[ID:4-6913048] [精]2020年高中英语一轮复习非谓语动词专题---分词完全解析与提升训练(含答案 ...
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中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 高中英语一轮复习非谓语动词专题---分词完全解析与提升训练 一、概念及基本形式 分词包括现在分词(动词-ing)和过去分词(动词-ed).作为非谓语动词,分词具有形容词、副词的特征,在句中可作定语、表语、补足语和状语等成分。 I found a beggar standing in front of the door. The shop has remained shut for a week. Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her. 基本形式 肯定形式:doing 否定形式:not doing 二、分词的时态和语态 语态 时态 主动语态 被动语态 含义 现在分词 一般式 (not)doing (not)being done 与谓语动作同时发生或正在进行 完成式 (not)having done (not)having been done 先于谓语动作发生 过去分词 一般式 done 发生于谓语动作前,有被动和完成含义 三、分词的句法功能 ①作表语 分词作表语时已经完全形容词化了,可以被very, rather等副词修饰。 现在分词作表语通常说明主语的性质、特征; 过去分词作表语通常说明主语的状态或感受。 The result of the game is very surprising.(说明事物的特征) We are greatly surprised at the news. 注: “be+过去分词”可以表示被动语态,表示动作; 也可以是系表结构,表示主语的特点或状态。 常见作表语的分词 exciting/excited, frightening/frightened, worrying/worried, pleasing/pleased, surprising/surprised, interesting/interested等。 ②作宾语补足语 现在分词作宾补说明宾语正在进行的动作或宾语的特性,与宾语之间是主动关系。 过去分词作宾补表示与宾语之间的被动关系,完成状态或动作由他人完成。 My mother keep me working all the week.(主动进行) I will have my watch repaired.(被动意义) 注: 分词作宾补, 如果前面的宾语是动作的发出者,用现在分词; 如果前面的宾语时动作的承受着,用过去分词。 常跟分词作宾补的动词 see看 watch观看 notice注意到 discover发现 smell闻 feel感觉到 taste品尝 hear听说 have使 get使 find发现 observe观察 注: 一般及物动词的过去分词作宾补,与宾语构成被动关系。也有少数不及物动词作宾补,表示完成意义。 ③作定语 作定语的分词具有形容词的性质。 单个的分词作定语常放在被修饰词的前面;分词短语常放在被修饰词的后面。 现在分词表示主动、进行意义;及物动词的过去分词作定语表示被动、完成意义,不及物动词的过去分词作定语只表示完成意义。 单个分词作定语位于被修饰词前,此时充当前置定语。 现在分词,表示正在进行、主动的含义。 过去分词,表示被动、完成的含义。 I have got a running nose. Please hand in your written exercises. 分词短语作定语位于被修饰词后,此时充当后置定语。 Do you know the girl standing under the tree? ④作状语 分词在句中可作时间状语、原因状语、结果状语、条件状语、方式状语或伴随状语等。 Frightened by the noise outside, the little girl dared not sleep in her bedroom.(原因状语) He fell off the bike, breaking his left leg. (结果状语) Seen from the hill, our school looks more beautiful.(条件状语) He began to cry as if bitten by a snake.(方式状语) A group of children were sitting around the teacher, playing games.(伴随状语) 注: 分词充当原因状语一般置于句首;充当结果状语和目的状语时常置于句末,且与主句用逗号隔开。 四、非谓语动词用法辨析 ①不定式和动名词作宾语的区别 有些动词后跟不定式或动名词作宾语时,其含义差异不大,如begin, start, love, like, hate, prefer等。 Most elderly people want t continue to live/living at home as long as they can. 有些(短语)动词后跟不定式或动名词作宾语时,其含义差异较大,如remember, forget, go on, mean, try, regret等。 在remember, forget, regret后。 to do sth记得要做某事 remember doing sth记得做过某事 to do sth忘记要做某事 forget doing sth 忘记做过某事 to do sth 对要做的事感到遗憾/后悔 regret doing 对做过的事感到后悔 在stop, go on后。 to do sth停止现在做的事,去做另外一件事 stop doing sth 停止正在做的事 to do sth做完一件事,接着去做另外一件事 go on doing sth继续做原来那件事 在try后。 to do sth 尽力做某事 try doing sth 试图做某事 在mean后。 to do sth 打算做某事 mean doing sth 意味着做某事 在表示“需要”的need,want, require后接不定式的被动式或动名词的主动式作宾语意义相同。 Your paper needs checking/to be checked again. ②分词和不定式作宾语补足语的区别 现在分词、不定式作宾补表示与宾语之间是逻辑上的主动关系。 现在分词强调动作的延续性或正在进行; 过去分词表示动作的被动或完成; 不定式则强调动作的全过程,表明动作已经结束或即将开始。 I hear him singing in the next room.(“唱歌”动作正在进行) I heard the song sung. (表示被动) I heard him sing in the next room. (“唱歌”这个动作已经完成) ③不定式、动名词和分词作定语的区别 强调的中心不同 动名词作定语表示它所修饰的词的用途,不存在逻辑上的主谓关系; 现在分词作定语与被修饰词之间是逻辑上的主谓关系,表示动作正在进行。 There is a swimming pool at the back of garden. (说明pool的用途) There is a swimming girl in the pool. (表明主动、进行) 注: 动名词作定语常用来修饰无生命的名词,此类定语无法改成定语从句; 现在分词作定语常用来修饰有生命的名词,不管前置或后置都可改为定语从句。 位置不同。 动名词作定语只能置于被修饰词的前面; 而分词作定语时,一般单个前置,分词短语后置。 John wants to keep a hunting dog. Mary raised her head to look for the singing bird. All the fallen leaves have been cleared away. 时态意义不同 不定式作定语通常指将来的动作; 现在分词作定语指正在进行的动作; 过去分词作定语指已经完成的动作。 I have to work extra hours this evening, for have three letters to write. Do you know the man sitting in the middle of the first row? Have you read any short stories translated by Lu Xun? ④have+宾语+非谓语动词 have sb do sth. 意为“让某人做某事”,不定式往往表示一次性的具体动作,且强调动作已经完成或尚未完成。 The soldiers had the boy stand with his back to his father. (stand动作由boy发出) have sb/sth doing. 意为“让某人/某物一直做某事”现在分词表示这个动作往往具有持续、进行的含义。 The two men had their lights burning all night day long.(强调lights进行的状态) have sth done.意为“让某人做某事”,相当于ask sb else to do sth, 过去分词表示这个动作由他人来完成,含有被动意义,且强调动作已经完成。 The driver had his car washed once a week. (wash与car构成被动关系) ⑤分词与句子的逻辑关系、逻辑主语 分词作状语时,需注意分词与句子主语的逻辑关系。 Seeing from the top of the mountain, the lake looks more beautiful. (×) Seen from the top the mountain, the lake looks more beautiful. (√) 分词的逻辑主语与句子不一致时,需加上分词自己的逻辑主语。 Permitting, we’ll learn some new words. (×) Time permitting, we’ll learn some new words. (√) 提升训练 一、单项选择 1.________ it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us, the manager left the meeting room. A.To make B.Making C.Made D.Having made 2.The boy _____on the ground _____ to his father that the hen ______ two egges that day. A.laying; lied; laid B.lying; lied; laid C.lying; lay; lied D.lay; lied; laid 3.I was told that there were about 50 foreign students_____ Chinese in the school, most_____ were from Germany. A.study; of whom B.study; of them C.studying; of them D.studying; of whom 4.A team, ________two doctors and three policemen ,was sent to search for the lost explorers. A.consisting of B.consists of C.consisted of D.to be consisted of 5.The boss was disappointed to see his company _____ as unqualified, which led to the company closing down. A.assessing B.to assess C.assessed D.being assessed 6. First _______ in 1926, the opera Turandot still attracts audience from all over the world. A.perform B.performing C.to perform D.performed 7.______ the students' real life, the movie is said to be fantastic. A.Based by B.Basing by C.Based on D.Basing on 8.(2018·天津)I need a new passport so I will have to have my photographs___________. A.taking B.taken C.being taken D.take 9.--- Do you know anything about War of Seven Kingdoms, the Chinese Game of Thrones? ---Sure. Although each event _____ a well-known actor playing the key roles, it has all its plots well _____on established historical records and archaeological findings. A.features; grounded B.characteristics; witnessed C.stars; depended D.displays; commented 10.In the New Year speech ____ by our headmaster, he summarized the progress we made in 2019. A.clarified B.restored C.underlined D.delivered 11.Don't you think it is time you ______ the plan?It is_______ the managers wanted to see________ soon. A.set out discussing; that ;to be carried out B.should set about discussing; that ; to carry out C.should set out to discuss ;what; to be carried out D.set about discussing, what; carried out 12.The professor_____ out the project made a comment on the report. A.was opposed to carry B.opposed to carry C.opposed to carrying D.opposed carrying 13.I suggested the person______to be put into prison. A.refers B.referring C.referred D.refer 14.The football star stood there,_______a group of fans. A.surrounding B.surrounded C.surrounded by D.surrounding by 15.-Would you like to go cycling with me? -I’d love to, but I need to have my bike ______ first. A.fixed B.to fix C.being fixed D.fixing 二、用所给词的正确形式填空 16.Being _____ independent means exactly what it says: You are not dependent on anyone or anything to pay your bills .( finance) 17.It started as a hobby but now he is freelancing fulltime offering art direction, graphic design and _____ ( illustrate). 18.At last, the board drew the conclusion that the company _____ to run the risk of developing new products rather than go on producing the products that can’t meet the demands of the new market. ( prefer ) 19.Your presentation may include the _____ of the comic strip and the idea you want to express through the picture. ( describe) 20.Although the digital revolution has brought new life to the making of cartoons and comic strips, many people still believe the traditional hand-drawn works are _____ ( replace) 21.The President must have the ability to tell who is a _____ source of information and who is not . (rely) 22.Although at first Japan didn’t leave a deep _____ on me, I was gradually attracted by its culture and decided to stay there fore another two months after graduation. ( impress) 23.As usual, Tom gets up at 6 o’clock, and spends at least 10 hours in coping with various subjects and goes home _____ by the moon and stars---- a typical day for a high school student! ( company) 24.Contrary to our _____, the final examination turned out to be a piece of cake. (expect) 25.He is popular with his peers, for he has a lively sense of humor and appears _____ confident. ( nature) 26.You could never imagine the trouble I had ____________ (persuade) him to stop drinking. 27.They offered to send me to the airport, ________ I was very grateful for. 28.The police chief spoke highly of his __________ (determine) to catch the murderer. 29.Ever since he has been devoted _______ English teaching in the remote village. 30.If you say OK, I think I can sit and lie ___________ (comfortable). 31.We insisted that the task _________ (complete) at the end of this week. 32.___________ (congratulate) on surviving the school year. With the one-month vacation ahead of you, it’s time to have some fun and enjoy the winter. 33.On June 25th, 2009, Michael Jackson passed away from his beloved stage, leaving the whole world __________(shock). 34.The father as well as his kids _______ (discuss)where to spend the weekend now. 35.I should say thanks to my dear friends, without _______help I wouldn’t have achieved such great success. 三、选用适当的单词或短语补全句子 根据句意,选择适当的词并用其恰当的形式填空。每词只能使用一次。 36.We should like to offer our ________ for the delay to your flight today. 37.Among all these countries, Britain played a ________ role in the negotiations. 38.The best ________ for a fever is to rest and drink a lot of water. 39.You must send your ________ to the university before the end of the month. 40.It is ________ to drive through a red light, for it may endanger someone's life. 41.Thanks to his parents' ________ and support, he finally realized his dream. 42.I do not doubt your ability to ________ and solve problems. 43.His unclear explanation only made me feel more ________ than ever. 44.The real ________ to the waste problem is to produce less waste. 45.Mike was too ________ to remember what had happened that night. 参考答案 一、单项选择 1-5.DBDAC 6-10.DCBAD 11-15.DCCCA 二、用所给词的正确形式填空 16.financially 17.illustration 18.preferred 19.description 20. irreplaceable 21. reliable 22. impression 23. accompanied 24. expectation 25. naturally 26. persuading 27. which 28. determination 29. to 30. comfortably 31.should be completed 32.Congratulations 33.shocked 34.is discussing 35.Whose 三、选用适当的单词或短语补全句子 36. apologies / apology 37. major 38. treatment 39. application 40. illegal 41. encouragement 42. analyse / analyze 43. puzzled 44. solution 45. drunk 21世纪教育网 www.21cnjy.com 精品试卷·第 2 页 (共 2 页) HYPERLINK "http://21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com) " 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)
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