[ID:4-5371610] 虚拟语气 专项讲解练习
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虚拟语气? 虚拟语气一直都被认为是英语学习中的一个难点,因此也便成为了各类考试的热点。现就虚拟语气的一些问题归纳如下,以帮助解决拟语气这个语法难点。   一、 动词wish后宾语从句中的虚拟语气   1. 用wish表示现在的祝愿和报歉。?   其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语be和were(was),实义动词用过去式。例:I wish the were at home this time.?   2. 用wish表示对过去事情的遗憾。?   其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语用过去完成时或could+现在完成时。例:I wish I hadn' t hurt him so much。?   3. 用wish表示对将来事情的愿望。?   其句子结构为宾语从句的谓语为would/could/might+动词原形。例:I wish I might be able to come tomorrow 。   二、 用在一般虚拟条件句中的虚拟语气   (一) 表示与现在、过去、将来事实相反的假设?   1. 与现在事实相反的假设。?   其句子结构为:?   从句:if+主语+动词的过去式(be变were)+其他?   主句:主语+would(should, could, might)+动词原形+其他?   例:If I were you, I would go with him.?   2. 与过去事实相反的假设。?   其句子结构为:?   从句:If+主语+过去完成时+其他?   主句:主语+should(would, could, might)+现在完成时+其他。例:If you had studied harder last term, you could have passed exam.?   3.表示对将来事实实现的可能性不大的假设。?   其句子结构为:?   从句:If+主语+should (were to )+动词原形+其他?   主句:主语+would (could, should, might)+动词原形?   例:If he were to go tomorrow. He might tell you.   (二) 从句和主句要根据各自发所生的时间选用符合具体时间的虚拟语气形式?   1. 从句表示过去,主句表示现在。?   If they had stared the early morning yesterday, they would be here now.?   2. 从句表示将来,主句表示过去。?   If I were not to make a preparation for my experiment this afternoon, I would have gone to see the film with you last night。?   3. 从句表示过去,主句表示将来。?   If we hadn' t made adequate preparations, we shouldn' t dare to do the experiment next week。?   4.从句表示将来,主句表示现在。?   If we shouldn' t have an exam this afternoon. I would go shopping now.   三、 可以引起与事实相反的方式状语从句,用虚拟语气   由as if、as though引起的与事实相反的句子,不论主句的谓语是现在时或者说过去时,其谓语表示的时间概念和句子结构,都基本上与wish后的宾语从句相同。例:?   John pretends as if he didn' t know the thing at all, but in fact he knows it very well.?   (用过去式表示与现在事实相反的假设)?   The old man looked at the picture, he felt as though he had gone back to time 20 years ago.?   (用过去完成式表示与过去相反的事实)?   They talked and talked as if they would never meet again (would+动词原形,表示与将来事实相反)   四、在表示建议、命令、要求、忠告等动词的后面,其宾语从句的谓语用“should+动词原形”表示虚拟语气   常用的此类动词有:?   表示“要求”的:ask, desire, request, demand, require, beg?   表示“提议、劝告、建议”的:move, prpose, suggest, recommend, advise, vote?   表示“决定、命令”的:decide, order?   表示“主张”的:maintain, urge?   表示“同意、坚持”的:consent, insist?   例:The doctor suggested that he (should) try to lose his weight.?   He insisted that we (should ) tell him the news.?   上述动词的名词形式,demand, desire, requirment, advice, order, decision, recommendation, suggestion, 以及necessity, preference, plan, motion, idea等名词,其后的表语从句或同位语从句,也用“should+动词原形“表示虚拟语气。现代英语,特别是美国英语,常省去“should”,例:?   The advice is that we (should) leave at once.?   He idea that we (should)visit Great Wall was warmly welcomed.   五、在“It is (was)+形容词(或过去分词)+that……”结构中,主语从句的谓语也用“should+原形动词“表虚拟语气   美国英语中省去should, 常用的形容词和过去分词有:?   表示“要求”的:required, demanded, requested, desired, desirabl。?   表示“建议”的:suggested, recommended,?   表示“迫切、紧近、重要”的:imperative, urgent, necessary, essential, important, vital?   表示“适当、较好”的:appropriate, advisable, better, preferable?   表示“可能”的:probable, possible?   表示“命令”的:ordered?   例:It was necessary that we (should) make everything ready ahead of time.?   It is required that nobody (should)smoke here.   六、由下列名词或短语引导,或含有某些词的从句中应用的虚拟语气?   1.“Iest 以免、惟恐”引导的从句用“shuld+动词原形”。?   He took a map with him lest he (should ) lose his wag there.?   2.“whether不管、无论”引导的让步状语从句,有时用动词原形。?   All things, whether you know or don' t know, exist in the world.?   3.用“would rather/had rather' would just as soon"表示“宁愿、但愿”,后面的宾语从句谓语用过去式或动词原形表示对将来的要求,用过去时表示对现在的愿望,用过去完成时表示对过去做的事的懊悔。?   Don' t live in the world, I would rather( I would just as soon) you die.?   I would rather you go tomorrow.?   I would rather everything hadn' t happened in the past.?   4.用“had hoped”表示原来希望做到而实际上未能实现的事情,其宾语从句的谓语用“would+动词原形”。?   I had hoped that she would go to the U.S. and study there, but she said she liked to stay in China.?   5.在“It is(high/about)time+that”引导的定语从句中,定语从句的主谓语用一般过去时,偶尔也可以用would(或should)+动词原形,或had rather (would rather)+动词原形。?   It is hihg (about)time that we left/should leave/ had better leave/had rather leave/ were leaving.(注意与“This is the first/second…time”后从句中用现在完成时的区别。?   6.用“without/but for/in the absence of ”表示“要不是”,“如果没有”(相当于if it were not for…)表示条件时,句中一般用虚拟语气。(也可用陈述语气)?   Without your help, I couldn' t finish my work on time.?   In the absence of water and air, nothing could live.?   7.由“providing (that)/ provided (that)/on condition that/ in order that”引导的条件从句或目的从句,根据情况,可用虚拟语气。(有时也可用陈述语气)?   They are willing surrender provided they are given free passage.?   8.在if引导的虚拟条件句中,若有were, had, should, 在书面语中可省去if ,将were等提到主语前,形成倒装。?   Should there be a good film tomorrow. I would go to the theatre with you.?   Were it not for your help. I wouldn' t be succeed. 虚拟语气专项练习? 1. You didn’t let me drive. If we _____ in turn, you _____ so tired.? ? A. drove; didn’t get??????????????????????????????????? B. drove; wouldn’t get????????????????????????????? C. were driving; wouldn’t get????????????????????? D. had driven; wouldn’t have got 2. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it _____. ? A. breaks????????????????? B. has broken????????????????? C. were broken??? D. had been broken 3. _____ it rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge. ? A. Were?????????????????? B. Should????????????????? C. Would?????????????? D. Will 4. Jane’s face suggested that she _____ ill, and her parents suggested that she _____ a medical examination. ? A. be; should have????? B. was; have????????????? C. should be; had D. was; has 5. Without electricity human life _____ quite different today. ? A. is???????????????????????? B. will be???????????????? C. would have been?????? D. would be 6. I told Sally how to get there, but perhaps I _____ for her. ? A. had to write it out???????????????????????????????????????? B. must have written it out ? C. should have written it out????????????????????? D. ought to write it out 7. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she _____, she would have met my brother. ? A. has come???????????????????? B. did come???????????????????? C. came???????????????????? D. had come 8. --If he _____, he _____ that food. ? --Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. ? A. was warmed; would not take??????????????????????? B. had been warned; would not have taken ? C. would be warned; had not taken??????????????????? D. would have been warned; had not taken 9. The two strangers talked as if they _____ friends for years. ? A. should be????????????? B. would be???????????????????? C. have been????????????? D. had been 10. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night _____, too cold for us to live. ? A. would be freezing cold???????????????????????????? B. will be freezing coldly ? C. would be frozen cold???????????????????????????????? D. can freeze coldly 11. --Have you ever been to Beijing?? ?? --No, but I wish I _____. ? A. have??????????????????? B. will??????????????????????????? C. do??????????????????? D. had 12. If only he _____ quietly as the doctor instructed, he would not suffer so much now. ? A. lies?????????????????????? B. lay??????????????????????????? C. had lain????????????? D. should lie 13. If I _____ you, I would ask him to stay. ? A. was????????????????????? B. would be?????????????? C. were???????????????? D. am 14. If it hadn’t rained last Sunday, we _____ picnicking.? ? A. could go?????????????? B. could have gone????????????? C. went??????????????????? D. would go 15. Everybody would be very happy if the hot summer _____ tomorrow. ? A. should finish??????????????????????????????????????????????? B. would finish?????????? C. were to be finished????????????????????????????????????? D. finishes 16. If only I _____ your advice! ? A. had taken?????????????? B. took??????????????????????????? C. would take??????? D. have taken 17. If it _____ yesterday, we could play football on the sports ground now. ? A. didn’t snow???????????? B. hasn’t snowed????????????? C. hadn’t snowed??????? D. weren’t snowing.? 18. If he came here at this moment, I _____ him. ? A. would criticize?? B. will criticize????????? C. shall criticize? D. were to criticize 19. I wish I _____ the meeting last week. ? A. could attend??????????? B. attended??????????????? C. have attended D. could have attended 20. He’s always talking like that, as if the whole world _____to him alone. ? A. had belonged??????? B. belonged??????????????? C. were belonging D. were belonged 21. The TV play for tonight won’t be interesting. Even if it _____, I might not have time for it. ? A. would be???????????????????? B. be??????????????????????? C. had been?????????????? D. were 22. Without your help, I _____ in my English study. ? A. would not have succeeded???????????????????????????? B. hadn’t succeeded ? C. will not succeed????????????????????????????????????? D. won’t have succeeded 23. The workers in France demanded that the their pay _____ from the following week on. ? A. would be raised????? B. was raised??????????????????? C. be raised????????????? D. raised? 24. My suggestion is that we _____ the sports met. ? A. would put off????????? B. should put off??????? C. putted off????????? D. be put off 25. The monitor made a proposal that the whole class _____the matter. ? A. discussed????????????? B. would discuss??????? C. be discussed?????? D. discuss 26. It is necessary that our drinking water _____ cleaner. ? A. should be made????? B. is made???????????????????? C. would be made?????? D. was made 27. It is high time that our child _____ to do some housework. ? A. learned???????????????? B. learn??????????????????????????? C. will learn???????????? D. would learn 28. They stopped at Hangzhou so that they _____ the West Lake. ? A. will visit??????????????? B. can visit????????????????????? C. may visit????????????? D. might visit 29. _____ it _____ for your help, I couldn’t have make any progress. ? A. Were; not????????????? B. Had; not been???????? C. Should; not been?????? D. Did; be 30. You are late again. You _____ here earlier. ? A. should come??????????????????????????????????????????????? B. will come???????????????????? C. should have come???????????????????????????????????????? D. will have come 31. Don’t come this afternoon. I’d rather you _____ tomorrow. ? A. come?????????????????? B. to come??????????????????? C. came?????????????? D. will come 32. He took his raincoat with him lest it _____. ? A. rained?????????????????? B. should rain??????????? C. would rain?????????????? D. will rain 33. John was very busy last week, otherwise, he _____ to attend the meeting. ? A. would have come????? B. would come????????? C. should come????? D. came 34. _____ I to tell her about it, she would be very glad. ? A. Should???????????????? B. Would????????????????????????? C. Were??????????????????? D. Might 35. Without sunlight or water or air, there _____ no life on the earth. ? A. will have?????????????? B. would be?????????????? C. should be?????????? D. must be 36. It was ordered that no smoking _____ in the library. ? A. is allowed????????????? B. be allowed???????????????? C. should allow?????? D. will be allowed 37. _____ I known he was in trouble, I might have managed to help him. ? A. If??????????????????????? B. When?????????????????? C. Unless?????????????? D. Had 38. You _____ there by taxi yesterday, it is not far from here. ? A. couldn’t have gone????????????????????????????????????????? B. should have gone ? C. needn’t have gone???????????????????????????????????????? D. mustn’t have gone 39. I would have gone there with you but I _____ too tired then. ? A. were??????????????????? B. had been????????????? C. was????????????????????? D. have been 40. --Did you go to see the football match yesterday? ?? --No, I didn’t feel well, but I would have gone if I _____. ? A. did????????????????????? B. have??????????????????????????? C. would?????????? D. had 41. _____the friendship between us last forever! ? A. Could????????????????? B. Will??????????????????????????? C. May???????????????? D. Wish 42. --Where have you been? ?? --I got caught in traffic; _____ I could have been here soon. ? A. otherwise?????????????? B. however??????????????? C. though?????????????? D. anyway 43. If my lawyer _____ here last Saturday, he _____ me from going. ? A. had been; would have prevented???????????????????? B. had been; would prevent ? C. were; would prevent???????????????????????????? D. were; would have prevented 44. If it _____ for the snow, we _____ the mountain yesterday. ? A. were not; could have climbed???????????????? B. were not; could climb ? C. had not been; could have climbed???????????????? D. had not been; could climb 45. We _____ last night, but we went to the concert instead. ? A. must have studied??????????????????????????? B. might study???????????????????? C. should have studied?????????????????????????????? D. would study 46. --There were already five people in the car but they managed to take me as well. ?? --It _____ a comfortable journey. ? A. can’t be????????????????????????????????????????? B. shouldn’t be?????????? C. mustn’t have been????????????????????????????????????????? D. couldn’t have been 47. I was really anxious about you. You _____ home without a word. ? A. mustn’t leave?????????????????????????????????????? B. shouldn’t have left??? C. couldn’t have left?????????????????????????????????? D. needn’t leave 48. _____ your letter, I would have started off two days ago. ? A. If I received??? B. Should I receive? C. If I could have received? D. Had I received 49. It is strange that she _____ so. ? A. think????????? B. thinks?????? C. will think????????????? D. thought 50. He suggested that the meeting _____ put off. ? A. not be???????? B. should not??????????? C. wouldn’t?????????????? D. be not 51. She would rather ____ more money on books _____ on clothes. ? A. cost; not??????? B. to spare; don’t??? C. pay; than???????? D. spend; than 52. What would have happened if you _____ her child? ? A. hadn’t helped??? B. couldn’t help????????? C. wouldn’t help D. didn’t help 53. If I _____ with her last summer, I _____ with her now. ? A. worked; am getting on very well?????????????? B. had worked; would get on very well ? C. had worked; would have got on very well?? D. had worked; will get on very well 54. The old professor gave orders that the experiment _____ before 6. ? A. was finished?????? B. will finis?? C. be finished??? D. shall be finished 55. The thief closed his eyes _____ he _____ dying. ? A. even if; was????? B. though; would be??? C. when; had been D. as if; were 56. I wish _____ my uncle yesterday. ? A. had met?????? B. would met??????? C. met???????????????????? D. have met 57. Without his help, we _____ such rapid progress.? ? A. don’t make????? B. wouldn’t make??????? C. didn’t make????? D. wouldn’t have made 58. _____ so busy, she would come to help you. ? A. Should my daughter????????????????????????????? B. Was my daughter not ? C. If my daughter were not?????????????????????? D. If my daughter isn’t? 59. If you _____ any problem, please don’t hesitate to ask your teacher. ? A. have????????? B. would have??? C. are going to have???????? D. will have 60. What do you think of the suggestion that she _____ at the meeting last week? ? A. should make???????????? B. make???????????? C. made???????????????????? D. A or B 61. If only I _____ to my parents’ advice? ? A. listening?????????????? B. listen??????????? C. am listening?? D. had listened 62. But for the snow, we _____ earlier. ? A. will arrive????????????? B. should have arrived??? C. arrive?????????? D. arrived 63. Here’s an umbrella in case you _____ it. ? A. should use????????????? B. needed????????????? C. needing????????? D. to need 64. It is natural that he _____ his mind. ? A. changes??????????????? B. changing?????????? C. change???????????? D. to change 65. It is a pity Mr. Zhang isn’t here. If he _____, my parents would be happier. ? A. comes???????????? B. has come?????????????? C. came??????????????? D. had come 66. _____ you succeed and _____ you be healthy. ? A. May; may???????? B. Wish; wish???????? C. Hope; hope??????????? D. Should; may 67. It’s high time he _____ home. ? A. goes????????????? B. went?????????? C. will go????????? D. is going to go 68. I hoped _____ my letter. ? A. her to answer????????????????????????????????????? B. that she would answer C. that she will answer??????????????????????????????? D. her answering 69. I was very busy yesterday, otherwise I _____ to the meeting. ? A. came????????????? B. would come?????? C. had come????????? D. would have come 70. If she knew as much about music as you do, my daughter _____ much better. ? A. play???????????????? B. must play??????????? C. will play??????? D. would play 71. “Jane wants to see you tomorrow.” ?? “I would rather she _____ today than tomorrow.” ? A. comes????????????? B. should come?????? C. come??????????????? D. came 72. The secretary listened carefully _____ he might discover exactly what she wanted. ? A. so as that?????????????? B. in case???????? C. in order that??????? D. providing 73. Supposing the weather _____ bad, where would they go? ? A. will be???????????????? B. is???????????????? C. were???????????????? D. be 74. Without the leadership of the Party, there _____ no New China. ? A. would be?????????????? B. has been?????????? C. was??????????? D. should be 75. The work would require that _____ at 5 every morning. ? A. she has been there B. she was there???? C. she be there?????? D. she will be there? 76. The little hero’s pale face suggested he _____ dead. ? A. is??????????????????????? B. was???????????????????? C. should be????????? D. be? 77. Galileo insisted that the earth _____ round the sun. ? A. should move???????????? B. move??????????????????????? C. moves?????????? D. A or B 78. The rice _____ if you had been more careful. ? A. wouldn’t be burning????????????????????????????????? B. would not burn ? C. wouldn’t have been burnt???????????????????????????? D. would not burnt 79. _____ I known it, I should have told him. ? A. Have??????????????????? B. Had?????????????????? C. Having????????????? D. If 80. If Alice _____ this afternoon, the meeting should be put off. ? A. would not come????? B. might not come?????????? C. should not come D. could not come 81. If you had gone to a doctor, you _____ all right now. ? A. are??????????? B. were??????????????????? C. would have been?????? D. would be 82. It is necessary that we _____ a foreign language. ? A. must master?????? B. ought to master???????? C. mastered????????? D. should master 83. My idea is that we _____ to our plan. ? A. must stick???????? B. ought to stick???? C. should stick?????????? D. will stick 84. He _____ into trouble if he had taken our advice. ? A. would have not got?????????????????????????????????? B. Had not got????????????????? C. wouldn’t have got???????????????????????????????????? D. didn’t get 85. I didn’t see her in the meeting room this morning. She _____ at the meeting. ? A. mustn’t have spoken??????????????????????????????? B. shouldn’t have spoken ? C. needn’t have spoken?????????????????????????????? D. couldn’t have spoken 86. One ought _____ for what one hasn’t done. ? A. not to be punished B. to not be punished?????? C. to not punished? D. not be punished 87. If you really want yourself to be in good health, you must _____ always _____ so much. ? A. not; be smoking? B. not; have smoked? C. not; to smoke??????? D. be not; smoking 88. With so much work on hand, you _____ to see the game last night. ? A. mustn’t go????????????????????????????????????????????????? B. shouldn’t go??????????? C. couldn’t have gone????????????????????????????????????????? D. shouldn’t have gone 89. Most of the students felt rather disappointed at the English party. They say that it _____ better organized. ? A. had been?????????????? B. had to be??????????????????? C. must have been????? D. could have been 90. I’m surprised that he _____ in the exam. ? A. should fail?????????????? B. would have failed????? C. may have failed????? D. should have failed 1-10 DCBBD CDBDA? 11-20 DCCBA ACADB 21-30 DACBD AADBC 31-40 CBACB BDCCD 41-50 CAACC DBDAA 51-60 DABCD ADCAC 61-70 DBACD ABBDD 71-80 DCCAC BCCBC 81-90 DDCCD AADDD
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