The world of our sense
连接词：that, whether, if
连接代词：what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which.
连接副词：when, where, how, why
1. It 作形式主语
It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film.
It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not.
Ⅰ Subject clause
一.由 that 引导的主从:
1. That we shall be late is certain.
2. _____________________ is known to all.
3. ________________________ is a pity.
★ that 不作成分，无意义, 但不能省略.
That the earth is round
That you missed the chance
That 引导的主从，常用形式主语it 代替，that 从句后移。
That we need time is obvious.
It is obvious that we need time.
2. What 引导的主从，what作主语，宾语或表语，表。。。的东西
What we need is time.
What he said it is true.
What we need time.
What he gave me are two books.
what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分，如主语．宾语．表语，而that 则不然。例如：
1) ______you said yesterday is right.
2) ______she is still alive is a good thing.
It is right what you said yesterday.
It is a good thing that she is still alive.
2. what 与that 在引导主语从句时的区别
e.g. Whether he’ll be able to come is not yet known.
Whether we will succeed is still a question.
Whether we shall attend the meeting hasn’t been decided yet.
what; which; who; whom; when; where; why; how
What he said at the meeting surprised us.
Who will win the game is not clear.
Where he will go is unknown.
Why they have not left yet puzzled me.
How we can get there is a problem.
1.______ makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services.
A.What B. Who C. Whatever D. Whoever
2.______I can pay back the help that people give me makes me very happy.
A.Where B.What C.That D.How
3.It’s not clear ________ was responsible for the accident.
A.Who B.What C.How D.That
宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句，通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动词) 或介词之后。
(1) 由that引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略), 例如：
I heard that he joined the army.
(2) 由what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句，例如：
She did not know what had happened.
I wonder whether you can change this note for me.
She told me that she would accept my invitation.
Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate(合作）with one another.
I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake.
I am sure (that) he will win the game.
4. it 可以作为形式宾语
it 不仅可以作为形式主语，还可以作为形式宾语而真正的宾语that 从句则放在句尾，特别是在带复合宾语的句子中。 例如：
We thought it good news that the fog had finally gone.
Ⅱ Object clause
She sensed she was being watching.
We believe he is honest.
I told him I would come back soon.
that he liked rain very much
that he would not use an umbrella.
2. if/whether 引导的宾从
e.g. I wonder if/whether he will come on time.
★ if 和whether 的选用
2)Whether …or not搭配,不能用if;
whether 与 if 均为 “是否” 的意思。但在下列情况下，whether 不能被 if 所取代：
Whether he will come is unknown.
The question is whether you should accept it.
The question whether he’ll attend the meeting is not decided.
I’m not interested in whether they’ll go or not.
It depends on whether we have got enough money.
5. 直接跟不定式连用，连词不能用if 如：
She hasn’t decided whether to go or not.
6.Whether …or not搭配,不能用if
用if 或whether 填空
1. I don’t know __________ I’ll be free tomorrow.
2. I don’t know _______ or not I’ll be free tomorrow.
3. The question is ______ this book is worth writing. 4. It depends on ______ we will have enough money.
5. ______ they can do it matters little to us.
6._______ you are not free tomorrow , I’ll go without you.
I don’t know what I should do.
I don’t know where he lives.
I don’t know where he’ll visit.
1. I don’t know _________ broke the glass yesterday.
2. We should pay attention to ______ the teacher is saying.
3. The teacher asked ______ I was getting on with my classmates.
A.what B. that C. how D. if
4. We thought ______ strange that she didn’t come yesterday.
A. that B. it C. this D. what
I doubt whether he will come tomorrow.
I don’t doubt that he will come tomorrow.
Do you doubt that…?
Suggest, insist, require, order,request, demand, propose, advice +that 主+should+V原形，should可省略。
He suggested that a meeting should be held at once.
He insisted that he not be sent to work in Tibet.
Ⅱ Object clause
We believe he is honest.
He said that he liked rain very much and
that he would not use an umbrella.
1.The photographs will show you _________.
A. what does our village look like
B. what our village looks like
C. how does our village look like
D. how our village looks like
2.You can hardly imagine ______when he heard the news.
A. how he was excited B. how was he excited
C. how excited he was D. he was how excited
3.He asked_______for a violin.（MET92）
A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much
C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid
1）. 如果主句时态是现在时或将来时,从句谓语可根据句意需要而选用任一种时态. a .他相信他的梦想总有一天会实现的. He believes ____________________________________ . b .请告诉我你昨天这个时候在干什么. Please tell me ____________________________________________.
his dream will come true some day
what you were doing at this time yesterday
2）. He told me.
‘I am preparing for the exam.’
He told me.
‘I have left my hometown for many years.
3）.老师告诉我们地球是圆的。 The teacher told us _________________.
He told me he was preparing for the exam.
He told me he had left his hometown for many years.
the earth is round
1.It now appears ______ they are in need of help.
A. that B. which C. what D. how
3.It ______ he is late for class.
A. may that B. might that
C. may be that D. might be what
4.______ knows the truth will tell you about it.
A. Who that B. Whoever C. Whom that D. That who
5.You must do well ______ the teacher asks you to do.
A. which B. what C. that D. where
6. ____ his dream of going to college will come true is uncertain.
A. That B. Whether C. If D. Even if
表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句，放在系动词之后，一般结构是“主语＋连系动词＋表语从句”。可以接表语从句的连系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。另外，常用的还有the reason is that… 和It is because 等结构。例如：
1) The question is _________ we can make good preparation in such a short time.
2) This is ____ we can’t get the support of the people.
3) But the fact remains ___ we are behind the other classes.
4) The reason ______ he is late for school is ____ he missed the early bus.
Ⅲ predictive clause
as if /as though
The trouble is that I have lost my key.
The question is whether we can do it.
That’s because we were in need of money at that time .
He looked as if he was going to cry .
That’s why I was late .
如果句子的主语是suggestion,advice.order,demand, require, proposal, 等名词时,后面引导的表语从句用should+动词原形,should可省略.
1.The reason _______ we didn't trust him is ______ he has often lied．
His suggestion is that we (should) finish the work at once.
1.This is ______ she was born.
A. where B. which C. that D. what
2.The question is ______ we can’t go there today.
A. that B. what C. which D. when
3.The reason he has made such great progress is _______ he has never wasted his time.
A. because B. why C. that D. what
4.My advice is that he ______ school by bike.
A. go to B. would go to C. goes to D. went to
5.___ she couldn’t understand was ___fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons.
A.What; why B. That; what
C. What; because D. Why; that
修饰名词fact, idea, news, order，suggestion,等的同位语从句由that 引导，不用which, that 不可省。
Ⅳ oppositon clause
1. That 引导的同位语从句：
1)The news that I have passed the exam is true.
2. Whether 引导的同位语从句：
1)The problem whether we should continue to do the experiment has been solved.
1）We haven’t settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation.
1.The suggestion that he _____ at the meeting was agreed to by most people.
A.should put forward B. put forward
C.should look forward D.looked forward
2.The suggestion that we _____ to picnic on
Sunday was agreed to by most people.
A went B.would go C.go D.were allowed to go
名词demand, suggestion, proposal, advice 等词后的同位语从句的
语气要用虚拟语气,结构为 should + do, should 可省略
1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.（他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。）（第一个that引导的从句是定语从句，that在从句中作宾语）
2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.（汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。）（同位语从句，that在句中不作任何成分）
The news that our team had won came.
The news that/which he heard was true.
that（连词）只起连接的作用,不充当句子成分 that(关系代词) 充当一定的句子成分(主，宾，表）
同位语从句的that 一般不能省 而定语从句中的关系代词that，当其在从句中做宾语时，常常可以省略
1.The suggestion that he raised at the meeting is very good.
2.The suggestion that the students should have plenty of exercise is very good.
（that引导定语从句, 作宾语, 可以省略）
1.We heard the news that our team had won.
2.We must face the fact that we had spent all our money.
3. The news that he told me yesterday was false.
4. I have no doubt that he will come soon.
1.It is important that ______ our education in all available ways.
A. we must develop B. we shall develop
C. we would develop D. we should develop
2.It is necessary that ______ by the end of the week.
A. we got everything ready B. we have got everything ready
C. We get everything ready D. we must get everything ready
3.It was natural that _______.
A. my pictures would surprise them
B. my pictures surprised them
C. my pictures should surprise them
D. my pictures would have surprised them
4.I wonder _______.
A. whether or not I’ll catch the last bus
B. if or not I’ll catch the last bus
C. that I’ll catch the last bus or not
D. that I’ll catch the last bus
5.We all thought ______ a pity that we had missed the lesson.
A. so B. such C. it D. that
6.I took ______ for granted （想当然）that they were not coming.
A. that B. this C. it D. so
7.I heard ______ said that he had great concern（关心） for his classmates.
A. and B. that C. was D. it
8.I wish I ______ to the football match last night.
A. went B. go C. should go D. had gone
The earth is round, _________ is known to everybody.
2. ____ is known to everybody, the earth is round.
3. ______ the earth is round is known to everybody.
4. ____ is known to everybody that the earth is round.
5. Everybody knows _____ the earth is round.
6. _____ surprised us very much that our teacher left
without a word.
7. ______ surprised us very much was that our teacher
left without a word.
1.what / that
a.____ he said at the meeting surprised us.
b._____ he spoke（发言） at the meeting surprised us.
2. if / whether
_______you go or stay at home won’t make any differences.
3. What a pity _____is _____you didn’t arrive by daylight.
A. there, because B. it, that
C. he, when D. that, for
4.no matter how/who/what/where/when
We are ready to do ______ the country wants us to do.
A. what B. which C. no matter what
1.What he wants is a book.
2.It is so nice that we can learn this grammar point together.
3.I’m so glad that I can make friends with you.
4.This is why he did it.
5.Do you agree to the suggestion that we (should) have a trip in
6.That he wants a book is certain.
7.I suggested just now we (should) take part in this activity.
8.Whether you like him or not doesn’t matter too much.
9.He doesn’t know whether you can sing it well.
10.The problem is whether you can sing it well.
11.The problem whether it is right or wrong has not been decided.
12.Please tell me who your monitor is.