[ID:4-5349514] [精]第33讲 医学、教育类文章(解析版+原卷版)
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第33讲 医学、教育类文章(原卷版) 医学、教育类文章属于高考阅读理解常选材料之一。这类文章常涉及医学、医药、教育、法制、宗教等方面的文学艺术、发明创造、文化遗产保护、宗教与文化、风俗与习惯、道德与法制、中外文学名著节选、各国医学发展、医疗探究、学校教育和家庭教育等。这类材料的命题点往往落在主旨大意题和细节理解题上。 这些话题贴近生活,贴近时代,渗透不同文化教育间的异同、优点及缺点,充分体现了高考命题的思想性和前瞻性。选题注重学科素养的考核融入对语言能力的考核,同时要求考生备考时注意思维品质、学习能力和文化品格结合,有助于青少年正确价值观、道德观、风俗习惯的形成。 一、真题链接 【2018·全国卷Ⅱ】 Teens and younger children are reading a lot less for fun, according to a Common Sense Media report published Monday. While the decline over the past decade is steep for teen readers, some data in the report shows that reading remains a big part of many children’s lives, and indicates how parents might help encourage more reading. According to the report’s key findings, “the proportion (比例) who say they ‘hardly ever’ read for fun has gone from 8 percent of 13-year-olds and 9 percent of 17-year-olds in 1984 to 22 percent and 27 percent respectively today.” The report data shows that pleasure reading levels for younger children, ages 2-8, remain largely the same. But the amount of time spent in reading each session had declined, from closer to an hour or more to closer to a half hour per session. When it comes to technology and reading, the report does little to counsel (建议) parents looking for data about the effect of e-readers and tablets on reading. It does point out that many parents still limit electronic reading mainly due to concerns about increased screen time. The most hopeful data shared in the report shows clear evidence of parents serving as examples and important guides for their kids when it comes to reading. Data shows that kids and teens who do read frequently, compared to infrequent readers, have more books in the home, more books purchased for them, parents who read more often, and parents who set aside time for them to read. At the end of school approaches, and school vacation reading lists loom(逼近) ahead, parents might take the chance to step in and make their own summer reading list and plan a family trip to the library or bookstore. What is the Common Sense Media report probably about? Children’s reading habits. Quality of children’s books. Children’s after-class activities. Parent-child relationships. Where can you find the data that best supports “children are reading a lot less for fun”? In paragraph 2 B. In paragraph 3 C. In paragraph 4 D. In paragraph 5 Why do many parents limit electronic reading? E-books are of poor quality. It could be a waste of time. It may harm children’s health. E-readers are expensive. How should parents encourage their children to read more? Act as role models for them. B. Ask them to write book reports. C. Set up reading groups for them. D. Talk with their reading class teachers. 【2018·江苏高考·B】 Before birth, babies can tell the difference between loud sounds and voices. They can even distinguish their mother's voice from that of a female stranger. But when it comes to embryonic learning(胎教),birds could rule the roost.As recently reported in The Auk:Ornithological Advances, some mother birds may teach their young to sing even before they hatch(孵化).New?born chicks can then imitate their mom's call within a few days of entering the world. This educational method was first observed in 2012 by Sonia Kleindorfer, a biologist at Flinders University in South Australia,and her colleagues. Female Australian superb fairy wrens were found to repeat one sound over and over again while hatching their eggs. When the eggs were hatched,the baby birds made the similar chirp to their mothers—a sound that served as their regular “feed me!”call. To find out if the special quality was more widespread in birds, the researchers sought the red?backed fairy wren,another species of Australian songbird. First they collected sound data from 67 nests in four sites in Queensland before and after hatching. Then they identified begging calls by analyzing the order and number of notes. A computer analysis blindly compared calls produced by mothers and chicks,ranking them by similarity. It turns out that baby red?backed fairy wrens also emerge chirping like their moms. And the more frequently mothers had called to their eggs, the more similar were the babies' begging calls. In addition, the team set up a separate experiment that suggested that the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom's voice were rewarded with the most food. This observation hints that effective embryonic learning could signal neurological(神经系统的) strengths of children to parents. An evolutionary inference can then be drawn. “As a parent, do you invest in quality children, or do you invest in children that are in need?”Kleindorfer asks. “Our results suggest that they might be going for quality.” 1.The underlined phrase in Paragraph 1 means “ ”. A.be the worst    B.be the best C.be just as bad D.be just as good 2.What are Kleindorfer's findings based on? A.Similarities between the calls of moms and chicks. B.The observation of fairy wrens across Australia. C.The data collected from Queensland's locals. D.Controlled experiments on wrens and other birds. 3.Embryonic learning helps mother birds to identify the baby birds which . A.can receive quality signals B.are in need of training C.fit the environment better D.make the loudest call 【长难句解读】 In addition, the team set up a separate experiment that suggested that the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom's voice were rewarded with the most food. 分析 本句是复合句。experiment后的that引导定语从句,suggest后面的that引导宾语从句,birds后面的that引导定语从句。 译文 另外,研究团队做了一个单独的实验,实验表明,模仿鸟妈妈的声音最接近的幼鸟被给予的食物最多。 二、阅读话题词汇夯实 阅读单词识记:英汉互译 【教育类】 1.achieve v. → n.完成;成就 2.appoint vt. → n.约定,约会;任命,委派 3.conclusion n. → vt.结束;推断 4.earn vt. 5.employ v. → n.雇用→unemployment n. →employer n. → n.雇员 6.hire vt. 7.interview n.& vt. → n.采访者;主持面试者→ n.接受面试者;被采访者 8.manage vt. → n.经营;管理→manager n. 9.quit vt. 10.resign vt.& vi. 11.retire vt.& vi. 12.undertake vt. 13.adjust v. 14.allowance n. 15.appearance n. → vi.出现 16.applicant n. 17.application n. 18.architect n. 19.assistant n. → vt.帮助;协助 →assistance n. 20.bonus n. 21.candidate n. 22.certificate n. 23.chance n. 24.consideration n. → adj.想得周到的;体贴的→consider vt. → prep.考虑到;鉴于 25.dismiss vt. 26.educated adj. 27.expectation n. 28.fail v. 29.hold v. 30.occupation n. 31.opportunity n. 32.possibility n. 33.physicist n. 34.potential adj. 35.position n. 36.profession n. 37.qualify vt.& vi. 38.qualified adj. 39.reply vt.& n. 40.representative n. 41.requirement n. 42.secretary n. 43.specialist n. 44.succeed v. 45.welfare n. 【医学类】 1.energetic. 2.health 3.keep fit/healthy. 4.AIDS 5.blind 6. cancer 7.deaf 8.disabled 9.disease 10.fever 11.flu 12.headache 13.illness 14.overweight 15.sick 16.heart attack 17.allergic 18.choke 19.lame 20.suicide 21.toothache 22.arm 23..hurt 24.injure 25.wound 26. blood 27.burn 28.injury 29.pain 30.serious 31.sharp 32.suffer 33.weak 34.severe 35.suffering 36.symptom 37.upset 38.abnormal 39.acute 40.dizzy 41.faint 42.sneeze 43.swell 44.unconscious 45.pressure 46.risk 47.stress 48.in high / low spirits 49.wear out 50.carrier 51.cigarette 52.diet 53.emotion 54.harmful 55.factor 56.mental 56.physical 57.Psychological 58.tired 59.tobacco 60.virus 61.Weight 62. health 63.care 64.life style 65.sleeping pattern 66.immune system 67.cure, 68.recover 69.rescue 70. treat 71.die of/ from 72.get over 73.have an operation on/operate on 74.ambulance 75.emergency 76.examine 77.medical 78.recovery 79.relief 80.surgery 81.treatment 82.care for 83.first aid 84.take care of 85.bandage 86.chemist 87.bandage 88.clinic 89.heal 90.injection 91.prescription 92.transplant 93.ward 94.X-ray 95.medical guidance 96.Rug 97.medicine 98.pill 100.poison 101.herb 102.poisonous 103.tablet 二、高频短语 英汉互译: 重点短语 申请 适合 3 主管 在某人的掌管之下 忙于做;专心于 失业 感觉能胜任 移交;交出 搜寻;寻找 符合;遇到;遭受 展望未来;为将来设想 负责;接管 ★【即学即练】 【2019届湖南省雅礼中学高三上学期第三次月考】 1.According to the comments of the Physical Education teacher,Wally______. A. is too talkative in the class B. 1ikes to work with his classmates C. doesn’t exercise his body at the right time D. becomes weak because he doesn’t exercise at all 2.Which of Wally’s subjects will attract the headmaster’s attention in future? A. Biology and Maths. B. History and French. C. English and Chemistry. D. Physics and Physical Education. 3.Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the report? A. Wally didn’t bother his teacher to revise French. B. Wally’s potential has been fully reflected in his exam work. C. Wally’s grade in maths makes him a born scientist. D. Wally needs to improve his attitude on certain subjects. 一、读文的两种方式,应注意据情而选 方式(一) 文章——问题——文章 即先粗读文章,然后看问题,最后再通过精读文章来解答问题。这是考生常用的按部就班的阅读方式,其特点是有利于考生把握文章的主旨和作者的态度。但采用这种阅读方式的考生往往阅读速度较慢,因此难以在阅读时积极主动地预测文章内容。 方式(二) 问题——文章——问题 即先将问题看一遍,然后带着问题去阅读文章,最后答题。其特点是针对性强,节省答题时间,比较适用于解答事实性和细节性的问题,但是解答主旨性和推断性问题的效果不明显。 上面这两种读文方式的采用因人而异,无优劣之分。当然,题型不同,读文的方式也应有所不同。但无论采用哪种方式,一旦选定适合自身的方式,应持之以恒,形成读文做题的习惯。 二、破解生僻词的两大技法,应注意灵活使用 阅读理解涉及词汇、句子、段落、语篇四个层次的理解问题,而其中最根本的是词汇。词汇是构成语言的基本元素。如果考生掌握的词汇量不够,在阅读过程中处处都是生词,则会处处碰壁,就难以顺利地读懂文章。因此,积累足够的词汇是提高阅读技能的第一步。 一般来说,在阅读文章时,总会碰到一些自己不认识的词。高考文章中允许出现3%的超纲词。《考试大纲》要求考生能“根据上下文推测生词的词义”,因此词义猜测题也是高考题型之一。正确处理阅读中遇到的生词,掌握一定的猜测生词词义的技巧,对于理解文章及答题都非常重要。对于生词一般有如下两种处理方式: (一)无关紧要的词汇——“跳过去” 在阅读理解设题时,并不是所有的生词都是出题点。在阅读中,当遇到一个生词时,不妨先问自己一个问题:这些生词有没有进行精确猜测的必要。高考试题中经常会出现没必要去精确猜测的生词,不知道它的精确含义也不会影响对基本句意的理解。在考试中,有百分之十的生词都不会干扰你做题。所以,平时考生要练习对生词的容忍度和处理生词的技巧,否则,临场时你会因焦虑而影响做题速度和准度。对于这类词,不要过多纠缠,尽管放心大胆地“跳过去”。 在一起出现的几个首字母大写的单词 它可能是个专有名词,你不需要知道其意思,只需要知道它是某个事物的名称即可 斜体的单词 它可能是某本书、杂志、电影的名称或某个专业术语,你也不用了解它的意思,只需要知道它代表什么事物即可 (二)影响阅读的词汇——“猜出来” 有时候,一些生词对阅读来说存在很大的障碍,对上下文的理解至关重要,我们必须知道这些词的精确含义。那么,如何排除这些障碍呢?具体方法将在后面“第四讲词义猜测题”中详细阐述。 例1.【2018·成都摸底测试】 “Hungary?”I looked at my school headmaster in confusion.“I never mentioned wanting to go to Hungary.” And with that, my adventure started. My name is Jonathan Diamond and I just finished an amazing school exchange year in Hungary. Going on an exchange had always been my dream.When my high school offered an all?year program, I jumped at the opportunity.It would pay for almost everything and all I had to do was buy a plane ticket.I knew where I wanted to go:Spain, the country of dancers wearing flowing red dresses.So when I heard that I was going to Hungary, I was pretty shocked.But I decided to make the best of it, since it was, after all, a once?in?a?lifetime opportunity.Before I knew it, I was on the airplane, leaving for Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport, Hungary. I had difficult times when I almost gave up.Hungarian is the hardest language on the planet.Cultural differences occasionally embarrassed both my peers and me.I had to give up eating carrots, my beautiful favorite, for Hungarians think carrots are rubbish in their country.The change in the landscape was amazing, looking nothing like skyscrapers, bullet trains, cars, and people in tiny houses that I had been accustomed to.Gradually, I fell in love with the relaxing lifestyle, the warm?hearted people, and getting home at 2:30 p.m. at the latest from school.And I was sad to leave on my very last day. Having the host family who took me as one of their own members was the best thing I’ve ever experienced.From my little sisters, I learned how to embrace life to its fullest.From my brothers I learned that it’s OK for a boy to run around the house.From my host parents I learned to stay positive, to smile and that when you pick the right people and take their hands, suddenly, you become friends. 1.How did Jonathan feel when he was told to go to Hungary? A.Excited and satisfied. B.Confused and shocked. C.Amazed and embarrassed. D.Delighted and interested. 2.Why did Jonathan still decide to go to Hungary instead of Spain? A.He didn’t like Spain. B.He wanted to learn Hungarian. C.It was a rare chance. D.Going to Hungary was much cheaper. 3.What can we learn about Jonathan during his stay in Hungary? A.He fell in love with eating carrots. B.He couldn’t wait to leave. C.He was surprised by the landscape. D.He quickly got used to the life there. 4.According to Jonathan, the host family ________. A.changed him completely B.taught him how to dance well C.treated him as equally as a student D.showed him the good things of life 【答案】1.B 2.C 3.C 4.D 【解析】 本文是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了作者作为一个交换生在国外学习的经历和感受。 1.B 解析:细节理解题。根据第一段中的“I looked at my school headmaster in confusion.”可知, 作者听到这个消息很迷惑, 再结合第三段中的“So when I heard that I was going to Hungary, I was pretty shocked.”可知, 选项B正确。 2.C 解析:细节理解题。根据第三段中的“But I decided to make the best of it, since it was, after all, a once?in?a?lifetime opportunity.”可知, 作者决定充分利用这次机会, 因为毕竟这是一次千载难逢的机会,所以选项C正确。a rare chance“一次罕见的机会”。 3.C 解析:推理判断题。根据第四段中的“The change in the landscape was amazing”可知,选项C正确。 4.D 解析:推理判断题。根据最后一段内容可知,作者从寄宿家庭那里学到了很多人生哲学,他们向作者展现了生活中美好的事情,故选项D正确。 变式训练 【2018·武汉4月调研A】 100?Word?Story Competition 2018 Our annual short story competition is back.As ever, we look forward to reading yours! The Rules Please make sure that stories are new, not previously published and exactly 100 words long (not including the title).We may use entries in all print and electronic media. Entry is open only to people living in the U.K.It is not open to employees of Reader’s Digest and all others associated with this competition, their immediate families and relatives living in an employee’s household. Terms and Conditions There are three categories—one for adults and two for young people: one for children aged 12-18 and one for children under 12. In the adult category, the winner will receive £ 1,000 and two runners?up will each receive £ 250.In the children aged 12-18 and children under 12 categories, the winners will each receive a Fire HD 8 and a selection of STAEDTLER products worth £ 50, plus two STAEDTLER class packs of pencils for their school.The two runners?up in both categories will each receive a Kindle. Please submit your stories by 5 p.m. on February 19. The editorial team will pick a shortlist of entries, which this year will be published by our partner nicereading.com.Winners of the categories will have an opportunity to write a longer version of their stories for inclusion in the book. The three best stories in each category will be posted online at readersdigest.co.uk on February 27.You can vote for your favourite, and the one with the most votes wins the top prize.Voting will close at 5 p.m. on March 19 and the winning entry will be published in our June issue(期). 1.Who is forbidden to take part in the story competition? A.A British man of 20. B.A staff member of Reader’s Digest. C.A net friend of the organizer. D.An employee of the government. 2.Which of the following will be awarded to the youth winners? A.A Fire HD 8.       B.A Kindle. C.£50. D.£250. 3.When are the stories due? A.By 5 p.m. on February 19. B.On February 27. C.At 5 p.m. on March 19. D.In June. 4.Where will the winning entry come out? A.On TV. B.In a magazine. C.On a website. D.In a book. 【2018·郑州市第二次质量预测】 There were many famous poets from different periods of time in Chinese history, and thousands of their poems are still read and appreciated today. To arouse people's interest in those classic Chinese poems and promote cultural heritage, China Central Television (CCTV) produced a TV show —Chinese Poetry Conference. The finale (终场) of the hit show's second season was shown on Feb.7 this year. Wu Yishu, 16, who studies at the High School Affiliated to Fudan University in Shanghai, came out on top. In an earlier episode(一集), Wu wowed the audience when performing in a section entitled“ Feihualing”. The game's theme was“yue”, meaning“moon” or“month” in Chinese. She recited the lines from the Classic of Poetry,the earliest collection of poems in China:“In July, the crickets (蟋蟀) are in the field. In August, they are in the yard. In September they are at the door. In October, they enter and crawl under our beds.” “I really admire her knowledge of poems,” said Huang Zijin, 16, a Senior 2 student from Ningbo High School in Zhejiang Province. “The first time I saw her wearing traditional Han clothing on TV, I was very impressed by her classical looks. She fulfills all my fantasies about classic Chinese women's talents. What's more, she always appears so calm throughout the show, which is very unusual for her age.” As the old saying goes, “One who is filled with knowledge always behaves with elegance.” “Learning poems isn't about winning or losing. The power of poetry lies in shaping one's view of life and developing one's inner world,” said Li Bo, an expert guest at the Chinese Poetry Conference's second season. When it comes to teaching people about poetry, Li Dingguang, the show's academic advisor, suggested that teachers should explain more about the beauty of the poetry from both the aesthetic(美学的) and emotional sides, and guide the students to lose themselves in the poems' rhythmic(有节奏的) and rhyming lines. “Although the amount of ancient Chinese poetry in the textbooks of primary and secondary schools has increased, many students still learn them for exams,”Li Dingguang told China.org.cn.“Therefore, it's important to help students truly appreciate the artistry and fun of poetry.” 1. What's one of the purposes of the TV show Chinese Poetry Conference? A. To entertain people by enjoying Chinese poems. B.To see who can recite the most classic Chinese poems. C.To fulfill people's fantasies about Chinese women's talents. D.To make more people interested in classic Chinese poetry. 2.From Paragraphs 3 and 4, what can we infer about Wu Yishu? A. She is a talented and elegant Chinese teenager. B.She has learned a large amount of poetry from textbooks. C.She is always calm in the show like other competitors of her age. D.She amazed the audience with the lines from the Classic of Poetry in the finale. 3.According to Li Bo, why do people learn poetry? A.To get good marks in examinations. B.To help build up their inner world. C.To win the Chinese Poetry Conference. D.To appreciate the beauty of rhythm and rhyme. 4.What is Li Dingguang's attitude to poetry teaching? A.Doubtful.     B.Supportive. C.Critical. D.Casual. 【2018·郑州第二次质量预测】 ? Though not as much as in the past, grandparents are the teachers of the Navajo(纳瓦霍人) youth. They make young people aware of life at an early age. The parents allow them the privilege of teaching the children, and the grandparents take great pride in raising them. Young children often stay with their grandparents for years at a time, developing a close and trusting relationship. The grandparents teach them Navajo legends and the principle of life, emphasizing both new culture trends and the preservation of traditions. The grandparents are also the leading figures in teaching the youth the arts of weaving, caring for the livestock, using herbal medicine, and other arts and crafts. The children are taught to respect their elders, care for them, help them and learn from them. Young people are urged to listen with care to the words of their elders and keep as much wisdom as possible. Grandparents often go to social gatherings and traditional events, and young people have opportunities to learn more about their culture and traditions. I lived with my grandmother for thirteen years, and she raised me in the old ways of our people. Although I was going to school, she taught me as much as she could about our traditions. If I had a chance, I would listen again to her wise teachings, expressed with kindness in a soft voice that touched my heart. We used to plant corn and pumpkin every summer. They never grew big enough to feed us, but we planted them anyway. I asked my grandmother why. She said, “Grandson, our plants will be far more beautiful than the flowers outside the fence.” I didn’t understand until one day I saw their beauty as I was coming over the hill with her. She said, “Anything that is a part of you is always far more beautiful than the things which you pass by.” We had some beautiful years together. I’m glad she is a part of me and I’m a part of her. Children used to be well disciplined, possessing more respect for culture, traditions and beliefs than they do now. The world of the Navajo has been influenced by the western world, and the grandparents have less control and influence than they used to. But the young people who have been touched by their teachings have glimpsed a way of life beyond what most people know today. 1.What can be inferred from the first paragraph? A.Grandparents are the source of traditional culture. B.Parents hate to take the trouble to raise their children. C.Early schooling isn’t very popular with the young Navajo. D.Children learn about the meaning of life from their grandparents. 2.The underlined word “figures” in Paragraph 3 probably means “________”. A.persons B.pioneers C.examples D.representatives 3.Why did the author’s grandmother plant corn and pumpkin? A.She had to feed her family members. B.She tried to make full use of her garden. C.She wanted her grandson to learn a life lesson. D.She expected her grandson to learn about farming. 4.What is the author’s purpose in writing this passage? A.To honor his beloved grandmother. B.To stress the greatness of the Navajo. C.To share with readers a kind of Navajo culture. D.To show the influence of Navajo traditions. 【2018·四川重点中学第二次评估】 Watching what you eat can be easier said than done, but a recent study shows it might not just be about what’s on your plate—it could be about how quickly it disappears. Japanese researchers followed 1,083 adults for five years, splitting them into three categories based on how quickly they ate: slow, normal, and fast. They also answered a questionnaire at the beginning of the study, sharing their diet, physical activity, and medical history. In the beginning, none of the volunteers had metabolic syndrome(新陈代谢综合征)—meaning at least three risk factors—which can lead to health problems like heart conditions and diabetes. When the participants reported back five years later, 84 had been diagnosed(诊断) with metabolic syndrome—and their eating speed was a major predictor, according to the results in the journal Circulation. The fast eaters were 89 percent more likely to have metabolic syndrome than slow and normal eaters. Just 2.3 percent of slow eaters received the diagnosis, compared to 11.6 percent of fast eaters. But that’s not all. Fast eaters also saw more weight gain, larger waistlines, and higher blood sugar levels than slow eaters. The researchers say gobbling makes it easier not to take notice of fullness before your body has a chance to signal you to stop. “So when people eat fast they are more likely to overeat,” said Takayuki Yamaji, MD, study author and cardiologist at Hiroshima University in Japan in a statement. Previous research backs up the weight benefits of slow eating, too. One study of New Zealand women found fast eaters have higher body-mass indexes(指数),and a Chinese study found that both healthy and fat men ate less when told to chew 40 times instead of 15 times before swallowing. Initial research even suggests chewing your food longer could burn more calories—up to about 1,000 extra every month. 1.What are the participants divided by? A.Medical history. B.Health condition. C.Physical activity. D.Eating speed. 2.Which may be the result of the study? A.Fast eaters are 4 times more likely to have metabolic syndrome. B.Normal and slow eaters don’t have metabolic illness. C.89% of fast eaters have higher blood pressure. D.Slow eaters are healthier than fast eaters. 3.What does the underlined word “gobbling” in Paragraph 4 best mean? A.Tasting slowly. B.Digesting quickly. C.Eating greedily. D.Cooking carefully. 4.What does the last paragraph tell us? A.The importance of eating speed. B.The advantage of eating slowly. C.The result of a Chinese study. D.Fast eating and overeating. 【2018·贵阳检测】 A new library in Tianjin—Tianjin Binhai Public Library—recently bacame an online hit.The Daily Mail described it as the “world’s ultimate(终极的) library”, while the word “breathtaking” was the choice of Newsweek magazine.One look at the library and you’ll see why.With its futuristic(未来派的) design and walls loaded with books, it’s the dream library of every book lover. But as the surprise continues, there’s a burning question lying in the back of our minds:When physical bookstores are closing down one by one, what makes libraries safe from the wave of digitization(数字化)? And do we really still need libraries now that we’ve got the Internet in our hands? Reporter Ian Clark has the answer.“Libraries are not declining in importance—people are simply changing the way they use them,” he wrote on The Guardian website. What Clark means is that libraries have shifted from simply being storehouses of books to a medium to help“bridge the gap between the haves and the have?nots”, according to website Libraries Are Essential.Since not everyone can afford a smartphone, a tablet or an Internet connection, and not everyone has the know—how to search the Internet correctly and efficiently, it’s public libraries that make sure that these resources and technologies are available to a larger group of people. “Nobody is trying to sell you anything in the library.There is no pressure to buy and there is no judgment of your choices,” Anne Goulding, a professor at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand, wrote on the Newsroom website.“There are few other spaces that you can just‘be’in without somebody questioning your presence or your motivation.” 1.What cause book lovers to like Tianjin Binhai Public Library? A.Breathtaking magazines. B.World’s ultimate buildings. C.Design and book walls. D.Digitization. 2.Where does the text most probably come from? A.A fiction.         B.A tour guide. C.A newspaper. D.A book. 3.Why are physical libraries necessary to exist? A.Everyone has a phone with them. B.Some people are still used to the old ways. C.More and more people use computers. D.People can buy what they want there. 4.What does the text mainly talk about? A.Libraries living on in the digital age. B.Internet libraries nowadays. C.Physical libraries in the past. D.People’s dream libraries. 【2018·惠州第二次调研】 In many ways,Providence Mount St.Vincent in Seattle is a typical senior living community.It is home to about 400 elderly residents and provides them with different types of assistance.However,it is also the Intergenerational Learning Center—a preschool where children and seniors have the chance to bond. Established in 1991,the ILC’s purpose is to allow kids to learn about acceptance while they are also being nurtured.It also aims to help seniors develop a greater sense of self?worth and strengthen social interactions.Babies to prekindergarten?aged children are placed into six different classes at the ILC.The kids attend art and music classes,as well as story time and exercise time with the seniors.Marie Hoover,ILC director,said that interacting with the seniors has proven beneficial for the young ones,making them more open?minded. “For the ILC children,interacting with the residents is simply part of their day?to?day life here and the way aging is ‘normalized’,which may be the most important benefit they receive,” Hoover said. “I’ve had parents call me years after their children have graduated from our program to let me know about some incidents when their child was the first to warmly greet someone who happened to be in a wheelchair.” As for the seniors,they’re delighted by the companionship the children provide.The children bring so much energy and joy to our residents.Many of the residents are widows or widowers and can become lonely.Their adult children may still be working,so they may not get to see them as often as they would like.Having the children stay with the old makes our residents feel they are still part of a community.The young and the old connect and learn from one another at this__unique__facility. 1.ILC is intended to________. A.build a typical senior living community B.take good care of the children C.benefit both the children and the seniors D.rid the seniors of loneliness 2.From what Hoover said in Para.3,we can learn that the ILC children________. A.keep in touch with the seniors even if they have left the ILC B.come to realize that aging is a normal part of life C.take different attitudes to the elderly after graduation D.think it easy to interact with the elderly residents in the ILC 3.The last paragraph mainly tells us________. A.the benefits the seniors receive B.the situation of the seniors C.children’s company D.the interaction between the children and the seniors 4.The underlined words “this unique facility” may refer to________. A.a special building B.a typical family C.a typical teaching program D.a special learning center 20 第33讲 医学、教育类文章(解析版) 医学、教育类文章属于高考阅读理解常选材料之一。这类文章常涉及医学、医药、教育、法制、宗教等方面的文学艺术、发明创造、文化遗产保护、宗教与文化、风俗与习惯、道德与法制、中外文学名著节选、各国医学发展、医疗探究、学校教育和家庭教育等。这类材料的命题点往往落在主旨大意题和细节理解题上。 这些话题贴近生活,贴近时代,渗透不同文化教育间的异同、优点及缺点,充分体现了高考命题的思想性和前瞻性。选题注重学科素养的考核融入对语言能力的考核,同时要求考生备考时注意思维品质、学习能力和文化品格结合,有助于青少年正确价值观、道德观、风俗习惯的形成。 一、真题链接 【2018·全国卷Ⅱ】 Teens and younger children are reading a lot less for fun, according to a Common Sense Media report published Monday. While the decline over the past decade is steep for teen readers, some data in the report shows that reading remains a big part of many children’s lives, and indicates how parents might help encourage more reading. According to the report’s key findings, “the proportion (比例) who say they ‘hardly ever’ read for fun has gone from 8 percent of 13-year-olds and 9 percent of 17-year-olds in 1984 to 22 percent and 27 percent respectively today.” The report data shows that pleasure reading levels for younger children, ages 2-8, remain largely the same. But the amount of time spent in reading each session had declined, from closer to an hour or more to closer to a half hour per session. When it comes to technology and reading, the report does little to counsel (建议) parents looking for data about the effect of e-readers and tablets on reading. It does point out that many parents still limit electronic reading mainly due to concerns about increased screen time. The most hopeful data shared in the report shows clear evidence of parents serving as examples and important guides for their kids when it comes to reading. Data shows that kids and teens who do read frequently, compared to infrequent readers, have more books in the home, more books purchased for them, parents who read more often, and parents who set aside time for them to read. At the end of school approaches, and school vacation reading lists loom(逼近) ahead, parents might take the chance to step in and make their own summer reading list and plan a family trip to the library or bookstore. What is the Common Sense Media report probably about? Children’s reading habits. Quality of children’s books. Children’s after-class activities. Parent-child relationships. Where can you find the data that best supports “children are reading a lot less for fun”? In paragraph 2 B. In paragraph 3 C. In paragraph 4 D. In paragraph 5 Why do many parents limit electronic reading? E-books are of poor quality. It could be a waste of time. It may harm children’s health. E-readers are expensive. How should parents encourage their children to read more? Act as role models for them. B. Ask them to write book reports. C. Set up reading groups for them. D. Talk with their reading class teachers. 【答案】ABCA 【解析】 据本周一公布的a Common Sense Media report报告显示,青少年和年幼的孩子们读书的乐趣大大减少。文中从阅读的乐趣,阅读的时间,阅读方式和父母对孩子阅读的影响等角度展示了该报告的内容。 28. 推理判断题。题干问的是这篇报道可能是关于什么内容。根据整篇文章,我们可以看出这篇报道讲述了孩子们阅读的乐趣,孩子们阅读的时间,孩子们阅读方式和父母对孩子阅读的影响。A项意为:孩子们的阅读习惯;B项意为:孩子们所读书籍的质量;C项意为:孩子们的课后活动;D项意为:父母与孩子的关系。故选A。 29. 推理判断题。根据第三段中的the proportion (比例) who say they ‘hardly ever’ read for fun has gone from 8 percent of 13-year-olds and 9 percent of 17-year-olds in 1984 to 22 percent and 27 percent respectively today.可知,很少为乐趣而阅读的人的比例已经分别从1984年的13岁的8%和17岁的9%上升到现在的22%和27%。也就是说,为乐趣而读书的人越来越少了。故选B。 30. 推理判断题。根据倒数第三段最后一句many parents still limit electronic reading, mainly due to concerns about increased screen time可知,许多家长仍然限制电子阅读,主要是由于担心看一些电子屏幕的时间越来越多,也即是担心会伤害孩子们的健康。故选C。 31. 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段The most hopeful data shared in the report shows clear evidence of parents serving as examples and important guides for their kids when it comes to reading.可知,有明显的证据表明,父母为孩子们做榜样并为孩子们作重要指导能培养孩子的阅读习惯。也即是说,父母可以通过给孩子们作榜样来鼓励孩子们阅读的。故选A。 点睛:作此类型的题时,一定要读懂第一段。第一段读懂了,整篇文章大意也就迎刃而解了。明白了大意,第28题我们也不难看出答案,本文讲的肯定不是质量,不是活动也不是关系。而是习惯,即孩子们的阅读习惯。 【2018·江苏高考·B】 Before birth, babies can tell the difference between loud sounds and voices. They can even distinguish their mother's voice from that of a female stranger. But when it comes to embryonic learning(胎教),birds could rule the roost.As recently reported in The Auk:Ornithological Advances, some mother birds may teach their young to sing even before they hatch(孵化).New?born chicks can then imitate their mom's call within a few days of entering the world. This educational method was first observed in 2012 by Sonia Kleindorfer, a biologist at Flinders University in South Australia,and her colleagues. Female Australian superb fairy wrens were found to repeat one sound over and over again while hatching their eggs. When the eggs were hatched,the baby birds made the similar chirp to their mothers—a sound that served as their regular “feed me!”call. To find out if the special quality was more widespread in birds, the researchers sought the red?backed fairy wren,another species of Australian songbird. First they collected sound data from 67 nests in four sites in Queensland before and after hatching. Then they identified begging calls by analyzing the order and number of notes. A computer analysis blindly compared calls produced by mothers and chicks,ranking them by similarity. It turns out that baby red?backed fairy wrens also emerge chirping like their moms. And the more frequently mothers had called to their eggs, the more similar were the babies' begging calls. In addition, the team set up a separate experiment that suggested that the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom's voice were rewarded with the most food. This observation hints that effective embryonic learning could signal neurological(神经系统的) strengths of children to parents. An evolutionary inference can then be drawn. “As a parent, do you invest in quality children, or do you invest in children that are in need?”Kleindorfer asks. “Our results suggest that they might be going for quality.” 1.The underlined phrase in Paragraph 1 means “ ”. A.be the worst    B.be the best C.be just as bad D.be just as good 2.What are Kleindorfer's findings based on? A.Similarities between the calls of moms and chicks. B.The observation of fairy wrens across Australia. C.The data collected from Queensland's locals. D.Controlled experiments on wrens and other birds. 3.Embryonic learning helps mother birds to identify the baby birds which . A.can receive quality signals B.are in need of training C.fit the environment better D.make the loudest call 【答案】BAC 【解析】 研究发现胎教并非人类独有,一些鸟儿在这方面做得甚至更出色。 1.考查词义猜测。画线部分前面的语境说,婴儿在出生之前就能分辨很大的声响与人的嗓音;画线部分后面的语境说,有些鸟妈妈在鸟儿被孵化出来之前,就可能教它们啼叫。通过对比可知,与人类相比,鸟妈妈在胎教方面表现得最出色,故选B项。 2.考查细节理解。根据第二、三、四段的内容,尤其是第二段中的“the baby birds made the similar chirp to their mothers”,第三段的最后一句及第四段的第二句可知,Kleindorfer的发现是基于母鸟与幼鸟发出的叫声的相似性,故选A项。 3.考查推理判断。文章最后两段说,叫声与鸟妈妈的声音最接近的幼鸟得到的食物最多,这符合进化论的理论:适者生存,故选C项。 【长难句解读】 In addition, the team set up a separate experiment that suggested that the baby birds that most closely imitated their mom's voice were rewarded with the most food. 分析 本句是复合句。experiment后的that引导定语从句,suggest后面的that引导宾语从句,birds后面的that引导定语从句。 译文 另外,研究团队做了一个单独的实验,实验表明,模仿鸟妈妈的声音最接近的幼鸟被给予的食物最多。 二、阅读话题词汇夯实 阅读单词识记:英汉互译 【教育类】 1.achieve v. → n.完成;成就 2.appoint vt. → n.约定,约会;任命,委派 3.conclusion n. → vt.结束;推断 4.earn vt. 5.employ v. → n.雇用→unemployment n. →employer n. → n.雇员 6.hire vt. 7.interview n.& vt. → n.采访者;主持面试者→ n.接受面试者;被采访者 8.manage vt. → n.经营;管理→manager n. 9.quit vt. 10.resign vt.& vi. 11.retire vt.& vi. 12.undertake vt. 13.adjust v. 14.allowance n. 15.appearance n. → vi.出现 16.applicant n. 17.application n. 18.architect n. 19.assistant n. → vt.帮助;协助 →assistance n. 20.bonus n. 21.candidate n. 22.certificate n. 23.chance n. 24.consideration n. → adj.想得周到的;体贴的→consider vt. → prep.考虑到;鉴于 25.dismiss vt. 26.educated adj. 27.expectation n. 28.fail v. 29.hold v. 30.occupation n. 31.opportunity n. 32.possibility n. 33.physicist n. 34.potential adj. 35.position n. 36.profession n. 37.qualify vt.& vi. 38.qualified adj. 39.reply vt.& n. 40.representative n. 41.requirement n. 42.secretary n. 43.specialist n. 44.succeed v. 45.welfare n. 【答案速递】 1.achieve v.完成;实现;达到→achievement n.完成;成就 2.appoint vt.任命;委派;指定;约定(时间、地点)→appointment n.约定,约会;任命,委派 3.conclusion n.结论;结束→conclude vt.结束;推断 4.earn vt.赢得;挣得;赚得 5.employ v.雇用→employment n.雇用→unemployment n.失业→employer n.雇主→employee n.雇员 6.hire vt.雇用;租用 7.interview n.& vt.采访,会见,面试→interviewer n.采访者;主持面试者→interviewee n.接受面试者;被采访者 8.manage vt.经营;管理;设法对付→management n.经营;管理→manager n.经理;管理人 9.quit vt.停止;离开 10.resign vt.& vi.辞职 11.retire vt.& vi.退休 12.undertake vt.承担;从事 13.adjust v.调整;(使)适应;调节 14.allowance n.津贴;零用钱 15.appearance n.外貌→appear vi.出现 16.applicant n.申请人 17.application n.申请 18.architect n.建筑师 19.assistant n.助手,助理→assist vt.帮助;协助→assistance n.帮助;协助 20.bonus n.津贴;奖金;红利 21.candidate n.候选人;应试者 22.certificate n.执照;证(明)书 23.chance n.机会;机遇 24.consideration n.考虑;要考虑的事;体贴→considerate adj.想得周到的;体贴的→consider vt.思考,考虑;认为→considering prep.考虑到;鉴于 25.dismiss vt.让……离开;开除;解散;解雇 26.educated adj.受过教育的;有教养的 27.expectation n.期待,期望 28.fail v.失败;(考试)不及格 29.hold v.担任;拥有;保持;抓住 30.occupation n.职业 31.opportunity n.机会 32.possibility n.可能性;可能 33.physicist n.物理学家 34.potential adj.潜在的;可能的;n.潜力 35.position n.职位 36.profession n.职业,专业 37.qualify vt.& vi.(使)具有资格;(使)具备合格条件 38.qualified adj.有资格的 39.reply vt.& n.回答;回复 40.representative n.代表,典型(人物) 41.requirement n.要求 42.secretary n.秘书;书记 43.specialist n.专科医生;专家 44.succeed v.成功 45.welfare n.幸福;福利 【医学类】 1.energetic. 2.health 3.keep fit/healthy. 4.AIDS 5.blind 6. cancer 7.deaf 8.disabled 9.disease 10.fever 11.flu 12.headache 13.illness 14.overweight 15.sick 16.heart attack 17.allergic 18.choke 19.lame 20.suicide 21.toothache 22.arm 23..hurt 24.injure 25.wound 26. blood 27.burn 28.injury 29.pain 30.serious 31.sharp 32.suffer 33.weak 34.severe 35.suffering 36.symptom 37.upset 38.abnormal 39.acute 40.dizzy 41.faint 42.sneeze 43.swell 44.unconscious 45.pressure 46.risk 47.stress 48.in high / low spirits 49.wear out 50.carrier 51.cigarette 52.diet 53.emotion 54.harmful 55.factor 56.mental 56.physical 57.Psychological 58.tired 59.tobacco 60.virus 61.Weight 62. health 63.care 64.life style 65.sleeping pattern 66.immune system 67.cure, 68.recover 69.rescue 70. treat 71.die of/ from 72.get over 73.have an operation on/operate on 74.ambulance 75.emergency 76.examine 77.medical 78.recovery 79.relief 80.surgery 81.treatment 82.care for 83.first aid 84.take care of 85.bandage 86.chemist 87.bandage 88.clinic 89.heal 90.injection 91.prescription 92.transplant 93.ward 94.X-ray 95.medical guidance 96.Rug 97.medicine 98.pill 100.poison 101.herb 102.poisonous 103.tablet 【答案速递】 1.energetic.精力充沛 2.health.健康 3.keep fit/healthy.保持健康/健康 4.AID艾滋病 5.blind 盲的,瞎的 6. cancer癌症 7.deaf充耳不闻的,聋的 8.disabled 残疾人 9.disease 疾病 10.fever 热 11.flu流感 12.headache头痛 13.illness 疾病 14.overweight 超重 15.sick 生病 16.heart attack心脏病 17.allergic 过敏 18.choke 窒息 19.lame 的 20.suicide 自杀 21.toothache 牙痛的 22.arm.手臂 23..hurt 伤害 24.injure 使...受伤 25.wound 伤口 26.blood 他的血液 27.burn 燃烧 28.injury 受伤 29.pain疼痛 30.serious严重的 31.sharp 大幅的 32.suffer 遭受 33.weak 弱的 34.severe 严重的 35.suffering 痛苦 36.symptom 症状 37.upset 心烦意乱的 38.abnormal 异常的 39.acute 急性的 40.dizzy 头晕的 41.faint 模糊 42.sneeze 打喷嚏 43.swell 膨胀,肿胀 44.unconscious 无意识的 45.pressure 压力 46.risk 风险 47.stress 压力 48.in high / low spirits 情绪高涨/低落. 49.wear out 磨损 50.carrier 载体 51.cigarette 香烟 52.diet 饮食 53.emotion 情绪 54.harmful 有害 55.factor 因素,要素 56.mental心理 56.physical物理 57.psychological心理的 58.tired累的 59.tobacco烟草 60.virus病毒 61.weight体重,重量 62. health 健康 63.care 护理 64.life style 生活方式 65.sleeping pattern . 睡眠模式 66.immune system 免疫系统 67.cure.治疗 68.recover 恢复 69. rescue 救援 70.treat 治疗 71.die of/ from 死于.. 72.get over克服 73.have an operation on/operate on 动过手术 74.ambulance 一辆救护车 75.emergency 紧急 76.examine检查 77. medical 医疗的 78. recovery复苏 79.relief 救援 80.surgery 手术 81.treatment 治疗 82.care for 照顾 83. first aid急救 84.take care of 照顾 85.bandage 绷带 86.chemist 药剂师 87.symptom 症状 88.clinic诊所 89.heal 治疗 90.injection 注射 91.prescription 处方 92.transplant 移植 93.ward病房 94.X-ray x射线 95.medical guidance 医学指导 96.rug 地毯 97.medical 药物 98.pill 药 99.poison 毒药 100.capsule .胶囊 101.herb 草 102.poisonous 有毒 103.tablet 平板电脑 二、高频短语 英汉互译: 重点短语 申请 适合 3 主管 在某人的掌管之下 忙于做;专心于 失业 感觉能胜任 移交;交出 搜寻;寻找 符合;遇到;遭受 展望未来;为将来设想 负责;接管 【答案速递】 1.apply for申请 2.be fit for适合 3.in charge of主管 4.be in the charge of sb./be in one’s charge在某人的掌管之下 5.be occupied with忙于做;专心于 6.be out of employment/be out of work/lose one’s job失业 7.feel equal to感觉能胜任 8.hand over移交;交出 9.hunt for搜寻;寻找 10.meet with符合;遇到;遭受 11.look ahead展望未来;为将来设想 12.take charge of负责;接管 ★【即学即练】 【2019届湖南省雅礼中学高三上学期第三次月考】 1.According to the comments of the Physical Education teacher,Wally______. A. is too talkative in the class B. 1ikes to work with his classmates C. doesn’t exercise his body at the right time D. becomes weak because he doesn’t exercise at all 2.Which of Wally’s subjects will attract the headmaster’s attention in future? A. Biology and Maths. B. History and French. C. English and Chemistry. D. Physics and Physical Education. 3.Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the report? A. Wally didn’t bother his teacher to revise French. B. Wally’s potential has been fully reflected in his exam work. C. Wally’s grade in maths makes him a born scientist. D. Wally needs to improve his attitude on certain subjects. 【文章大意】本文是Philips High School的School Report。表格中介绍了学生Wally在学校的基本情况。从表格中可以看出Wally的History和French将来会引起校长的注意。Wally在某些科目上需要改进他的态度。 1.A【解析】推理判断题。根据表格中Wally has reached a satisfactory standard but now needs to apply himself with more determination.可知,根据体育老师的评论,Wally在班上太健谈了。故选A。 2.B【解析】推理判断题。根据History一栏中的分数和A disappointing exam result;再根据French一栏中的分数和His general attitude is far too casual.可推知Wally的History和French将来会引起校长的注意。故选B。 3.D【解析】推理判断题。根据文中His general attitude is far too casual.可知,Wally在某些科目上需要改进他的态度。故选D。 一、读文的两种方式,应注意据情而选 方式(一) 文章——问题——文章 即先粗读文章,然后看问题,最后再通过精读文章来解答问题。这是考生常用的按部就班的阅读方式,其特点是有利于考生把握文章的主旨和作者的态度。但采用这种阅读方式的考生往往阅读速度较慢,因此难以在阅读时积极主动地预测文章内容。 方式(二) 问题——文章——问题 即先将问题看一遍,然后带着问题去阅读文章,最后答题。其特点是针对性强,节省答题时间,比较适用于解答事实性和细节性的问题,但是解答主旨性和推断性问题的效果不明显。 上面这两种读文方式的采用因人而异,无优劣之分。当然,题型不同,读文的方式也应有所不同。但无论采用哪种方式,一旦选定适合自身的方式,应持之以恒,形成读文做题的习惯。 二、破解生僻词的两大技法,应注意灵活使用 阅读理解涉及词汇、句子、段落、语篇四个层次的理解问题,而其中最根本的是词汇。词汇是构成语言的基本元素。如果考生掌握的词汇量不够,在阅读过程中处处都是生词,则会处处碰壁,就难以顺利地读懂文章。因此,积累足够的词汇是提高阅读技能的第一步。 一般来说,在阅读文章时,总会碰到一些自己不认识的词。高考文章中允许出现3%的超纲词。《考试大纲》要求考生能“根据上下文推测生词的词义”,因此词义猜测题也是高考题型之一。正确处理阅读中遇到的生词,掌握一定的猜测生词词义的技巧,对于理解文章及答题都非常重要。对于生词一般有如下两种处理方式: (一)无关紧要的词汇——“跳过去” 在阅读理解设题时,并不是所有的生词都是出题点。在阅读中,当遇到一个生词时,不妨先问自己一个问题:这些生词有没有进行精确猜测的必要。高考试题中经常会出现没必要去精确猜测的生词,不知道它的精确含义也不会影响对基本句意的理解。在考试中,有百分之十的生词都不会干扰你做题。所以,平时考生要练习对生词的容忍度和处理生词的技巧,否则,临场时你会因焦虑而影响做题速度和准度。对于这类词,不要过多纠缠,尽管放心大胆地“跳过去”。 在一起出现的几个首字母大写的单词 它可能是个专有名词,你不需要知道其意思,只需要知道它是某个事物的名称即可 斜体的单词 它可能是某本书、杂志、电影的名称或某个专业术语,你也不用了解它的意思,只需要知道它代表什么事物即可 (二)影响阅读的词汇——“猜出来” 有时候,一些生词对阅读来说存在很大的障碍,对上下文的理解至关重要,我们必须知道这些词的精确含义。那么,如何排除这些障碍呢?具体方法将在后面“第四讲词义猜测题”中详细阐述。 例1.【2018·成都摸底测试】 “Hungary?”I looked at my school headmaster in confusion.“I never mentioned wanting to go to Hungary.” And with that, my adventure started. My name is Jonathan Diamond and I just finished an amazing school exchange year in Hungary. Going on an exchange had always been my dream.When my high school offered an all?year program, I jumped at the opportunity.It would pay for almost everything and all I had to do was buy a plane ticket.I knew where I wanted to go:Spain, the country of dancers wearing flowing red dresses.So when I heard that I was going to Hungary, I was pretty shocked.But I decided to make the best of it, since it was, after all, a once?in?a?lifetime opportunity.Before I knew it, I was on the airplane, leaving for Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport, Hungary. I had difficult times when I almost gave up.Hungarian is the hardest language on the planet.Cultural differences occasionally embarrassed both my peers and me.I had to give up eating carrots, my beautiful favorite, for Hungarians think carrots are rubbish in their country.The change in the landscape was amazing, looking nothing like skyscrapers, bullet trains, cars, and people in tiny houses that I had been accustomed to.Gradually, I fell in love with the relaxing lifestyle, the warm?hearted people, and getting home at 2:30 p.m. at the latest from school.And I was sad to leave on my very last day. Having the host family who took me as one of their own members was the best thing I’ve ever experienced.From my little sisters, I learned how to embrace life to its fullest.From my brothers I learned that it’s OK for a boy to run around the house.From my host parents I learned to stay positive, to smile and that when you pick the right people and take their hands, suddenly, you become friends. 1.How did Jonathan feel when he was told to go to Hungary? A.Excited and satisfied. B.Confused and shocked. C.Amazed and embarrassed. D.Delighted and interested. 2.Why did Jonathan still decide to go to Hungary instead of Spain? A.He didn’t like Spain. B.He wanted to learn Hungarian. C.It was a rare chance. D.Going to Hungary was much cheaper. 3.What can we learn about Jonathan during his stay in Hungary? A.He fell in love with eating carrots. B.He couldn’t wait to leave. C.He was surprised by the landscape. D.He quickly got used to the life there. 4.According to Jonathan, the host family ________. A.changed him completely B.taught him how to dance well C.treated him as equally as a student D.showed him the good things of life 【答案】1.B 2.C 3.C 4.D 【解析】 本文是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了作者作为一个交换生在国外学习的经历和感受。 1.B 解析:细节理解题。根据第一段中的“I looked at my school headmaster in confusion.”可知, 作者听到这个消息很迷惑, 再结合第三段中的“So when I heard that I was going to Hungary, I was pretty shocked.”可知, 选项B正确。 2.C 解析:细节理解题。根据第三段中的“But I decided to make the best of it, since it was, after all, a once?in?a?lifetime opportunity.”可知, 作者决定充分利用这次机会, 因为毕竟这是一次千载难逢的机会,所以选项C正确。a rare chance“一次罕见的机会”。 3.C 解析:推理判断题。根据第四段中的“The change in the landscape was amazing”可知,选项C正确。 4.D 解析:推理判断题。根据最后一段内容可知,作者从寄宿家庭那里学到了很多人生哲学,他们向作者展现了生活中美好的事情,故选项D正确。 变式训练 【2018·武汉4月调研A】 100?Word?Story Competition 2018 Our annual short story competition is back.As ever, we look forward to reading yours! The Rules Please make sure that stories are new, not previously published and exactly 100 words long (not including the title).We may use entries in all print and electronic media. Entry is open only to people living in the U.K.It is not open to employees of Reader’s Digest and all others associated with this competition, their immediate families and relatives living in an employee’s household. Terms and Conditions There are three categories—one for adults and two for young people: one for children aged 12-18 and one for children under 12. In the adult category, the winner will receive £ 1,000 and two runners?up will each receive £ 250.In the children aged 12-18 and children under 12 categories, the winners will each receive a Fire HD 8 and a selection of STAEDTLER products worth £ 50, plus two STAEDTLER class packs of pencils for their school.The two runners?up in both categories will each receive a Kindle. Please submit your stories by 5 p.m. on February 19. The editorial team will pick a shortlist of entries, which this year will be published by our partner nicereading.com.Winners of the categories will have an opportunity to write a longer version of their stories for inclusion in the book. The three best stories in each category will be posted online at readersdigest.co.uk on February 27.You can vote for your favourite, and the one with the most votes wins the top prize.Voting will close at 5 p.m. on March 19 and the winning entry will be published in our June issue(期). 1.Who is forbidden to take part in the story competition? A.A British man of 20. B.A staff member of Reader’s Digest. C.A net friend of the organizer. D.An employee of the government. 2.Which of the following will be awarded to the youth winners? A.A Fire HD 8.       B.A Kindle. C.£50. D.£250. 3.When are the stories due? A.By 5 p.m. on February 19. B.On February 27. C.At 5 p.m. on March 19. D.In June. 4.Where will the winning entry come out? A.On TV. B.In a magazine. C.On a website. D.In a book. 【答案】1.B 2.A 3.A 4.B 【解析】 本文是一篇应用文。文章主要介绍了2018年百字故事竞赛的相关事宜,包括竞赛规则、参赛条件、作品截止时间以及奖励等。 1.B 解析:细节理解题。根据题干中的关键词forbidden定位到关于竞赛的The Rules部分。根据这一部分中的“It is not open to employees of Reader’s Digest and all others associated with this competition...household.”可知,Reader’s Digest的工作人员、与竞赛有关的人员及工作人员的家人和住在一起的亲戚都不能参赛,故答案是B。 2. A 解析:细节理解题。根据题干中的关键词youth winners定位到文章的Terms and Conditions部分。根据这一部分中的“In the children aged 12-18 and children under 12 categories, the winners will each receive a Fire HD 8 and a selection of STAEDTLER products”可知,答案是A。 3.A 解析:细节理解题。根据题干中的关键词due定位到文章的Terms and Conditions部分。根据这一部分中的“Please submit your stories by 5 p.m. on February 19.”可知,截止时间是2月19号的下午5点,故答案是A。 4.B 解析:细节理解题。根据题干中的关键词“winning entry come out”定位到文章的最后一段。根据最后一段的最后一句“and the winning entry will be published in our June issue(期)”可知,获奖作品将在Reader’s Digest的六月期刑上发表,故答案是B。 【2018·郑州市第二次质量预测】 There were many famous poets from different periods of time in Chinese history, and thousands of their poems are still read and appreciated today. To arouse people's interest in those classic Chinese poems and promote cultural heritage, China Central Television (CCTV) produced a TV show —Chinese Poetry Conference. The finale (终场) of the hit show's second season was shown on Feb.7 this year. Wu Yishu, 16, who studies at the High School Affiliated to Fudan University in Shanghai, came out on top. In an earlier episode(一集), Wu wowed the audience when performing in a section entitled“ Feihualing”. The game's theme was“yue”, meaning“moon” or“month” in Chinese. She recited the lines from the Classic of Poetry,the earliest collection of poems in China:“In July, the crickets (蟋蟀) are in the field. In August, they are in the yard. In September they are at the door. In October, they enter and crawl under our beds.” “I really admire her knowledge of poems,” said Huang Zijin, 16, a Senior 2 student from Ningbo High School in Zhejiang Province. “The first time I saw her wearing traditional Han clothing on TV, I was very impressed by her classical looks. She fulfills all my fantasies about classic Chinese women's talents. What's more, she always appears so calm throughout the show, which is very unusual for her age.” As the old saying goes, “One who is filled with knowledge always behaves with elegance.” “Learning poems isn't about winning or losing. The power of poetry lies in shaping one's view of life and developing one's inner world,” said Li Bo, an expert guest at the Chinese Poetry Conference's second season. When it comes to teaching people about poetry, Li Dingguang, the show's academic advisor, suggested that teachers should explain more about the beauty of the poetry from both the aesthetic(美学的) and emotional sides, and guide the students to lose themselves in the poems' rhythmic(有节奏的) and rhyming lines. “Although the amount of ancient Chinese poetry in the textbooks of primary and secondary schools has increased, many students still learn them for exams,”Li Dingguang told China.org.cn.“Therefore, it's important to help students truly appreciate the artistry and fun of poetry.” 1. What's one of the purposes of the TV show Chinese Poetry Conference? A. To entertain people by enjoying Chinese poems. B.To see who can recite the most classic Chinese poems. C.To fulfill people's fantasies about Chinese women's talents. D.To make more people interested in classic Chinese poetry. 2.From Paragraphs 3 and 4, what can we infer about Wu Yishu? A. She is a talented and elegant Chinese teenager. B.She has learned a large amount of poetry from textbooks. C.She is always calm in the show like other competitors of her age. D.She amazed the audience with the lines from the Classic of Poetry in the finale. 3.According to Li Bo, why do people learn poetry? A.To get good marks in examinations. B.To help build up their inner world. C.To win the Chinese Poetry Conference. D.To appreciate the beauty of rhythm and rhyme. 4.What is Li Dingguang's attitude to poetry teaching? A.Doubtful.     B.Supportive. C.Critical. D.Casual. 【答案】1.D 2.A 3.B 4.C 【解析】  本文是一篇夹叙夹议文。中国诗词源远流长,至今仍为世人传诵。为发扬中国文化,提高人们对中国古诗的兴趣,中央电视台制作并播出了《中国诗词大会》节目,中学生武亦姝以其特有的魅力征服了观众。 1.D 考查细节理解。根据第二段第一句中的“To arouse people's interest in those classic Chinese poems and promote cultural heritage”可知,中央电视台制作并播出《中国诗词大会》的目的是提高人们对中国古诗的兴趣、发扬中国文化,故D项正确。 2.A 考查推理判断。通读第三段可知,该段介绍了武亦姝以背诵含“月”字的诗词征服了观众;第四段介绍了人们对武亦姝气质和形象的评价:她穿着汉服,文静内秀,给人们留下了深刻的印象。据此可以推断,武亦姝是一个有天赋的、优雅的人,故A项正确。 [干扰项分析] B项在第三、四段中没有提及;根据第四段最后一句中的“she always appears so calm throughout the show,which is very unusual for her age”可知,她的平静在同龄人中是不常见的,故C项错误;根据第三段第二句“In an earlier episode(一集)...a section entitled‘Feihualing’”可知,她背诵《诗经》中的诗词不是在决赛中,故D项错误。 3.B 考查细节理解。根据第六段的“The power of poetry lies in shaping one's view of life and developing one's inner world”可知,郦波认为学习诗歌的目的在于塑造人的人生观和发展人的内心世界,故B项正确。 4.C 考查观点态度。根据最后一段的“Although the amount of ancient Chinese poetry in the textbooks of primary and secondary schools has increased,many students still learn them for exams”可知,李定广对学校诗歌教学的评价是:尽管教材中诗歌的数量增多了,但是许多学生学习诗歌仅是为了考试。据此可以判断,他对诗歌教学持批评态度,故C项正确。 【2018·郑州第二次质量预测】 ? Though not as much as in the past, grandparents are the teachers of the Navajo(纳瓦霍人) yout
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