[ID:4-6450762] 译林牛津版高中英语必修三Unit 1 The world of our sense语法-名词性从句课 ...
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(共47张PPT) 名词性从句 Unit 1 The world of our sense Grammar Noun clause 名词性从句 名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:   连接词:that, whether, if 连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. 连接副词:when, where, how, why 一.主语从句 主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语it代替,而本身放在句子末尾。 1. It 作形式主语 It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。例如: It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film. It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not. Ⅰ Subject clause 引导主语从句的连词主要有: 一.由 that 引导的主从: 1. That we shall be late is certain. 2. _____________________ is known to all. (地球是圆的) 3. ________________________ is a pity. (你错过了这次机会) ★ that 不作成分,无意义, 但不能省略. 后接一个完整的陈述句. That the earth is round That you missed the chance that whether 疑问词 注:that 引导的主语从句作主语,谓语用单数。 That 引导的主从,常用形式主语it 代替,that 从句后移。 That we need time is obvious. It is obvious that we need time. 2. What 引导的主从,what作主语,宾语或表语,表。。。的东西 What we need is time. What he said it is true. What 引导的主从,谓语动词视后面的名词而定。 What we need time. What he gave me are two books. is what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语.宾语.表语,而that 则不然。例如: 1) ______you said yesterday is right. 2) ______she is still alive is a good thing. It is right what you said yesterday. It is a good thing that she is still alive. What That 2. what 与that 在引导主语从句时的区别 3. 由whether引导的主从: e.g. Whether he’ll be able to come is not yet known. Whether we will succeed is still a question. ★主语从句不能用if来引导; Ex:1.是否我们要参加这次会议仍未被决定。 Whether we shall attend the meeting hasn’t been decided yet. 陈述语序 4. 疑问词引导的主语从句 what; which; who; whom; when; where; why; how 原则:缺什么补什么 What he said at the meeting surprised us. Who will win the game is not clear. Where he will go is unknown. Why they have not left yet puzzled me. How we can get there is a problem. 1.______ makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services. A.What B. Who C. Whatever D. Whoever 2.______I can pay back the help that people give me makes me very happy. A.Where B.What C.That D.How 3.It’s not clear ________ was responsible for the accident. A.Who B.What C.How D.That A Ex. C A 二.宾语从句 宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动词) 或介词之后。 1. 作动词的宾语 (1) 由that引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略), 例如: I heard that he joined the army. (2) 由what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句,例如: She did not know what had happened. I wonder whether you can change this note for me. (3) 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句。例如: She told me that she would accept my invitation. 2. 作介词的宾语,例如: Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate(合作)with one another. 3. 作形容词的宾语,例如: I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake. I am sure (that) he will win the game. 4. it 可以作为形式宾语 it 不仅可以作为形式主语,还可以作为形式宾语而真正的宾语that 从句则放在句尾,特别是在带复合宾语的句子中。 例如: We thought it good news that the fog had finally gone. Ⅱ Object clause ★引导宾语从句的连词主要有: 1.that引导的宾从 She sensed she was being watching. We believe he is honest. I told him I would come back soon. ★单个的宾语从句中连词that可以省略. that if/whether 疑问词 that that that *如果宾语从句是由and或是but连接的两个句子,那么要用2个连词分别引导两个句子,并且不能省略. . He said that he liked rain very much and that he would not use an umbrella. 2. if/whether 引导的宾从 如果宾语从句为一般疑问句时,用if或whether来引导 e.g. I wonder if/whether he will come on time. ★ if 和whether 的选用 1)从句是一般疑问句作动词的宾语,二者都可用; 2)Whether …or not搭配,不能用if; whether 与 if 均为 “是否” 的意思。但在下列情况下,whether 不能被 if 所取代: 主语从句不能用if Whether he will come is unknown. 2. 表语从句不能用if,如: The question is whether you should accept it. 3. 同位语从句不能用if,如: The question whether he’ll attend the meeting is not decided. 4. 从句作介词的宾语不能用if,如: I’m not interested in whether they’ll go or not. It depends on whether we have got enough money. 5. 直接跟不定式连用,连词不能用if 如: She hasn’t decided whether to go or not. 6.Whether …or not搭配,不能用if 用if 或whether 填空 1. I don’t know __________ I’ll be free tomorrow. 2. I don’t know _______ or not I’ll be free tomorrow. 3. The question is ______ this book is worth writing. 4. It depends on ______ we will have enough money. 5. ______ they can do it matters little to us. 6._______ you are not free tomorrow , I’ll go without you. whether/if whether whether whether Whether If 3. 疑问词引导的宾语从句 I don’t know what I should do. I don’t know where he lives. I don’t know where he’ll visit. 3. 疑问词引导的宾从练习 1. I don’t know _________ broke the glass yesterday. 2. We should pay attention to ______ the teacher is saying. 3. The teacher asked ______ I was getting on with my classmates. A.what B. that C. how D. if 4. We thought ______ strange that she didn’t come yesterday. A. that B. it C. this D. what who what C B doubt 用于肯定句,其宾从用if/whether I doubt whether he will come tomorrow. Doubt 用于否定句,疑问句,用that I don’t doubt that he will come tomorrow. Do you doubt that…? 5. 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的应用: Suggest, insist, require, order,request, demand, propose, advice +that 主+should+V原形,should可省略。 He suggested that a meeting should be held at once. He insisted that he not be sent to work in Tibet. Ⅱ Object clause ★宾语从句的注意点: 1.单个的宾语从句中连词that可以省略. We believe he is honest. 如果宾语从句是由and或是but连接的两个句子,那么要用2个连词分别引导两个句子,并且不能省略. He said that he liked rain very much and that he would not use an umbrella. that 3.宾语从句的语序问题,用正常语序 1.The photographs will show you _________.              A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like 2.You can hardly imagine ______when he heard the news. A. how he was excited B. how was he excited C. how excited he was D. he was how excited 3.He asked_______for a violin.(MET92) A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid B C D 4.宾语从句的时态呼应 1). 如果主句时态是现在时或将来时,从句谓语可根据句意需要而选用任一种时态. a .他相信他的梦想总有一天会实现的. He believes ____________________________________ . b .请告诉我你昨天这个时候在干什么. Please tell me ____________________________________________. his dream will come true some day what you were doing at this time yesterday 2). He told me. ‘I am preparing for the exam.’ He told me. ‘I have left my hometown for many years. 3).老师告诉我们地球是圆的。 The teacher told us _________________. He told me he was preparing for the exam. He told me he had left his hometown for many years. the earth is round 主语从句与宾语从句练习 1.It now appears ______ they are in need of help. A. that B. which C. what D. how 3.It ______ he is late for class. A. may that B. might that C. may be that D. might be what 4.______ knows the truth will tell you about it. A. Who that B. Whoever C. Whom that D. That who 5.You must do well ______ the teacher asks you to do. A. which B. what C. that D. where 6. ____ his dream of going to college will come true is uncertain. A. That B. Whether C. If D. Even if 三.表语从句 表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语+连系动词+表语从句”。可以接表语从句的连系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。另外,常用的还有the reason is that… 和It is because 等结构。例如: 1) The question is _________ we can make good preparation in such a short time. 2) This is ____ we can’t get the support of the people. 3) But the fact remains ___ we are behind the other classes. 4) The reason ______ he is late for school is ____ he missed the early bus. whether/how why that why that Ⅲ predictive clause 引导表语从句的连词: that whether 疑问词 as if /as though because e.g. The trouble is that I have lost my key. The question is whether we can do it. That’s because we were in need of money at that time . He looked as if he was going to cry . That’s why I was late . 虚拟语气在表语从句中的应用: 如果句子的主语是suggestion,advice.order,demand, require, proposal, 等名词时,后面引导的表语从句用should+动词原形,should可省略. e.g. 他的建议是我们应该马上完成工作. 1.The reason _______ we didn't trust him is ______ he has often lied. ★如果主语为reason, why that 表语从句连词只能用that His suggestion is that we (should) finish the work at once. ★此规则同样适用于同位语从句 表语从句练习 1.This is ______ she was born. A. where B. which C. that D. what 2.The question is ______ we can’t go there today. A. that B. what C. which D. when 3.The reason he has made such great progress is _______ he has never wasted his time. A. because B. why C. that D. what 4.My advice is that he ______ school by bike. A. go to B. would go to C. goes to D. went to 5.___ she couldn’t understand was ___fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. A.What; why B. That; what C. What; because D. Why; that 四.同位语从句 1. 同位语从句的功能 同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容, 修饰名词fact, idea, news, order,suggestion,等的同位语从句由that 引导,不用which, that 不可省。 同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。 Ⅳ oppositon clause 引导同位语从句的连接词: that 疑问词 whether 1. That 引导的同位语从句: 1)The news that I have passed the exam is true. 2. Whether 引导的同位语从句: 1)The problem whether we should continue to do the experiment has been solved. 3. 疑问词引导的同位语从句 1)We haven’t settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation. 1.The suggestion that he _____ at the meeting was agreed to by most people. A.should put forward B. put forward C.should look forward D.looked forward 2.The suggestion that we _____ to picnic on Sunday was agreed to by most people. A went B.would go C.go D.were allowed to go B C 4.虚拟语气在同位语从句中的应用: 名词demand, suggestion, proposal, advice 等词后的同位语从句的 语气要用虚拟语气,结构为 should + do, should 可省略 5. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别 (1) 定语从句中的that既代替先行词,同时在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语),而同位语从句中的that是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。 (2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述它的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行具体内容的补充说明。例如: 1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。)(第一个that引导的从句是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语) 2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。)(同位语从句,that在句中不作任何成分) 同位语:修饰名词的内容 定语从句:对前面的名词进行修饰,限定。 The news that our team had won came. 同位语从句 The news that/which he heard was true. 定语从句 that在同位语从句 与定语从句的区别 同位语从句 定语从句 that(连词)只起连接的作用,不充当句子成分 that(关系代词) 充当一定的句子成分(主,宾,表) 同位语从句与前面的名词是同位关系,表示这个名词的内容 定语从句对先行词起修饰作用,表示“…的”。 同位语从句的that 一般不能省 而定语从句中的关系代词that,当其在从句中做宾语时,常常可以省略 (I)试比较下面两个例句: 1.The suggestion that he raised at the meeting is very good. 2.The suggestion that the students should have plenty of exercise is very good. (that引导定语从句, 作宾语, 可以省略) (that引导同位语从句,在从句中不担当任何成分,但不可以省略) 辨别下列从句是定语从句还是同位语从句 1.We heard the news that our team had won. 2.We must face the fact that we had spent all our money. 3. The news that he told me yesterday was false. 4. I have no doubt that he will come soon. 同位语从句 同位语从句 定语从句 同位语从句 1.It is important that ______ our education in all available ways. A. we must develop B. we shall develop C. we would develop D. we should develop 2.It is necessary that ______ by the end of the week. A. we got everything ready B. we have got everything ready C. We get everything ready D. we must get everything ready 3.It was natural that _______. A. my pictures would surprise them B. my pictures surprised them C. my pictures should surprise them D. my pictures would have surprised them 4.I wonder _______. A. whether or not I’ll catch the last bus B. if or not I’ll catch the last bus C. that I’ll catch the last bus or not D. that I’ll catch the last bus 5.We all thought ______ a pity that we had missed the lesson. A. so B. such C. it D. that 6.I took ______ for granted (想当然)that they were not coming. A. that B. this C. it D. so 7.I heard ______ said that he had great concern(关心) for his classmates. A. and B. that C. was D. it 8.I wish I ______ to the football match last night. A. went B. go C. should go D. had gone 综合运用: The earth is round, _________ is known to everybody. as/which 2. ____ is known to everybody, the earth is round. As 3. ______ the earth is round is known to everybody. That 4. ____ is known to everybody that the earth is round. It 5. Everybody knows _____ the earth is round. that 6. _____ surprised us very much that our teacher left without a word. It 7. ______ surprised us very much was that our teacher left without a word. What 1.what / that a.____ he said at the meeting surprised us. b._____ he spoke(发言) at the meeting surprised us. 2. if / whether _______you go or stay at home won’t make any differences. 3. What a pity _____is _____you didn’t arrive by daylight. A. there, because B. it, that C. he, when D. that, for 4.no matter how/who/what/where/when We are ready to do ______ the country wants us to do. A. what B. which C. no matter what D. whatever What That Whether B D 翻译以下句子,并指出带下划线的从句属于名词性从句中的哪一种。 1.What he wants is a book. 2.It is so nice that we can learn this grammar point together. 3.I’m so glad that I can make friends with you. 4.This is why he did it. 5.Do you agree to the suggestion that we (should) have a trip in Tibet? 6.That he wants a book is certain. 7.I suggested just now we (should) take part in this activity. 8.Whether you like him or not doesn’t matter too much. 9.He doesn’t know whether you can sing it well. 10.The problem is whether you can sing it well. 11.The problem whether it is right or wrong has not been decided. 12.Please tell me who your monitor is. 主语从句 主语从句 主语从句 主语从句 宾语从句 宾语从句 宾语从句 宾语从句 表语从句 表语从句 同位语从句 同位语从句 1。that只起连接主句和从句的作用,在从句中不担任任何成分, 本身也没有词义,宾语从句中可省略 2。不充当介宾 3。 引导主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句,that不可省略。
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