1. Have you ever considered how weak
humans are compared with a volcano,
hurricane or earthquake ?
consider 思考, 主要用于：
He is considering studying abroad.
consider + wh-:
We considered how we should help them.
consider + 副词：
Consider carefully before you decide.
2. Do you enjoy taking risks?
risk n. 风险，危险：
He was taking a risk by overtaking
on a bend.
The house is a fire risk.
at risk 在危险中:
You are at risk if you don’t wear
a seat belt.
at the risk of 冒……危险
At the risk of seeming rude, I must refused your request, I’m afraid.
3. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast.
[考点] Having collected and evaluated是动词-ing形式的完成式，说明它表示的动作在主要谓语表示的动作之前发生。
[考例1] An earthquake of 9 magnitude struck off the coast of Japan on Friday,______ thousands of people dead and more missing．(2011浙江省金华10校模拟)A．causedB．causing
C．having caused D．to cause
[考例2] _____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home.
A. To wait B. Have waited
C. Having waited D. To have waited
4.Many houses have been covered with
lava or burned to the ground.
burn to the ground 指楼等被烧毁
He has no place to live in because his
house has been burnt to the ground.
burn away 烧掉
The wood had burnt away to nothing.
burn down (建筑物) 烧毁：
The cinema burnt down last year.
The school was burnt down by vandals.
burn off 烧掉
He was badly injured in the accident,
and his hair was burnt off.
burn out 烧坏
The engine had burnt out.
burn up 烧毁，燃得更亮/旺
The rocket burnt up when it
reentered the earth’s atmosphere.
He put more wood in the fire to
make it burn up.
5. Having earlier collected special clothes
from the observatory, we put them on
before we went any closer.
[考例] The new group of students is
better-behaved than the other group who
stayed here _____. (北京2007)
early B. earlier
C. earliest D. the earliest
6. We slowly made our way to the
edge of the crater….
make one’s way
She hesitated, but made her way
She hastily left the room, and made her
way to her bed.
make one’s way 还表示“有出息”
If you want to make your way in the world, you must learn to work hard
while you are still young.
make way (for) 让路，让位
All the traffic has to make way for a fire engine.
I shall make way for a younger man.
7. Today , I am just as enthusiastic
about my job as the day I first started.
enthusiastic (about) 感兴趣的，热心的
She seemed enthusiastic about the idea.
We got an enthusiastic response from
I. 根据下列各句句意及所给单词的首字母或汉语提示, 写出各单词的正确形式。
1. You should be able to e______ your own work.
2. It was u_________ that Larry broke his leg on the first day of the holiday.
3. “You’re wrong,” she said with a______ certainty.
4. I am very surprised that she has so many f_______ dreams.
5. The parks of this city are famous for their beautiful ________ (喷泉).
6. The ________ (潜在的) side effects of the drug are unknown.
1. She is especially ______ (excite) at the news that her daughter got the first in the competition.
2. His long and ______ (bore) speech made everyone sleepy.
3. The rich variety of animal life we found was very __________ (impress).
4. ____________ (fortunate), three people died and a lot of people were injured in the accident.
5. We need to carry out a proper _________ (evaluate) of the new system.
6. He believes ________ (absolute) that a man with preparation will succeed sooner or later.
7. The _______ (erupt) of a volcano makes many people lose their lives.
8. Dad always falls ______ (sleep) in front of the TV after Sunday lunch.
1. ___ the distance, he could see the tall chimneys of the factory.
2. Use an umbrella to protect yourself _____ the rain.
3. The mountain was covered _______ snow all the year round.
with / by
4. Enough lava had erupted _____ the volcano to bury the whole village.
5. Buses were destroyed and a tourist hotel was burned __ the ground, although no holidaymakers were injured.
6. Mary quickly moved out __ the way, and Donald lifted a box down.
7. Students ____ all over the world come to study at Oxford.
8. It was my first sight __ old Green dancing with a girl of sixteen.
9. He had put __ his best clothes for this morning call.
10. All the staff are enthusiastic _____ the project.
1. He was about to leave the room while the telephone rang.
2. Help is in the way to the people who are struck by the flood.
3. He worked late into the night, prepared a long speech.
4. The girl told us the whole thing in an exciting voice.
5. As though he’s 24 now, he’s still like a little child.
burn to the ground; have a closer look at; make one’s way; fast asleep; feel alive; be about to; protect ... from ...; take notice of; be enthusiastic about; be amazed at
1. I _________________ the coat and decided it wasn’t worth ￡50.
had a closer look at
2. After the fire, his house _______________________.
3. On Friday, guys __________________ talking about where they are going for the weekend.
4. It was the kind of morning when you wake up and ________.
5. Though it was dark, we ____________ to the village.
(was) burned to the ground
are enthusiastic about
made our way
6. As I leave the car, I see that the little boy is __________.
7. She ____________ how quickly Carla seemed to get over what had happened to her.
8. The laws are designed to ______ consumers ____ unsafe products.
was amazed at
9. We ____________ leave when Jerry arrived.
10. I hope you’ll ____________ what I’m going to tell you.
were about to
take notice of
VI. 每空填一词, 使该句与所给句子的意思相同。
1. The doctors are very excited by the discovery.
The discovery _______________ very much.
excites the doctors
2. As time goes on, the students in Grade 3 will win the match.
With ____________, the students in Grade 3 will win the match.
3. I could have been here an hour ago, but unluckily I missed the train.
I could have been here an hour ago, but ____________ I missed the train.
time going on
4. I was coming along to see you, but at that time I ran into Jack.
I was coming along to see you _____ I ran into Jack.
5. His collection of paintings has a strong impression on us.
His collection of paintings __________ very much.
6. Many villages were completely ruined after the big fire.
Many villages were ________
__________ after the big fire.
1. 我正要出去, 天就开始下雨。(be about to do)
I was about to go out when it began to rain.
2. 我爬到山顶, 这样能很清楚地看到远处的村庄。(in the distance)
3. 我们很吃惊地看到她有了小孩后的变化。(be amazed at)
I climbed up the hill so as to see the village clearly in the distance.
We were amazed at her changing after she had a baby.
4. 他尽可能快地跑, 以免被熊攻击。 (as ... as possible)
5. 学了一会儿，他向他的床走去。 (make one’s way to)
He ran as quickly as possible to avoid being attacked by the bear.
After studying for a while, he made his way to his bed.
1. Finish exercise 1 &2 on P71.
2. Underline sentences in the reading passage that use the –ing form.