Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in the art of management, developed the mow famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the idea that people instinctively 51 work and will do anything to avoid it. Theory Y is the view that everyone has the potential to find satisfaction in work.
In any case, despite so much evidence to the 52 , many managers still agree to Theory X. They believe, 53 , that their employees need constant supervision if they are to work effectively, or that decisions must be imposed from 54 without consultation. This, of course, makes for authoritarian (专制的) managers.
Different cultures have different ways of 55 people. Unlike authoritarian management, some cultures, particularly in Asia, are well known for the consultative nature of decision-making—all members of the department or work group are asked to 56 to this process. This is management by the collective opinion. Many western companies have tried to imitate such Asian ways of doing things, which are based on general 57 . Some experts say that women will become more effective managers than men because they have the power to reach common goals in a way that traditional 58 managers cannot.
A recent trend has been to encourage