[ID:4-6904879] 2020届高考新型冠状病毒相关试题---英语(Word版含答案)
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新型冠状病毒相关试题-英语 2020年的春节,注定是一个不平凡的春节。一场新型病毒性肺炎的疫情防控战在全国展开。我们每一个人都是亲临这场没有硝烟战场的一员。“中国加油!武汉加油!”的助威声响彻全球。停课不停学,今天我们向全国的高中生呈现“新冠病毒”的相关试题,大家在深入了解这个病毒和当下疫情的前提下,拿起笔来做做这些试题,帮助我们巩固相关知识点。 关键词:疫情阅读理解 介绍新型冠状病毒肺炎的起因、症状、传播途径,以及其他几类致命的冠状病毒。 I.阅读理解 A new coronavirus, a cousin of the SARS virus, has infected more than 10,000 people since the?outbreak?began in Wuhan, China, in December. Scientist Leo Poon, who first decoded the virus, thinks it likely started in an animal and spread to humans. Here are things you should know about a coronavirus. Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that are common among animals. In rare cases, they are what scientists call zoonotic(人畜共患病), meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans, according to the?US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The viruses can make people sick, usually with a mild to moderate?upper respiratory tract illness(上呼吸道疾病), similar to a common cold. Coronavirus symptoms include a runny nose, cough, sore throat, possibly a headache and maybe a fever, which can last for a couple of days. For those with a weakened immune system, the elderly and the very young, there's a chance the virus could cause a lower, and much more serious, respiratory tract illness like a pneumonia or bronchitis(支气管炎). There are a handful of human coronaviruses that are known to be deadly. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome(中东呼吸综合征), also known as the MERS virus, was first reported in the Middle East in 2012 and also causes respiratory problems, but those symptoms are much more severe. Three to four out of every 10 patients infected with MERS died, according to the CDC.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome(严重急性呼吸综合征),?also known as SARS, is the other coronavirus that can cause more severe symptoms. First identified in the Guangdong province in southern China, according to?the WHO, it causes respiratory problems but can also cause diarrhea(腹泻), fatigue(疲劳), shortness of breath, respiratory distress(呼吸窘迫) and kidney failure(肾衰). Depending?on thepatient's age, the death rate with SARS ranged from 0-50% of the cases, witholder people being the most vulnerable(易受伤害的). Viruses can spread from human contact withanimals. Scientists think MERS started in camels,?according to theWHO.?With SARS, scientists?suspected civet cats(狸猫)?were to blame.When it comes to human-to-human transmission of the viruses, often it happens when someone comes into contact with the infected person's secretions(分泌物)such as?droplets?(小水滴,飞沫)?in a cough. Depending?on howvirulent(有毒的)the virusis, a cough, sneeze or handshake could? Cause exposure. The virus can also be transmitted by touching something an infected person has touched and then touching your mouth, nose or eyes. Caregivers (护理人员) can sometimes be exposed by handling a patient's waste,?according to the CDC. 1.Which of the following can explain the underlined word in paragraph 1? A. To find or discover something B. To put something into a code. C. To change something into ordinary language. D. To change something into a form that can be processed.? 2. What are the symptoms of the novel coronavirus ? A. Much more severe upper respiratory tract illness. B. A runny nose, cough, sore throat, possibly a headache and maybe a fever. C. Diarrhea, fatigue, shortness of breath, respiratory distress and kidney failure. D. A mild to moderate?upper respiratory tract illness, similar to a common cold. 3. How do the viruses spread? A. Viruses can spread from the old contact with animals. B. The viruses can spread between patients. C. The viruses can be transmitted by touching something polluted and droplet transmission. D. The viruses can be transmitted by seeing something an infected person has touched. 关键词:疫情七选五阅读 面临新型冠状病毒挑战,如何保护自己及他人? II.七选五 How to keep yourself safe from novel virus?After a new-type coronavirus was detected in viral pneumonia cases in Central China's Wuhan city a month ago, more cases have been reported in recent days. _____1_____:1. Wear masks outdoors●Wearing a mask is?one of the most effective ways to protect you from getting infected.●Make sure to wear it properly by tightening up the nose clip and pulling the bottom of it over your chin. ●_____2_____, a mask is also needed to prevent you from spreading germs to others.2. Cover your coughs and sneeze with tissue(纸巾)Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, or you can cough or sneeze into your sleeve, but avoid covering with your hands directly.3. _____3_____Wash your hands with soap and running water thoroughly for at least 15 seconds.●Before eating and after using the toilet●After returning home●After touching trash or garbage●After contacting with animals or handling animal wastes4. Strengthen your immune system and exercise regularly●Exercise regularly is?one of the most important ways to help you stay away from catching any infections.●Make sure that shared spaces have good air flow and avoid going to crowded places such as hospitals, railway stations and airports. _____4_____. ●Seek prompt(及时的) medical attention if you have symptoms of fever and respiratory infection.●Avoid close contact with people who have flu or cold-like symptoms.●_____5_____. Avoid contact with wild animals or farmed livestock without any protection.A. If your hands are not visibly dirtyB. Eat thoroughly cooked meat and eggsC. Wash your hands frequently and properlyD. Protect yourself and others from getting sickE.?Wear a mask if transport or movement is necessaryF. If you’re not feeling well or have symptoms of feverG. To prevent catching the infection, here’s what you can do? 关键词:疫情语法填空 起源于武汉的新型冠状病毒与季节性流感有相似之处,然而区分二者对于抑制新型冠状病毒的传播极其重要。 III.语法填空 The new coronavirus(冠状病毒), which____1____(originate) in the Chinese city of Wuhan and has now spread to 12countries, has much in common ____2___ seasonal flu. They are both viral infections, share similar symptoms and crucially(关键地) can spread from human to human. In the midst of flu season in much of the northern hemisphere, ____3___(tell) the difference between the two will be vital in stopping its spread. Human coronaviruses, of which there are four, can cause respiratory(呼吸道) infections similar to flu: while many symptoms are mild, both can lead to pneumonia(肺炎) and become lethal(致命的). ___4___, the novel coronavirus is more serious than __5__ “typical influenza infection(流感)”, says Ian Jones, a professor of virology at the University of Reading. “This virus appears to go___6___(far) down into the lungs than would generally be the case. Therefore, it will give you___7___ (symptom) of pneumonia(肺炎): the lungs becoming flooded, they don't function very well and the patient gets into breathing difficulty.” While the mortality rates and symptoms of flu and novel coronavirus may end up being similar, humans' ability ___8____(fight) off the viruses differs greatly. Humans have naturally built up antibodies to seasonal flu and annual vaccines____9____(develop) to fight it. During a pandemic(流行病), which the new coronavirus has the potential to become, “there is no immunity(免疫性) in the population so you have potential for a ___10___(globe) spread,” warns Jones. 关键词:疫情短文改错 世界卫生组织宣布,抗生素对于抗病毒无效,但抗生素的使用可以应对新型冠状病毒患者可能并发的细菌感染。 IV.短文改错 “Antibiotics do not work against viruses,only bacteria,” the WHO said on it’s official website. However, if the patientis hospitalized for the virus, he may accept antibiotics since “bacterialco-infection is possible”, the organization added. Up to now, there are nospecific medicine for preventing or treating the virus, the WHO said, addingthat it is working with partners to help accelerate relating research anddevelopment work. “People of all ages” can be infected with the novelcoronavirus, elder people and people with pre-existing medical conditions aremore like to suffer, the WHO said. The organization advised people to washhands after contacting with pets, which can help protect them against “variouscommon bacteria that can pass among pets and humans.” Chinese healthauthorities said on Monday that it received reports of 2,829 new confirmedcases of novel coronavirus infection and 57 death on Sunday. 关键词:疫情作文 无论你身处哪里,这是全世界、全人类的战役。 V.书面表达 假定你是李华,你所在的福州国际学校要征集一封英文感谢信,以致意奋战在抗击新型冠状病毒肺炎第一线的医护人员。请你根据下列要点写一封信用于投稿。 1.表达谢意;2.个人感受;3.表达信心。 注意:1.词数100左右;2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。参考词汇:流行病epidemic;疫情epidemic situation;新型冠状病毒novel coronavirus 物理 1.2020年新型冠状病毒疫情持续期间,各社区定期每天进行消毒,已知某种型号的大型喷雾器,每秒可以喷出药液体积约为1 L,且药液喷出时的速率为20 m/s,已知药液的密度为,当该喷雾器连续工作时,其功率约为 A.100 W? ?B. 200 W? C. 400 W? ?D.800 W 2.如图所示为红外测温计,在2020年新型冠状病毒疫情期间,我们利用红外测温计可以快速无接触的测量体温。任何物体只要它的温度高 于绝对零度(-273℃),就有热辐射向外部发射,千摄氏度以下的物体,其热辐射中强的电磁波是红外波,所以对物体自身红外辐射的测量,便能准确测定它的表面温度,其原理基于黑体辐射规律。下列描绘两种温度下黑体辐射强度与波长关系的图中,符合黑体辐射实验规律的是 A.?B.?C.?D.? 3.2020年新型冠状病毒主要传播方式为飞沫传播,打喷嚏可以将飞沫喷到十米之外。有关专家研究得出打喷嚏时气流喷出的速度可达150公里/小时,也就是41.7米/秒,假设一次打喷嚏大约喷出50 ml的空气,一次喷嚏大约0.02 s,已知空气的密度为,估算打一次喷嚏人受到的平均反冲力为 A.0.11 N ? ? ? B.0.14 N ? ? ? ?C.0.18 N ? ? ? ? D.0.20 N 化学 1.2019年12月以来,我国部分地区突发的新型冠状病毒肺炎威胁着人们的身体健康。以下是人们在面对“新型冠状病毒肺炎”时的一些认识,其中正确的是(  )A.新型冠状病毒由C、H、O三种元素组成B.过氧乙酸中氧元素的化合价为-2价C.使用肥皂洗手可预防病毒,肥皂的主要成分硬脂酸钠溶于水显酸性D.防护服、口罩的制备均要用到有机高分子材料 2.75%的乙醇能有效杀死新型冠状病毒,下列关于乙醇的说法正确是(  )A.乙醇可发生取代、加成、氧化反应B.乙醇可杀死新型冠状病毒的原因是乙醇具有强氧化性C.用白酒浸泡中药利用了乙醇可以溶解多种有机物、无机物的性质D.可用蒸馏法直接制得无水乙醇 3.漂白粉有效成分为Ca(ClO)2,能水解产生HClO,可杀死新型冠状病毒等多种病毒。某化学兴趣小组在实验室制取漂白粉,并探究氯气与石灰乳反应的条件和产物。已知:①二氧化锰与浓盐酸反应可制备氯气,同时生成MnCl2;②氯气和碱的反应的过程中放出热量。温度较高时,氯气和碱还能发生如下反应:6Cl2+6Ca(OH)25CaCl2+Ca(ClO3)2+6H2O。该兴趣小组设计了下列实验装置,进行实验。 请回答下列问题:(1)①甲装置中发生反应的化学方程式是????????????????????????????????????????。②乙装置中的试剂是??????????????,作用是????????????????????????????????。③该兴趣小组用300 mL 12mol·L-1盐酸与17.4 g MnO2制备氯气,并将所得氯气与过量的石灰乳反应,则理论上最多可制得标准状况下氯气(? ?)L,Ca(ClO)2(? ?)g。 (2)小组成员发现,产物中Ca(ClO)2的质量明显小于理论值。他们讨论后认为,部分氯气未与石灰乳反应而逸出,以及温度升高是可能原因。为了探究反应条件对产物的影响,他们另取一定量的石灰乳,缓慢、匀速地通入足量氯气,得出了ClO-、ClO-3两种离子的物质的量(n)与反应时间(t)的关系曲线,如图所示(不考虑氯气和水的反应)。 ①图中曲线Ⅱ表示(? ?)离子的物质的量随反应时间变化的关系。②所取石灰乳中含有Ca(OH)2的物质的量为(? ?)mol。③另取一份与②等物质的量Ca(OH)2的石灰乳,以较大的速率通入足量氯气,反应后测得产物中Cl-的物质的量为0.35 mol,则产物中=(? )。 生物 1.考查点:遗传信息翻译 2019新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV),因2019年武汉病毒性肺炎病例而被发现。该病毒是一种单链+RNA病毒。该+RNA既能作为mRNA翻译出蛋白质,又能作为模板合成RNA,再以RNA为模板合成子代+RNA。下列有关2019-nCoV病毒的叙述正确的是: A.遗传物质是+RNA,其中含有遗传信息和密码子B.复制时会出现双链RNA,该过程需要逆转录酶的催化C.翻译时的模板及所需的酶均由宿主细胞提供D.增殖过程中会出现T-A、A-U碱基配对方式 2.考查点:免疫调节 2014年,我国科学家在世界上首次完成SARS病毒灭活疫苗Ⅰ期临床研究。32位受试者均未出现异常反应,其中24位接种疫苗的受试者全部产生抗体,证明疫苗是安全的,并初步证明有效。大学生正文成为注射SARS疫苗第一人,2004年5月24日第一次注射疫苗,几天后又进行了第二次注射,两次产生免疫力情况( ?) A.不相同,第二次产生较强的免疫反应B.不相同,第一次产生较强的免疫反应C.相同,都产生了相同的抗体D.相同,都具有相同的抗原 3.考查点:免疫调节 如图甲、乙分别表示我国医学工作者自主研制SARS(一种冠状病毒)灭活疫苗过程中,某志愿者接种疫苗后两周内体温和抗体浓度的变化。请据图回答下列问题: (1)注射疫苗后,志愿者出现轻度发热现象,调节机体产热的激素主要有_______和_______。正常人的体温之所以能够维持相对稳定,其调节方式是_______调节。(2)若该志愿者注射疫苗后的第15天感染SARS病毒,其体内的抗体变化曲线如乙图所示。此时,抗体迅速产生的主要原因是____________________________。(3)从根本上来说,SARS病毒的抗原特异性是由_______决定的。(4)注射疫苗是预防SARS的有效途径,但是并不意味着接种过SARS疫苗的人将来不会为SARS患者,原因是__________________________________________。(5)有的同学认为可以通过SARS病毒的体外培养直接观察植物提取液对SARS病毒的影响,假如要在体外培养,对培养基的要求是______________,因为__________________________。 4.(选修Ⅲ)考查点:基因工程的基本操作程序 2003年,我国曾经发生过非典型性肺炎。经研究发现,该病是由SARS病毒(一种RNA病毒)感染所引起的疾病。SARS病毒表面的S蛋白是主要的病毒抗原,在SARS病人康复后的血清中有抗S蛋白的特异性抗体。某研究小组为了研制预防SARS病毒的疫苗,开展了前期研究工作,其简要的操作流程如图: (1)实验步骤①所代表的反应过程是____________。(2)步骤②构建重组表达载体A和重组表达载体B必须使用限制酶和__________酶,后者的作用是将用限制性核酸内切酶切割的S蛋白基因和____________连接起来。(3)如果省略步骤②而将大量扩增的S蛋白基因直接导入大肠杆菌,一般情况下,不能得到表达的S蛋白,其原因是S蛋白基因在大肠杆菌中不能____________,也不能____________。(4)为了检验步骤④所表达的S蛋白是否与病毒S蛋白有相同的免疫反应特性,可用____________与SARS康复病人血清进行抗原—抗体特异性反应实验,从而得出结论。(5)步骤④和⑥的结果相比,原核细胞表达的S蛋白与真核细胞表达的S蛋白氨基酸序列____________(填“相同”或“不同”),根本原因是________________________。
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