[ID:4-4774996] 高考英语真题长难句分析200句
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【精品】高考英语经典长难句分析200句-1 1. For example, adolescent boys are more likely to buy computer games than any other group, so it makes sense to make computer game ads that appeal to this group. 【句式翻译】例如,进入青春期的男孩子就可能比任何其他人群更愿意购买电脑游戏,因此,针对这个目标群体制作有吸引力的电脑游戏广告是有意义的。 【句式分析】本句是一个含有so引导的结果状语从句的复合句,同时又含有一 个than引导的比较状语从句。 【词语点拨】1)likely adj. 可能的;常用于句型:sb/sth be likely to do= it is likely that… 可能做…… He’s very likely to send me an email tonight. =It’s very likely that he’ll send me an email tonight. 很可能他今晚会给我发电子邮件。 The company is likely to set up a branch in our city. =It’s likely that the company will set up a branch in our city. 这个公司可能要在我们的城市建立分公司。 2) make sense 有意义;讲得通;make sense of 理解 I can’t follow these instructions -- they don’t make sense. 我不理解这些指示--根本讲不通嘛。 We read the sentence through, but could not make sense of it. 我们我们把句子看了一遍, 但不明白它说些什么。 3) appeal to吸引;appeal to sb. for sth/appeal to sb. to do sth 呼吁某人干某事;求助于 Blue and red appeal to me, but I don’t like gray or yellow. 我喜欢蓝色和红色, 而不喜欢灰色或黄色。 Jack sincerely appealed to his friends to support him. 杰克真切地向朋友请求支持。 We can appeal to the website for the information we need. 我们可以在网上查找我们需要的信息。 【语法点拨】本句中的 than any other…,意为“比其他任何一个……”,所谈 论的对象在比较的范围之内;若不在范围之内,则不用 other。如: China is larger than any other country in Asia. 中国比亚洲任何别的国家都大。 China is larger than any country in Africa. 中国比非洲的任何国家都大。 2. The more exposed young people are to financial issues, and the younger they become aware of them, the more likely they are to become responsible, forward-planning adults who manage their finances confidently and effectively. 【句式翻译】年轻人越接触经济问题,他们就能越早地了解这些问题,他们就更有可能成为有责任感的、早作打算的成年人,能够有信心地、有效地管理自己的经济问题。 【句式分析】本句含有“the+比较级,the+比较级”的句式,同时又含有一个who引导的限制性定语从句,修饰先行词adults。 【词语点拨】1) expose vt.揭露;使暴露;be exposed to暴露于;接触 We must expose this shameful activity to the newspapers. 我们一定要向报社揭露这一无耻行径。 We should allow children to be exposed to new ideas. 我们应当让孩子们接触新思想。 2)manage v.应付,设法对付;管理;能解决;manage to do设法做成 We need people who are good at managing. 我们需要擅长管理的人。 He managed to send the tourists to the airport in time. 他设法把游客及时送到机场。 Small sailboats can easily turn over in the water if they are not managed carefully. 如果掌控小帆船不够小心,它们在水中就容易翻。 【语法点拨】“the+比较级,the+比较级”,表示“越……越……”。如: The more we get together, the happier we’ll be. 我们越是多聚会, 我们越快乐。 The longer she worked at it, the more enthusiastic she became. 她越干越来劲。 3. She found that kids praised for “trying hard” did better on testes and were more likely to take on difficult assignments than those praised for being “smart”. 【句式翻译】她发现因为努力被表扬的孩子比因为聪明被表扬的孩子在考试中表现得更好,更愿意承担困难的任务。 【句式分析】本句含有一个than引导的比较状语从句。 【词语点拨】take on 承担;呈现 He is always ready to take on heavy responsibilities. 他一向乐于挑重担。 The chameleon can take on the colour of its background. 变色龙可呈现出与其背景相同的颜色。 【语法点拨】当我们要对两个人或物进行比较时,就采用比较级,比较级的构成:形容词或副词的比较级+than+比较成分,意思是:“更……些”或“较……”。Deeds are better than words when people are in need of help. 当别人需要帮助时,行动胜于语言。 In a word, practice is far more important than book knowledge. 一句话,实践远比书本知识重要。 4. Perhaps more importantly, the better you are at managing the time you devote to your studies, the more time you will have to spend on your outside interests. 【句式翻译】也许更重要的是,你越善于管理你的学习时间,你就会有更多的时间用在你课外的兴趣上。 【句式分析】本句含有“the+比较级,the+比较级”的句式,同时含有两个非限制性定语从句,分别修饰先行词the time和the more time。 【词语点拨】1) devote vt.献身;专心于;常接time/money/energy/life/oneself作宾语,构成短语be devoted to=devote oneself to献身于,致力于;to为介词,后面接名词、代词或者动名词。 Lang Lang devoted a lot of time to playing the piano even when he was a little child. 郎朗小时候就把很多时间都用来弹钢琴。 After her marriage, the singer couldn’t devote herself totally to her music. 结婚之后这个歌手无法全力倾注于音乐。 2)spend some money/ time on sth=spend some money/time (in) doing sth表示“花费(时间、金钱等)做某事”,其中的介词in可以省略。 Every day, most of the students in this school spend three hours on their homework. 这所学校大多数学生每天花三个小时做家庭作业。 It is bad for children to spend a lot of time playing computer games. 用很多时间玩电脑游戏对孩子是有害的。 【语法点拨】“the+比较级,the+比较级”,表示“越……越……”,具体用法参见第2句。 5. He worked there through his school and university years until 1942, a year after he had gained a Master’s degree at university in chemistry. 【句式翻译】他读中学和大学的那段时间都在那里工作,一直到1942年,也就是他在大学里获得化学硕士学位后的那一年。 【句式分析】本句含有一个after引导的时间状语从句,从句中运用了过去完成时态。 【词语点拨】gain vt.(经过努力)获得,取得 We gain knowledge by practicing again and again. 我们从反复训练中获取知识。 They realized that passing the exam was no longer enough to gain a place at university. 他们认识到仅仅通过这个考试,并不能确保在大学获得一席之位。 【语法点拨】过去完成时的构成:had done,表示“过去某一时间或动作以前已经发生或完成了的动作。它表示动作发生的时间是“过去的过去”。表示过去某一时间可用by, before, after等构成的短语,也可用when, before等引导的从句或通过上下文表示。如: His eyes shone brightly when he finally received the gift he had long expected. 当她终于收到她盼望已久的礼物时,她兴奋得两眼闪光。 By the time he was twelve, Edison had begun to make a living by himself. 12岁时,爱迪生就开始自己谋生。 6. By the end of the century, we will have discovered other places in our solar system suitable for living and we will have discovered ways to go further into space. 【句式翻译】到本世纪末,我们将会在太阳系中发现其他适合人类居住的星球,并将发现进行更远空间探索的方法。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词and连接的复合句,句中运用了将来完成时态。 【词语点拨】suitable adj.合适的,适当的;构成短语:be suitable for适合…… They don’t think this article is suitable for publication. 他们认为这篇文章不宜发表。 John wanted to change over to a more suitable job. 约翰想换一个更加适合的工作。 【语法点拨】将来完成时的构成:will/shall have done,表示“到将来某一时间为止已经完成的动作”。常与by + 将来时间,before+将来时间和by the time 引导的表示将来时间的从句连用。如: He will have finished writing his novel by the end of next year. 到明年年底他就会写完他的小说了。 When we get there,she’ll have gone to work. 我们到那里时她会已上班去了。 7. In today’s world, winners are celebrated and treated as heroes, but if doping and gene-therapy continue to affect the outcomes of major sporting events, the word “hero” will have lost all meaning. 【句式翻译】在当今世界,人们祝贺获胜者,并把他们看作英雄,但如果服用兴奋剂和基因治疗继续影响着主要体育项目的成绩的话,“英雄”就失去了它的全部意义。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词but连接的复合句,第二个分句运用了将来完成时,同时,包含有一个if引导的条件状语从句。 【词语点拨】1) celebrate vt.庆祝 The whole city celebrated the New Year with fireworks. 全城放焰火来庆祝新年。 2) affect vt.影响,感动 I told him firmly that his opinion will not affect my decision. 我坚定的告诉他,他的观点不会影响我的决定。 The audience present was deeply affected by his speech. 在场的听众都被他的演讲深深地打动了。 【语法点拨】将来完成时, 具体用法参见第6句。 8. One of the earliest epidemics on record happened about 500-550 AD when the Roman emperor at the time was attempting to rebuild the Roman Empire. 【句式翻译】历史上有记载的最早的传染病之一发生在公元500-550年,当时的罗马皇帝正在试图重建罗马帝国。 【句式分析】本句包含一个when引导的限制性定语从句,从句中运用了过去进行时。 【词语点拨】attempt v.& n.尝试,试图 William attempted to find the solution to the problem. 威廉试图找到问题的解决办法。 He was nearly drowned in the attempt to swim across. 他在试图游到对岸去时差一点被淹死。 【语法点拨】过去进行时的构成:was/were doing,表示“过去某个时间正在进行的动作”。常用的时间状语有this morning, the whole morning, from nine to ten last evening, when, while等。如: What was he writing all day last Sunday? 上周日他一整天都在写什么? My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. 我哥哥骑自行车的时候从车上摔下来受伤了。 9. The last few years have seen environmental disasters on a grand scale, and experts are predicting far worse to come. 【句式翻译】最近的几年里,人们见证了大规模的环境灾难,专家们预测更为严重的灾难即将发生。  【句式分析】本句是由并列连词and连接的复合句,第一个分句运用了现在完成时。 【词语点拨】on a grand scale大规模地,大张旗鼓地 We should popularize science on a grand scale. 我们应该大规模普及科学。 【语法点拨】现在完成时的构成:has/have done,常表示“某一动作或状态发生在过去,对现在有影响”,也可表示“持续到现在的动作或状态”。常用的时间状语:for或since引导的时间状语及before, until now, up till now, so far, up to the moment, in the last few years等。如: We have booked a room for today and tomorrow. 我们已经预订了今天和明天的房间。 The house has been empty for ages. 这幢房子已经空了相当长时间了。(现在仍空着) 10. In the last few decades, scientists have reached consensus and reported that human beings are causing changes in the Earth’s climate -- something previously seen as beyond our control. 【句式翻译】最近几十年,科学家们达成共识并报道说,人类正在引起地球的气候变化—而这在以前看来是我们不能控制的。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,含有一个that引导的宾语从句,主句中运用了现在完成时。 【词语点拨】1) reach (a) consensus 达成共识,达成一致意见 It is very difficult for them to reach a consensus on this issue. 他们在这个问题上很难取得一致意见。 2) beyond prep. 超过;越过;在…较远的一边 The delay was caused by heavy weather and was beyond our control. 延迟是由恶劣天气造成的,我们无法控制。 The beauty of the scene was beyond compare. 景色之美无与伦比。 Linda always wondered what was beyond the horizon. 琳达总是纳闷着地平线的那一边是什么。 【语法点拨】现在完成时,具体用法参见第10句。 11. Treatments for jellyfish stings and snakebites have also been developed and in the last five years there have been only three deaths from jellyfish stings and about the same number from snakebites. 【句式翻译】治疗水母刺伤和毒蛇咬伤方法也已经研制成功,在过去的五年里只有三人死于水母刺伤,这与被蛇咬伤致死的人数大体相同。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词and连接的复合句,第一个分句运用了现在完成时的被动语态。 【词语点拨】develop v.开发,发展,研制(新产品) Over the last few years tourism here has developed considerably. 在过去几年里,这里的旅游业获得了相当大的发展。 The two companies have teamed up to develop a new racing car. 那两个公司已合作研制新型赛车。 【语法点拨】现在完成时的被动语态的结构就是现在完成时态和被动语态的结构的叠合,即:has/have been done,表示“过去发生的动作对现在有影响或持续到现在,并且主语与谓语动词之间为被动关系”。常用的时间状语:for或since引导的时间状语及before, until now, up till now, so far, up to the moment, in the last few years等。如: The office looks nice. It has just been cleaned. 办公室看起来很干净。它刚被打扫过。 The machine has been repaired for two hours. 这台机器已修了两小时了。 12. Adverts are not only made and paid for by business, but also by individuals, organizations and associations that wish to inform or educate the public. 广告不仅【句式翻译】广告可由商家付费制作,也可以由想给公众传达某种信息或教育公众的个人、组织或协会来出资制作。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词not only…but also连接的复合句,第一个分句运用了一般现在时的被动语态。 【词语点拨】inform vt.通知,告知;构成短语:inform sb of sth通知某人某事 I shall inform you soon of the date of my arrival. 我将把我到达的日期通知你。 I regret to inform you that I am unable to help you. 我遗憾地告诉你我没法帮助你。 【语法点拨】一般现在时的被动语态的构成:is/are done。表示“现在经常性、习惯性的动作,并且主语与谓语动词之间为被动关系”。 A lot of food is wasted every year. 每年浪费掉很多食物。 Millions of tons of waste and poisonous gases are sent into the air with the smoke. 数百万吨的废气和毒气随着烟尘散发到空中。 13. Margaret, married with two small children, has been working for the last seven years as a night cleaner, cleaning offices in a big building. 【句式翻译】玛格丽特,已婚,带着两个孩子,七年来一直在做清洁工,晚上给一座大楼里的办公室打扫卫生。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,运用了现在完成进行时,包含有两个非谓语短语,married with…在句中作后置定语,cleaning offices作伴随状语。 【词语点拨】marry v. (使)结婚;嫁;娶 Because of her beauty, she has managed to marry above her. 由于貌美,她得以嫁给一个地位比她高的人。 I'm sure Jack was sincere when he said he wanted to marry you. 我相信杰克说想娶你是真心的。 They got married to each other against their parents’ wishes. 他俩的结合违背了各自父母的愿望。 【语法点拨】现在完成进行时的构成:has/have been doing。表示“一个动作从过去某个时间开始,延续到现在,并且还有可能持续下去”。如: You have been sitting in front of that computer too long. 你在电脑前坐的时间太长了。 No wonder he is so tired. He has been working all day. 难怪他这么累,他工作一天了。 14. Ever since they were first put on the market in the early 1990s, genetically modified (GM 转基因) foods have been increasingly developed and marketed in many countries in the world, mainly on the basis of their promise to end the worldwide food crisis. 【句式翻译】自从二十世纪九十年代早期首次投入市场以来,转基因食物就不断地在很多国家开发和销售,主要是基于想要结束世界粮食危机。 【句式分析】本句是一个含有since引导的时间状语从句的复合句,have been developed and marketed…是现在完成时的被动语态形式。 【词语点拨】basis n. 基础;构成短语:on the basis of 以……为基础 Don’t evaluate a person on the basis of appearance. 不要以相貌取人。 Mr. Smith goes to the gym on a regular basis. 史密斯先生定期去健身房。 【语法点拨】现在完成时的被动语态,具体用法参见第11句。 15. At nine o’clock on Saturday morning, I’ll be sitting in the front row and listening to the great professor Willard talking about the future of my brain. 【句式翻译】星期六上午九点钟,我将会坐在前排,聆听伟大的威拉德教授谈论大脑的未来发展。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,运用了将来进行时,含有一个复合宾语的结构,talking about…在句中作宾补。 【词语点拨】listen vi. 听(后面常接介词to) Whatever you said, he simply wouldn’t listen. 你怎么说他也不听. We’re going to listen to a report this afternoon. 今天下午我们要去听报告。 【语法点拨】将来进行时的构成:will be doing,表示“将来某一时间正在进行的动作,或表示要在将来某一时间开始,并继续下去的动作”。常用延续性动词,常用来表示礼貌的询问、请求等。如: The minister will be giving a speech on international affairs. 部长将就国际事务发表演讲。 Please don’t call me between 8:00 and 10:00 tomorrow. I’ll be having my classes then. 明天8点到10点之间请不要给我打电话,我那时正在上课。 16. The recent case of an American women, Terri Schiavo, whose husband won a legal battle to have her taken off life support machines after she spent 15 years in a coma-like state, has exposed the many sensitive legal and medical issues that surround the care of coma patients. 【句式翻译】最近一位美国妇女Terri Schiavo的案例已经暴露出许多关于对昏迷病人的护理的敏感的司法和医学问题,她的丈夫打赢了一场官司,在她在昏迷状态下度过15年之后,把她与她的生命供应机切断了。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,主语是The recent case,谓语是has exposed,关系代词whose在句中引导一个非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词Terri Schiavo;关系代词that在句中引导一个限制性定语从句,修饰先行词issues,taken off在句中作宾补。 【词语点拨】1) sensitive adj.敏感的;易受影响的 A baby is sensitive to the slightest changes in its mother’s voice. 婴儿对母亲声音的最细小变化都很敏感。 My teeth are really sensitive to hot and cold. 我的牙齿对冷热真地很敏感。 2) surround vt. 包围;环绕, 围绕 You will discover that you are surrounded by happiness. 你会发现,幸福其实就是在你身边。 The video images made the visitors feel they were surrounded with wild life. 这些图像给参观者产生身处野生动物之中的感觉。 【语法点拨】have sth done有三种含义:1)请别人做某事,相当于get sth done 2)遭受一种不幸3)完成某项工作;在这一结构中,done做宾补,和宾语sth之间是被动关系。如: We had the computer repaired immediately. 我们立刻请人把电脑修好了。 I had my watch stolen last night. 昨晚我的手表被偷了。 另外,have sb do...让某人去做……,have sb doing让一直做……;在这两个结构中,do和doing和宾语之间都是主动关系。如: I would have my friend wait for me at the gate of the park. 我要朋友在公园门口等我。 The two men had their lights burning all night long. 那两个人让灯通宵亮着。 17. The court gave their approval for the life support machines to be turned off and while this ruling left Terri’s parents feeling numb and others claiming that life is sacred, which no one has the right to end, many would say it was the right thing to do for Terri. 【句式翻译】法院批准把生命供养机关掉,虽然此项裁决使得Terri的父母感到吃惊,而且使其他人声称生命是神圣的,没有人有权力将其终止,但是许多人都会说这对Terri来说是一件正确的事情。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,while引导让步状语从句,that引导宾语从句,which引导非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词life,feeling numb和claiming宾补,it在句中代替to do for…作形式主语。 【词语点拨】1)approval n.批准;同意,赞成 The plan had the approval of the school authorities. 计划得到学校当局的认可。 We expected our plan to meet with approval. 我们希望计划能得到批准。 2)approve v.同意,赞成 Her father will never approve of her marrying such a lazy fellow. 她父亲永远不会赞成她嫁给这样的懒人。 【语法点拨】1)leave sb doing 让/使某人做……,doing在这个结构中作宾补,和宾语sb是主动关系。如果宾语和宾补是被动关系,用leave …done。如: Repeated failure had left them feeling very discouraged. 三番五次的失败使他们情绪非常低落。 His reply left us all rather confused. 他的答复我们都搞糊涂了。 2)动词不定式或主语从句作主语时,为了保持句子结构的平衡,常用it作形式主语,而将真正的主语置于句末。it没有具体意义。如: It is a pity that he should refuse my invitation. 他竟然拒绝了我的邀请,真是遗憾! Is it difficult to understand the English program. 理解这个英语节目难吗? 18. Edmonds is the first African American ever to work as a full-time speechwriter for a U.S. president; he is also the first African American to serve as director of speechwriting for the White House. 【句式翻译】埃德蒙兹是第一个非洲裔美国人作为全职演讲撰稿人为美国总统工作。他也是第一位非洲裔美国人作为演讲撰稿人总监为白宫工作。 【句式分析】本句包含有两个由分号分隔开的分句,不定式短语to work…和to serve…都作定语,修饰the first African American。 【词语点拨】serve v. 服务;用作;端上 We found that birch bark could serve as paper. 我们发现桦树皮可以作纸用。 Air hostesses all smile when they serve the passengers. 空姐们为乘客服务时总是满脸笑容。 Please clear your books away so that I can serve dinner. 请把你的书收拾一下以便我端上饭菜。 【语法点拨】动词不定式可以放在表示次序的词the first, the last等后面以及the only, the very, the right等词后面作定语, 且与这些词有逻辑上的主谓关系。结构为:the first/last /only/very/right/best/youngest ...+n./pron. + to do sth,表示“第一个/最后一个/唯一的/恰好的/合适的/最好的/最年轻的……做某事的人/物”。 如: The last man to leave the sinking ship was the captain. 最后一个离开正在下沉的船的那个人是船长。 New Zealand was the first nation in modern times to allow women to vote. 新西兰成为现代史上第一个允许妇女有选举权的国家。 19. The Olympic spirit -- the spirit of competition which emphasizes taking part rather than winning -- has been violated by the desire to succeed at all costs. 【句式翻译】奥林匹克精神—强调参与而不是取胜的竞技精神—已经被为成功而不惜一切代价的愿望所亵渎。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,which引导限制性定语从句,修饰先行词spirit,to succeed修饰desire,作定语。 【词语点拨】rather than 与其;不愿;而不是。用于连接两个并列成分,连接两个名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词应与rather than 前面的名词或代词在人称和数上保持一致 Tom rather than his friends has been chosen. 是汤姆而不是他的朋友们被选中。 The sweater she bought was beautiful rather than cheap. 与其说她买的这件羊毛衫便宜不如说它漂亮。 I decided to send an e-mail rather than telephone. 我决定发邮件而不是打电话。 【语法点拨】有些名词后常跟不定式作定语,如:time, way, right, reason, effort, chance, movement, ability, desire, tendency等。如: Thank you for giving me a chance to make a speech. 谢谢你给我发言的机会。 Mr. Green has the ability to bring out the best in others. 格林先生能做到扬人之长。 20. When you set out to do something different, there’s no end in sight, so to find myself in a position where I now have my own name on a contract of the publisher -- to be a published writer -- is unbelievably rewarding. 【句式翻译】当着手去做不同的事情,看不到结果,所以,发现自己的名字写在出版商的合同上—要成为一个出版作家—是令人难以置信的回报。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,包含有三个从句,when引导时间状语从句,so引导结果状语从句,where引导限制性定语从句,修饰先行词position,to find …在句中作主语。 【词语点拨】rewarding adj. 值得的;有报酬的 So far my time with these children has been very rewarding. 到目前为止,我和这些孩子们度过的时光非常有价值。 Government service can be a rewarding and secure career. 政府部门的工作可以很有回报,很有保障。 【语法点拨】动词不定式可以作主语,位于句首。如果动词不定式短语过长,为了避免句子头重脚轻,可用 it 作形式主语,而将真正的主语动词不定式短语后置,具体用法参见第17句。如: To obey the law is the duty of everybody. 遵守法律人人有责。 To love and to be loved is the greatest happiness in the world. 爱人和被人爱是这个世界上最大的幸福。 132 【精品】高考英语经典长难句分析200句-2 21. To really develop empathy, you’d better volunteer at a nursing home or a hospital, join a club or a team that has a diverse membership, have a“sharing circle”with your family, or spend time caring for pets at an animal shelter. 【句式翻译】要真正开发同理心,你最好在养老院或医院做志愿者,加入一个有多样化的会员的俱乐部或团队,与你的家人有一个“共享圈”,或者在动物收容所照顾宠物。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,that引导一个非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词a club or a team,volunteer, join, have和spend是并列的谓语动词,To really develop…在句中作目的状语。 【词语点拨】volunteer v. 志愿 n. 志愿者 Some graduates volunteer to work in the countryside. 一些大学生自愿到农村去。 She now helps in a local school as a volunteer three days a week. 目前她在当地的一家学校做志愿工作,一周去3天。 【语法点拨】不定式to do可以作目的状语(其否定形式:not to do),相当于in order to do和so as to do (so as to do只能放在句中,不能位于句首)。如: One should get enough exercise to keep healthy. 为了维持身体健康,一个人要有足够的锻炼。 To find a better job, a lot of people choose to go to the big cities. 为了找份更好的工作,很多人愿意到大城市去。 22. Proudly reading my words, I glanced around the room, only to find my classmates bearing big smiles on their faces and tears in their eyes. 【句式翻译】自豪地阅读我写的内容时,我环顾整个房间,却发现我的同学笑得眼泪都要流出来了。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,包含有三个非谓语短语,reading my words 和only to find…分别作时间状语和结果状语,bearing…作宾补。 【词语点拨】glance vi瞥;浏览;后面常跟at, through, over等介词 I picked up the phone book and glanced through it. 我拿起电话簿,匆匆扫了一遍。 He glanced at his watch and left the room. 他匆匆看了一下手表,离开了房间。 【语法点拨】动词不定式作结果状语时,通常表示出乎意料的结果,常被just或only修饰,置于句末,用逗号和句子分开。如: I went to the classroom, only to find nobody there. 我去了教室,却没有见到一个人。 He rushed to the door, only to discover that it was locked and barred. 他冲到门边, 却发现门已被锁死了。 23. At 12 years old she won a Guinness Record when she became the youngest female to win the women’s world title for platform diving at the World Championships in Australia in 1991. 【句式翻译】1991年,12岁的伏明霞就获得了一项吉尼斯纪录,当时她参加了在澳大利亚举行的跳台跳水世界锦标赛,成为最年轻的女子世界冠军。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,when在句中引导状语从句,to win the women's world title…作定语,修饰the youngest female。 【词语点拨】championship n.冠军称号;锦标赛 We are proud for you to win the championship. 我们为你赢得冠军而骄傲。 All the gold medals for the championship fell to the team. 本届锦标赛的所有金牌都被这个队夺得。 【语法点拨】动词不定式作定语,具体用法参见第18句。 24. To get rid of alcohol from the body is a very slow process and it is not possible to speed it up with any measures like taking a shower or having a cup of tea or coffee. 【句式翻译】把酒精从体内消除是个缓慢的过程,也不可能通过任何措施如洗澡或喝杯茶或咖啡来加速其消除的过程。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词and连接的复合句,To get rid of alcohol和to speed it up在句中都作主语。 【词语点拨】1)get rid of 摆脱;除去 How to get rid of air pollution is still a big problem. 如何清除空气污染仍然是个大问题。 2)measure n. 尺寸;措施;手段 vt. & vi. 测量;有……长(宽、高等) A clock measures time. 钟是用来计量时间的。 This room measures ten metres across. 这个房间宽十米。 Mr. Smith asked the tailor to make some new clothes to his own measure. 史密斯先生要求裁缝照他的尺寸做新衣服。 We must take measures to prevent the water from being polluted. 我们必须采取措施防止水被污染。 【语法点拨】动词不定式作主语:具体用法参见第20句。 25. Having identified the target group, researchers find out as much as possible about those in the target group, such as their likes and dislikes, and how the product would fit into their lives. 【句式翻译】明确了广告的目标群体后,研究人员就会尽量获取这个群体的有关信息,例如他们的好恶,以及如何使产品适应他们的生活。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,how在句中引导定语从句,Having identified the target group是现在分词的完成形式作状语。 【词语点拨】identify vt. 识别,认出 Could you identify your bike among a hundred others. 你能从100自行车中认出你的那一辆吗? The bad weather is identified as the possible cause of the accident. 坏天气被认为可能导致了这个事故。 【语法点拨】having done可以作状语,此时,它代表的动作发生在句子谓语动作之前,它的逻辑主语和句子的主语一致。如: Not having tried his best, he failed in the exam. 由于没有尽最大努力,他这次考试没能通过。 Having known the situation well, they could deal with the problem efficiently. 由于对形势的深刻了解,他们有效地处理了问题。 26. Having heard wolves howling in the forest, Lala accelerated her walk up the path to the caves fearing that there might be wild beasts lying in wait for her. 【句式翻译】拉拉沿着回洞穴的路走着,听到狼群在森林里嚎叫,她的步伐加快了,担心会有野兽在等者伏击她。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,that引导宾语从句,Having heard 和fearing…在句中作状语。 【词语点拨】1)accelerate v. 加快,加速 In order to catch up with and surpass the advanced world levels we’ll have to accelerate our speed. 要赶超世界先进水平,我们还得快马加鞭。 Sunshine, fresh air, and rest often accelerate a person's recovery from sickness. 阳光 、 新鲜空气和休息常会促使病人早日康复。 2)lie vi.平躺;位于(lay, lain);撒谎(lied, lied);n.撒谎 The factory lies to the west of town. 工厂在小镇的西边。 David felt tired, so he went and lay down for a rest. 戴维感到疲劳,所以去躺下休息了。 His books lay open on the desk when I went in. 我进去时,发现他的书平摊在书桌上。 Richard wasn’t telling the truth. He was lying. 理查德没讲实话,他在撒谎。 The only way to meet the manager is to lie in wait for him as he leaves one of his meetings. 找到这个经理的唯一办法是,等着他从会议结束出来。 【语法点拨】1)having done作状语:具体用法参见第25句。 2)现在分词作状语: ①现在分词doing所代表的动作或状态与谓语动词是同时或几乎是同时发生的,可以作时间、原因、方式、条件、结果、目的、让步、伴随等状语。分词的逻辑主语就是句子的主语。如: Rushing out of the house, he was knocked down by a car. 他一冲出屋子就被一辆车撞倒了。 My cousin went to Shenzhen, hoping to find a job there. 我表兄去深圳了,希望在那儿找份工作。 The child fell,striking his head against the door. 小孩摔了一跤,头在门上碰了一下。 In the last few years, the country has had a hard time, suffering several killer quakes. 过去几年里,这个国家经历了艰难的时期,遭受了几次致命的地震。 Being spring, the flowers are in full bloom. 因为是春天,所以花都盛开着。 ②有些分词作状语,没有逻辑上的主语,已成为习惯用法:considering, judging from, talking of, allowing for(考虑到), generally/frankly/honestly/roughly/strictly speaking, assuming that(假设)等。如: Talking of this film, it’s wonderful. 说到这部电影,好极了。 Assuming that it is true, what should we do now? 假定那是真的, 我们现在该怎麽办? Judging by the direction of the wind, it won’t rain today. 根据风向测度, 今天不会下雨。 Social psychology, strictly speaking, deals with the behavior of people in groups. 严格地说, 社会心理学研究人们的群体行为。 27. Having scared the little beings, I began struggling to get loose and managed to break the strings that tied my left arm and slightly moved the strings that tied down my hair. 【句式翻译】吓跑了小人,我开始挣扎以使绳子松开,终于挣断了绑着左臂的绳子,并轻轻地解开绑着头发的绳子。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,两个that在从句中都引导定语从句,修饰先行词the strings,Having scared…在句中作状语,to break…作manage的宾语。 【词语点拨】struggle vi. 搏斗; 挣扎;争取 n.打斗;挣扎;斗争 The climbers struggled against the strong wind and finally reached the top of the mountain. 登山者在强风中艰难的行走,最终到达山顶。 They struggled to get out of the burning building. 他们艰难地逃离了着火的大楼。 With a struggle, I managed to control my feelings. 经过一番斗争,我把情绪控制住了。 【语法点拨】1)having done作状语,具体用法参见第25句。 2)不定式to do常跟在下列动词后作宾语:ask, agree, beg, begin, start, wish, choose, decide, expect, fail, hope, manage, seek, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, want, would/should like等。如: His parents choose to live in the countryside. 他的父母决意在乡下居住。 We agreed to meet here, but so far she hasn’t turned up yet. 我们约定在这里见面,但是到现在她还没露面。 Would you like to go and have a picnic with us tomorrow? 明天和我们一起去野餐好吗? 28. Having killed up to 50 million people in 18 months, with a tendency to strike the young and fit rather than the old, the Spanish Flu is believed to have been the most acute epidemic in history. 【句式翻译】西班牙流感在十八个月内夺去了五千万人的生命,该病似乎专门袭击年轻力壮的人,而不是老迈长者,被认为是历史上最严重的一次传染病。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,包含有一个句式:be believed to do/be 被认为做……/是……,Having killed…在句中作状语,to strike…作定语,修饰tendency。 【词语点拨】strike vt. 攻(袭)击;打,打动; (钟)敲响报(时); 使突然想起 n.打击;罢工 Snowstorms often strike that area in winter. 冬天暴风雪常常袭击那个地区。 Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。 The clock struck twelve. 钟敲十二点。 I was struck by the beauty of the West Lake. 我被西湖的美景给迷住了。 It suddenly struck me that I ought to make a new plan. 我突然想到, 我应该制订一个新的方案。 The bus drivers have been on strike for several days. 公共汽车司机罢工好几天了。 【语法点拨】1)(sth/sb)be believed to do/be 被认为做……/是……= It is/ was believed that…,在这个句式中,不定式作主语补足语,可以代替believe用于这个句式的动词还有:say, suppose, think, know, report等。如: Do you know why Friday is believed to be an unlucky day? 你知道为什么星期五被认为是不吉利的日子吗? The old castle was believed to have ghosts living in it for many years. 多年来人们一直相信这座古堡里面居住着幽灵。 The great pyramid is believed to have been built over a 20-year period. 人们认为建造这座大金字塔花去了20多年的时间。 Yao Ming is thought to be one of the best basketball players in the world. 姚明被认为是世界上最棒的篮球运动员之一。 2)having done作状语,具体用法参见第25句。 3)to do作定语,具体用法参见第19句。 29. I don’t know what your expectations are of London, but knowing that you’ve never travelled outside of Asia, I thought I’d tell you a bit about what you can expect to find. 【句式翻译】我不知道您对伦敦有什么期望,但我知道您从未到过亚洲以外的地方旅行,所以,我想告诉你一点关于你期望找到的东西。 【句式分析】本句是有并列连词but连接的复合句,同时包含有四个从句,what your expectations are…,that you’ve never travelled…,I’d tell you和what you can…都是宾语从句;knowing…和to find…在句中分别作主语和宾语。 【词语点拨】expect v.期望;预期 You can’t expect to succeed if you attempt tasks above your ability. 如果你要做能力达不到的事,就别指望成功。 The beauties of the West Lake in spring were beyond his expectation. 西湖的春景要比他所预想的更加美丽。 【语法点拨】1)doing可以作主语: ①很多情况下,相当于to do,有时也可用it 作形式主语。常用doing作主语的句型: It is no good/use doing…做……没用 It is useless doing…做……没用 It is worthwhile doing…做……是值得的 It is useless trying to persuade Miss Li to accept our advice. 劝说李小姐接受我们的建议是没有用的。 ②如果doing有自己的逻辑主语,doing前可以用形容词性的物主代词或名词所有格来修饰。如: Tom’s/his coming late made the manager very angry. 汤姆/他来晚了让经理很生气。 ③to do和doing做主语的区别:to do常表示具体的某一动作; doing表示泛指或一般的抽象的概念时,多用动名词。如: Bicycling is a good exercise; moreover, it doesn’t pollute the air. 骑自行车是很好的运动; 而且还不污染环境。 2)不定式to do作宾语:具体用法参见第27句。 30. The best way to get rid of a negative serf-image is to realize that your image is far from objective, and to actively convince yourself of your positive qualities. 【句式翻译】摆脱负面的自我形象的最好办法是意识到你的形象远远不是客观的,同时主动地使你相信自己的积极的品质。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,that your image is…是宾语从句,to get rid of…在句中作定语,to realize… 和to actively convince…是并列成分,作表语。 【词语点拨】far from 远离;远非,远远不是 The work he did yesterday is far from perfect. 他昨天做的的工作远非十全十美。 Far from relieving my cough, the medicine made it worse. 这药非但不镇咳,反而使我咳嗽得更厉害。 2)convince vt. 使信服;常用于以下结构: ①convince sb of sth 使某人相信某事。如: You need to convince your boss of your ability to do the job. 你需要让你的老板相信你有做这份工作的能力。 ②convince sb to do 说服某人做某事 It took me a long time to convince him to go with me. 我用了很长时间才说服他和我一起去。 ③convince sb+that从句 使某人相信 I managed to convince my friend that I didn’t mean to hurt him. 我设法使朋友相信我不想伤害他。 【语法点拨】1)不定式to do作定语:具体用法参见第19句。 2)不定式to do作表语: ① 说明主语的具体内容。如: My only wish is to do something for the public. 我唯一的愿望是为公众做些事。 ② 表示不可避免将要发生的事。如: The discovery is to have a great effect on our life. 这个发现将对我们的生活产生重大影响。 ③不定式作表语,且主语部分有all, what, only或是最高级形容词修饰的名词和实义动词do时,作表语的不定式可省去to。如: All you need to do now is have a good rest. 现在你所需要的是好好休息。 31. In setting out its plans for a five-term year, Nottingham City Council is seeking to reduce the summer holiday down to four and a half weeks, with a more balanced five terms of roughly eight weeks, each followed by a two-week break. 【句式翻译】诺丁汉城市委员会设立了一个计划,将一学年划分为五学期,并将暑假的时间减少为四周半,这样一来,五个学期均有八周的时间,每个学期之后都有两周的休息时间。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,Nottingham City Council作主语,is seeking作谓语,each followed by a two-week break是独立主格结构,setting out…和to reduce…在句中宾语。 【词语点拨】1) seek vt. & vi.寻找;探索;寻求;固定短语:seek for 寻找;寻求;seek after寻求 Richard sought to speak to her. 理查德寻找机会与她说话。 We sought an answer to the question, but couldn’t find one. 我们寻求这个问题的答案,可是没能找到。 Most men seek for wealth; all men seek for happiness. 大多数人都追求财富; 但所有的人都希望获得幸福。 One mustn’t only seek after comfort, personal fame and gains. 一个人不应当只贪图安逸,追名逐利。 2)balance vt.平衡;权衡 balanced adj.平衡的,均衡的 We have to balance the good points against the bad and then make a decision. 我们必须权衡优劣,然后做出决定。 You must learn to keep your balance while skating. 在溜冰时你得学会保持平衡。 A balanced diet and regular exercise are both important for our health. 均衡的饮食和有规律的锻炼对我们的健康很重要。 【语法点拨】1)不定式to do作宾语:具体用法参见第27句。 2)doing作宾语: ①介词后常接doing作宾语,如: She left the room without saying a word. 她没说什么就离开了房间。 ②有些动词或短语后只能跟动名词作宾语,这类词有:finish, imagine, fancy, insist on, enjoy, escape, consider, can’t help(禁不住), admit, avoid, mind, miss, practise, keep, resist, appreciate, put off=delay, suggest, advise, allow, permit, forbid, ban, prohibit, forgive, excuse, risk, tolerate, recommend, stand, feel like, look forward to, prefer…to…等。如: He admitted taking the watch. 他承认拿了手表。 Much as she likes him, she would never consider marrying him. 尽管她很喜欢他, 但她并不打算嫁给他。 ③begin,start,like,prefer, hate后既可接to do也可接doing作宾语,意思差别不大,如: He likes playing/to play basketball. 他喜欢打篮球。 ④ stop,try,go on, remember, forget, mean, regret后面用doing或to do 不定式,意思不一样。 stop doing停止做 stop to do停下来开始做 try doing试一试做 try to do尽力做,企图做 go on doing继续做(同一件事) go on to do继续做(不同的事) remember doing 记着做了 remember to do记着要做 forget doing忘记做了 forget to do忘记要做 mean doing意味着 mean to do打算做 regret doing后悔做了 regret to do遗憾要做 比较: I forgot teaching the students the words. 我忘记了曾教过学生们这些词。(已经教过) I forgot to teach the students the words. 我忘了教学生们这些词。(未教) 32. The computer burst into life and second later, the screen turned into colors, shifting and changing and then two big white words appeared in the center of the screen: “SPACE TRANSPORTER.” 【句式翻译】电脑突然活跃起来,几秒钟后屏幕变成彩色,图像开始不断变换,然后屏幕中间出现两个白色大字:“空间运输车”。 【句式分析】本句是并列连词and连接的复合句,shifting and changing在句中作伴随状语。 【词语点拨】burst into…匆匆进入(某处);突然开始(某事);突然进入(某种状态) The door was suddenly pushed open and he burst into the house. 门忽然推开,他闯进了屋来。 Suddenly the leading car in the race burst into sight. 突然,比赛中的那辆领先的车出现了。 The plane burst into flames, killing two of the airmen on board. 飞机突然起火, 机上的两名飞行员丧生。 【语法点拨】现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 33. People today prefer living together to putting their signatures on a marriage certificate because they refuse to accept responsibility for the relationship. 【句式翻译】现在的人宁可同居,却不愿在结婚证上签字,因为他们拒绝为这种关系负责。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,because在句中引导原因状语从句,living together, putting their signatures 和to accept都作宾语。 【词语点拨】prefer vt.更喜欢;宁愿 Some people like to lie on the beach, but I prefer going/to go sightseeing. 有些人喜欢在海滩上躺着, 但我喜欢去游览. 表示“宁愿……而不愿……”,“喜欢……而不喜欢……”,其基本句型是: ① prefer…to…,主要用于比较两个名词或动名词 I prefer the seaside to the mountains. 我喜欢海边,不喜欢山区。 I prefer questioning my pupils to lecturing them. 我喜欢少讲课,多提问我的学生。 ② prefer…rather than…,主要用于比较两个不定式(后面的不定式通常省略to,但前面的不定式必须带to) He prefers to read rather than watch television. 他喜欢读书而不喜欢看电视。 【语法点拨】1)不定式to do作宾语,具体用法参见第27句。 2)doing作宾语,具体用法参见第31句。 34. In addition to encouraging reading as a pursuit to be enjoyed by all, the program allows strangers to communicate by discussing the book on the bus, as well as promoting reading as an experience to be shared in families and schools. 【句式翻译】除了鼓励把阅读当作所有的人的一种追求外,这个项目还允许陌生人在汽车上通过讨论这本书来交流,同时宣传把阅读当作家庭和学校共享的一次体验。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,the program作主语,allows作谓语,strangers作宾语,to communicate…作宾补,encouraging …和discussing…都作介词宾语。 【词语点拨】1)in addition to 除……之外,后接名词或动名词 in addition 此外;还有 In addition to his salary, he has a bonus of 500 yuan per month. 除工资外,他每月还有五百元钱奖金。 We need money and time; in addition, we need opportunity. 我们需要金钱和时间,此外我还需要机遇。 2)as well as既……又;……和……。as well as连接名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词应与前面的名词或代词在人称和数上保持一致。如: The child is lively as well as healthy. 这孩子既健康又活泼。 We are repairing the roof as well as painting the walls. 我们在粉刷墙壁同时也在修理屋顶。 The teacher as well as several students is doing experiments in the lab. 老师和几个学生正在实验室做实验。 【语法点拨】1)doing作宾语,具体用法参见第31句。 2) 不定式to do做宾补的用法: ①常跟动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词有advise, cause, expect, force, get, order, permit, tell, want, warn, wish, prefer, allow等。如: The mother permits her son to play computer games twice a week. 这个母亲允许儿子一周玩两次电脑游戏。 My teacher told me not to make the same mistake again. 老师告诉我不要再犯同样的错误。 ②感官动词feel,listen to,hear,see,look at, watch,notice,observe后和使役动词let,make,have后,跟动词不定式作宾语补足语时,要省略不定式符号to。如: I didn’t observe the man open the door and go out. 我没看到那个人打开门出去了。 I saw Lucy hurry to the station just now. 刚才我看见露西匆忙去车站了。 He told us a joke, which made us laugh immediately. 他给我们讲了一个笑话,让我们立刻笑了。 ③在被动语态中,动词不定式在感官动词后作主语补足语时,不定式符号to不省略。如: The workers are made to work far into the night. 工人们被迫干活到深夜。 35. Noticing that the driver was struggling to see through the snow covering the windshield, she found herself wondering why there couldn’t be a built-in device for cleaning the window. 【句式翻译】注意到司机要很费力的透过覆盖在挡风玻璃上的雪向外看,她不禁想为什么不能有一个内置的设备来清除雪呢。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,that和why在句中引导宾语从句,Noticing , covering和wondering分别作状语、定语和宾补。 【词语点拨】notice ①vt.注意到;看到。常用于notice sb do sth; notice sb doing sth和notice sth done结构中。 I didn’t notice you wearing a new hat. =I didn’t notice you were wearing a new hat. 我没有注意到你戴了一顶新帽子。 We noticed Jack leave the house an hour ago. 我们注意到杰克一小时前离开了这所房子。 No one but Miss Zhou noticed the flowers on the table changed. 除周小姐外,没有人注意到桌子上的花被换过。 ②n.注意;通知 The notice was set above the door, and I didn’t see it. 通知贴在门的上方,我没看见。 He is too proud to take notice of others. 他很骄傲,不理睬别人。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词doing作定语:在逻辑上与所修饰的名词之间为主谓关系,也可改成定语从句。单个分词作定语一般放在被修饰词之前,分词短语作定语一般放在被修饰词之后。如: The glow of the setting sun is splendid; it is a pity that dusk is fast approaching. 夕阳无限好,只是近黄昏。 He is a businessman growing rich in recent years. 他是一位最近几年才发起来的商人。 2)分词作宾补: 分词一般只在两类动词后作宾补,感官动词(feel,listen to,hear,see,look at, watch,notice,observe) 和使役动词(have, make)。现在分词作宾补表示正在进行的主动意义,过去分词则表示已经完成的被动意义。如: Through the window Jane saw children playing in the yard. 透过窗户简看见孩子们在院子里玩。 Maria has had her wallet stolen on her way to school. 上学路上,玛利亚的钱包被偷了。 36. To get ahead in the world and lead a happy successful life means getting on with other people and being able to understand and react to situations in the best way possible. 【句式翻译】在这个世界中生存并快乐的生活意味着能够与其他人很好的相处, 能够理解形势并以最好的方式作出反应。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,句子的主语是To get ahead…, means作谓语,getting on with…和being able to…是并列的宾语。 【词语点拨】react v. 反应,做出反应 When the sun comes out, the flowers react by opening. 当太阳出来的时候,花以张开的形式作出反应。 Do children react to kind treatment by becoming more self-confident? 对孩子们和善是否会使他们更有信心? 【语法点拨】doing作宾语,具体用法参见第31句。 37. We even have different word for some foods, meat in particular, depending on whether it is still out in the fields or at home ready to be cooked, which Shows the fact that the Saxon peasants were doing the farming, while the upper-class Normans were doing most of the eating. 【句式翻译】我们甚至对某些食物有不同的单词,特别是肉类,取决于它是长在田野里,还是在家里准备被烹饪,这表明一个事实,即萨克森农民在农田干活,而上层阶级的诺曼人在大吃大喝。 【句式分析】本句是复合句, whether引导宾语从句,which引导非限制性定语从句,while引导并列句,表对比,depending on…作状语。 【词语点拨】1)in particular 尤其,特别 His statement refers to people in general, not to anyone in particular. 他的发言是泛指一般情况,不是针对某一个人的。 2)depend on 依赖,依靠 All living things depend on the sun for their growth. 万物靠太阳生长。 The plan can have different results depending on the weather. 根据天气的不同这项计划会有不同的结果。 【语法点拨】doing作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 38. It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers, although just about anyone who works in an office can tell you that when e-mail is introduced, the printers start working overtime. 【句式翻译】由于因特网的使用,计算所使用的纸张的数量是很难计算的,然而几乎任何在办公室工作的人能告诉你,当引进电子邮件后,打印机就开始超时工作。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,主句是It 作形式主语的句式,to measue…作真正的主语,although引导让步状语从句,从句中又包含who和that引导的定语从句和宾语从句,working overtime作宾语。 【词语点拨】measure n. 尺寸;措施;手段 vt. & vi. 测量;有……长(宽、高等):具体用法参见第24句 【语法点拨】1)动词不定式to do作主语,具体用法参见第17句。 2)doing作宾语,具体用法参见第31句。 39. In the last three years, Indonesia has had a rough time, suffering several killer quakes and it is still recovering from the Asian tsunami caused by an offshore earthquake on December 26th, 2004. 【句式翻译】在过去的三年里,印尼饱受自然灾害之苦,它遭受了几次致命的大地震,至今仍然处于2004年12月26日发生的亚洲海啸所造成的创伤的恢复期中,那次海啸是由一次离岸地震所引起的。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词and连接的复合句,suffering…作状语,caused by…作后置定语。 【词语点拨】1)rough adj.艰难的;粗糙的 The book was printed on rough yellow paper. 这本书用粗糙的黄纸印刷。 They had a rough time,sailing on the Pacific Ocean. 他们航行在太平洋上,处境艰难。 2) recover v. 恢复 What magic drug have you taken to recover so quickly? 你吃什么灵丹妙药,好得这样快? It’s going to be some time before I recover my full strength. 还要一些时间我才能完全恢复体力。 【语法点拨】doing作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 40. The children played in the courtyards and because of the hutongs, courtyards were joined together for miles around creating a network of people working, playing and living together—a real community. 【句式翻译】孩子们在院子里一起玩耍,方圆好几里的四合院被连接起来,构成了人们一起工作、一起娱乐、一起起居的网络和一个真正的社区。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词and连接的复合句,creating…作状语。 【词语点拨】join v. 连接;参加 You should never join an electric wire to a water pipe. 你千万不可把电线连接在水管上。 All the family join me in wishing you a happy future. 所有的家人同我一道祝你未来幸福。 【语法点拨】doing作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 41. At that time, there were restrictions on the movement of Europeans and so, in order to travel unnoticed, he developed his fluency in Chinese and dressed as a Chinese man, even shaving his head in the Chinese style. 【句式翻译】那时候,欧洲人在中国的活动受到种种限制,因此为了在旅行时不引起别人注意,他努力使自己的汉语讲得很流利,并且穿着中国人的服装,甚至像中国人一样削发(留辫)。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,so引导结果状语从句,unnoticed和shaving作状语。 【词语点拨】1)restriction n. 限制 The park is open to the public without restriction. 这个公园对公众开放,没有任何限制。 There is no restriction on the number of people. 人数不限。 2) dress v. 打扮;穿衣 n. 衣服;礼服;dress后常接sb/oneself,不接衣服作宾语;构成短语:be dressed in…穿着…… Father dressed up as a clown to make children laugh. 为了逗孩子们笑,爸爸装扮成小丑。 She hurriedly dressed her son and drove him to school. 她匆忙地给儿子穿上衣服,开车送他到学校。 I feel awkward as everyone except me is in evening dress. 我感到很尴尬,因为除了我,谁都穿了夜礼服。 Angels are usually shown in pictures dressed in white. 图画中的天使通常身穿白衣。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 2)过去分词作状语: ①过去分词作状语时,常表示被动和完成,此时分词的逻辑主语就是句子的主语。表示时间、条件、原因、让步时可转换为相应的状语从句;表示方式、结果和伴随时可转化为并列分句。如: My father sat quietly on the couch, lost in thought(=and he was lost in thought). 我父亲静静地坐在沙发上,沉浸在思索之中。 Looked (=If it is looked) at a distance, the painting seems much more beautiful. 隔着一段距离看,这幅画似乎要漂亮得多。 ②有些分词作状语,没有逻辑上的主语,已成为习惯用法:given(考虑到,如果), provided that(如果),compared with/to等。 Our greenhouse is nothing compared with yours. 我们这个温室比起你们那个简直是小巫见大巫。 I will agree to go provided / providing ( that ) my expenses are paid. 假如为我负担费用,我就同意去。 42. Brave young men took the opportunity of going on botanical expeditions, often facing many dangers including disease, near-starvation, severe environments and conflicts with the local people. 【句式翻译】勇敢的年轻人借机进行植物探索活动,他们常常面临许多危险,包括疾病、饥饿、严酷的环境以及同当地居民的冲突。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,facing many dangers…在句中作状语。 【词语点拨】including prep.包含 include v.包含 There are ten people in this office including me. 这个办公室连我共有10人。 This book includes some information you need. 这本书包括你需要的一些信息。 【语法点拨】现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 43. A consumer can complain to the organization, giving reasons for their complaint, and if the complaint is correct, the organization can make the company stop using the offending advertisement. 【句式翻译】消费者可以向这个机构投诉,提出投诉的理由,如果投诉是正确的,该机构可以责令该公司停止使用这种令人不愉快的广告。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,if引导条件状语从句,giving reasons…作状语,using…作宾语。 【词语点拨】complaint n.抱怨;投诉 complain是其动词形式 The worker accepted his dismissal without any complaint. 那个工人毫无怨言地接受解雇。 She made a complaint about the noise. 她就噪音问题提出了投诉。 She wrote a letter to her local newspaper to complain about the new road. 她给当地的报纸写了一封信,抱怨新修的马路。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 2)doing作宾语,具体用法参见第31句。 44. In no time, the Del Monte Gold took the market by storm, rapidly becoming the world’s best-selling pineapple variety, and delivering natural levels of sweetness in the mouth, up until then only found in tinned pineapple. 【句式翻译】德尔蒙金菠萝立刻占有了市场,很快成为世界上销售最好的菠萝,吃到嘴里有一种天然的甜味,在那之前,只有罐装菠萝才有这种味儿。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,becoming和delivering在句中作状语,tinned作定语。 【词语点拨】1)in no time 立刻,马上 Clothing seems to wear out in no time nowadays. 现在的衣服好像很快就穿破了。 2)variety n.种类;多样性 The hotel offers its guests a wide variety of amusements. 这个旅馆为住客提供了各种各样的娱乐活动。 My last job lacked variety; I was doing the same things all the time. 我上次的一份工作缺乏多样化, 我老是在做同样的事情。 3)deliver v. 递送;发表(演说等) The newspaper is delivered to my school every Tuesday. 每周二报纸被送到我的学校。 Mr. Smith will deliver a speech on English learning this Friday. 本周五史密斯先生要做一个关于英语学习的演讲。 4)take…by storm强攻;使大为轰动 The news will take the public by storm. 这个消息将会令公众大吃一惊的。 The group of young musicians took Europe by storm. 一 群年轻的音乐家使整个欧洲为之倾倒。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 2)过去分词done作定语:过去分词作定语表示被动和完成意义,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。单个分词作定语一般放在被修饰词之前,分词短语作定语一般放在被修饰词之后。如: The injured workers are now being taken good care of in the hospital。 受伤的工人现正在医院受到良好的照料。 They are cleaning the fallen leaves in the yard. 他们正在打扫院子里的落叶。 The scientists invited (=who were invited) to the meeting are from developing countries. 被邀请参加会议的科学家来自发展中国家。 45. Shay didn’t make it to another summer and died that winter, having never forgotten being the hero and making his father so happy and coming home and seeing his mother tearfully hug her little hero of the day! 【句式翻译】Shay 在那一年的冬天死了,没有活到第二年的夏天,他永远也忘不掉自己当英雄以及让自己的爸爸如此高兴,忘不掉跑回家看到含泪的妈妈抱住这个小英雄的场景。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,didn’t make it和died是并列的谓语动词,having never forgotten作状语,being the hero, making his father…,coming home,和seeing...是并列的宾语。 【词语点拨】1)make it (to)及时到达;成功;约定时间 It's hard to make it to the top in the show business. 想在演艺圈出人头地,实非易事。 I can't make it to dinner tonight; but, can I take a rain check? 今天晚上我不能去吃晚饭, 但是我们改天再吃好吗? Make it anytime that suits you ; I’m always free. 我反正有空,就你的时间吧。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词的完成形式作状语,具体用法参见第25句。 2)doing作宾语,具体用法参见第31句。 46. In the fall of 1985, I was a bright-eyed girl heading off to Howard University, aiming at a legal career and dreaming of sitting on a Super Court bench Somewhere. 【句式翻译】1985年的秋天,我是一个有着明亮眼睛的女孩,要去哈佛大学学习,目的是从事法律工作并梦想着坐在某处最高法院的法官席上。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,heading off…, aiming at…和dreaming of…是并列的定语,sitting on …作介词of的宾语。 【词语点拨】1)head v.朝……行进;前进(后面常接介词for或to/towards等) Where are you heading for? 你要到哪儿去? Our ship made head against the wind and waves. 我们的船顶着风浪前进。 2)aim v. 目的在于;瞄准;针对 n.目的;目标 Businesses will have to aim at long-term growth. 企业必须以长期增长为目标。 The new measures are aimed at protecting the environment. 新措施旨在保护环境。 I aim to be a policeman when I leave school. 我打算中学毕业以后当警察。 The aim of the festival is to increase awareness of Hindu culture and traditions. 该节庆日的目的在于增强人们对印度文化和传统的认识。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作定语, 具体用法参见第35句。 2)doing作宾语,具体用法参见第31句。 47. Some modern art is abstract; that is, the painter doesn’t attempt to paint objects as we see them with our eyes, but instead concentrates on certain qualities of the object, using color, line and shape to represent them. 【句式翻译】有些现代艺术是抽象的,也就是说,画家并不打算把我们眼睛看到的东西如实地画出来,而是集中展现物体的某些品质特征,用色彩、线条和形状把它们呈现出来。 【句式分析】本句是复合句, doesn’t attempt to和concentrates on是并列谓语, as在句中引导状语从句,using color…作状语。 【词语点拨】concentrate vi. 专心于;集中 You should concentrate on the road when you’re driving. 开车时注意力应集中在路上。 When working, one should concentrate and not allow oneself to be distracted. 工作时要集中精力,不要分心。 【语法点拨】现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 48. Based on my experience, jogging is the most overvalued form of exercise around, and judging from the number of the people who left our neighborhood jogging army, I’m not alone in my opinion. 【句式翻译】根据我的经验,慢跑是最被人高估的运动形式,从退出我们的慢跑大军的人数判断,不只是我有这种观点。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,who引导限制性定语从句,修饰the people,Based on my experience和judging from作状语,jogging作主语。 【词语点拨】1)base v. 基于;把……建立在 n. 基础;基地 We must base ourselves on the interests of the people. 我们一定要从人民的利益出发。 Theory is based on practice and in turn serves practice. 理论的基础是实践,反过来理论又为实践服务。 Knowledge is the important base of teacher's specialization. 知识是教师专业化的重要基础和前提条件。 Shanghai is the most important industrial base of China. 上海是中国最重要的工业基地。 2)alone adj.单独的,独自的 I want to have a talk with him alone. 我要和他单独谈一谈。 He doesn’t feel lonely when he is left alone. 在只剩下他一个的时候,他并不感到孤独。 3)judging from/by从……判断 Judging from his accent, he must be from Hunan. 从他的口音判断, 他一定是湖南人. Judging by the sound of his voice, the man couldn't be very young. 听声音, 那人已不太年轻。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 2)过去分词作状语,具体用法参见第41句。 3)doing作主语,具体用法参见第29句。 49. She retired from diving after Atlanta and went to study economics at university. While there she decided to make a comeback and went on to compete at the Sydney Olympic Games, where she won her fourth Olympic gold, again making Olympic history. 【句式翻译】在亚特兰大之后,伏明霞退役,到大学里学习经济。读书期间,她决定复出参加悉尼奥运会,并且获得了自己的第四枚奥运金牌,再次改写了奥运会历史。 【句式分析】While在句中引导省略的时间状语从句,where引导非限制定语从句,修饰the Sydney Olympic Games,to make和to compete作宾语,making作结果状语。 【词语点拨】compete v.竞争;参加比赛 He at last got a chance to compete in the Olympics. 他终于获得了参加奥运会比赛的机会。 These products are of high quality and able to compete internationally. 这些产品品质很好,在国际市场上有竞争能力。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 2)不定式to do作宾语,具体用法参见第27句。 50. With more than three children, for example, wives took on more of the extra work, clocking about 28 hours a week compared with husbands’ 10 hours. 【句式翻译】比如说,如果孩子数量超过三个,妻子们每周做家务的时间会增加到28个小时,而丈夫仅为10个小时。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,clocking和 compared with作状语。 【词语点拨】take on承担;呈现;具体用法参见第3句。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第26句。 2) 过去分词作状语,具体用法参见第41句。 51. The study, published in 2009, found that when writing with a pen and paper, participants wrote longer essays and more complete sentences and had a faster word production rate. 【句式翻译】这项研究发表于2009年,它发现用笔和纸来写,参与者写的文章更长,写的句子更完整,写单词的速度更快。 【句式分析】本句复合句,that 引导宾语从句,从句中又有一个when引导的状语从句,published在句中作后置定语,writing作状语。 【词语点拨】1) participant n. 参加者 participate vi.参与 He is an active participant in the civil rights movement. 他是人权运动的积极参加者。 Terry can’t participate in the match because he has hurt his foot. 特里不能参加比赛,因为他扭了脚。 2) rate n.比率;速度 House prices are rising at a higher rate than inflation. 房价比通货膨胀上涨的比率高。 The car was going at the rate of 40 miles an hour. 轿车以每小时40里的速度行驶。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语, 具体用法参见第26句。 2)过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第44句。 52. But the donator who started sending envelopes with cash to deserving causes, accompanied by an article from the local paper, has made a northern German city believe in fairytales. 【句式翻译】但是,捐赠者开始给值得关注的事业发送装有现金的信封,当地报纸随之发表一篇文章,这一切使一个德国北部城市相信童话。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,who 引导限制性定语从句,修饰the donator,sending 作宾语,accompanied作状语。 【词语点拨】1) deserving adj.值得的(后面常接介词of) deserve v.值得 A job well done is deserving of praise. 一件工作做得好应该受到表扬。 If you do wrong, you deserve punishment. 你如做错事, 应当受罚。 2)accompany vt.陪伴 Ken agreed to accompany me on a trip to Africa. 肯答应陪我一起去非洲。 Jane was willing to accompany you to the park to go out for a walk. 简愿意陪你去公园散步。 【语法点拨】1)过去分词作状语, 具体用法参见第41句。 2)doing作宾语,具体用法参见第31句。 53. Basic Math starts from the relatively easier concepts and gradually moves on to the more troublesome ones, so as to allow for steady and sure understanding of the material by students. 【句式翻译】基础数学源自相对容易的概念,逐渐转移到更麻烦的,以便允许学生能稳定地、有把握地理解材料。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,so as to allow在句中作目的状语。 【词语点拨】1) gradually adv.逐渐地 The drugs work well at first but gradually lose their effectiveness. 这些药的效果起初非常好,但后来逐渐失效。 After months of work, the new book is gradually taking shape. 经过几个月的努力,这本新书渐渐成型了。 2)allow v. 允许,常用于以下结构: ①allow doing 允许做 They allowed smoking in this room only. 他们只允许在这间屋子里抽烟。 ②allow sb to do允许某人做 My boss doesn’t allow me to use the telephone. 我的老板不允许我用电话。 ③allow sb sth让某人有 I will allow you 10% off the price if you pay now. 如果你现在付款,我可以给你打九折。 ④allow sb in/out/up允许某人进来/出去/起床 The patient was allowed up after ten days. 十天后病人才被允许起床(下地)。 ⑤allow for考虑到,把……考虑进来,体谅 We should allow for every possible delay. 我们考虑到任何可能的延误。 【语法点拨】不定式作目的状语,具体用法参见第21句。 54. Professor H. Siegel, honored by Kentucky Educational Television as“the best math teacher in America,”is a devoted teacher and has a gift for explaining mathematical concepts in ways that make them seem clear and obvious. 【句式翻译】H?西格尔教授被肯塔基州教育电视尊称为是“美国最好的数学老师”,他是一个尽职的教师,在解释数学概念方面很有天赋,能把这些概念解释得清楚明了。 【句式分析】本句复合句,that在句中引导限制性定语从句,修饰先行词ways,honored作后置定语。 【词语点拨】1) devoted adj.忠诚的;挚爱的 devote vt. 奉献,把……用于 He married well and happily and was a devoted father and husband. 他婚姻美满幸福,是位尽职尽责的父亲,忠实的丈夫。 The editors devoted a whole page to the discussion of the housing problem. 编辑用一个整版来讨论住房问题。 2) have a gift for = have a talent for在……方面有天赋 You have a surprising gift for seeing into people's minds. 你有惊人的才能,能看出别人的心思。 Yang Liping has a love for music and a gift for dancing. 杨丽萍热爱音乐,并具有舞蹈天赋。 【语法点拨】过去分词作定语, 具体用法参见第44句。 55. For example, there’re the obvious tendency to smile when smiled at and there are less obvious changes that reflect emotions of surprise, anger or sadness such as a change in our heart rate and blood pressure. 【句式翻译】例如,别人朝你笑你很可能笑,反映惊讶,愤怒或悲伤情绪的变化不太明显,如我们的心率和血压的变化。 【句式分析】本句复合句,when在句中引导省略的状语从句,that引导限制性定语从句,修饰先行词changes,smiled at作状语。 【词语点拨】1)tendency n.倾向;趋势;tend v.倾向 Prices continue to show an upward tendency. 物价呈继续上升的趋势。 There was a tendency in him to walk away from the impossible thing. 而对无能为力的事情,他往往就绕开走了。 People tended to accept her invitations. 人们都乐于接受她的邀请。 2)reflect v. 反映;反射; reflection n.反射;映像 Does this letter reflect how you really think? 这封信反映你的真实想法吗? Every solid object will reflect a sound. 任何固体都能反射声音。 One can see the reflection of the tower in the water. 塔的影子倒映在水中。 【语法点拨】过去分词作状语, 具体用法参见第41句。 56. Fans used to be crazy about a specific film, but now the public tends to base its consumption on the interest of celebrity attached to any given product. 【句式翻译】粉丝过去会对一部具体的电影而疯狂,但是现在,公众的消费倾向于建立在对名人的兴趣上,这些名人与某种指定的产品有联系。 【句式分析】本句是并列连词but连接的复合句,attached to…作后置定语。 【词语点拨】1)used to过去经常,表示过去的习惯动作或状态,后接动词原形。其否定式为:used(n)’t to/ didn’t use to;be/get used to 习惯于,其中的 to 是介词,后接名词或动名词。如: His uncle used to live in Paris. 他的叔叔过去一直住在巴黎。 Nancy usedn’t /didn’t use to eat so many sweet things. 南希过去不常吃那么多的甜食。 You used to play basketball, usedn’t /didn’t you? 你过去常打篮球,是吗? Charles is used to looking after himself. 查尔斯习惯于自己照顾自己。 2)attach vt. 缚上;系上;附加;连接;构成短语:①attach oneself to依附;热爱,依恋 ② be attached to连在……上,附属于;热爱,依恋③attach importance to认为……重要 Attach a stamp to the envelope and mail the letter. 把邮票贴在信封上,把信寄出去。 The cities attach great importance to the pollution problem. 这些城市非常重视污染问题。 A couple should be deeply attached to each other. 夫妻应该相亲相爱。 The little girl attached herself to her English teacher. 这个小姑娘非常喜欢她的英语老师。 【语法点拨】过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第44句。 57. Their study found that theobromine, found in cocoa, was nearly a third more effective in stopping coughs than codeine, which was considered the best cough medicine at present. 【句式翻译】他们的研究发现可可含有的可可碱治疗咳嗽的有效性比可待因高三分之一,可待因目前被认为是最好的治咳嗽的药。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,which在句中引导非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词codeine,found in cocoa作后置定语。 【词语点拨】consider v.考虑;认为 I’m considering going abroad some day. 我一直考虑有一天出国。 He considered how he should answer the question. 他考虑应当怎样回答这个问题。 We have to consider what mater
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