[ID:4-4899190] [精]高考一轮复习学案 第15讲 一般时态和进行时态(解析版+原卷版)
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第 15 讲 一般时态和进行时态(原卷版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第10个条目就是时态。通过对近几年全国课标卷的研究发现,时态或语态已成为语篇型填空的必考内容。高考语篇型填空以对时态的考查为主,以对语态的考查为辅。对于时态的考查主要集中在一般现在时、一般过去时等常见时态。另外,短文改错最可能考查上下文时态不一致,也可能考被动语态的错用及过去分词与过去式的混用。这就要求教师在学生备考阶段狠抓动词的时语态基础,在理解语境和表达侧重上下功夫,科学备考,事半功倍。 Dear?Jo, Well,?I?arrived[1]?back?safely?two?weeks?ago.?The?flight?was?fine,?but?a bit long. Everything?here?is?very?different?from?London.?I??am?writing[2]this?letter outside?in?the garden.?It?is?very?hot?today,?so?I'm?sitting?undr?a?big?umbrella.?I?know?we had[3]?some?sunny days?in?London?but there was also some rain .I remember?we?were?caught?in?a?heavy?rain when we?were waking[4]?in?the?park . It was [5]?difficult?for?me?to?start?work?after?my?wonderful?holiday,?but it is [6]OK now. I have been in?a?new department?since?I?came?[7]home and?it was interesting.Now?I am?doing?[8] a?new?project?and?it?wil?have been?fihished?by?the?end?of?this?month. By?the way,?have?you?found?a?black?leather?photo?alarm?I think I left[9]?it?in?the?bedroom.? Could?you?send?it?to?me?sometime??No?hurry. Please?write?soon,?and?thank[10]?you?again?for?a?wonderful?time. Love?Chris 【深思熟虑】 1. arrived 根据后面two years ago此处用一般过去时。 2. am writing 表示此时此刻动作正在进行。 3. had表示怀念过去在伦敦的日子,用一般过去时。 4. were waking表示叙述过去的经历,此处指正在公园里散步遭遇大雨。 5. was此处指:刚从伦敦度假回来很难开始正常工作;也是过去的事,故用一般过去时。 6. is根据后文的now至现在一切好了,故用一般现在时。 7. came 句意:自从回到家我一直住在一个新公寓里。从过去开始,故since后用过去时。 8. am doing指现在我正在做一个项目,只现阶段动作正在进行,故用现在进行时。 9. left表示我想我把相册丢在房间了;指在伦敦度假时丢的,故用一般过去时。 10.thank 在“祈使句and 祈使句”结构中,因为这两个句子都没有主语,故为并列祈使句。 从篇章来看,英语短文在叙述不同时间发生的事情或动作时,常常需要用不同时态来表达;从表面看,似乎难以捉摸,但从内在联系看(注意蓝色字体),可以总结出其规律。 一、时态定义 所谓时态,就是动作行为的时间状态。时间有现在、过去、将来、过去将来;动作分一般、完成、进行、完成进行,这样就构成了不同时态。本章讲解重点是高考最常见的一般时和进行时。 二、时态分类 一般时和进行时分类和构成 时态 构成(以do为例) 一般将来时 will do 一般现在时 do/does 一般过去时 did 现在进行时 am /is/are doing 过去进行时 was/ were doing 将来进行时 will/shall/be going to be doing 现在完成进行时 has/have been doing 三、 一般体 1.一般现在时的用法: 基本结构:①be动词;②行为动词 否定形式:①am/is/are+not;②此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加don't,如主语为第三人称单数,则用doesn't,同时还原行为动词。 一般疑问句:①把be动词放于句首;②用助动词do提前,如主语为第三人称单数,则用does,同时,还原行为动词。 A) 表示现在发生的动作、情况、状态和特征。 B) 习惯用语。 C) 经常性、习惯性动作。 He always helps others. D) 客观事实和普遍真理。尤其要注意,如果前后文不是一般现在时,则无法保持主句、从句时态一致。 The earth goes around the sun. E) 表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作,(仅限于某些表示“来、去、动、停、开始、结束、继续”等的动词)可以与表示未来时间的状语搭配使用。常见的用法是:飞机、火车、轮船、汽车等定期定点运行的交通方式。 The next train leaves at 3 o'clock this afternoon. How often does this bus run? (这班车多久一趟?) F) 在时间和条件状语从句里经常用一般现在表示将来事情。 When I see her, I will tell her the fact. 2. 一般过去时用法: 基本结构:①be动词;②行为动词 否定形式:①was/were+not;②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。 一般疑问句:①was或were放于句首;②用助动词do的过去式did提问,同时还原行为动词。 时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week(year, night, month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc. A)?表示过去某个时间发生的动作或情况。 (湖南高考)In 1492, Columbus landed on one of the Bahama Islands, but he mistook it for an island off India. 1492年哥伦布登上了巴哈马群岛中的一个岛屿,但是他却把它误当作是印度附近的一个岛屿。 B)?表示过去习惯性动作。特别是由would/ used to do表达的句型,本身表示的就是过去时。 He used to visit his mother once a week.   3. 一般将来时用法: 概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。 基本结构:①am/is/are going to + do; ②will/shall + do. ③be (about) to do? ?④一般现在时表将来??? ⑤现在进行时表将来。 否定形式:①am/is/are+not going to + do;?②在行为动词前加will/shall not。 一般疑问句:①be放于句首;②will/shall提到句首。 时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, in a few minutes, by…,the day after tomorrow, etc. A)?基本结构是will / shall do。 We shall send her a present as her birthday gift. B)?有些动词,如:arrive, be close, come, do, done, go, have, leave, open, play, return, sleep, start, stay等,用于现在进行时,并且通常与一个表示将来时间的时间状语连用,可以表示将来时。 My mother is coming to visit me next week and is staying here until May. C)?表示“打算去……,要……”时,可用be going to do。   This is just what I am going to say. D)?表示“即将、正要”时,可用be about to do。强调近期内或马上要做的事。  Don't worry, I am about to make a close examination on you. E) "be to do"?表示“按计划、安排即将发生某事或打算做某事”。 F)?同样可以表示“正要、将要”的意思的句型是be on the point of doing。??????? I was on the point of telephoning him when his letter arrived. 注意:在以if, when, as long as, as soon as, after, before, in case, until, unless等连词以及具有连词作用的副词(immediately, the moment, directly)等引导的状语从句,一般用现在时代替将来时。 If I meet her, I will give her the book. 进行体 1. 现在进行时用法: 概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。 时间状语:now, at this time, these days, etc. 基本结构:am/is/are+doing 否定形式:am/is/are+not+doing. 一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首。 ——What are you doing now? ——I am making a model ship. 2. 过去进行时用法: 基本结构:was/were+doing 否定形式:was/were + not + doing. 一般疑问句:把was或were放于句首。 时间状语:at this time yesterday, at that time或以when引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语等。 A)?表示在过去一个比较具体的时间正在发生的动作。   Mary was listening to light music 10 minutes ago. (10分钟前,玛丽正在听轻音乐。) B)?如果when, while这样的时间状语引导词所引导的主从句之一是一般过去时,则另一个句子常用过去进行时。  I was washing my hair when you knocked at the front door. (你敲前门时我正在洗头发。) 3. 将来进行时用法: 概念:强调在将来的某个具体时间正在发生的动作或事情。 结构:will/shall+be+doing Don't worry, you won't miss her. She will be wearing a red T-shirt and a white skirt at that time.(别担心,你不会认不出她的。她到时会穿一件红色的T恤衫和一条白色的短裙。) 注意:由于本时态是由将来时和进行时融合在一起的,所以关于本时态的注意事项,可参考"一般将来时"和"现在进行时"的有关注意事项。 4. 现在完成进行时用法: 概念:表示某一动作开始于过去某一时间,延续或重复地出现至今,或将继续延续至将来。 结构:(have been doing) We have been working on this project for over a month now. (到目前为止,我们一直在处理那个项目,已经花了一个多月时间了。) 注意:与现在完成时相比,现在完成进行时更强调:在从过去到现在的时间里,动作或状态一直持续或一直反复出现。 ☆注意:进行时有时会有以下的形式出现: 1. 过去完成进行时用法: 结构:had been doing The old clock had been being taken apart of and fixed up again for several times by my 10-year old son before I came back home. (我回到家之前,我10岁大的儿子已经把这个旧钟表拆卸并重新组装了好几回了。) 2. 将来完成进行时用法: 结构:shall have been doing ,will have been doing By the end of next month, the project will have been being worked for 3 years. (到下个月底为止,这项工程就已经不停地进行了3年了。) 3. 过去将来完成进行时用法: 结构:should have been doing , would have been doing They said that by the end of the following month, the project would have been being worked for 3 years. (他们说到第二个月底为止,这项工程就已经不停地进行了3年了。) 4.过去将来进行时用法: 结构:should be doing , would be doing The government promised that a new highway would be being built next July. (政府承诺说第二年7月将有一条新的高速公路正在修建。) 一、一般时应注意: 1. 一般现在时 一般现在时中,have作“有”解时,其否定式和疑问式的变化: 否定式 疑问式 传统英国英语 I?haven'?t?anything?to?say. Have?you?anything?to say? 当代英国英语? Idon't?have?anything?to say Do?you?have?anything to say? 和美国英语 ②主将从现的情况 主将从现是指在时间状语从句和条件状语从句和让步状语从句 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E8%AE%A9%E6%AD%A5%E7%8A%B6%E8%AF%AD%E4%BB%8E%E5%8F%A5&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)中,如果主句是一般将来时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%80%E8%88%AC%E5%B0%86%E6%9D%A5%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?),从句用一般现在时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%80%E8%88%AC%E7%8E%B0%E5%9C%A8%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)替代一般将来时。 在复合句中,由when ,as soon as ,after ,before ,until , unless等引导的时间状语从句和由if 引导的条件状语从句,都符合“主将从现”的原则,即主句是一般将来时(或用一般现在时表示一般将来时的意义),从句要用一般现在时。 主将从现说的是在含有时间状语从句和条件状语从句的主从复合句 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%BB%E4%BB%8E%E5%A4%8D%E5%90%88%E5%8F%A5&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)中,如果主句的时态 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E6%97%B6%E6%80%81&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)是一般将来时,那么从句要用一般现在时。如: I will tell him about it when he comes. If it is fine tomorrow, we will go outing. 如果主句的时态是过去将来时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E5%B0%86%E6%9D%A5%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?),那么从句要用一般过去时。如: He said that he would have another try if he had the chance. I knew he could help me if he was free the next day. 2. 一般过去时 ①一般过去时也可与?sInce和for引导的时间状语连用。如: The?doctor?thought?for?a?while.(北师大⑥U17) Beijing?had?its?hottest?day?yesterday?since1999. I in?London?for?many?years,?but?I've?never?regretted?my?final?decision?to?move?back?to?China. A.?lived B?was?living C?have?lived D.?had lived (2006重庆) 答案:A 说话者现已回国,但过去在伦敦居住多年,故应用一般过去时。 ②一般过去时还可与?today,?this?week,?this?month,?this?year等时间状语连用,但这些时间状语显然是指不包括“现在”在内的过去时间。 如:Did?you?see?her?today? 如果?since从句的谓语动词是静态动词,则表示动作或状态已结束,不再持续下去。如: It's?two?weeks?since?he?was?ill.他病愈已有两周了。 It's?a?long?time?since?she?lived?here.她好久不在这里住了。 ③在口语中,有时用一般过去时代替一般现在时,使语气显得更为委婉。如: I wondered(wonder) if I could(can)use your car. 二 进行时 1.现在进行时 事物作主语时,多用一般现在时表示按计划安排的活动;人作主语时,多用现在进行时表示计划要做的事。试比较 The train leaves at10pm. 火车晚上10点开。 I?am?leaving?tonight. 我今天晚上要走了。 2.过去进行时 ①在口语中,有使用过去进行时表示现在的想法,语气显得委婉。如: I was wondering if you could do me a favour. I was hoping you could give us an early reply. ②leave,?arrive,?start,?die等动词的过去进行时表示“快要完成或即将完成”的动作,而过去时表示“已经完成”的动作。如: He?was?dying.他快要死了。 He?died.他死了。 The?train?was?coming.火车快来了。 The?train?came.火车来了。 3.将来进行时 在口语中,将来进行时用得较多,而且可与现在进行时互换,竟义无区别。如: I’ll?be?leaving for London?tomorrow.?=I'm?leaving for London??tomorrow明天我将离开去伦敦。 有时将来进行时也可与一般将来时互换,但意义有细微的差别。试比较: Won't you?join in our game?你不想参加我们的游戏吗?(表示邀请) Won't?you?be??joining in our game?你来参加我们的游戏吗?(单纯谈事件) 4.现在完成进行时 在时间或条件状语从句中,要用现在完成进行时代替将来完成进行时。如 I?won?'t?tell?the?student?the?answer?to?the?math?problem?until he on?it?for?more?than?an?hour. (湖北卷) A?has?been?working B.?will?have?worked C?will?have?been?working? D?had?worked 答案:A until引导时间状语从句,从句中的谓语动词要用has been working 代替will have been working. 5.过去完成进行时(?The?Past?Perfect?Continuous?Tense)表示动作从过去某时开始,一直延续到过去另一时间。如: Finally,?after?he?had?been?waiting?for?about?an?hour,?he?was?called?in.? (北师大⑥U17) 过去完成进行时与现在完成进行时的用法相似,只不过把时间从现在移到了过去。 试比较 How?long?have?you?been?living here?你在这住了多久了? She?asked?me?how?long?I?had?been?living here.她问我在这住了多久了? 三、时态的呼应: 从句(尤其是宾语从句)谓语动词的时态受主句谓语动词时态的制约,如主句谓语动词为过去时态,从句谓语动词要用相应的过去时态。如: 1?didn’t?know?where?she was waiting. I?heard?he?had?won?first?prize. 1?wanted?to?know?where?all my customers?had?gone?yesterda. (人教U2) 知识点一 一般时与其他时态混淆 例1.【2018·北京】—Hi, I’m Peter. Are you new here? I haven’t seen you around? —Hello, Peter. I’m Bob. I just _________ on Monday. A. start B. have started C. started D. had started 【答案】C 【解析】考查时态。句意:——嗨,我是彼得。你是新来的吗?我没有在附近见过你。——你好,彼得。我是鲍勃。我周一刚刚开始住在这儿。根据两人谈话内容可知,Bob现在在这儿,他开始(start)住在这儿是发生在周一的事情,周一是一个过去的时间,故该句应用一般过去时态,C选项正确。 点睛:一般过去时表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态或过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。一般过去时常与表示过去的时间状语或从句连用,如:yesterday,last week,in the past,in 2017,once,a few days ago等。 变式训练 1: 【2017·江苏】He’s been informed that he _______ for the scholarship because of his academic background. A. hasn’t qualified B. hadn’t qualified C. doesn’t qualify D. wasn’t qualifying 变式训练 2: 【2017·北京】People______ better access to health care than they used to, and they’re living longer as a result. A. will have B. have C. had D. had had 知识点二 进行时与其他时态混淆 例2.【2018·北京】Susan had quit her well-paid job and _________ as a volunteer in the neighborhood when I visited her last year. A. is working B. was working C. has worked D. had worked 【答案】B 【解析】考查进行时与其他时态混淆。句意:Sunsan已经辞去了高薪工作。去年当我探望她的时候,她正在一个社区里做志愿工作者。表示我探望她的当时,她正进行的动作,故用过去进行时。 变式训练 3:【2016·北京】—Excuse me, which movie are you waiting for? —The new Star Wars. We ________ here for more than two hours. A. waited B. wait C. would be waiting D. have been waiting 变式训练 4:【2017·北京卷】—______ that company to see how they think of our product yesterday?—Yes. They are happy with it. A. Did you call B. Have you called C. Will you call D. Were you calling 知识点三 时态在固定句式中的考查 例3.【2017·天津】I ________down to London when I suddenly found that I was on the wrong road. A. was driving B. have driven C. would drive D. drove 【答案】A 【解析】考点:考查动词时态。句意:我正开车去伦敦这时我走错了路。考查与时态有关的固定句型:was/ were doing sth + when (suddenlu) did ... 这时一个常用固定句型,是学生必须掌握的重点句型之一,词句型还有另外两种结构:was / were about to do + when did ; had done + when + did 。 在这三个句型中,when引导的并列句,意为:就在这时(那时)突然....。     变式训练 5: (2015卷I) It was raining lightly when I _________(arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn. But I didn’t care. 例4.This (be) the second time that I have spoken to a foreigner. 【答案】is 【解析】考查固定句式中的时态。句式:This/That/It is the +序数词+time that+现在完成时的从句。根据后面的have spoken推出前面主句谓语动词应为is。 变式训练6: It (be)the second time that I had spoken to a foreigner. 例5.【陕西卷改编】No sooner had Mo Yan stepped on the stage than the audience (break) into thunderous applause. 【答案】broke 【解析】考查固定句式中的时态。句式:no sooner……than……“一……就…….”主句常为过去完成时,从句为一般过去时。根据前面的had no sooner lain down推出后面为broke。 变式训练7: Hardly had I got on the bus when it (start) to move . 一、高考真题练习 1-6 单句语法填空;7-10 单项选择;11-15改错(所给句子只有一处错误)。 1. (2018全国卷1)While running regularly can't make you live forever, the review says it (be) more effective at lengthening life than walking, cycling or swimming.  2. (2018全国卷2)The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005-when the government 68 (start) a soil-testing program which gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers - and 2011, fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons. 3. (2018全国卷3)True to a gorilla’s unaggressive nature, the huge animal 69 (mean)me no real harm. He was just saying: …. 4. (2017全国卷1)Even worse, the amount of fast food that people eat goes up.Fast food 67 (be) full of fat and salt; 5. (2017全国卷2)Later,engineers 68 (manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels (隧道),which became known to the tube. This development was only possible with the introduction of electric-powered engines and lifts. 6.(2017全国卷3)Sarah says, "My dad thinks I should take the offer now. But at the moment, school 69 (come) first. I don't want to get too absorbed in modeling. 7. (2017北京改编)In the 1950s in the USA,most families just one phone at home, and wireless phones hadn’t invented yet. A.had B. have C.have had D.had had 8. (2016北京改编)I an English novel,and I’ll try to finish it at the weekend. A. read B. have read C. am reading D. will read 9.(2016江苏)Dashan, who crosstalk, the Chinese comedic tradition, for decades, wants to mix it up with the Western stand-up tradition. A. will be learning B. is learning C. had been learning D. has been learning 10. (2015福建) To my delight, I _____ from hundreds of applicants to attend the opening ceremony. A. was chosen B. was being chosen C. would choose D. had chosen 11.(2018全国卷1) During my last winter holiday, I went to countryside with my father to visit my grandparents. I find a change there. 12.(2018全国卷2) I didn’t realize how right my parents are until I entered high school. 13.(2017全国卷1) Before getting into the car, I thought I had learned the instructor’s orders, but once I started the car, my mind goes blank. 14.(2017全国卷2) Besides, they often get some useful information from the internet. When summer came,they will invite their students pick the vegetables! 15.(2017全国卷3) About one month after this photo was taken,I entered my second year of high school and become a new member of the school music club. 二. 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式 Before?I 1 (visit)Australia,?an Australian friend?in?London?told?me?I'd learn"the?Australian?salute."What's?that??"I?asked.“You?2?(find)out?when you?get?there,” he?said. I?arrived in?Perth last?week.?Since?then,?I? 3 (stay) at a nice hotel near a beautiful beach .?I have never visited Australia before and I 4 my stay .I 5 (swim)every?day? since?the?time. Yesterday,?an?Australian?friend?suggested?a?tour?into"the?bush".?I?agreed?at?once.?The first?thing?I?noticed?when?we?were?in?the?bush?6(be)?the?flies.After?a?while?I remembered the?conversation?I?had had?in?London?before?I? 7 (come)?here.?"?What's the‘Auaustralian salute'??"I?asked?suddenly,?as?I ?8.? (wave)my?right?arm?to?keep the?flies?away.“That'sit! ”my?friend?said?as?he?waved?back! 1 第 15 讲 一般时态和进行时态(解析版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第10个条目就是时态。通过对近几年全国课标卷的研究发现,时态或语态已成为语篇型填空的必考内容。高考语篇型填空以对时态的考查为主,以对语态的考查为辅。对于时态的考查主要集中在一般现在时、一般过去时等常见时态。另外,短文改错最可能考查上下文时态不一致,也可能考被动语态的错用及过去分词与过去式的混用。这就要求教师在学生备考阶段狠抓动词的时语态基础,在理解语境和表达侧重上下功夫,科学备考,事半功倍。 Dear?Jo, Well,?I?arrived[1]?back?safely?two?weeks?ago.?The?flight?was?fine,?but?a bit long. Everything?here?is?very?different?from?London.?I??am?writing[2]this?letter outside?in?the garden.?It?is?very?hot?today,?so?I'm?sitting?undr?a?big?umbrella.?I?know?we had[3]?some?sunny days?in?London?but there was also some rain .I remember?we?were?caught?in?a?heavy?rain when we?were waking[4]?in?the?park . It was [5]?difficult?for?me?to?start?work?after?my?wonderful?holiday,?but it is [6]OK now. I have been in?a?new department?since?I?came?[7]home and?it was interesting.Now?I am?doing?[8] a?new?project?and?it?wil?have been?fihished?by?the?end?of?this?month. By?the way,?have?you?found?a?black?leather?photo?alarm?I think I left[9]?it?in?the?bedroom.? Could?you?send?it?to?me?sometime??No?hurry. Please?write?soon,?and?thank[10]?you?again?for?a?wonderful?time. Love?Chris 【深思熟虑】 1. arrived 根据后面two years ago此处用一般过去时。 2. am writing 表示此时此刻动作正在进行。 3. had表示怀念过去在伦敦的日子,用一般过去时。 4. were waking表示叙述过去的经历,此处指正在公园里散步遭遇大雨。 5. was此处指:刚从伦敦度假回来很难开始正常工作;也是过去的事,故用一般过去时。 6. is根据后文的now至现在一切好了,故用一般现在时。 7. came 句意:自从回到家我一直住在一个新公寓里。从过去开始,故since后用过去时。 8. am doing指现在我正在做一个项目,只现阶段动作正在进行,故用现在进行时。 9. left表示我想我把相册丢在房间了;指在伦敦度假时丢的,故用一般过去时。 10.thank 在“祈使句and 祈使句”结构中,因为这两个句子都没有主语,故为并列祈使句。 从篇章来看,英语短文在叙述不同时间发生的事情或动作时,常常需要用不同时态来表达;从表面看,似乎难以捉摸,但从内在联系看(注意蓝色字体),可以总结出其规律。 一、时态定义 所谓时态,就是动作行为的时间状态。时间有现在、过去、将来、过去将来;动作分一般、完成、进行、完成进行,这样就构成了不同时态。本章讲解重点是高考最常见的一般时和进行时。 二、时态分类 一般时和进行时分类和构成 时态 构成(以do为例) 一般将来时 will do 一般现在时 do/does 一般过去时 did 现在进行时 am /is/are doing 过去进行时 was/ were doing 将来进行时 will/shall/be going to be doing 现在完成进行时 has/have been doing 三、 一般体 1.一般现在时的用法: 基本结构:①be动词;②行为动词 否定形式:①am/is/are+not;②此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加don't,如主语为第三人称单数,则用doesn't,同时还原行为动词。 一般疑问句:①把be动词放于句首;②用助动词do提前,如主语为第三人称单数,则用does,同时,还原行为动词。 A) 表示现在发生的动作、情况、状态和特征。 B) 习惯用语。 C) 经常性、习惯性动作。 He always helps others. D) 客观事实和普遍真理。尤其要注意,如果前后文不是一般现在时,则无法保持主句、从句时态一致。 The earth goes around the sun. E) 表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作,(仅限于某些表示“来、去、动、停、开始、结束、继续”等的动词)可以与表示未来时间的状语搭配使用。常见的用法是:飞机、火车、轮船、汽车等定期定点运行的交通方式。 The next train leaves at 3 o'clock this afternoon. How often does this bus run? (这班车多久一趟?) F) 在时间和条件状语从句里经常用一般现在表示将来事情。 When I see her, I will tell her the fact. 2. 一般过去时用法: 基本结构:①be动词;②行为动词 否定形式:①was/were+not;②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。 一般疑问句:①was或were放于句首;②用助动词do的过去式did提问,同时还原行为动词。 时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week(year, night, month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc. A)?表示过去某个时间发生的动作或情况。 (湖南高考)In 1492, Columbus landed on one of the Bahama Islands, but he mistook it for an island off India. 1492年哥伦布登上了巴哈马群岛中的一个岛屿,但是他却把它误当作是印度附近的一个岛屿。 B)?表示过去习惯性动作。特别是由would/ used to do表达的句型,本身表示的就是过去时。 He used to visit his mother once a week.   3. 一般将来时用法: 概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。 基本结构:①am/is/are going to + do; ②will/shall + do. ③be (about) to do? ?④一般现在时表将来??? ⑤现在进行时表将来。 否定形式:①am/is/are+not going to + do;?②在行为动词前加will/shall not。 一般疑问句:①be放于句首;②will/shall提到句首。 时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, in a few minutes, by…,the day after tomorrow, etc. A)?基本结构是will / shall do。 We shall send her a present as her birthday gift. B)?有些动词,如:arrive, be close, come, do, done, go, have, leave, open, play, return, sleep, start, stay等,用于现在进行时,并且通常与一个表示将来时间的时间状语连用,可以表示将来时。 My mother is coming to visit me next week and is staying here until May. C)?表示“打算去……,要……”时,可用be going to do。   This is just what I am going to say. D)?表示“即将、正要”时,可用be about to do。强调近期内或马上要做的事。  Don't worry, I am about to make a close examination on you. E) "be to do"?表示“按计划、安排即将发生某事或打算做某事”。 F)?同样可以表示“正要、将要”的意思的句型是be on the point of doing。??????? I was on the point of telephoning him when his letter arrived. 注意:在以if, when, as long as, as soon as, after, before, in case, until, unless等连词以及具有连词作用的副词(immediately, the moment, directly)等引导的状语从句,一般用现在时代替将来时。 If I meet her, I will give her the book. 进行体 1. 现在进行时用法: 概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。 时间状语:now, at this time, these days, etc. 基本结构:am/is/are+doing 否定形式:am/is/are+not+doing. 一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首。 ——What are you doing now? ——I am making a model ship. 2. 过去进行时用法: 基本结构:was/were+doing 否定形式:was/were + not + doing. 一般疑问句:把was或were放于句首。 时间状语:at this time yesterday, at that time或以when引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语等。 A)?表示在过去一个比较具体的时间正在发生的动作。   Mary was listening to light music 10 minutes ago. (10分钟前,玛丽正在听轻音乐。) B)?如果when, while这样的时间状语引导词所引导的主从句之一是一般过去时,则另一个句子常用过去进行时。  I was washing my hair when you knocked at the front door. (你敲前门时我正在洗头发。) 3. 将来进行时用法: 概念:强调在将来的某个具体时间正在发生的动作或事情。 结构:will/shall+be+doing Don't worry, you won't miss her. She will be wearing a red T-shirt and a white skirt at that time.(别担心,你不会认不出她的。她到时会穿一件红色的T恤衫和一条白色的短裙。) 注意:由于本时态是由将来时和进行时融合在一起的,所以关于本时态的注意事项,可参考"一般将来时"和"现在进行时"的有关注意事项。 4. 现在完成进行时用法: 概念:表示某一动作开始于过去某一时间,延续或重复地出现至今,或将继续延续至将来。 结构:(have been doing) We have been working on this project for over a month now. (到目前为止,我们一直在处理那个项目,已经花了一个多月时间了。) 注意:与现在完成时相比,现在完成进行时更强调:在从过去到现在的时间里,动作或状态一直持续或一直反复出现。 ☆注意:进行时有时会有以下的形式出现: 1. 过去完成进行时用法: 结构:had been doing The old clock had been being taken apart of and fixed up again for several times by my 10-year old son before I came back home. (我回到家之前,我10岁大的儿子已经把这个旧钟表拆卸并重新组装了好几回了。) 2. 将来完成进行时用法: 结构:shall have been doing ,will have been doing By the end of next month, the project will have been being worked for 3 years. (到下个月底为止,这项工程就已经不停地进行了3年了。) 3. 过去将来完成进行时用法: 结构:should have been doing , would have been doing They said that by the end of the following month, the project would have been being worked for 3 years. (他们说到第二个月底为止,这项工程就已经不停地进行了3年了。) 4.过去将来进行时用法: 结构:should be doing , would be doing The government promised that a new highway would be being built next July. (政府承诺说第二年7月将有一条新的高速公路正在修建。) 一、一般时应注意: 1. 一般现在时 一般现在时中,have作“有”解时,其否定式和疑问式的变化: 否定式 疑问式 传统英国英语 I?haven'?t?anything?to?say. Have?you?anything?to say? 当代英国英语? Idon't?have?anything?to say Do?you?have?anything to say? 和美国英语 ②主将从现的情况 主将从现是指在时间状语从句和条件状语从句和让步状语从句 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E8%AE%A9%E6%AD%A5%E7%8A%B6%E8%AF%AD%E4%BB%8E%E5%8F%A5&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)中,如果主句是一般将来时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%80%E8%88%AC%E5%B0%86%E6%9D%A5%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?),从句用一般现在时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%80%E8%88%AC%E7%8E%B0%E5%9C%A8%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)替代一般将来时。 在复合句中,由when ,as soon as ,after ,before ,until , unless等引导的时间状语从句和由if 引导的条件状语从句,都符合“主将从现”的原则,即主句是一般将来时(或用一般现在时表示一般将来时的意义),从句要用一般现在时。 主将从现说的是在含有时间状语从句和条件状语从句的主从复合句 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%B8%BB%E4%BB%8E%E5%A4%8D%E5%90%88%E5%8F%A5&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)中,如果主句的时态 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E6%97%B6%E6%80%81&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)是一般将来时,那么从句要用一般现在时。如: I will tell him about it when he comes. If it is fine tomorrow, we will go outing. 如果主句的时态是过去将来时 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E5%B0%86%E6%9D%A5%E6%97%B6&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?),那么从句要用一般过去时。如: He said that he would have another try if he had the chance. I knew he could help me if he was free the next day. 2. 一般过去时 ①一般过去时也可与?sInce和for引导的时间状语连用。如: The?doctor?thought?for?a?while.(北师大⑥U17) Beijing?had?its?hottest?day?yesterday?since1999. I in?London?for?many?years,?but?I've?never?regretted?my?final?decision?to?move?back?to?China. A.?lived B?was?living C?have?lived D.?had lived (2006重庆) 答案:A 说话者现已回国,但过去在伦敦居住多年,故应用一般过去时。 ②一般过去时还可与?today,?this?week,?this?month,?this?year等时间状语连用,但这些时间状语显然是指不包括“现在”在内的过去时间。 如:Did?you?see?her?today? 如果?since从句的谓语动词是静态动词,则表示动作或状态已结束,不再持续下去。如: It's?two?weeks?since?he?was?ill.他病愈已有两周了。 It's?a?long?time?since?she?lived?here.她好久不在这里住了。 ③在口语中,有时用一般过去时代替一般现在时,使语气显得更为委婉。如: I wondered(wonder) if I could(can)use your car. 二 进行时 1.现在进行时 事物作主语时,多用一般现在时表示按计划安排的活动;人作主语时,多用现在进行时表示计划要做的事。试比较 The train leaves at10pm. 火车晚上10点开。 I?am?leaving?tonight. 我今天晚上要走了。 2.过去进行时 ①在口语中,有使用过去进行时表示现在的想法,语气显得委婉。如: I was wondering if you could do me a favour. I was hoping you could give us an early reply. ②leave,?arrive,?start,?die等动词的过去进行时表示“快要完成或即将完成”的动作,而过去时表示“已经完成”的动作。如: He?was?dying.他快要死了。 He?died.他死了。 The?train?was?coming.火车快来了。 The?train?came.火车来了。 3.将来进行时 在口语中,将来进行时用得较多,而且可与现在进行时互换,竟义无区别。如: I’ll?be?leaving for London?tomorrow.?=I'm?leaving for London??tomorrow明天我将离开去伦敦。 有时将来进行时也可与一般将来时互换,但意义有细微的差别。试比较: Won't you?join in our game?你不想参加我们的游戏吗?(表示邀请) Won't?you?be??joining in our game?你来参加我们的游戏吗?(单纯谈事件) 4.现在完成进行时 在时间或条件状语从句中,要用现在完成进行时代替将来完成进行时。如 I?won?'t?tell?the?student?the?answer?to?the?math?problem?until he on?it?for?more?than?an?hour. (湖北卷) A?has?been?working B.?will?have?worked C?will?have?been?working? D?had?worked 答案:A until引导时间状语从句,从句中的谓语动词要用has been working 代替will have been working. 5.过去完成进行时(?The?Past?Perfect?Continuous?Tense)表示动作从过去某时开始,一直延续到过去另一时间。如: Finally,?after?he?had?been?waiting?for?about?an?hour,?he?was?called?in.? (北师大⑥U17) 过去完成进行时与现在完成进行时的用法相似,只不过把时间从现在移到了过去。 试比较 How?long?have?you?been?living here?你在这住了多久了? She?asked?me?how?long?I?had?been?living here.她问我在这住了多久了? 三、时态的呼应: 从句(尤其是宾语从句)谓语动词的时态受主句谓语动词时态的制约,如主句谓语动词为过去时态,从句谓语动词要用相应的过去时态。如: 1?didn’t?know?where?she was waiting. I?heard?he?had?won?first?prize. 1?wanted?to?know?where?all my customers?had?gone?yesterda. (人教U2) 知识点一 一般时与其他时态混淆 例1.【2018·北京】—Hi, I’m Peter. Are you new here? I haven’t seen you around? —Hello, Peter. I’m Bob. I just _________ on Monday. A. start B. have started C. started D. had started 【答案】C 【解析】考查时态。句意:——嗨,我是彼得。你是新来的吗?我没有在附近见过你。——你好,彼得。我是鲍勃。我周一刚刚开始住在这儿。根据两人谈话内容可知,Bob现在在这儿,他开始(start)住在这儿是发生在周一的事情,周一是一个过去的时间,故该句应用一般过去时态,C选项正确。 点睛:一般过去时表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态或过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。一般过去时常与表示过去的时间状语或从句连用,如:yesterday,last week,in the past,in 2017,once,a few days ago等。 变式训练 1: 【2017·江苏】He’s been informed that he _______ for the scholarship because of his academic background. A. hasn’t qualified B. hadn’t qualified C. doesn’t qualify D. wasn’t qualifying 【答案】C 【解析】考点:考查动词的一般时。句意:他已经被告知由于教育背景的原因而没有资格获得奖学金。qualify for sth.达标,获得参赛资格。由于条件不满足而没有资格做某事是客观事实,故选C。 变式训练 2: 【2017·北京】People______ better access to health care than they used to, and they’re living longer as a result. A. will have B. have C. had D. had had 【答案】B 试题分析:句意:人们有着比过去更好的医疗保险,结果他们更长寿。与过去对比是现在,所以than前一句话是用现在的时间,而且后一句用的就是现在时态,所以前面也用现在时态,故选B。 知识点二 进行时与其他时态混淆 例2.【2018·北京】Susan had quit her well-paid job and _________ as a volunteer in the neighborhood when I visited her last year. A. is working B. was working C. has worked D. had worked 【答案】B 【解析】考查进行时与其他时态混淆。句意:Sunsan已经辞去了高薪工作。去年当我探望她的时候,她正在一个社区里做志愿工作者。表示我探望她的当时,她正进行的动作,故用过去进行时。 变式训练 3:【2016·北京】—Excuse me, which movie are you waiting for? —The new Star Wars. We ________ here for more than two hours. A. waited B. wait C. would be waiting D. have been waiting 【答案】D 【解析】考查时态。句意:——打扰了,你们在等哪一部电影?——《星球大战》,我们已经在这儿等了两个多小时了。“for+时间段”与完成时连用,根据语境可知,说话的时候仍然在等,因此用现在完成进行时,故选D。 变式训练 4:【2017·北京卷】—______ that company to see how they think of our product yesterday?—Yes. They are happy with it. A. Did you call B. Have you called C. Will you call D. Were you calling 【答案】A 【解析】考点:考查时态。句意:--你昨天有没有给那家公司打电话问问他们对我们的产品感觉怎么样?--打了,他们此刻正用得很开心。空格所在题干有一个很明显的时间状语yesterday,发生在过去,肯定用过去式,故选A。 知识点三 时态在固定句式中的考查 例3.【2017·天津】I ________down to London when I suddenly found that I was on the wrong road. A. was driving B. have driven C. would drive D. drove 【答案】A 【解析】考点:考查动词时态。句意:我正开车去伦敦这时我走错了路。考查与时态有关的固定句型:was/ were doing sth + when (suddenlu) did ... 这时一个常用固定句型,是学生必须掌握的重点句型之一,词句型还有另外两种结构:was / were about to do + when did ; had done + when + did 。 在这三个句型中,when引导的并列句,意为:就在这时(那时)突然....。     变式训练 5: (2015卷I) It was raining lightly when I _________(arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn. But I didn’t care. 【答案】arrived  【解析】考点:考查动词时态。由主句谓语动词“was raining”和后句的谓语动词“didn’t care”以及句式“was/ were doing sth + when (suddenlu) did ...”可知,arrive应用一般过去时。句意是“当我在天亮前到达阳朔时,正在下着小雨”。 例4.This (be) the second time that I have spoken to a foreigner. 【答案】is 【解析】考查固定句式中的时态。句式:This/That/It is the +序数词+time that+现在完成时的从句。根据后面的have spoken推出前面主句谓语动词应为is。 变式训练6: It (be)the second time that I had spoken to a foreigner. 【答案】was 【解析】考查固定句式中的时态。句式:This/That/It was the +序数词+time that+过去完成时的从句。根据后面的had spoken推出前面主句谓语动词应为was。 例5.【陕西卷改编】No sooner had Mo Yan stepped on the stage than the audience (break) into thunderous applause. 【答案】broke 【解析】考查固定句式中的时态。句式:no sooner……than……“一……就…….”主句常为过去完成时,从句为一般过去时。根据前面的had no sooner lain down推出后面为broke。 变式训练7: Hardly had I got on the bus when it (start) to move . 【答案】started 【解析】考查固定句式中的时态。句式:Hardly……when……“一……就…….”主句常为过去完成时,从句为一般过去时。根据前面的Hardly had I got推出后面为started。 一、高考真题练习 1-6 单句语法填空;7-10 单项选择;11-15改错。 1. (2018全国卷1)While running regularly can't make you live forever, the review says it (be) more effective at lengthening life than walking, cycling or swimming.  【答案】 is 【解析】考查动词的时态。医学报告显示:跑步比散步、骑车和游泳更能有效地延长寿命。这里叙述的是一个事实,故用一般现在时。故填is。 2. (2018全国卷2)The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005-when the government 68 (start) a soil-testing program which gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers - and 2011, fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons. 【答案】started 【解析】考查谓语动词。句意:在2005年政府开始了一项土壤测试项目。本句是when引导的定语从句,由于时间是2005年,故用过去时。故填started。 3. (2018全国卷3)True to a gorilla’s unaggressive nature, the huge animal 69 (mean)me no real harm. He was just saying: …. 【答案】meant 【解析】考查谓语动词。分析本句的句子成分可知,本句缺少谓语,再根据总体时态可知要用一般过去时,所以用meant。 4. (2017全国卷1)Even worse, the amount of fast food that people eat goes up.Fast food 67 (be) full of fat and salt; 【答案】 is 【解析】考查时态和主谓一致。此处是对客观情况的描述,应用一般现在时;分析句子结构可知,该句缺少谓语动词,又因主语为Fast food. 故填is。 5. (2017全国卷2)Later,engineers 68 (manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels (隧道),which became known to the tube. This development was only possible with the introduction of electric-powered engines and lifts. 【答案】managed 【解析】考查动词时态。因为engineers与manage之间为主动关系,而且是发生在过去的事情,所以填managed。 6.(2017全国卷3)Sarah says, "My dad thinks I should take the offer now. But at the moment, school 69 (come) first. I don't want to get too absorbed in modeling. 【答案】comes 【解析】考查动词时态。Sarah says和I don't want都为现在时,且school是第三人称单数,故填comes 。 7. (2017北京改编)In the 1950s in the USA,most families just one phone at home, and wireless phones hadn’t invented yet. A.had B. have C.have had D.had had 【答案】A 【解析】句意:20世纪50年代,在美国大多数家庭家里只有一个电话,那时无线电话还没有被发明。根据句意以及句中的关键词In the 1950s t可知,空处用一般过去时。 8. (2016北京改编)I an English novel,and I’ll try to finish it at the weekend. A. read B. have read C. am reading D. will read 【答案】C 【解析】句意:我一直在读一本英文小说,这个周末我将尽力把它读完。语境表示“现阶段正在读”,应该用现在进行时表示这个阶段“我”正在发生的动作,故用am reading。 9.(2016江苏)Dashan, who crosstalk, the Chinese comedic tradition, for decades, wants to mix it up with the Western stand-up tradition. A. will be learning B. is learning C. had been learning D. has been learning 【答案】D 【解析】根据句意及定语从句中的时间状语for decades和主句谓语动词wants可知,本题使用现在完成进行时态,表示从过去某个时间开始,一直持续到现在,并有可能继续下去的动作。 10. (2015福建) To my delight, I _____ from hundreds of applicants to attend the opening ceremony. A. was chosen B. was being chosen C. would choose D. had chosen 【答案】A 【解析】句意:令我高兴的是,在几百个申请者中我被选中参加开幕式了。首先,句子主语I和choose是被动关系,所以要用被动语态;其次,本句是对过去所发生事情的客观描述,所以用一般过去时。 11.(2018全国卷1) During my last winter holiday, I went to countryside with my father to visit my grandparents. I find a change there. 【答案】find改成found 【解析】考查动词时态。根据文章中的During my last winter holiday可知,事件发生在过去,故用一个过去时。故将find改成found。 12.(2018全国卷2) I didn’t realize how right my parents are until I entered high school. 【答案】are改为were 【解析】考查时态。根据上下文语境可知此处要用一般过去时。故把are改为were。 13.(2017全国卷1) Before getting into the car, I thought I had learned the instructor’s orders, but once I started the car, my mind goes blank. 【答案】 goes改为went. 【解析】考查时态。本文讲述作者18岁生日后的那个暑假发生的事情,且通篇以过去时为主。此处应用一般过去时,故把goes改为went。 14.(2017全国卷2) Besides, they often get some useful information from the internet. When summer came,they will invite their students pick the vegetables! 【答案】came改为comes 【解析】考查动词时态。因为主句部分为一般将来时态,所以此处的时间状语从句应使用一般现在时表将来意义。 15.(2017全国卷3) About one month after this photo was taken,I entered my second year of high school and become a new member of the school music club. 【答案】become改为became 【解析】考查动词时态。“我”进入高中第二学年并成为学校音乐俱乐部的新成员这一系列动作发生在过去,所以谓语动词应用became。 二. 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式 Before?I 1 (visit)Australia,?an Australian friend?in?London?told?me?I'd learn"the?Australian?salute."What's?that??"I?asked.“You?2?(find)out?when you?get?there,” he?said. I?arrived in?Perth last?week.?Since?then,?I? 3 (stay) at a nice hotel near a beautiful beach .?I have never visited Australia before and I 4 my stay .I 5 (swim)every?day? since?the?time. Yesterday,?an?Australian?friend?suggested?a?tour?into"the?bush".?I?agreed?at?once.?The first?thing?I?noticed?when?we?were?in?the?bush?6(be)?the?flies.After?a?while?I remembered the?conversation?I?had had?in?London?before?I? 7 (come)?here.?"?What's the‘Auaustralian salute'??"I?asked?suddenly,?as?I ?8.? (wave)my?right?arm?to?keep the?flies?away.“That'sit! ”my?friend?said?as?he?waved?back! 【答案与解析】 1.visited 指“我去参观澳大利亚之前”,故用一般过去时。 2.will find 句意:你到达那里就会发现的。主将从现,故主句用一般将来时。 3.have been staying 句意:自从那时起,我就一直待在一个漂亮沙滩附近的一所宾馆内。指动作从过去延续到现在,故用现在完成进行时。 4. am enjoying 句意:之前我从没有参观过澳大利亚,现在我正在享受自己的乐趣。指动作现阶段正在进行,故用现在进行时。 5. have been swimming 句意:自从那时起我每天都游泳。指动作从过去延续到现在,故用现在完成进行时。 6. was 句意:当我在灌木丛中时我注意到的第一个事物就是飞虫们。叙述过去的事,故用一般过去时。 7.came 句意:片刻,我记起我在伦敦还未来这里之前的谈话。叙述过去的事,故用一般过去时。 8.waved 句意:当我用手驱赶飞虫时….叙述过去的事,故用一般过去时。 2
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