 get away from 避免; 摆脱, 逃离 get away with 侥幸成功; 侥幸做成 get around 四处走动; 传播开来 get down to 开始认真做某事 get along/on with 进展; 与……相处 get over 克服; 恢复 get rid of 摆脱; 除去 get through 通过; 完成; 接通电话 6. give give away 赠送; 泄露; 分发 give back 归还 give in 屈服; 让步; 投降; 认输 give out 分发; 发出; 公布; 用尽 give up 放弃 7. go go against 违背; 不利于; 反对 go ahead 开始(做某事); (表同意) go around 参观; (消息)传播 go by 过去; 经过 go down 下降; 下沉 go on 继续; 发生; 进行 go over 复习, 仔细检查 go through 穿过; 经历; 仔细检查 go with 与……相配 go without 没有……也行 8. hold hold back 犹豫; 隐瞒; 阻止 hold on=hang on 别挂断; 等一会儿; 坚持 hold out 坚持; 伸出 hold up 举起; 阻挡, 使耽搁 hold on to 紧紧抓住; 保留; 不放弃 9. keep keep away from 远离; 避开 keep back 留下; 隐瞒; 克制(感情) keep on 继续; 坚持下去 keep out of 置身于……外; 避开 keep up 保持; 继续; 不低落 keep up with 跟上; keep an eye out for 密切注意; 留心; 警惕 keep an eye on 照看; 密切注视 10. leave leave alone 不打扰; 不理, 不管 leave behind 留下; 丢下, 丢弃 leave out 遗漏, 忽略 11. look look around 环顾四周 look away from 把目光从……移开 look into 调查; 窥视 look back on/upon 回忆,回顾 look up 查找, 查询; 向上看 look up to 尊敬; 敬仰 look down upon 歧视, 看不起 look forward to 盼望; 期待 look through 浏览; 快速查看 look out (for) 当心, 留意, 小心 look on 旁观 12. make make use of 利用 make up 组成; 编造; 化妆; 和解 make up for 补偿; 弥补 make for 走向; 有助于; 促成, 导致 make sense 有意义; 有道理; 讲得通 make sense of 理解; 弄明白 make out 理解; 分辨出, 辨认出 make it 成功 13. put put aside 撇开; 暂不考虑; 储蓄 put away 收拾, 整理; 储存 put back 把……放回原处; 推迟 put forward 提出; 拨快 put down 记下, 写下, 镇压 put out 伸出; 扑灭; 生产; 出版 put up 建造, 张贴; 提供住宿 put up with 忍受; 容忍 put on 穿上, 增加, 上演 14. set set aside 划出; 留出; 拨出 set about doing sth. 着手做某事 set out 出发, 动身 set out to do sth. 着手做某事 set off 动身; 引起; 使爆炸 set up 建立, 创立 15. turn turn away 走开; 转过脸去 turn down 拒绝; 关小, 调低 turn up 开大; 出现, 到场 turn out 结果是, 证明是; 生产 turn over 翻转; 翻阅, 仔细考虑 turn against 反对; 背叛 turn to 转向; 求助于 16. take take after 长得像某人 take apart 拆开; 拆卸 take back 收回, 撤销 take down 记下; 拆卸; 取下 take away 带走, 拿走, 剥夺 take up 从事; 占据(时间、空间); 着手处理; 接着做 take in 吸收; 接受; 理解, 欺骗 take off 起飞; 脱下; 成功, take on 呈现; 具有; 承担; 雇用 take over 接管, 接收 take advantage of 利用 take it easy 放松, 别紧张 take your time 慢慢来, 别着急 take measures to do sth. 采取措施做某事 take action 采取行动 热点考向 3 常见的系动词的用法 1. 表示变化类的系动词,如: become, go, turn, grow, get, fall, make等。 2. 表示感觉类的系动词,如: feel, smell, taste, look, sound等。 3. 表示状态类的系动词,如: keep, remain, stand, stay, lie等。 4. 表示“像”类系动词,主要有seem, appear, look, 表示“看起来,似乎,显得”。 5. 此类系动词的特点:①只适用于主动语态;②只用于一般时态(一般现在时和一般过去时,不能用于进行时态)。 热点考向 4 动词的一词多义用法 很多动词在不同的语境中有不同的意义,因此要进行专门复习,常见的有: 1. act (v. & n. 行动) e.g. It will take several hours before the drug really acts. ( vi. 起作用) 2. address (n. 地址;vt. 写地址) e.g. President Obama was scheduled to address the American people on the evening of May 7. (vt. 向……做演说) 3. appreciate (vt. 欣赏,感激,感谢) e.g. They soon appreciated that it must be a well-designed trap. (v. 意识到) 4. attend (vt. 参加,出席) e.g. With several patients to attend that night, the nurse felt very tired. (vt. 照料,照顾) With three kids attending high school in the town, the couple had to work day and night to earn more money. (vt. 上学) 5. count (n. & v. 计数,数) e.g. It is not what you are thinking but what you are doing that counts. (v. 重要,有价值) 6. escape (vi. 逃跑,逃脱) e.g. I saw a familiar face in the crowd. However, his name escaped me for the moment. (vt. 被忘掉) The harmful gases are escaping from the pipe. (vi. 泄漏,漏出) 7. fail (vi. 失败) e.g. Fresh vegetables used to fail in winter. (vi. 不足,缺乏) With time passing by, his memory is failing. (vi. 衰退) Try as the family might, they failed to find the lost child in the town. (vi. 未能) 8. introduce (vt. 介绍) e.g. When tomatoes were first introduced into Europe, they didn’t accept them at all. (vt. 引入) 9. make (vt. 制造) e.g. New laws have been made to protect the interests of the farmers. (vt. 制定) He is making his own trouble by doing this. (vt. 引起,导致,造成) She will make a great teacher. (vt. 成为,使形成) 10. observe (vt. 观察) e.g. Having lived abroad for many years, he still observed the old traditions and customs. (vt. 遵守) Every year, we will observe the traditional Spring Festival in different ways. (vt. 庆祝) 11. work (v. & n. 工作) e.g. The medicine will soon work. (vi. 起作用) The machine works very well. (vi. 运转) 1. Tom had to ____ the invitation to the party last weekend because he was too busy. 【2015·天津】 A. turn in B. turn down C. turn over D. turn to 【解析】上个周汤姆不得不拒绝宴会的邀请, 因为他太忙了。turn in 上交;turn down拒 绝;turn over 移交;turn to求助。 2. We tend to have a better memory for things that excite our senses or ___ our emotions than for straight facts. 【2015·浙江】 A. block off B. appeal to C. subscribe to D. come across 【解析】我们趋向于对于有一些记忆会比较 清楚,这些东西是让我们激动或者是吸引我 们的。block off 封锁,appeal to 吸引, subscribe to 订阅,come across遇到。 3. If you have any doubts about your health, you’d better______ your doctor at once. 【2015·天津】 A. convince B. consult C. avoid D. affect 【解析】如果你对你的健康有任何疑问,你最 好立刻向你的医生咨询。convince 说服; consult咨询;avoid 避免;affect影响。 4. Peter will _____ his post as the head of the travel agency at the end of next month. 【2015·陕西】 A. take up B. put up C. add up D. break up 【解析】Peter在下月底将从事旅行社负责人 的职位。take up拿起,开始从事;put up竖 立;搭建;add up加起来;break up结束;分 解。 5. The whole team _____ Cristiano Ronaldo, and he seldom lets them down.【2015·江苏】 A. wait on B. focus on C. count on D. call on 【解析】全队都指望克里斯蒂亚诺·罗纳尔多, 他从未让他们失望。A“服侍,等待”;B“集中 (注意力)于”;C“指望”;D“呼吁,拜访”。 6. If you come to visit China, you will ______ a culture of amazing depth and variety. 【2015·安徽】 A. develop B. create C. substitute D. experience 【解析】如果你来中国旅游,你将会体验到 一种有深度和多样化的文化。A发展,培养; B创造;C代替;D经历。 7. In order not to be heard, she pointed her finger upwards to ____ that someone was moving about upstairs. 【2015·湖北】 A. whisper B. signal C. declare D. complain 【解析】为了能够被听到,她手指向上指, 示意有人正在楼上走动。A项“低声说,私 语”;B项“发信号,(用手势)示意”;C项 “(正式)宣称”;D项“抱怨”。 用适当的动词填空。 1. Mary was silent during the early part of the discussion but finally she ________ voice to her opinion on the subject. (天津 2016) 2. I’m going to ________ advantage of this tour to explore the history of the castle. (天津2016) 3. I hate it when she calls me at work — I’m always too busy to ________ on a conversation with her.(天津2016) gave take carry 4. Many businesses started up by college students have ________ off thanks to the comfortable climate for business creation. (江苏2016) 5. We can achieve a lot when we learn to let our differences unite, rather than ________ us.(浙江2016) taken divide I. 选用括号内合适的内容填空。 1. We all agreed that the cottage would ________ (make / turn) a perfect holiday home for the family. 2. The beautiful clouds maybe ________ (promise / record) a fine day tomorrow. 3. While I’m working I don’t want people to come to my desk just to ________ (ignore / interrupt) me. make promise interrupt 4. It is said that a plan is being made that will ________ (cost / charge) users for downloading music from the Internet, but the price will be very low. 5. Parents and children should communicate more to ________ (narrow / leave) the gap between them so that they can understand each other better. 6. With the heavy burden of study, more and more children’s eyesight is beginning to ________ (fall / fail). charge narrow? fall ? 7. According to scientists, our mental abilities begin to ________ (decline / differ) from the age of 27 after reaching the highest level at 22. 8. The parents only __________ (concerned / involved) themselves with making money and ignored the left-behind children’s education and life. 9. During the Spring Festival, friends may get together to ________ (comfort / greet) each other and wish each other good luck. decline concerned? greet 10. In general, do not ask people questions such as how much they ________ (gain / earn) in Australia. earn II. 选用方框内合适的短语动词并用其正确形式 填空(每个短语动词限用一次)。 1. Rod loves _____________ clocks. However, he never manages to put them together again. 2. You have to ______________ the things behind you that you may not be aware of. taking apart watch out for account for, agree on, break down, come about, keep up, live up to, make good use of, put down, take apart, watch out for 3. After many years’ hard work, he __________ his parents’ expectation and went to a key university. 4. Mary is really good at taking notes in class. She can ________ almost every word her teacher says. 5. That Peter has spent too much time reading novels recently may ____________ his poor grade in the exam. lived up to put down account for account for, agree on, break down, come about, keep up, live up to, make good use of, put down, take apart, watch out for 6. The six-party talk is a practical way to solve issues and we should ________________ the effective platform. 7. Mary, as well as Jim, will be very busy at that time. We’d better ___________ another time for the activity. 8. He had to pause from time to time to wipe the sweat from his forehead, because the air-conditioning system ____________. make good use of agree on broke down account for, agree on, break down, come about, keep up, live up to, make good use of, put down, take apart, watch out for 9. How did it ____________ that you missed so good a chance, which was very important for your promotion in the company? 10. Walking alone in the dark, the boy whistled to ________ his courage. come about keep up account for, agree on, break down, come about, keep up, live up to, make good use of, put down, take apart, watch out for 反意疑问句是附加在陈述句之后的一个简短 问句,对陈述句所叙述的事实或观点提出疑问。 一、反意疑问句的主语 一般来说,反意疑问句的主语要与前面陈述 句的主语保持一致。 但需注意下面几点: 1. 如果陈述句的主语是that, this, those, these,反意疑问句的主语要用it 或they。 e.g. That is your sister, isn't it? Those are mine, aren't they? 2. 如果陈述句的主语是表示人的不定代词,如anyone, someone, no one, everybody, nobody, somebody等,反意疑问句的主语可用they,也可用he 。 e.g. Everybody enjoyed the party, didn't they / he? 3. 如果陈述句的主语是表示物的不定代词,如anything, nothing, something, everything 等,反意疑问句的主语用it 。 e.g. Nothing could make her change her ideas, could it? 4. 如果陈述句的主语是非谓语动词或主语从句,反意疑问句的主语用it 。 e.g. Learning how to repair motors takes a long time, doesn't it? That he missed the exam made his parents worried, didn't it? 5. Let's与Let us / me 后的反意疑问句的主语不同。 e.g. Let's not discuss it now, shall we? Let us / me have a look at your book, will you? 6. 陈述句如果是there be句型,反意疑问句的主语用there。 e.g. There is something wrong, isn't there? 二、反意疑问句的助动词 反意疑问句的助动词要与陈述句的助动词保 持一致。 1. 在含I am 的陈述句之后,反意疑问句的助动词用aren't。 e.g. I'm older than you, aren't I? 2. 陈述句的谓语动词为have to 时,反意疑问句用do作助动词。 e.g. He had to look carefully to see it, didn't he? 3. 陈述句的谓语动词含有used to 时,反意疑问句可用use(d)或did作助动词。 e.g. She used to help you with cooking, use(d)n't / didn't she? 4. 陈述句含有ought to 时,反意疑问句用ought或should 作助动词。 e.g. You ought to tell me about it, oughtn't / shouldn't you? 5. 当陈述句中有实义动词dare或need 时,反意疑问句用do作助动词; 当陈述句中有情态动词dare或need 时,反意疑问句仍用这两个词作助动词。 e.g. They don 't dare to come, do they? They dare not come, dare they? 6. 陈述句中有情态动词must 时,反意疑问句用什么样的助动词依must 的含义而定: 1) must 意为“一定,准是”时,反意疑问句中的助动词要与must 后面的动词相照应,但有时亦可用mustn't。 当陈述句谓语是must have done,且句中有明确的表示过去的时间状语时,反意疑问句用did或must 作助动词。 He must be very tired, isn't / mustn't he? He must have waited here for a long time, hasn't /mustn't he? (没有表示过去的时间状语) You must have seen the play last week, didn't / mustn't you? (带有表示过去的时间状语) 2) must 意为“必须”时,反意疑问句中的助动词可用needn't 或mustn't。如: e.g. You must go home right now, needn't / mustn't you? 3) mustn't 意为“禁止”时,反意疑问句中的助动词要用may。 e.g. The children mustn't play in the street, may they? 三、反意疑问句用肯定还是否定 陈述句是肯定句,反意疑问句用否定式; 陈述句是否定句,反意疑问句用肯定式。 如果陈述句含有表示否定或半否定意义的单词,如not, no, never, none, little, seldom, hardly, few, nowhere, nothing等,这个句子被看成否定句,反意疑问句用肯定式。 e.g. She seldom goes to the cinema, does she? 四、陈述句是主从复合句或其它句子时的 反意疑问句 1. 陈述句是主从复合句时,反意疑问句通常与主句保持一致。但主句中如果有I think / believe / suppose等时,反意疑问句应与其宾语从句保持一致。 e.g. She says that I did it, doesn't she? I don't think he is right, is he? 2. 陈述句是并列句时,反意疑问句与后一个分句保持一致。 e.g. She pretended to be angry, but she was not, was she? 3. 感叹句的反意疑问句通常用否定式,助动词一般用be 。 e.g. How well the job has been done, isn’t it? 4. 祈使句的反意疑问句通常用will 或can 作助动词。祈使句为肯定句时,反意疑问句常用will /won't / can / can't you;祈使句为否定句,反意疑问句则常用will / can you。 e.g. Carry this box for me, will / won’t / can / can’t you? Don't forget to phone me, will / can you? 从A、B、C、D四个选项中, 选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 —I spent two weeks in London last summer. —Then you must have visited the British Museum during your stay, _____ you? (重 庆2014) A. mustn’t??? ??????????????????B. haven’t??? C. didn’t????? ?????????????????? D. hadn’t I. 用反意疑问句补全下面句子。 1. You have to arrive before half past eight, ____________? 2. That's the shop where you used to work, ________? 3. You would tell me if you knew, ____________? 4. That 's the guy who was on TV the other night, ________? don't you isn't it wouldn't you isn't it 5. She won't be here for another hour, ________? 6. You may think you know the answer but you don't, ________? 7. After working so hard he didn't deserve to fail the exam, ________? 8. There is a lot of work to do today, ___________? 9. You don't happen to know if the No. 50 bus has already passed here, ________? will she do you did he isn't there do you II.从A、B、C、D 四个选项中选出正确的 句子。 1. A. Birds rarely build nests in our garden, don' t they? B. As a student, you used to work part-time at a coffee shop, didn't you? C. Judging by the smell, the food must be good, is it? D. You used to be in the same history class as me, weren't you? B 2. A. Nobody is absent today, aren't they? B. This pie looks delicious, isn't it? It 's making my mouth water. C. We can pick up a bottle of milk on the way home, can't we? D. That's a new pair of boots, are they? C 3. A. You couldn't recommend a good place to have a quick meal, can you? B. You weren't paying attention to me, are you? C. It 's cold today, so wear warm clothing, will you? D. You've never come to this park before, did you? C 1. 构词法的三种构成形式。 2. 派生、转化及合成词的灵活使用。 ? 英语构词法主要有三种:合成、转化和派生。 一、合成 合成是指将两个意思不同的单词结合成一个新词。合成形式主要有以下几种: 1. 合成名词 名词+名词:postman, girlfriend, flowerbed, notebook 形容词+名词:blackboard, supermarket, greenhouse 名词+动词:daybreak, sunrise, breastfeed 动词-ing形式+名词:reading room, washing machine 名词+动词-ing形式:handwriting, papermaking 动词+名词:pickpocket, workroom 动词+副词:breakup, get-together 其它形式:go-between, passer-by 2. 合成形容词 形容词 / 数词+名词+ed:warm-hearted, five-storeyed 名词+过去分词:home-made, hand-made 名词+形容词:world-famous, ice-cool 形容词/数词+名词:full-time, second-hand 形容词+过去分词:newborn, short-sighted 副词+过去分词:well-known, newly-built 其它形式:face-to-face, evergreen 3. 合成代词 代词宾格/物主代词+ self/selves:herself, ourselves 某些不定代词some, any, every, no等+ body/one/thing:anyone, nothing 4. 合成介词 介词+介词:throughout, within 5. 合成副词 副词+名词:indoors, overhead, upstairs 介词+名词:alongside, beforehand 名词+形容词:sky-high 副词+介词:nearby 其它形式:meanwhile, headfirst 6. 合成动词 副词+动词:overhear, overwork, underline 名词+动词:moonwalk, sunbathe 形容词+动词:whitewash, safeguard 二、转化 转化是指一个单词的词形不经过任何变化而由一种词性转化为另一种或几种词性。 1. 动词转化为名词 有些词在转化过程中词义变化不大,如try, swim, shout, cry, kiss, wash, guess等。有些动词转化为名词时意义有一定的变化,如feed(v. 喂养→n. 饲料),draw(v. 画画,抽,拉→n. 平局)等。 2. 形容词转化为动词、名词或副词 ①有些形容词可以转化为动词。如:quiet(adj. 安静的 → v. 使安静)。 ②有些形容词可以转化为名词。如:quiet (adj. 安静的,寂静的 → n. 安静,寂静); calm (adj. 镇静的 → n. 泰然自若)。 ③有些形容词可以转化为副词。如:dear, high, low, cheap, full, near, close, long等。 3. 一些其它情况的转化。如: They forwarded his mail to his new address. (adv.→ v.) The people are walking north. (n.→ adv.) 三、派生 派生是指通过给一个单词加前缀或后缀构成另一个词。前缀一般改变词义而不改变词性, 后缀一般改变词性而不改变词义。 1. 常见前缀: 1)in-, il-, im-, ir-, un-, non- (表否定): incomplete, illegal, impossible, irregular, unwise, non-smoker 2)dis-, un- (表反向或反义): disconnect, untie 3)mis- (表贬义): misunderstand, mislead 4)over-, super-, under- (表程度): overweight, supermarket, undercharge 5)fore-, trans-, inter- (表位置): forehead, transplant, international 6)re-, post-, pre- (表次序、时间): rebuild, post-war, pre-school 7)bi-, tri-, multi-, semi- (表数量): bicycle, tricycle, multi-racial, semicircle 8)a-, en- (转化词类): asleep, endanger 2. 常见后缀: 1)名词后辍 -ery, -ry (表性质、场所): bravery, nursery -hood (表身份、性质): motherhood, brotherhood 形容词后面加-ism (表主义、行为): socialism, criticism 名词后加-ship (表状态、身份): friendship, membership 动词或者名词后加-ess (表女性): waitress 动词后加-ee (表动作承受者): employee 动词后加-er或-or (表施事者): employer, actor -ist (表主义者、从事某种职业): socialist, violinist -al (表行为、结果): refusal, arrival 动词后去不发音的-e加-tion或直接加-tion(表 过程、状态): translation, election 动词后加ment (表……的行为): arrangement, movement -ity, -ness (形容词转名词): diversity, happiness 2)形容词后缀 -ed (动词后加ed表具有): excited, amazed -ful (名词后加ful表充满): hopeful, thankful -ish (表类似): childish -less (名词后面加less, 表没有……的): careless, useless -like (表“像”): childlike -ly (表特色、“每”): motherly, daily -y (表具有……特征): sandy -able, -ive (动词转形容词): changeable, attractive -al, -ial, -ical (名词后加, 表具有……特点,与……有关): accidental, professorial, psychological 3)副词后缀 形容词或名词后加-ly: calmly, carefully 表示地点或方位的词后加-ward(s)变为副词。如:southward(s), backward(s), outward(s)等。 4)动词后缀 -en, -ify, -ize: widen, simplify, beautify, symbolize I. 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(不多于3个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 1. While there are 68. ________ (amaze) stories of instant transformation, for most of us the changes are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. Just be 70. ________ (patience). (2014年新课标全国卷I第三部分) patient amazing 2. There were many people waiting at the bus stop, and some of them looked very anxious and 43. ______________ (disappoint). ?(2014年新课标全国卷II第二部分) disappointed? 3. Jonny: Bend your knees slightly and reach out your arms like tree branches, naturally and 62. ______ (soft). Try to keep your body straight. Move slowly, then be sure to keep your balance and don’t let your body shake. Peter:? I cannot control my body well. My legs become 63. ________ (pain). ?(2014年辽宁卷第三部分) painful? softly 4. In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their ?63 ?(able) to “air condition” a house ...?? ? (2015新课标全国卷II第三部分) ability 5. Chengdu has dozens of new millionaires, Asia’s biggest building, and fancy new hotels. But for tourists like me, pandas are its top 61. ________ (attract). (2016 新课 标全国卷I) 6. Then, handle the most important tasks first so you’ll feel a real sense of 42. ____________ (achieve). (2016 新课标 全国卷II) attraction achievement II. 根据下列各句句意和空白之后的汉语提示 词,写出对应单词的正确、完整形式,每 空只写一词。 1. I’m happy that my 80-year-old grandma has learned how to ________? (下载) from the Internet.? (2014年陕西卷单词拼写) 2. They failed to reach a settlement, because they _________ (不同意) too much with each other. ?(2014年陕西卷单词拼写) disagreed download? 根据括号内的提示写出所缺单词的正确形式。 A 1. I don’t think we’ll go down to the beach today. It’s too ________ (cloud). 2. It took us quite a long time to get to the Art Gallery. It was a(n) _________ (三小时的) journey. 3. We decided to take the flat because it was quite large and the rent was very __________ (reason). cloudy three-hour reasonable 4. This bike is ____________ ( 二手的) but it’s still in good condition. 5. Drug ________ (addict) is a problem causing great concern. 6. My brother is really ____________ (辛 勤工作的). He often works in his office far into the night. 7. After losing her job she was ___________ (employ) for a month. 8. I’m not sure at all. I really can’t say with _________ (certain). second-hand addiction hard-working unemployed certainty B Eve: I think it necessary to have some cultural 1. ______________ (communicate) between children in different countries. Ben: I couldn’t agree more. It is 2. ___________ (mean). Not only can it broaden our 3. ______________ (多种文化的) knowledge and enrich our lives, it can also enable us to develop unlimited love and 4. ________ (friend) with others from various social 5. ____________ (背景). communication meaningful multicultural friendship backgrounds C Although my sister and I have a(n) 1. ________ (differ) mother, we are 2. ________ (certain) alike. This is not just a matter of 3. ___________ (appear) though we are small with curly hair and have a tendency to overeat and put on weight. The resemblance goes much further than that. Throughout our 4. _________ (child) we were brought up to be very adaptable and our 5. _______ (able) to accept change is another characteristic we share. certainly appearance different childhood ability Another would be 6. ________ (shy). We all hate parties where you have to walk into a(n) 7. ________ (room) of strange faces. We are all interested in wearing 8. __________ (fashion) clothes and we often share our clothes. 9. _____________ (fortune), this causes arguments. We really should come to a(n) 10. __________ (agree) about who can borrow what from whom. shyness fashionable agreement roomful unfortunately 考点一 基本用法 1. 定冠词的基本用法 用于特指一定的人、事物或上下文提到的 人、事物。如: I woke up with a bad headache, yet by the evening the pain had gone.?? (2) 在表示世界上独一无二的事物前。如: The moon turns round the earth. Drivers always sit on the left of buses. (3) 在单数名词前,表示某一类别或某项发 明。如:The tiger is a dangerous animal. (4) 在由普通名词构成的专有名词前及表示江、河、湖、海、山川、群岛等的名词前。如: We are said to be living in the Information Age, a time of new discoveries and great changes. (5) 在序数词、形容词最高级前或用于特 指“两者中较……的一个”。如: As is known to all, the People’s Republic of China is the biggest developing country in the world. (6) 在方位名词前、某些习惯用语或表示时间 的词组中:on the left, in the east / west,?on the other hand, in the end, the other day等。 (7) 在形容词前表示一类人或事物。如:the poor / rich / young / dying / good / unknown 等。 (8) 在姓氏复数形式前,表示全家人或夫妇 二人。如:The Smiths are sitting at the table. (9) 在表示度量单位的名词前,表示“每一”。 如: —It’s said John will be in a job paying over $60,000 a year. —Right, he will also get paid by the week. 口诀记忆the的用法 特指熟悉与复述,独一无二全用the。 方位乐器名词前,序数形最乐位惯。 复数姓氏与专有,习惯用语最后添。 2. 不定冠词的基本用法 (1) 用在可数名词前表示“一个”,含义上相当于 “one”。如: The development of industry has been a gradual process throughout human existence, from stone tools to modern technology.?? (2) 与单数可数名词连用,表示某一类人或事物;亦可 泛指某一类人或事物中的“任何一个”。如: It is generally accepted that a boy must learn to stand up and fight like a man. ? (3) 用在抽象名词或物质名词前,表示“一种,一 次,一类”等意义。如: He had a strong dislike for cold weather. (4) 用在序数词前,表示“再一,又一”。如: He missed the gold in the high jump, but will get a second chance in the long jump. ? (5) 用在专有名词前,相当于“一位,一个,某位, 某个”或“……式的人”。如: Experts think that the recently discovered painting may be a Picasso. (6) 用在某些固定词组中:all of a sudden, as a matter of fact, go out for a walk, have a good time, make a difference, make a living, have an idea of, have a good knowledge of等。如: I don’t understand what the engineer means, but I’ve got a rough idea of the project plan. (7) 用在季节、月份、星期或节日的名词前,表 示某个特定的季节、月份、日子或节日。如: The accident happened on a rainy Sunday towards the end of July. 3. 零冠词的用法(不用冠词的情况) (1) 复数名词表泛指时,其前不加冠词。如: The Smiths don’t usually like staying at hotels, but last summer they spent a few days at a very nice hotel by the sea.? (2) 可数名词前有物主代词、指示代词、不定代词、名 词所有格时,其前不用冠词。如: Jack’s English book is lying on his desk. (3) 专有名词、物质名词、抽象名词和表示人名、地名 等的名词前,通常不用冠词。如: Sarah looked at the finished painting with satisfaction.? (4) 表示季节、月份、星期、节日、一日三餐的名词 前,以及表示体育运动项目、学科、运输或通讯方 式等的名词前,通常不用冠词。如: We’re going to watch a match on Sunday. (5) 表示职务、头衔的名词作表语、同位语、补足语等 时,其前不用冠词。如: Sam has been appointed manager of the engineering department to take place of George. (6) 在某些固定搭配中, 如:at dawn, on second thoughts, come to light, come to power, give birth to, out of control, in public, ahead of time, in debt, hand in hand, in place of, do harm to等。 4. 有无冠词意义迥异的短语 无冠词 有冠词 on office执政 in the office在办公室 in prison 坐牢 in the/a prison在监狱 go to church 去做礼拜 go to the church 去教堂 go to sea 当水手 go to the sea 去海边 in charge of 负责,管理 in the charge of 由……负责 out of question 不成问题 out of the question不可能 考点二 习语、固定短语中的冠词 1. 不定冠词用于短语搭配中。 (1) “have/take+a(n)+与动词同形的名词”, 表示动作的一次。 have/take a rest 休息一会儿 have/take a look 看一下 have/take a bath 洗个澡 (2) “go out for a(n)+名词”,表示从事某项活动。 go out for a picnic去野餐 (3) 习惯搭配。 as a matter of fact; in a hurry; in a word; a waste of; in a way; come to an end; all of a sudden; have a(n)...knowledge of; have a(n)...understanding/grasp /feeling off 2. 定冠词用于固定搭配。 in the morning; on the other hand; on the contrary; on the air; in the end; come to the point; the ABC of... 3. 在一些固定短语中,名词前不用冠词。 at night; at home; day after day; by telephone; in danger; on purpose; out of control; under+n.; be home to 1. I can’t tell you _____ way to the Wilson’s because we don’t have _____ Wilson here in the village.? (重庆2014) A. the; a??????? ???????? B. a; 不填 C. a; the??????? ???????? D. the; 不填 2. They chose Tom to be _____ captain of the team because they knew he was _____ smart leader. (江西2014) A. a; the???????? ????????????? B. the; the C. the; a ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? D. a; a 3. ______ more learned a man is, ______ more modest be usually become. (2015·陕西) A. The; the B. A; a C. The; a D. A; the 【解析】句意: 一个人越有学识,他就越可能 更谦虚。这里用的是:the +比较级+主谓, the+比较级+主谓的句型,表示“越……, 就越……”。 4. Brian is gifted in writing music; he is very likely to be _____ Beethoven. (2015·四川) A. a B. an C. the D. 不填 【解析】本题考查不定冠词在人名前,表 示:一个像…那样的人。故选择A,句意 为:Brian在创作音乐上极有才华,他很有 可能成为一个像贝多芬那样的人才。 5. Jane’s grandmother had wanted to write ______ children’s book for many years, but one thing or another always got in _____ way. (2015·浙江) A. a;不填 B. the; the C. 不填; the D. a; the 【解析】 试题分析:句意:多年来,简的奶奶想写一 本有关于儿童的书,但总是被这样或那样的 原因阻碍了。第一个空使用不定冠词表泛 指,第二个in the way 是固定搭配,意为挡道 或阻碍。定冠词用于特指或者是固定搭配, 不定冠词用于泛指。 6. I just heard ____ bank where Dora works was robbed by ____ gunman wearing a mask. (2015·重庆) A. the; / B. a; / C. the; a D. a; the 7. Now I am living in a city, but I miss my home in countryside.? (2015新课标全国卷I 短文改错) 8. Mr. Johnson lived in the woods with his wife and children. He owned ?16 ?farm, which looked almost abandoned.? (广东2015语法 填空) 9. Now, years later, this river is one of ?63 ?most outstanding examples of environmental cleanup.? (2014新课标全国 卷I第三部分) countryside前加the a the 10. There are all kinds of the flowers and trees around the classroom buildings. ?(2014新课标全国卷II短文改错) 去掉flowers前的the 11. ... while one is being bottle-fed, 70. ___ other is with mum ... (2016 新 课标全国卷I) 12. Give your body and brain a rest by stepping outside for 48. ___ while, exercising, or doing something you enjoy. (2016 新课标全国卷II) the a Ⅰ. 用适当的冠词填空。 1. Tunisia achieved independence from French colonial rule after _____ long struggle. 2. You wouldn’t have caught such _____ bad cold if you hadn’t been caught in _____ rain. a a the 3. If you go by train, you can have quite a comfortable journey, but make sure you get _____ fast one. 4. You really ought to make _____ most of the opportunity, because you won’t get _____ second chance. 5. I know the accident happened on _____ Saturday of last month because none of my children went to school. a a a the Ⅱ. 单句改错。 1. After ?a? hour?or?so?we?began?to?feel very?frightened.? 2. I decided to climb the tree to see where we were. 3. Modern people know more about the health, have better food, and live in clearer surroundings. an a 4. Maybe you could come during a winter holidays. 5. Each player must obey captain, who is the leader of the team. the the III. 用适当的冠词完成下面短文 (零冠词用“/”表示)。 Ms Parrot, 1. ____ most famous lady detective of 2. ____ twenty-first century, was born in the United Kingdom in 3. ____ 1960s. Since then, she has been to many countries, including Portugal, Singapore and 4. ____ Australia. She can speak 5. ___ English, French and Portuguese. Like Sherlock Holmes, she plays the violin, and sometimes practises up to five times 6. __ day. the the the / / a She is also 7. ____ only person in the world to have performed Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture in one breath on the recorder. She has been a detective for thirty years and claims that although many people think that being a detective is 8. __ piece of cake, detectives generally work very hard and it is not all fun and games. a the 1. 可数名词的复数不规则变化 一、名词的单复数 种类 例词 单复数同形 deer, sheep, Chinese, means, series, species, works, headquarters, aircraft 形单意复 people, police, youth, cattle, staff 形复意单 news, physics, politics 种类 例词 合成词变复数 1)将最后一部分变为复数, 如filmgoer → filmgoers。 2)将主体词变为复数,如son- in-law → sons-in-law。 3)将两部分皆变为复数,如 man doctor → men doctors。 词形变化 man→men, child→children,tooth→teeth, foot→feet, mouse→mice,medium→media 2. 不可数名词的数 (1) 有些抽象名词在具体化时,以复数形式出现;表示特指时,可以和定冠词连用;表示“某种”或“一次”的意义时,可以和不定冠词连用。 in surprise“惊讶地”,a surprise“一件令人惊讶 的事”;win success“获得成功”,a success“一个/件成功的人/事”; by experience“靠经验”,an experience“一次经 历”; with pleasure“乐意”,a pleasure“一件乐事”。 (2) 物质名词是不可数名词,但表示数量或种类 之多时,可以用作可数名词,有单、复 数。 some coffee“一些咖啡”,three coffees“三杯 咖啡”; some drink“一些饮料”,three drinks“三杯 饮料”; his hair“他的头发”,a few grey hairs“几根 白发”; glass“玻璃”,a glass“一只玻璃杯”。 (3) 有些不可数名词的复数形式表示特殊的意 义。 time“时间”,times“次数,时代,倍”; wood“木头”,woods“树林”; sand“沙子”,sands“沙滩”; work“工作”,works“工厂,著作,工程, 工事”。 注意:有些名词的单复数具有不同的含义, 如:game游戏,比赛 → games运动会;mass大 量,众多,团,块 → masses群众,民众等。 二、名词的作用 名词在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、主语补足语、宾语补足语、定语、同位语、状语。 注意:名词作定语时,一般用单数形式,如:shoe repairers, pencil boxes, tooth brushes。但也有例外,如:a sports car, a customs officer, a clothes shop,a goods train等。 另外,“man / woman +名词”变为复数时,作定语的man / woman和中心词都要变复数。如:men teachers。 三、名词的所有格 名词的所有格在句中表示所属关系,用来作定语,修饰名词。 1. -’s所有格,多用来表示有生命的东西,如: Peter and Tom’s school。 2. 如果一个事物为两个人共有,只在后一个名 词的词尾加 “’s”;如果不是共有,就要在两 个名词的词尾都加“’s”。如: Tom and Mike’s room (共有) Tom’s and Mike’s books (不共有) 3. of所有格(名词+ of +名词)多用来表示无生 命的东西,如:the legs of the chair, the door of the house。 4. 双重所有格指“of +名词的’s所有格”或“of + 名词性的物主代词”,如:a friend of my brother’s, a picture of mine。 5. 表示时间、距离、价格、重量、国家、城市 的无生命名词,可以在词尾加“’s”或“’”表示 所有格。 today’s papers; ten minutes’ walk; five pounds’ weight; ten dollars’ worth of coffee; the world’s population; China’s industry; New York’s parks 6. 表示店铺或某人的家时,常在名词所有格之 后省去。如:the tailor’s; the doctor’s, my uncle’s。 考点一 名词词义辨析 高考对名词词义辨析的考查主要体现在单项填空和完形填空中,其选项基本上是形似的词、意义相近但用法不同的词或者形式和意义都不相关的词。解这类题的关键是要弄清楚选项中各个名词的含义,同时也要注意联系上下文的搭配和语境。 1.【2014江苏】She was put under house arrest two years ago but remained a powerful _____ in last year’s election.? A. symbol B. portrait C. identity ??D. statue 2.【2015·湖北】When he was running after his brother, the boy lost his ___ and had a bad fall. A. balance B. chance C. memory D. place 3.【2015·湖北】He gave himself a new name to hide his ____ when he went to carry out the secret task. A. emotion B. talent C. identity D. treasure 4.【2015·安徽】There is no need to tell me your answer now. Give it some ______ and then let me know. A. thought B. support C. protection D. authority 【解析】 试题分析:句意:现在没必要告诉我答案, 你再思考一下,之后告诉我。A思考;B支持 ;C保护;D权威,当局。这里指让对方再好 好想想,故选A。 5.【2015·江苏】 —Go and say sorry to your Mom, Dave. —I’d like to, but I’m afraid she won’t be happy with my ______. A. requests B. excuses C. apologies D. regrets 【解析】 试题分析:句意:—Dave,去跟你的妈妈道歉 。—我想这样做,但是我担心她对我的道歉不 满意。A项“请求”;B项“借口”;C项“道歉”; D项“遗憾,后悔”。故选C项。只要抓住上文中 的关键词“say sorry to”就可以锁定正确答案。 6.【2015·江苏】Some schools will have to make ______ in agreement with the national soccer reform. A. judgments B. adjustments C. comments D. achievements 【解析】 试题分析:句意:为了与国家的足球改革相适应,一些学校必须做出调整。A项“判断,决断”;B项“调整”;C项“评价,评论”;D项“成就”。故选B项。 7.【2015·福建】The failure was a big ______ to him, but he wasn’t discouraged and soon got as enthusiastic as ever. A. blow B. issue C. excuse D. factor 【解析】 考查名词辨析A. blow打击; B. issue问题; C. excuse借口; D. factor要素。该句意思为:这个失败对他来说是一个打击,但是他没有泄气,很快振作恢复了原来的热情。故选A。 8.【2015·浙江】One of the most effective ways to reduce _____ is to talk about feeling with someone you trust. A. production B. stress C. energy D. passive 考点二 名词固定搭配 【考例】You are working too hard. You’d better keep a _____ between work and relaxation. (天津 2012) A. promise ? B. lead C. balance ? ?D. diary 【分析】选C。该题考查固定搭配。keep a balance between ... and ...意为 “在……和……之间保持平衡”。 考点三 名词的格 名词所有格主要体现在短文改错中。如: When I finally arrived at my friend’s he lent me lots of clothes. ?(2011新课标全国卷短文改错) 考点四 名词的数 对名词单复数的考查主要体现在单词拼写、语法填空以及短文改错中。 【考例】 1. Since then — for all these year — ... ?(2014 年新课标全国卷I短文改错) ?(Key: year改为years) 2. While there are amazing stories of instant transformation, for most of us the 69. _______ (change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. (2014年新课标全国卷I第三 部分) ?(Key: 69. changes) 3. ... are pictured by artists in so many Chinese ??65 ? (painting).? (2015新课标全国 卷I第三部分) (Key: 65. paintings) 3. The nursery team switches him every few 69. ____ (day) with his sister ... (2016 新课标全国卷I) 4. Recent 46. ________ (study) show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks regularly. (2016 新课标全国卷II) 5. Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius ... influenced the 68. ___________ (develop) of chopsticks.( 2016新课标全国卷III) days studies development 6. Any smell might attract natural 65. ________ (enemy) that would try to eat the little panda. (四川2016) 7. My uncle tells me that the key to his success is ________ (honest). (2016新课标全国卷I) honesty enemies I. 根据下面各句句意以及所给单词的首字母或汉语提示词,写出该单词的正确形式(每空一词)。 1. I keep medicines on the top shelf, out of the children’s r________. 2. The doctor said a fun and relaxing ____________ (气氛) could help the injured recover faster. reach atmosphere 3. Read these notes carefully and keep them for future r________. 4. Did you break the ________ (习惯) of getting up too late on weekends? 5. People get most of their news about the world through the mass m________. 6. There have been _____ (迹象) of improvement seen in the economy of our country. habit media reference signs 7. —It’s a w_____ of time trying to persuade Lucy to change her mind. —I can’t agree more. She is too stubborn. 8. The success of the product was largely due to good ________ (设计). waste design II. 用括号内单词的正确形式填空。 1. The company’s ____________ (commit) to guaranteeing customer satisfaction is vital to its success in promoting sales. 2. I’m very proud of my ____________ (achieve) as program director. 3. There was complete silence in the room as the play came to its ____________ (conclude). 4. The forest and the land left their __________ (impress) on the people. conclusion impression?? achievement commitment 5. The purpose of the campaign is to raise the public’s __________ (aware) of the dangers of passive smoking. awareness (一) 名词性从句的结构和功能 名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句。名词性从句主要有四种从句结构:以that引导的从句;以whether/ if引导的从句,以特殊疑问词引导的从句;以what或wh-ever等连接代词引导的名词性关系从句。此外,as if/ as though也可引导表语从句。具体用法见下表: (二)名词性从句的连接词 引导名词性从句的连接词有:从属连词、连接代词和连接副词。 1. 从属连词:that(本身无意义),whether(是否),if(是否)。只起连接作用,在从句中不作任何成分。 2. 连接代词:who, whom, whose, which, what, whatever, whoever等。它们除起连接作用外,还可在从句中充当主语、宾语、定语、表语等成分。 3. 连接副词:when(=the time when什么时候,何时),where(=the place where什么地方,何地),how(=the way that/in which怎样,以……方式,如何),why=the reason why为什么)。它们除起连接作用,还在从句中作状语。 【温馨提示】 what与that引导名词性从句的区别: what引导名词性从句时不仅起连接作用, 而且在从句中充当主语、 宾语、 表语、 定 语等。如: He was not certain what should be done first. What they need is a good textbook. Your mother's health is not what it ought to be. She saw what food I bought. 2) that引导名词性从句不充当任何句子成分,只起连接作用,无任何意义。引导主语从句时,常用it作形式主语,谓语动词用单数,引导宾语从句时,常被省略。 e.g. That she will refuse the offer seems unlikely. I have found (that) all the tickets have been sold out. It is a pity that you missed such a fine talk. (三)主语从句 1. 主语从句的基本用法 1) that引导的主语从句既可放在句首,也可放在句尾,that起连接作用,无词义,在从句中不作成分,一般不能省略。 e.g. That we are invited to a concert this evening is good news to us. =It is good news to us that we are invited to a concert this evening. 2) whether引导的主语从句可放在句首,也可放在句尾;if引导的主语从句只能放在句尾,前面需要it作形式主语。whether/ if 起连接作用,“是否”,在从句中不作成分。 e.g. Whether he will go there or not is not clear. It is doubtful whether/ if the work can be completed. 3) wh?类连接词引导的主语从句: wh?类连接词包括wh?类的连接代词(who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever等)和连接副词(when, where, how, why, whenever, wherever, however等)。what, when和wh-ever类的词有时可不表疑问。wh?类连接代词在句中既起连接作用,又可充当主语、宾语、表语、定语等成分。wh?类连接副词在句中起连接作用,在从句中可充当时间、地点、原因、方式状语。 2. 主语从句的单复数问题 1) 从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数。 e.g. That he will come and help us is certain. Who will go to the energy conference is not important. 2) what引导的从句作主语,表示单数概念,谓语动词一般用单数形式;表示复数概念,则谓语动词常用复数。 e.g. What he said is true. What he needs are books. (四) 宾语从句 1. 宾语从句的基本用法: 1) 动词后接宾语从句的用法: e.g. I know that he is friendly and hospitable. Go to stamp sales and buy whatever you can afford. 【温馨提示】 doubt, doubtful与sure后名词性从句连接词 that, whether, if的选择。 ①当doubt, doubtful用于肯定句时,后面的名词性从句的连接词常用whether或if;当doubt, doubtful用于否定句或疑问句时,后面名词性从句的连接词用that。 e.g. I doubt whether/ if he is at home. We don’t doubt that they can complete the task ahead of time. It is doubtful whether it is true or not. ②当be sure用于肯定句时,后面的宾语从句的连接词常用that;当be sure用于否定句时,后面的宾语从句的连接词常用whether或if。 e.g. We are sure that he is innocent. The old man didn’t seem to be sure whether/ if he had met me. 2) 介词及形容词后接宾语从句的用法: e.g. We are talking about whether we admit students into our club. He was interested in whatever he saw there. He is pleased that he has passed a tough test. 【温馨提示】 ①一般情况下介词后只能用wh?类连接词引导的宾语从句。 e.g. I am surprised at what he said. ②介词后如果接that从句,要先加上it,再加that从句,即“介词+it+that...”结构。 e.g. You may depend on it that they will support you. ③介词except, but, besides及in后可接that从句。 e.g. I know nothing about him except that he lives here. ④常接宾语从句的形容词有sure, certain, glad, pleased, happy, afraid, surprised, satisfied, sorry等。 e.g. I’m afraid he won’t attend our wedding. 3) that引导的宾语从句: e.g. We are glad that so many old friends will attend our tea party. The headmaster said that the school reports had been sent off. 【温馨提示】 在suggest, demand, order, insist等动词之后的宾语从句中用虚拟语气,“(should+)动词原形”。 e.g. He suggested that we (should) set about doing the work at once. 4) whether/ if 引导的宾语从句: e.g. I’ll try to find out whether/ if the machine is in good condition. 【温馨提示】 ①whether/ if引导宾语从句表示“是否”的意思时,一般情况下可互换。 ②if引导宾语从句时可以有否定式,而whether从句则没有。 e.g. I don’t care if he doesn’t come. 5) 特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句: 由who, what, how, which, whose, where, why等词引导的宾语从句,可作动词、介词及形容词的宾语。 e.g. I can’t imagine how he did it. We are worrying about what we should do next. I wasn’t certain whose house I was in. 【温馨提示】 如果疑问词是介词的宾语,介词可位于从句句首或句末。 e.g. I didn’t know in which building they lived. =I didn’t know which building they lived in. 2. 宾语从句的时态 1) 主句为现在或将来时态 主句谓语动词如果是现在时或将来时,从句谓语动词可用任何所需要的时态。 e.g. She says that she works from Monday to Friday. I know he didn’t tell you that he would come then. He will tell me what happened to him during my absence. 2) 主句为过去时态 主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,从句的谓语动词要用相应的过去时态。 e.g. He said there were no classes yesterday afternoon. He asked me if I was reading the book Red and Black when he came in. 3) 表示客观事实或真理 如果从句表示客观事实或真理,不管主句的谓语动词是何时态,从句都要用现在时态。 e.g. The teacher said that the world is made up of matter. (五) 表语从句 1. 表语从句的基本用法 1) 基本结构:主语+系动词+表语从句,常用的系动词有be,seem,remain,look等。 e.g. My idea is that you should make good use of your time. It seems that he has been to America. 2) as if/ as though引导的表语从句,系动词通常为look,seem,sound等,从句可以用陈述语气,也可以用虚拟语气。 e.g. It looks as if it is/ were going to snow. 3) that和what引导的表语从句的区别: that引导表语从句时,起连接作用,没有实际意义,不作句子成分;what引导表语从句时,既充当连接代词,又作句子成分。 e.g. Our plan is that we’ll go there once a week. That’s what he said. 4) 由连接副词引导的表语从句: 连接副词where,why,when等引导表语从句,分别在从句中作地点、原因、时间状语。 e.g. That is where the great writer used to live. That is why he didn’t pass the exam. That was when I was thirty. 2. 表语从句需要注意的问题 1) 主语为名词reason,表语从句用that而不 用why引导。 e.g. The reason why he was absent from the meeting was that he fell ill suddenly. The reason for such a serious accident is that the driver was too careless and drunk. 2) 引导表语从句时,用whether,不能用if。 e.g. The question is whether he has signed the contract. (不能用if) 3) 表语从句中的虚拟语气: 如果主句的主语是名词idea, advice, suggestion, order, request, requirement等时,则表语从句的谓语应用虚拟语气,“(should+)动词原形”。 e.g. My suggestion is that we (should) set out at once. The doctor’s advice is that you (should) rest more and drink more. 4) 使用连接词时的注意事项: 连接代词和连接副词一般都表疑问,但what, when和where等连接词有两种含义,一种表示疑问,一种表示陈述。表陈述时,相当于the thing that, the time when, the place where, 常意为“……的人/事”、“……的时间”、“……的地点”等。 e.g. This is where he once lived. This is what I want to know. That was when he did the experiment. 3. 比较三个句式 句式 意义 例句 That is why+结果 “那就是……的原因” That is why we don’t trust him. That is because+原因 “那是因为……” That is because he often lies. The reason why...is that... “……的原因是……” The reason why we don’t trust him is that he often lies. (六) 同位语从句 在主从复合句中作同位语的从句,叫同 位语从句。表示名词的内容,加以解释。 同位语从句的基本用法: 1. 能接同位语从句的名词:fact, idea, news, promise, information, message, belief, doubt, hope, opinion, possibility, thought, wish, truth, question, problem, reply, answer, report, suggestion, advice, order, warning等等。 2. that引导的同位语从句 e.g. We were very excited at the news that our Chinese athletes won many gold medals. The problem that they can’t get here early is hard to solve. 【温馨提示】 同位语从句通常由that引导,但根据接同位语的名词不同,也可由whether, when, who, how, what, why等引导。 e.g. I have no idea when he will be back. The question who was to blame has never been settled. (七)引导名词性从句只用whether 不用if的情况 1. 引导主语从句置于句首时: e.g. Whether he can finish the work on time is not clear. 2. 引导表语从句时: e.g. The problem is whether the meeting will be held. 3. 引导同位语从句时: e.g. I have no idea whether he is willing to help us. 4. 引导宾语从句前置时: e.g. Whether they will join in the Winter Camp I don’t care. 5. 作介词宾语时: e.g. We aren’t interested in whether he will agree with us or not. 6. 作动词discuss的宾语时: e.g. We are now discussing whether we should group these three companies. 7. 其后接动词不定式时: e.g. Can you tell me whether to go or to stay? 8. 与or not直接连用时,用whether,即whether or not,如果分开时,两者都可以,即whether/ if... or not。 e.g. I don’t care whether or not he has a holiday. =I don’t care whether/ if he has a holiday or not. (八)同位语从句与定语从句的区别 1. 同位语从句既“说明、修饰”先行词,又“等同”于先行词。定语从句“修饰、限制”先行词,由“关系词”替代先行词,在从句中充当成分。 e.g. We are delighted at the news that we are going to spend our summer vacation in Dalian. (同位语从句) Neither of us showed any interest in the news that John told us yesterday. (定语从句) 2. that在从句中的作用 同位语从句中that为连接词,只起连接作用,在从句中不作成分,一般也不能省略;定语从句中的that为关系代词,在从句中充当句子成分,可作主语、宾语和表语,作宾语时常可省略。 e.g. The news (that) he told me surprised me. (定语从句) The news that he gave in surprised me. (同位语从句) 3. 其他引导词的使用 引导同位语从句的词除连接词that外,还可用whether,连接代词who,what及连接副词when, where, how, why等;引导定语从句的词除that外,还有关系代词who, whom, whose, which, as以及关系副词when, where, why。 (九) wh?ever和“no matter+wh?” wh?ever既可引导名词性从句,又可引导让步状语从句,而no matter wh?只能引导让步状语从句。 e.g. Whatever/ No matter what I said,he wouldn’t listen to me. (让步状语从句) He would believe whatever/ anything that I said. (宾语从句) 名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句和表语从句。考查要点主要是连接代词和副词的正确使用,主语、谓语的语序,双重连接词以及特殊句型的使用等。其考点主要包括: 1. 名词性从句的连接词。如:有词义的连接代词who, whose, whom, what, which; 连接副词when, where, why, how; 从属连词that, whether, if, as if; 无词义的that在从句中不担任成分,有时可省略。 2. 名词性从句的语序和时态。 3. it作形式主语、形式宾语的情况。 如: 1) It+be+形容词+that从句 2) It+be+过去分词+that从句 3) It+be+名词+that从句 4) It+不及物动词(appear, happen等)+that从句 4. 名词性从句中的虚拟语气。如: 1) It is (was)+essential (important, natural…)+that…; 2) It is (was) suggested (demanded, wished, desired…) that…等。 5. what引导名词性从句时的语义功能和语法功能。如:what=the thing that/ anything that…;what=the place that…;what=the time that…;what=the person that…等。 6. whoever, whatever, whichever引导名词性从句时的语义功能和语法功能。 重点考查连接词that, what的用法; 特殊疑问词引导的名词性从句; wh-ever引导的名词性从句。 Ⅰ.单项选择。 1. I truly believe ______beauty comes from within. 【2015·北京】 A. that B. where C. what D. why 【解析】我很相信美丽源自于内心! 本题考查宾语从句。从句部分不缺少成分,用that起到连接作用,也可省。从句部分不缺少任何成分,因此用that起到连接作用,也可以省略。 2. You have to know ________ you're going if you are to plan the best way of getting there. 【2015·湖南】 A. what B. that C. where D. who 3. A ship in harbor is safe, but that’s not ______ ships are built for. 【2015·安徽】 A. what B. whom C. why D. when 【解析】船停放在海港里是很安全的,但这并非建造船的目的。isn’t后跟从句作表语,表语从句中的for后缺少宾语,用what引导,what与for连用,表示目的。 4. _____ Li Bai, a great Chinese poet, was born is known to the public, but some won’t accept it. 【2015·江苏】 A. That B. Why C. Where D. How 【解析】李白是中国一位伟大的诗人,他的出生地是众所周知的,但有些人不愿接受这一事实。a great Chinese poet做Li Bai的同位语,is前面是主语从句。where在从句中做地点状语。 5. _____we understand things has a lot to do with what we feel. 【2015·北京】 A. Where B. How C. Why D. When 【解析】我们如何理解事情与我们所感受的有很大关系。主语从句缺少方式状语,因此选择how。 Ⅱ. 用适当的连接词填空。 1. The most pleasant thing of the rainy season is ________ one can be entirely free from dust.【北京2016】 2. The manager put forward a suggestion ________ we should have an assistant. There is too much work to do.【天津2016】 3. ... the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly ________ thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days. 【2015新课标全国卷II】 that that how 4. ________ the delayed flight will take off depends much on the weather.【陕西2014】 5. Some people believe _____________ has happened before or is happening now will repeat itself in the future. 【北京2014】 6. It is difficult for us to imagine ________ life was like for slaves in the ancient world. 【山东2014】 When whatever/what what 热点考向 1 主语从句? 1. 主要考点: 1) that引导主语从句时, 常用it作形式主语, 常见的句型: ①It+ be+形容词+ that从句 ②It+ be+名词 (短语)+ that从句 ③It+ be+过去分词(said/told/reported/decided等)+ that从句 ④It+ 特殊动词 (seems/ appears/ happens/ matters)+ that从句 2) what与that在引导主语从句时的区别: what引导主语从句时在从句中充当句子成分, 如主语、宾语、表语, 而that引导从句, 不充当成分。 e.g. What you said yesterday is right. (what引导主语从句
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