[ID:4-4902242] [精]高考一轮复习学案 第14讲 主从复合句概述(解析版+原卷版)
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第 14 讲 主从复合句概述(原卷版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定复合句为必考内容;笔者通过对近几年高考卷的研究发现,阅读和完形填空篇章中不乏复合句的出现,而且语篇型填空和短文改错中也体现了对复合句的的考查。其中在语篇型填空中对其考查形式都为无提示词型填空。这就要求教师在学生备考阶段做细做精,总结规律,掌握基础知识,训练提能,直击高考。 找出划线部分是什么句子类型。 Long time ago,a boy named Bob met a new friend in QQ,1.who is Larry. Larry works with Transport Drivers.Inc.One morning in 2009,Larry was traveling along 165 north after delivering to one of his customers 2.when he saw a car with its bright lights on.3.As he got even closer,he found another vehicle upside down on the road.One more look4.and he noticed fire shooting out repeatedly from under the disabled vehicle.Larry pulled over,set the brake and got hold of the fire extinguisher (灭火器).Two good bursts from the extinguisher 5.and the fire was put out. The man 6.who had his bright lights on came over and told Larry he had made a call.They then heard a woman's voice coming from the damaged vehicle. Approaching the vehicle,they saw 7.that a woman was trying to get out of the broken window.They told her to stay still,but she thought the car was going to explode.Larry told her 8.that he had already put out the fire. 9.Once fire and emergency people arrived,Larry and the other man backed off and let them go to work.Then,Larry asked the police10.if/whether he was needed or free to go.They let him and the other man go. One thing is for certain-It was his efforts 11.that most likely saved the woman's life. 【深思熟虑】 1空和6空之后是定语从句; 2空3空和9空之后是状语从句; 4空和5空连接并列句; 7空8空10空11空之后是名词性从句 从文章来看,复合句在篇章中出现较多;所以应该探究其规律,掌握复合句的特点。 一、主从复合句定义 主从复合句由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成。主句为句子的主体,从句只用作句子的一个次要成分,不能独立成为一个句子。从句通常由关联词引导,并由关联词将从句和主句联系在一起。如: While the grandparents love the children, they are strict with them. It seemed as if the meeting would never end. Hurry up, or (else) you'll be late. However I cook eggs, the child still refuses to eat them. 二、主从复合句分类:   从句按其在复合句中的作用,分为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、定语从句和状语从句等。(参见以下各条) 三、各从句在句子中的位置以及用法:  1.表语从句:在句子中作连系动词的表语的从句,它位于主句中的系动词之后。如: Aother important difference is whether schools are state schools or prinate schools . (外研M2)  2.宾语从句:在句子中作及物动词或介词的宾语。   ①基本形式:(主句主语+主句谓语) 连词(+从句主语+从句谓语+...)   ② 关于宾语从句连词的选择:   若从句来源于一个陈述句,那么,连词用that,在口语中that可以省略;   若从句来源于一个一般疑问句,连词则用if 或whether;   若从句来源于一个特殊疑问句,则连词就是疑问词(如what,who,where,when等)如: We also realise that hiking can be hard work and believe that hikers need all our help. (北师大U8)(从句本来就是陈述句) I asked her whether she had looked at a map yet. (人教U3) (从句来源于一般问句Had she looked at a map yet?) I have been thinking about how we can make the newspaper more interesting. (外研M2) (从句来源于特殊问句How can we make the newspaper more interesting? ) 3.主语从句:在句子中充当句子主语的从句叫主语从句。位于谓语动词之前。通常由that,whether以及疑问连词引导。一般情况下,常用it替代主语从句,而将主语从句移到句尾。如: It is believed that the Maori people came from the Pacific islands of Polynesia. (译林U3) 4.同位语从句:对前面的名词作进一步解释,说明其内容的句子叫做同位语从句( Appositive Clause),同位语从句常由连接词that引导,也可由 whether引导,连接代词 what, which,,who, whose等和连接副词when, where,why,how等引导。同位语从句常放在fact,idea,news, thought,hope,belief,truth, doubt, suggestion, warning, message, feeling, reason, report, question等名词后。如: I have got a feeling that one day he' ll be famous. (外研M7) 5. 状语从句:在复合句中作状语,其位置可以在主句前或主句后。状语从句可以分为时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、比较、让步、条件等几种。状语从句由从属连接词引导。   时间状语从句通常由when ,as ,while, after, before, since, as soon as ,since, till (until), while, whenever 等引导。时间状语从句一般放在句首或句尾,特别注意,时间状语从句不允许使用将来时,而应该用现在时替代。如: As?soon?as?I?hear?my?alarm?clock,I?jump?out?of?my?bed. (北师大①U1) O?nce?she?has?made?up?her?mind,?nothing?can?change?it. (人教①U3)   地点状语从句通常由 where, wherever等引导。如: Whenever he went he carried a notebook around with him,in which he wrote down his ideas. (外研M2)   原因状语从句通常由because, since, as等引导,一般放在句首或句尾。如: We were late because she took so long finishing her lunch. (人教U3)   目的状语从句通常由so that..., so...hat..., in order that... 等引导,往往放在句尾,从句中通常含有can / could / may / might等情态动词。如: I try to work hard so that I can make more money for them. (北师大①U1)   结果状语从句通常由 so that..., so...that... 等引导,放在句尾。结果状语从句一般表示已经发生的事情,故多为过去时态。如: She has been so ill that she has had to stop work. (外研M7)   比较状语从句通常由as, than, as (so)...as等引导,一般省略从句的谓语部分,只剩下名词或代词(用主格或宾格均可)。如: Some children have more difficulty learning than others(have). (北师大U23)   让步状语从句通常由though (although), as, even if( even though), however, whatever等引导。如: Today,athletes from around the world can take part ,no matter what language they speak. (译林U2)   条件状语从句通常由if, unless, as long as等引导,条件状语从句一般放在句首或句尾,特别注意,时间状语从句不允许使用将来时,而应该用现在时替代。如: If they broke the laws,they were put into prison for up to two years. (外研M4) 6. 定语从句:在复合句中作定语用修饰句子中某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。   ① 定语从句的位置:放在名词或代词的后面。如: The man who has an umbrella in his hand is my uncle.   ② 语法术语:被修饰的名词或代词称为先行词;引导定语从句的连接词称为关系词,其中that、which、who称为关系代词,where、when、how称为关系副词。   ③ 关系代词或关系副词的作用:   关系代词who、whom 和whose指人,分别在从句中作主语、宾语和定语。which指物that多指物, 有时也指人,它们在从句中可以作主语或宾语。定语从句中关系代词作从句宾语时可以省略。如: Chen Zijiang is a paper-cutting expert (whom) I interviewed for my article on Chinese. (北师大U6) There are still two other sharks which are fierce. (译林U1)   关系副词when或where引导定语从句时,它们在从句中分别作时间状语和地点状语。如:This is the room where they had a quarrel a week ago. It was a time when philosophers could have positions in governments. (外研M5)   ④ 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句在句中不能省略,否则主句意思就不完整。非限制性定语从句和主句之间往往用逗号分开,这种从句是一种附加说明,如果从句子中省去,也不致于影响主句的意思。如: China and Japan have mid-autumn festivals ,when people admire the moon and give gifts of mooncakes. (人教U1) 7.间接引语存在的句子也为复合句: (1)直接引语和间接引语:在陈述句中,直接引用说话人原来的语句,称为直接引语。在书写时,直接引语用引号。用自己的词语来转述表达原来说话人说的内容,称为间接引语。 (2)直接引语改变为间接引语:直接引语如果是陈述句,变为间接引语时应注意以下各点: ①不用引号,而用连接词that,但有时可省略。 ②人称作相应变化; ③主句里的动词如果是过去时,间接引语中的时态一般应作相应改变: 一般现在时变一般过去时;一般将来时变过去将来时;现在进行时变过去进行时;现在完成时变成过去完成时;一般过去时变成过去完成时;但一般过去时如与一个具体的过去时间连用,则时态不变。 如:He says,"I am not from the USA.” →He says that he is not from the USA. Mr Smith said to his girl friend,“ I haven’ t seen you for a long time.” →Mr Smith said to his girl friend that he had not seen her for a long time. (3)直接引语如果是一般疑问句,变为间接引语时,需用从属连接词whether或if引导,词序要改变。如: Lin Tao said to Miss Green, "Is it made in China?” →Lin Tao asked Miss Green if it was made in China. (4)直接引语如果是特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,需用疑问词引导,词序是:连词+主语+谓语。如: Lucy said to me, “How can I help?” →Lucy asked me how she could help. (5)直接引语如是祈使句,变间接引语时,须将祈使句变为动词不定式,并在动词不定式前用tell, ask, order. 如: He said to the little boy,“ Come here, young man! ” → He asked the little boy to go there. (6)直接引语变为间接引语时,指示代词以及表示时间和地点的词或词组应作相应变化 一、宾语从句易错点 1. 宾语从句的时态问题:如果主句是现在时,从句则用现在某一时态,甚至可以用过去时;如果主句是过去时,从句则相应地使用过去某一时态,遇到客观真理时仍然用现在时。如: I think I will do better in English this term. The teacher asked the boy if the earth is round. 2.下列结构后面的从句一般也作为宾语从句看待:be sorry / afraid / sure / glad +that从句,如: I’m sorry I’m late. I’m afraid he isn’t in at the moment. 二、状语从句易错点 1.because与so;(al)though与but;if与so不可以同在一个句子中成对出现。 2.时间、条件、原因,让步状语从句放在句首时需要用逗号与主句隔开。 3. 主将从现的情况 主将从现是指在时间状语从句和条件状语从句和让步状语从句 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E8%AE%A9%E6%AD%A5%E7%8A%B6%E8%AF%AD%E4%BB%8E%E5%8F%A5&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)中,如果主句是一般将来时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%80%E8%88%AC%E5%B0%86%E6%9D%A5%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?),从句用一般现在时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%80%E8%88%AC%E7%8E%B0%E5%9C%A8%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)替代一般将来时。主将从现说的是在含有时间状语从句和条件状语从句的主从复合句 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%BB%E4%BB%8E%E5%A4%8D%E5%90%88%E5%8F%A5&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)中,如果主句的时态 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E6%97%B6%E6%80%81&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)是一般将来时,那么从句要用一般现在时。如: I will tell him about it when he comes. If it is fine tomorrow, we will go outing. 如果主句的时态是过去将来时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E5%B0%86%E6%9D%A5%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?),那么从句要用一般过去时。如: He said that he would have another try if he had the chance. I knew he could help me if he was free the next day. 三、定语从句易错点 1、关系代词只能用that的情况:   当先行词是指事物的不定代词(all, anything等),或先行词部分含有最高级,或含有序数词时,不能用其他的关系代词,只能用that. 如: All that Lily told me seems untrue. Can you give me anything that has no sugar inside? This is the first two-story bus that runs in our city. 2、关系代词在从句中作主语时一般用who(指人)、that(指物),而不用that指人或用which指物。如: Do you know the woman who is weeping in the corner? Do not tell me any words that have nothing to do with me. 3、关系代词作从句的宾语时,常用which或whom,较少使用that或who,而且,关系代词常常省略。如: Tom’s father was the first parent whom our teacher talked to. 4、当关系代词紧跟在介词后面时,必须用which或whom,而当介词移到句尾时,则又可以使用that或who.如: This is the room in which Miss Li once lived. (= This is the room Miss Li once lived in.) 知识点一 对名词性从句的考查 例1.【2018·北京】Without his support, we wouldn’t be _________ we are now. A. how B. when C. where D. why 【答案】C 【解析】考查名词性从句。句意:没有他的支持,我们是不会在现在这个位置的。how表方式,when表时间,where表地点,why表原因。“_________ we are now”是表语从句,结合句子的意思可知,该处指我们所处的位置,故该从句应用where引导。C选项正确。 点睛:表语从句是指一个句子充当表语,通俗的说就是系动词be后面接一个句子。连接表语从句的连接词有that,what,who,when,where,which,why,whether,how等。 变式训练 1: 【2018·天津】. The gold medal will be awarded to ___________ wins the first place in the bicycle race. A. whomever B. wherever C. whoever D. whatever 变式训练 2: 【2017·北京】Every year, ______ makes the most beautiful kite will win a prize in the Kite Festival. A. whatever B. whoever C. whomever D. whichever 变式训练3: 【2016·天津】The manager put forward a suggestion ____ we should have an assistant. There is too much work to do. A. whether B. that C. which D. what 知识点二 对状语从句的考查 例2.【2018·江苏】____you?can?sleep?well,?you?will?lose?the?ability?to?focus,?plan?and?stay motivated?after one or?two?nights. A. Once B. Unless C. If D. When 【答案】B 【解析】考查连词词义辨析及语境理解。句意:除非你睡得好,否则一两个晚上之后,你会失去专注、计划和保持动力的能力。A. Once一旦;B. Unless除非;C. If如果;D. When当……时候。故选B。 点睛:本题考查连词辨析。解题时要区分清选择项的含义与区别,再联系句意进行判断,从而选出正确答案。 变式训练 4:【2018·天津】Let's not pick these peaches until this weekend ___________they get sweet enough to be eaten. A. ever since B. as if C. even though D. so that 变式训练 5:【2017·江苏】 Located _______ the Belt meets the Road, Jiangsu will contribute more to the Belt and Road construction. A. why B. when C. which D. where 知识点三 对定语从句的考查 例4.【2018·北京】5. She and her family bicycle to work, _________ helps them keep fit. A. which B. who C. as D. that 【答案】A 【解析】考查非限制性定语从句。句意:她和家人骑自行车去上班,这有助于她们保持健康。“____ helps them keep fit”是非限制性定语从句,该从句修饰整个主句,引导词在从句中做主语,故该从句应用关系代词which引导。A选项正确。 点睛:非限制性定语从句即可修饰主句的一部分,也可以修饰整个主句。其引导词的选择和限制性定语从句的判断规则一致,即:第一、找准先行词;第二、看先行词在定语从句中所作的成分。需要注意的是,that不能引导非限制性定语从句。 变式训练 6: 【2018·天津】Kate, _________sister I shared a room with when we were at college, has gone to work in Australia. A. whom B. that C. whose D. her 变式训练 7: 【2018·江苏】Self-driving?is?an?area?___China?and?the?rest?of?the?world?are?on?the?same?starting line. A. that B. where C. which D. when 知识点四 对连词误用的考查 例5.【2018·全国卷1】(改错)They also had a small pond,which they raised fish. 【答案】while前加in或改为where 【解析】考查定语从句的关系词。句意:他们还有一个小池塘,里面养着鱼。此处a smallpond是先行词,其在后面的定语从句中做地点状语,故用in which或where。 变式训练 8: 【2018·全国卷2】(改错)The games my parents taught me where I was a child turned out to be very useful later in my life. 变式训练 9: 【2017·全国卷3】(改错)Around me in the picture are the things they were very important in my life at that time: car magazines and musical instruments. 变式训练 10:(改错)The reason why I plan to go is why she will be disappointed if I don’t. 一、高考真题练 1.【2018·北京】This is _________ my father has taught me—to always face difficulties and hope for the best. A. how B. which C. that D. what 2. 【2018·江苏】By boat is the only way to get here, which is _______ we arrived. A. where B. when C. why D. how 3. ?【2017·北京】 Jane moved aimlessly down the tree-lined street, not knowing ______she was heading. A. why B. where C. how D. when 4. 【2017·江苏】We choose this hotel because the price for a night here is down to $20, half of _______ it used to charge. A. that B. which C. what D. how 5.【2017·天津】She asked me _______ I had returned the books to the library, and I admitted that I hadn’t. A. when B. where C. whether D. what 6. 【2018·北京】_________ we don’t stop climate change, many animals and plants in the world will be gone. A. Although B. While C. If D. Until 7. 【2017·北京】If you don’t understand something, you may research, study, and talk to other people _______ you figure it out. A. because B. though C. until D. since 8. 【2017·北京】—Peter, please send us postcards ______ we’ll know where you have visited. —No problem. A. but B. or C. for D. so 9. 【2016·北京】35. I am not afraid of tomorrow, ________ I have seen yesterday and I love today. A. so B. and C. for D. but 10. 【2016·北京】33. I really enjoy listening to music ________ it helps me relax and takes my mind away from other cares of the day. A. because B. before C. unless D. until 11. 【2017·北京卷】The little problems ______ we meet in our daily lives may be inspirations for great inventions. A. that B. as C. where D. when 12. 【2017·江苏】28. In 1963 the UN set up the World Food Programme, one of _______ purposes is to relieve worldwide starvation. A. which B. it’s C. whose D. whom 13. 【2017·天津】My eldest son, _______ work takes him all over the world, is in New York at the moment. A. that B. whose C. his D. who 二、在下面短文的空白处填入适当的连接词 A There was an accident on the corner of the Roman Street this morning. No witness saw 1. on earth happened then. A car crashed into a truck but luckily, no one got injured.2. will be esponsible for the accident is still under investigation.The police are uncertain about the caused that led to the accident. The truck driver looked as if he was guilty. He was too nervous to say a word. 3. the police would do is to figure out the truth. They said it was difficult for them to judge 4. exactly should be to blame. 5. this happened was still not clear. It was certain 6. the car driver was too tired to stop the car immediately. The car driver didn't admit the fact 7. he was over-speed driving at the turning. The police doubted 8. what he said was true and decided to make a further investigation. B The?town?of?Keswick,?which?lies?at?the?heart?of?the?Lake?District,?is?the?perfect?place?for a?holiday ,?and?the?Derwent?Hotel,1. overlooks the town ,is the perfect place to stay.?Robin?and?Wendy? Jackson,2. bought this small hotel three years ago,have already won an excellent reputation. Robin,?3. cooking?is?one?of?the reasons 4. the?Derwent?is?so?popular,?was?once?Young? Chef?of?the?Year.The comfort?for?the?guests,?5.? the?owners?treat?almost?as?members?of?the? family,always comes first .Peter Ustinov,6. once?stayed?at?the?hotel.?described?itas?great".?And? the?Lake?District,? 7. has?so?much?wonderful?scenery?and 8. the?poet?Woordswoorth?lived,? will?not?disappoint you. C Mary will never forget the first time she saw him. He suddenly appeared in class one day,wearing sun glasses. He walked in 1. he had bought the school. And the word quickly got around that he was from New York City. For some reason he sat beside Mary. Mary felt pleased, 2. there were many empty seats in the room. But she quickly realized that it wasn't her, it was probably the fact 3. she sat in the last row 4. he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back ,he was wrong . It might have made it a little harder for everybody 5. meant to tum around, but that didn't stop the kids in the class. Of course 6. they tumed to look at him, they had to look at Mary, 7. made her feel like a star. 1 第 14 讲 主从复合句概述(解析版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定复合句为必考内容;笔者通过对近几年高考卷的研究发现,阅读和完形填空篇章中不乏复合句的出现,而且语篇型填空和短文改错中也体现了对复合句的的考查。其中在语篇型填空中对其考查形式都为无提示词型填空。这就要求教师在学生备考阶段做细做精,总结规律,掌握基础知识,训练提能,直击高考。 找出划线部分是什么句子类型。 Long time ago,a boy named Bob met a new friend in QQ,1.who is Larry. Larry works with Transport Drivers.Inc.One morning in 2009,Larry was traveling along 165 north after delivering to one of his customers 2.when he saw a car with its bright lights on.3.As he got even closer,he found another vehicle upside down on the road.One more look4.and he noticed fire shooting out repeatedly from under the disabled vehicle.Larry pulled over,set the brake and got hold of the fire extinguisher (灭火器).Two good bursts from the extinguisher 5.and the fire was put out. The man 6.who had his bright lights on came over and told Larry he had made a call.They then heard a woman's voice coming from the damaged vehicle. Approaching the vehicle,they saw 7.that a woman was trying to get out of the broken window.They told her to stay still,but she thought the car was going to explode.Larry told her 8.that he had already put out the fire. 9.Once fire and emergency people arrived,Larry and the other man backed off and let them go to work.Then,Larry asked the police10.if/whether he was needed or free to go.They let him and the other man go. One thing is for certain-It was his efforts 11.that most likely saved the woman's life. 【深思熟虑】 1空和6空之后是定语从句; 2空3空和9空之后是状语从句; 4空和5空连接并列句; 7空8空10空11空之后是名词性从句 从文章来看,复合句在篇章中出现较多;所以应该探究其规律,掌握复合句的特点。 一、主从复合句定义 主从复合句由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成。主句为句子的主体,从句只用作句子的一个次要成分,不能独立成为一个句子。从句通常由关联词引导,并由关联词将从句和主句联系在一起。如: While the grandparents love the children, they are strict with them. It seemed as if the meeting would never end. Hurry up, or (else) you'll be late. However I cook eggs, the child still refuses to eat them. 二、主从复合句分类:   从句按其在复合句中的作用,分为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、定语从句和状语从句等。(参见以下各条) 三、各从句在句子中的位置以及用法:  1.表语从句:在句子中作连系动词的表语的从句,它位于主句中的系动词之后。如: Aother important difference is whether schools are state schools or prinate schools . (外研M2)  2.宾语从句:在句子中作及物动词或介词的宾语。   ①基本形式:(主句主语+主句谓语) 连词(+从句主语+从句谓语+...)   ② 关于宾语从句连词的选择:   若从句来源于一个陈述句,那么,连词用that,在口语中that可以省略;   若从句来源于一个一般疑问句,连词则用if 或whether;   若从句来源于一个特殊疑问句,则连词就是疑问词(如what,who,where,when等)如: We also realise that hiking can be hard work and believe that hikers need all our help. (北师大U8)(从句本来就是陈述句) I asked her whether she had looked at a map yet. (人教U3) (从句来源于一般问句Had she looked at a map yet?) I have been thinking about how we can make the newspaper more interesting. (外研M2) (从句来源于特殊问句How can we make the newspaper more interesting? ) 3.主语从句:在句子中充当句子主语的从句叫主语从句。位于谓语动词之前。通常由that,whether以及疑问连词引导。一般情况下,常用it替代主语从句,而将主语从句移到句尾。如: It is believed that the Maori people came from the Pacific islands of Polynesia. (译林U3) 4.同位语从句:对前面的名词作进一步解释,说明其内容的句子叫做同位语从句( Appositive Clause),同位语从句常由连接词that引导,也可由 whether引导,连接代词 what, which,,who, whose等和连接副词when, where,why,how等引导。同位语从句常放在fact,idea,news, thought,hope,belief,truth, doubt, suggestion, warning, message, feeling, reason, report, question等名词后。如: I have got a feeling that one day he' ll be famous. (外研M7) 5. 状语从句:在复合句中作状语,其位置可以在主句前或主句后。状语从句可以分为时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、比较、让步、条件等几种。状语从句由从属连接词引导。   时间状语从句通常由when ,as ,while, after, before, since, as soon as ,since, till (until), while, whenever 等引导。时间状语从句一般放在句首或句尾,特别注意,时间状语从句不允许使用将来时,而应该用现在时替代。如: As?soon?as?I?hear?my?alarm?clock,I?jump?out?of?my?bed. (北师大①U1) O?nce?she?has?made?up?her?mind,?nothing?can?change?it. (人教①U3)   地点状语从句通常由 where, wherever等引导。如: Whenever he went he carried a notebook around with him,in which he wrote down his ideas. (外研M2)   原因状语从句通常由because, since, as等引导,一般放在句首或句尾。如: We were late because she took so long finishing her lunch. (人教U3)   目的状语从句通常由so that..., so...hat..., in order that... 等引导,往往放在句尾,从句中通常含有can / could / may / might等情态动词。如: I try to work hard so that I can make more money for them. (北师大①U1)   结果状语从句通常由 so that..., so...that... 等引导,放在句尾。结果状语从句一般表示已经发生的事情,故多为过去时态。如: She has been so ill that she has had to stop work. (外研M7)   比较状语从句通常由as, than, as (so)...as等引导,一般省略从句的谓语部分,只剩下名词或代词(用主格或宾格均可)。如: Some children have more difficulty learning than others(have). (北师大U23)   让步状语从句通常由though (although), as, even if( even though), however, whatever等引导。如: Today,athletes from around the world can take part ,no matter what language they speak. (译林U2)   条件状语从句通常由if, unless, as long as等引导,条件状语从句一般放在句首或句尾,特别注意,时间状语从句不允许使用将来时,而应该用现在时替代。如: If they broke the laws,they were put into prison for up to two years. (外研M4) 6. 定语从句:在复合句中作定语用修饰句子中某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。   ① 定语从句的位置:放在名词或代词的后面。如: The man who has an umbrella in his hand is my uncle.   ② 语法术语:被修饰的名词或代词称为先行词;引导定语从句的连接词称为关系词,其中that、which、who称为关系代词,where、when、how称为关系副词。   ③ 关系代词或关系副词的作用:   关系代词who、whom 和whose指人,分别在从句中作主语、宾语和定语。which指物that多指物, 有时也指人,它们在从句中可以作主语或宾语。定语从句中关系代词作从句宾语时可以省略。如: Chen Zijiang is a paper-cutting expert (whom) I interviewed for my article on Chinese. (北师大U6) There are still two other sharks which are fierce. (译林U1)   关系副词when或where引导定语从句时,它们在从句中分别作时间状语和地点状语。如:This is the room where they had a quarrel a week ago. It was a time when philosophers could have positions in governments. (外研M5)   ④ 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句在句中不能省略,否则主句意思就不完整。非限制性定语从句和主句之间往往用逗号分开,这种从句是一种附加说明,如果从句子中省去,也不致于影响主句的意思。如: China and Japan have mid-autumn festivals ,when people admire the moon and give gifts of mooncakes. (人教U1) 7.间接引语存在的句子也为复合句: (1)直接引语和间接引语:在陈述句中,直接引用说话人原来的语句,称为直接引语。在书写时,直接引语用引号。用自己的词语来转述表达原来说话人说的内容,称为间接引语。 (2)直接引语改变为间接引语:直接引语如果是陈述句,变为间接引语时应注意以下各点: ①不用引号,而用连接词that,但有时可省略。 ②人称作相应变化; ③主句里的动词如果是过去时,间接引语中的时态一般应作相应改变: 一般现在时变一般过去时;一般将来时变过去将来时;现在进行时变过去进行时;现在完成时变成过去完成时;一般过去时变成过去完成时;但一般过去时如与一个具体的过去时间连用,则时态不变。 如:He says,"I am not from the USA.” →He says that he is not from the USA. Mr Smith said to his girl friend,“ I haven’ t seen you for a long time.” →Mr Smith said to his girl friend that he had not seen her for a long time. (3)直接引语如果是一般疑问句,变为间接引语时,需用从属连接词whether或if引导,词序要改变。如: Lin Tao said to Miss Green, "Is it made in China?” →Lin Tao asked Miss Green if it was made in China. (4)直接引语如果是特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,需用疑问词引导,词序是:连词+主语+谓语。如: Lucy said to me, “How can I help?” →Lucy asked me how she could help. (5)直接引语如是祈使句,变间接引语时,须将祈使句变为动词不定式,并在动词不定式前用tell, ask, order. 如: He said to the little boy,“ Come here, young man! ” → He asked the little boy to go there. (6)直接引语变为间接引语时,指示代词以及表示时间和地点的词或词组应作相应变化 一、宾语从句易错点 1. 宾语从句的时态问题:如果主句是现在时,从句则用现在某一时态,甚至可以用过去时;如果主句是过去时,从句则相应地使用过去某一时态,遇到客观真理时仍然用现在时。如: I think I will do better in English this term. The teacher asked the boy if the earth is round. 2.下列结构后面的从句一般也作为宾语从句看待:be sorry / afraid / sure / glad +that从句,如: I’m sorry I’m late. I’m afraid he isn’t in at the moment. 二、状语从句易错点 1.because与so;(al)though与but;if与so不可以同在一个句子中成对出现。 2.时间、条件、原因,让步状语从句放在句首时需要用逗号与主句隔开。 3. 主将从现的情况 主将从现是指在时间状语从句和条件状语从句和让步状语从句 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E8%AE%A9%E6%AD%A5%E7%8A%B6%E8%AF%AD%E4%BB%8E%E5%8F%A5&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)中,如果主句是一般将来时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%80%E8%88%AC%E5%B0%86%E6%9D%A5%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?),从句用一般现在时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%80%E8%88%AC%E7%8E%B0%E5%9C%A8%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)替代一般将来时。主将从现说的是在含有时间状语从句和条件状语从句的主从复合句 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%BB%E4%BB%8E%E5%A4%8D%E5%90%88%E5%8F%A5&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)中,如果主句的时态 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E6%97%B6%E6%80%81&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)是一般将来时,那么从句要用一般现在时。如: I will tell him about it when he comes. If it is fine tomorrow, we will go outing. 如果主句的时态是过去将来时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E5%B0%86%E6%9D%A5%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?),那么从句要用一般过去时。如: He said that he would have another try if he had the chance. I knew he could help me if he was free the next day. 三、定语从句易错点 1、关系代词只能用that的情况:   当先行词是指事物的不定代词(all, anything等),或先行词部分含有最高级,或含有序数词时,不能用其他的关系代词,只能用that. 如: All that Lily told me seems untrue. Can you give me anything that has no sugar inside? This is the first two-story bus that runs in our city. 2、关系代词在从句中作主语时一般用who(指人)、that(指物),而不用that指人或用which指物。如: Do you know the woman who is weeping in the corner? Do not tell me any words that have nothing to do with me. 3、关系代词作从句的宾语时,常用which或whom,较少使用that或who,而且,关系代词常常省略。如: Tom’s father was the first parent whom our teacher talked to. 4、当关系代词紧跟在介词后面时,必须用which或whom,而当介词移到句尾时,则又可以使用that或who.如: This is the room in which Miss Li once lived. (= This is the room Miss Li once lived in.) 知识点一 对名词性从句的考查 例1.【2018·北京】Without his support, we wouldn’t be _________ we are now. A. how B. when C. where D. why 【答案】C 【解析】考查名词性从句。句意:没有他的支持,我们是不会在现在这个位置的。how表方式,when表时间,where表地点,why表原因。“_________ we are now”是表语从句,结合句子的意思可知,该处指我们所处的位置,故该从句应用where引导。C选项正确。 点睛:表语从句是指一个句子充当表语,通俗的说就是系动词be后面接一个句子。连接表语从句的连接词有that,what,who,when,where,which,why,whether,how等。 变式训练 1: 【2018·天津】. The gold medal will be awarded to ___________ wins the first place in the bicycle race. A. whomever B. wherever C. whoever D. whatever 【答案】C 【解析】考查名词性从句连接词。句意:无论谁获得自行车比赛第一名,金牌将授予他。分析句子可知,宾语从句中缺少主语,故用whoever,表示“任何人,无论谁”。故选C。 点睛:分析句子可知,空格处做be awarded to的宾语,同时在后面的从句中做主语,再根据句意可知,这里主语指人,故用whoever。 变式训练 2: 【2017·北京】Every year, ______ makes the most beautiful kite will win a prize in the Kite Festival. A. whatever B. whoever C. whomever D. whichever 【答案】B 【解析】考查名词性从句中主语从句连接词。句意:每年,任何一个做出最漂亮风筝的人将会在风筝节获奖。分析句子可知,空格所在部分是主语从句且缺少主语,故用whoever,表示“任何人,无论谁”。故选B。 变式训练3: 【2016·天津】The manager put forward a suggestion ____ we should have an assistant. There is too much work to do. A. whether B. that C. which D. what 【答案】B 【解析】句意:经理提出一个建议,我们应该有个助手。有太多的工作要做。使用同位语说明suggestion的内容,而同位语从句成分和意思都是完整的,故用that引导。 知识点二 对状语从句的考查 例2.【2018·江苏】____you?can?sleep?well,?you?will?lose?the?ability?to?focus,?plan?and?stay motivated?after one or?two?nights. A. Once B. Unless C. If D. When 【答案】B 【解析】考查连词词义辨析及语境理解。句意:除非你睡得好,否则一两个晚上之后,你会失去专注、计划和保持动力的能力。A. Once一旦;B. Unless除非;C. If如果;D. When当……时候。故选B。 点睛:本题考查连词辨析。解题时要区分清选择项的含义与区别,再联系句意进行判断,从而选出正确答案。 变式训练 4:【2018·天津】Let's not pick these peaches until this weekend ___________they get sweet enough to be eaten. A. ever since B. as if C. even though D. so that 【答案】D 【解析】考查状语从句的连词和句意理解。句意:让我们这个周末再摘这些桃子,这样的话它们吃起来就变得足够甜。A. ever since自那时起;B. as if 好像;C. even though尽管;D. so that以便。从句为目的状语从句,故用so that。 点睛:本题考查连词短语词义辨析。解题时要区分清选择项的含义与区别,再联系句意可以判断,这里考查so that引导的目的状语从句。 变式训练 5:【2017·江苏】 Located _______ the Belt meets the Road, Jiangsu will contribute more to the Belt and Road construction. A. why B. when C. which D. where 【答案】D 【解析】考查地点状语从句。句意:位于丝绸之路交汇处的江苏省将会对“一带一路”的建设做出更大的贡献。be located in +地点名词,位于/座落某地,where引导地点状语从句相当于in some place,故选D。 知识点三 对定语从句的考查 例4.【2018·北京】5. She and her family bicycle to work, _________ helps them keep fit. A. which B. who C. as D. that 【答案】A 【解析】考查非限制性定语从句。句意:她和家人骑自行车去上班,这有助于她们保持健康。“____ helps them keep fit”是非限制性定语从句,该从句修饰整个主句,引导词在从句中做主语,故该从句应用关系代词which引导。A选项正确。 点睛:非限制性定语从句即可修饰主句的一部分,也可以修饰整个主句。其引导词的选择和限制性定语从句的判断规则一致,即:第一、找准先行词;第二、看先行词在定语从句中所作的成分。需要注意的是,that不能引导非限制性定语从句。 变式训练 6: 【2018·天津】Kate, _________sister I shared a room with when we were at college, has gone to work in Australia. A. whom B. that C. whose D. her 【答案】C 【解析】考查定语从句关系词。句意:Kate已经去澳大利亚工作了。我们在大学的时候,我和她的姐姐共住一室。句中先行词为Kate,且Kate在非限制性定语从句中作名词sister的定语,故用whose。 变式训练 7: 【2018·江苏】Self-driving?is?an?area?___China?and?the?rest?of?the?world?are?on?the?same?starting line. A. that B. where C. which D. when 【答案】B 【解析】考查定语从句。句意:自动驾驶是一个中国和世界其它国家都在同一起跑线的领域。句中先行词为area,在从句中作地点状语,故用关系副词where,相当于in which。故选B。 知识点四 对连词误用的考查 例5.【2018·全国卷1】(改错)They also had a small pond,which they raised fish. 【答案】while前加in或改为where 【解析】考查定语从句的关系词。句意:他们还有一个小池塘,里面养着鱼。此处a smallpond是先行词,其在后面的定语从句中做地点状语,故用in which或where。 变式训练 8: 【2018·全国卷2】(改错)The games my parents taught me where I was a child turned out to be very useful later in my life. 【答案】when改为where 【解析】考查宾语从句的连接词。句意:当我是个孩子的时候我父母教给我的纸牌游戏在我日后的生活中证明非常有用。宾语从句连接词并不是表示地点状语,而是时间状语。故把where改为when。 变式训练 9: 【2017·全国卷3】(改错)Around me in the picture are the things they were very important in my life at that time: car magazines and musical instruments. 【答案】they改为which或that  【解析】分析句子可知,前面的倒装句“Around me in the picture are the things…”是一个单句,而后面的“…they were very important in my life at that time: car magazines and musical instruments.”也是一个单句,在这种情况下,要么在两个单句之间用并列连词连接,要么把后面这个单句变为从句。从句意上看,这里变为定语从句更为合理,故把they改为that/which。 变式训练 10:(改错)The reason why I plan to go is why she will be disappointed if I don’t. 【答案】why改为that  【解析】考查名词性从句中表语从句引导词。此句为固定句式:the reason why从句.is that从句,含义为“…的原因是因为…”。 一、高考真题练 1.【2018·北京】This is _________ my father has taught me—to always face difficulties and hope for the best. A. how B. which C. that D. what 【答案】D 【解析】句意:这是我父亲教我的---总要面对困难,抱最大希望。所填的空引导表语从句,空在从句中作动词的宾语,故用what。 点睛:what是常见的名词性从句引导词之一,它除了引导从句作用之外,还在从句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语。根据不同的语境,what可以表示不同的意思,例如“……的东西或事情”,“……的人或样子”等。 2. 【2018·江苏】By boat is the only way to get here, which is _______ we arrived. A. where B. when C. why D. how 【答案】D 【解析】考查名词性从句。句意:乘船是到达这里唯一的途径,这就是我们如何到达的。分析which引导的非限定性定语从句可知,后面为表语从句。分析句意可知,这里用连接副词how引导表语从句,充当方式状语,表示“如何”。故选D。 点睛:本题考查表语。首先需要弄清句意及分析句子结构,然后根据前句By boat is the only way to get here提示可知作方式状语,就不难选出正确答案。 3. ?【2017·北京】 Jane moved aimlessly down the tree-lined street, not knowing ______she was heading. A. why B. where C. how D. when 【答案】B 【解析】考查宾语从句连词。 A. why 为什么 B. where 在哪 C. how 如何 D. when什么时候。句意:Jane漫无目的地走在两旁栽树的街道上,不知道她将去往何方,根据语境可知此处是表地点的,很容易就可选出答案B。 4. 【2017·江苏】We choose this hotel because the price for a night here is down to $20, half of _______ it used to charge. A. that B. which C. what D. how 【答案】C 【解析】考查介词之后的宾语从句。half of _______ it used to charge是$20的同位语,即原来价格的一半是现在的$20;另_______ it used to charge做的是of的宾语从句,少charge之后的宾语,所以用what来引导宾语从句。 点睛:这里容易误判为定语从句的“介词+关系代词”结构,需要注意的是,half of后面的价格是以前的价格。如果是定语从句,那么half of后面的价格则是$20的一半,即$10,再结合“down to”可知,原来的价格高于$20,因此不是定语从句。介词of后跟宾语,因此这里是宾语从句,通过分析句子成分可知,宾语从句缺少宾语,因此用what引导。 5.【2017·天津】She asked me _______ I had returned the books to the library, and I admitted that I hadn’t. A. when B. where C. whether D. what 【答案】C 【解析】句意:他问我是否已经把书还给图书馆了,我承认。我还没有还。A.什么时候;B.在哪里;C是否;D.什么。根据句意,故选C。 6. 【2018·北京】_________ we don’t stop climate change, many animals and plants in the world will be gone. A. Although B. While C. If D. Until 【答案】C 【解析】考查状语从句。句意:如果我们不阻止气候变化,那么世界上的许多动植物就会消失。根据句意知道前一句为条件状语从句,用if引导。 点睛:条件状语从句通常由引导词if或unless引导。条件是指某一件事情实现之后(状语从句中的动作),其它事情(主句中的动作)才能发生,通常译作“假如”。 7. 【2017·北京】If you don’t understand something, you may research, study, and talk to other people _______ you figure it out. A. because B. though C. until D. since 【答案】C 【解析】考查状语从句连词。句意:如果你无法理解某个东西,你可能会去研究,学习和他人探讨知道你解决为止;根据句意可知选用until,直到,选C。 8. 【2017·北京】—Peter, please send us postcards ______ we’ll know where you have visited. —No problem. A. but B. or C. for D. so 【答案】D 【解析】考查并列连词。A. but 但是 B. or 或者 C. for 因为 D. so因此 句意: Peter,请给我们寄明信片,因此我们就会知道你们去哪游览过,根据语境可知前后句之间是因果关系,故用so,选D。 9. 【2016·北京】35. I am not afraid of tomorrow, ________ I have seen yesterday and I love today. A. so B. and C. for D. but 【答案】C 【解析】句意:我不害怕明天,因为我已经经历了昨天并且深爱着今天。So后跟结果;and是并列关系;for表示补充说明;but表示转折。故选C。 10. 【2016·北京】33. I really enjoy listening to music ________ it helps me relax and takes my mind away from other cares of the day. A. because B. before C. unless D. until 【答案】A 【解析】考查原因状语从句。句意:我非常喜欢听音乐,因为它能让我放松,使我不去想其他的事情。前后位因果关系,故选A。 11. 【2017·北京卷】The little problems ______ we meet in our daily lives may be inspirations for great inventions. A. that B. as C. where D. when 【答案】A 【解析】考查定语从句。句意:我们在日常生活中遇到的小问题可能就是伟大发明的灵感。从句少宾语,先行词是problems,用that。 12. 【2017·江苏】28. In 1963 the UN set up the World Food Programme, one of _______ purposes is to relieve worldwide starvation. A. which B. it’s C. whose D. whom 【答案】C 【解析】考查定语从句。先行词是“the World Food Programme”,“世界粮食项目”的目的之一是……,whose在定语从句中作定语,这里限定purposes,故选C。句意:1963年联合国建立了世界粮食计划署,其目的之一就是为了缓解世界范围内的饥饿问题。 13. 【2017·天津】My eldest son, _______ work takes him all over the world, is in New York at the moment. A. that B. whose C. his D. who 【答案】B 【解析】考查定语从句。句意:我的最大的儿子,他的工作带他去全世界,现在在纽约。先行词是my eldest son,根据句意和空后名词,确定引导词作定语,故用whose。 二、在下面短文的空白处填入适当的连接词 A There was an accident on the corner of the Roman Street this morning. No witness saw 1. on earth happened then. A car crashed into a truck but luckily, no one got injured.2. will be esponsible for the accident is still under investigation.The police are uncertain about the caused that led to the accident. The truck driver looked as if he was guilty. He was too nervous to say a word. 3. the police would do is to figure out the truth. They said it was difficult for them to judge 4. exactly should be to blame. 5. this happened was still not clear. It was certain 6. the car driver was too tired to stop the car immediately. The car driver didn't admit the fact 7. he was over-speed driving at the turning. The police doubted 8. what he said was true and decided to make a further investigation. 【答案】1.what 2.who 3. what 4.who 5. How/Why 6. that 7. that 8.whether/if B The?town?of?Keswick,?which?lies?at?the?heart?of?the?Lake?District,?is?the?perfect?place?for a?holiday ,?and?the?Derwent?Hotel,1. overlooks the town ,is the perfect place to stay.?Robin?and?Wendy? Jackson,2. bought this small hotel three years ago,have already won an excellent reputation. Robin,?3. cooking?is?one?of?the reasons 4. the?Derwent?is?so?popular,?was?once?Young? Chef?of?the?Year.The comfort?for?the?guests,?5.? the?owners?treat?almost?as?members?of?the? family,always comes first .Peter Ustinov,6. once?stayed?at?the?hotel.?described?itas?great".?And? the?Lake?District,? 7. has?so?much?wonderful?scenery?and 8. the?poet?Woordswoorth?lived,? will?not?disappoint you. 【答案】1. which 2.who 3.whose 4. why 5. whom 6. who 7. which 8. where C Mary will never forget the first time she saw him. He suddenly appeared in class one day,wearing sun glasses. He walked in 1. he had bought the school. And the word quickly got around that he was from New York City. For some reason he sat beside Mary. Mary felt pleased, 2. there were many empty seats in the room. But she quickly realized that it wasn't her, it was probably the fact 3. she sat in the last row 4. he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back ,he was wrong . It might have made it a little harder for everybody 5. meant to tum around, but that didn't stop the kids in the class. Of course 6. they tumed to look at him, they had to look at Mary, 7. made her feel like a star. 【答案】1. as if 2. because 3. that 4. Although/Though 5. because/since/as 6. each time/every time 7. which 1
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