[ID:4-4787122] [精]中考英语语法专题宾语从句
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中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 中考专题-宾语从句 【知识梳理】 宾语从句的概念: 宾语从句即句子作宾语,而不再是一个词或短语作宾语。 1.I like my teacher.(名词作宾语) 2.I enjoy playing basketball.(动名词作宾语) 3.I decide to study hard.(不定式作宾语) 4.I know him .(代词作宾语) 5.I know Mr Li teaches English. (句子作宾语) 6.She asked if the answer was right. (句子作宾语) 宾语从句三要素 1.连接词 2.语序 3.时态 (一)连接词 A.that引导(that在句中无词汇意义,在从句中不能充当成分,在口语当中往往省略) 例如: I hear (that) he will be back in an hour. 一小时后他会回来 He said (that) he missed us very much. 他非常想念我们 The teacher told us (that) the earth moves around the sun. 地球围着太阳转 注意:当从句是客观真理的时候,无论主句什么时态,从句一律用一般现在时 (△引导词that用于以下情况不可以省略) a.当宾语从句的主语是that时 He says that that is a useful book 他说那是一本有趣的书。 b.当并与从句为主从复合句时 I’m afraid that if you’ve lost it, you must pay for it. 恐怕如果你丢了它,你必须赔偿。 c.当两个或者多个宾语从句由并列连词连接时,除了第一个宾语从句中的that可以省略外,其余从句中的that都不可以省略 He said (that)the film was very interesting and that he enjoyed seeing it very much. B.从属连词whether, if 引导(意为“是否”,不作句子成分,不可省略) 例如: I want to know if (whether) he will go to the park with us. 他是否跟我们一起去公园 Ask him whether (if) he can come. 他是否能来 I don’t know whether it is going to rain or not. 是否要下雨 If 与whether 的区别 I don’t know _____ he will come or not. ☆☆与or not 连用只能用whether I don’t care of ______ he is handsome. 介词后只能用whether He wondered ______ to stay here the next week. 与to do 不定式连用只能用whether ____ he will come is not decided. 作主语只能用whether 考点例析: 1.We’ve given her some advice, but I don’t know ____ she’ll accept it. A. what B. where C. whether D. Which 2.Do you know _________? Shanghai or not tomorrow? A. whether are they leaving for???????? B. whether they are leaving for C. if they are leaving for????????????? D. if are they leaving for ☆☆注意:if引导的宾语从句和条件状语从句 If 有两个意思: “是否” ,引导宾语从句; “假如,如果”,引导条件状语从句。(遵循主将从现) 例句:We don’t know if it will rain tomorrow. If it rains, we won’t have a sports meeting.我们不知道明天是否下雨。如果下雨,我们就不开运动会了。 C.连接代词who, whom, whose, which, what引导 例如: He asked who could answer the question. 谁能回答这个问题 Do you know whom they are waiting for. 他们在等谁 He asked whose handwriting was the best in the class. 谁的书法是班上最好的 D.连接副词 when, where, how, why引导 例如: Please tell me when we’ll have a meeting. 我们什么时候开会 Can you tell me where he is. 他在哪儿 Could you tell me how I can get to the station. 我该怎么去车站 Would you tell me why the train is late. 为什么火车迟到了 考点例析: What a nice paper fish! Can you show us ____ you make it? A. whether B. how C. why D. what (二)宾语从句的语序:陈述句语序,把两个独立的句子连成一个含有宾语从句的复合句,从句部分要用陈述句语序,即:主+谓+其他成分 例如: What’s Millie’s e-mail address? --Do you know? =Do you know what Millie’s e-mail address is? 考点例析: — Peter, is there anything else you want to know about China? — Yes, I am still wondering ____. A. how is Chinese paper cut made B. how was the Great Wall built in ancient times C. why the Chinese people like to play the dragon dance D. why do the Chinese people eat rice dumplings at Dragon Boat Festival (3)宾语从句的时态:时态一致性 a当主句为现在的某种时态(包括一般现在时,现在进行时,现在完成时),宾语从句时态根据情况而定。 例如: I remember he gave me a book yestoday. 我记得她昨天给了我一本书。 He has told me that he will leave for New York tomorrow. 他已经告诉我他明天就动身去纽约了。 b主句是过去时态,从句需改为相应的过去时态。即一般现在时改为一般过去时,现在进行时改为过去进行时,一般将来时改成过去将来时,现在完成时和一般过去时改为过去完成时 例如: He told me that he would take part in the high jump. 他告诉我他将会参加跳高。 He asked me if I had taken his pen. 他问我是否拿了他的笔。 考点例析: 1.Can you tell me _____ the prize, Tom? --Last year. A. when you got B. when did you got C. when will you get D. when you will get 2. Andy said that she ___ to Guangzhou. A. has never gone B. had never gone C. has never been D. had never been 注意:如果宾语从句表述的是客观真理、自然现象等时,不管主句是什么时态, 从句都要用一般现在时。 例如: He said that Yao ming is much taller than him. 他说姚明比他高多了。 教法:讲授法,演示法:教师在课堂上通过展示各种例子讲解或进行示范,让学生通过观察获得知识的教学方法。 学法:迁移学法:用已学的知识和技能对新知识和技能的学习掌握产生影响的学习方法。 (四)宾语从句的否定前移 在宾语从句中,当主句的谓语动词为think, believe, expect, imagine, suppose等时,如果主句为I 或we时,从句中表示否定意义的not应移到think, believe, expect, imagine, suppose等前。 如:I don’t suppose he will come. 我猜他不会来。 注意:如果主句主语不是I或we,则not不前移。 如:She thinks she can’t arrive there on time. 她认为她不能按时到那儿。 (五)宾语从句的简化 1.当宾语从句的主语和主句的主语相同,且谓语动词是hope, wish, decide等时,从句可简化为不定式结构。 如:I hope that I can see you again. =I hope to see you again.我希望能再次见到你。 2. 当宾语从句的主语和主句的主语相同,且谓语动词是know, remember, forget, learn等时,句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。 如: I don’t know what I should say. =I don’t know what to say.我不知道该说什么。 3. 当主句的谓语动词是ask, tell, show, teach等,且宾语从句的主语和主句的间接宾语一致时,从句可简化为不定式结构或“疑问词+不定式”结构。 如:Mr Hu tells us that we shouldn’t draw on the wall. =Mr Hu tells us not to draw on the wall. 胡老师告诉我们不应该在墙上画画。 Will you please tell me where I can buy stamps? =Will you please tell me where to buy stamps? 请告诉我在哪儿能买到邮票 【例题精讲】 1.— The Dragon Boat races are so exciting, but our boat is still behind. — Don’t worry. I am sure _______ we will win!21·m A. if B. of C. whether D. / 2.— What did Jane say to you last night? — She asked me . A. will I go to her party B. if I would go to her party C. that I would go to her party D. how would I go to her party 3.Have you decided ________for Japan? A. when will you leave B. when do you leave C. you will leave when D. when you will leave 4.—We’ll have a picnic tomorrow. Do you know we will go for the picnic? — How about riding bikes? It must be fun. A. how B. where C. why D. what 5. ---I wonder _______. without water ----About a week. A. how long man can live B. how long can man live C. when man can live D. when can man live 6. Peter says that the Browns are on holiday, but no one knows _______. . A. where they have been B. where are they C. where are they from D. where they have gone 7.---Dad, please tell me when Mum _______. I miss her very much. --She will return when she ____her task. And she will bring a nice present for you. A. returns; finishes B returns; will finish C. will return; finishes D. will return; will finish 8.I hear __________ he will be back in a month. A. whether B. that C. what D. which 9.Teenagers with working experiences know more clearly ________ they will be in the future. A. who B. why C. where D. what 10.---Could you tell me_______? --At nine o’clock, in ten minutes. A. how will he leave B. when he has left C. why he is leaving D. when he will leave 11. — I wonder ___________. I'm afraid we'll be late. A. how we can be on time B. what we are going to do C. why we get to school late D. if we will arrive at the meeting on time. 12.--Did Mr White tell you________-? --Yes. He said he went there in 2003. [福州市] A. when he traveled to Tibet B. how he goes to Wuhan C. Where he spent his holidays D. why did he visit Kunming 13. Which of the following sentences is RIGHT? A. I really don’t know if this T-shirt matches my skirt or not. B. Tell me how many films have you seen recently. C. My father told me the moon moved around the earth when I was young. D. I’m not sure if I spelt this word correctly just now. 14.I’m not sure_________ he likes the pink coat. A. that B. if C. how D. 不填 15.I cannot know _______such a difficult problem on my own. A. what to do with B. what to solve C. how solving D. how to do with 16.Miss Li wants to know next week. A. when my uncle leaves B. how long the festival will begins C. which city you will arrive D. what will be the matter 17.There are so many letters. I can’t decide . A. how to deal with B. what to do with them C. what to reply to D. which to start 18. I want to know you will come back at 8:00 clock tomorrow. A. that B. when C. where D. whether 19.Can you tell me _____? A. what does your hometown look like B. what your hometown look like C. what your hometown looks like D. what is your hometown look like 20.---That’s a nice toy. Could you tell me ? ---I made it with my uncle’s help. A. how did you make it B. how you made it C. what did you make it for D. who you made it for 链接书本 例1.我毫不怀疑这部小说值得一看。 例2.Can you help me paint the wall,Sandy?(请加上引导词改写成宾语从句) Sandy`s father asked her _______________________________ 例3.Sometimes they don`t know who they should ask for help.(改为简单句) Sometimes they don`t know who ____________________________________ 例4.Which club shall I join next term ?(改写成宾语从句) Are you sure______________________________________________ 参考答案 1.B 【解析】 试题分析:if是否,如果; whether是否;of关于,……的。句意:龙舟比赛是如此令人兴奋,但是我们的船还在后面。——不用担心,我相信我们会赢。结合语境可知本句宾语从句中不缺少句子成分,故选D。 考点:考查宾语从句 2.B 【解析】 试题分析:根据语境可知此句的含义是昨晚Jane给你说的什么,其答语是她问我是否参加她的聚会。考查宾语从句的基本用法。A和D的句型结构是错误的,又因表示的疑问句的含义,由选择项的提示可知正确答案为B。 考点:考查宾语从句 3.参考答案D 试题分析:你决定什么时候去澳大利亚了吗?宾语从句用陈述语序。 4.A 【解析】 试题分析:根据答语how about riding bikes可知此句的含义是我们明天去野炊,您知道怎样去吗?询问的是去野炊的方式;由选择项的提示可知A表示方式,B表示地点,C表示原因,D表示事物,故正确答案选择A。 考点:考查宾语从句 5.参考答案A. 试题分析:我想知道,没有水人能活多久。大约一周。About a week知询问应用how long,宾语从句应该用陈述语序。 6. 参考答案D. 试题分析:彼得说布朗一家正在度假,但没有人知道他们去了哪里。宾语从句应该用陈述语序。They have been to他们去过某个地方,现在已经回来了;they have gone to他们去了某个地方,现在还没有回来。 7. 答案:C 试题解析:第一空所在的句子为宾语从句,主句为一般现在时,从句依具体情况而定,用一般将来时;第二空为时间状语从句,适用于主将从现,用一般现在时代替。 8. 答案:B 试题解析:本题考查宾语从句的引导词的选用。根据句意“我听说他将在一周后回来。”,且宾语从句是陈述句,所以用that作引导词。 9. 答案:D 试题解析:注意分析句子结构,从句中谓语动词“be”缺少宾语,因而选择“who”或“what”,再根据句意可知不是指人,因而选“what”。 10. 答案:D 试题解析:注意答句“in ten minutes”,推断出问句时态应为一般将来时,主句为一般现在时,继而从句用根据实际情况而定,应用一般将来时。 11.答案:D 试题分析:句意: 我想知道我们是否会按时到会。我怕我们会迟到。据I'm afraid we'll be late.,故宾语从句要用一般将来时态。据题意 故选D。【出处:21教育名师】 考点:考查宾语从句。 12.[答案]A。 试题解析:考查宾语从句。when询问时间,how询问方式,where询问地点,why询问原因。由答语“He said he went here in 2003.”可知,前面应是询问动作发生的时间。 13.参考答案D 考点解析:考察宾语从句的三个要素,A,B,C分别是连接词,语序和时态的错误。 14.答案:B 试题解析:我不确定他是否喜欢粉红色外套,主句是否定,从句一个该用if或者whether.选B。 15.【答案】A 试题分析 考察固定搭配What to do with 、How to deal with it 16.【答案】D 【分析】考查宾语从句。A错在时态不对,next week是将来时的标志词;B错在how long必须要与持续性动词连用,而begin是短暂性动词;C错在arrive是不及物动词,后面要加介词in才可以加which city;D是正确的,what will be the matter就是陈述句语序,不需要改变,所以答案选D。 17.【答案】B 【分析】考查宾语从句。A错在how to deal with后面没有宾语;B是正确的;C错在reply to后面的宾语应该是人,所以疑问词what是不对的;D错在start with sth.漏掉了with。所以答案选B。 18.D 【解析】 试题分析:句意:我想知道你明天是否会回来。此题是考查宾语从句的引导词,根据句意是“是否”,所以选D。 考点:考查宾语从句的引导词 19.C 【解析】 试题分析:句意为:你能告诉我你的家乡是怎么样的吗?根据语境可知,这是一个宾语从句,从句应用陈述句语序。由于从句的主语是第三人称单数,根据主谓一致原则,动词也应用第三人称单数形式,结合选项可知应选C。 考点:考查宾语从句。 20.【答案】B 【分析】考查宾语从句的时态和语序。宾语从句主句时态是一般过去时,从句也要用过去的某种时态。另外语序要用陈述句语序,所以排除A和C选项。根据回答可知问的是“你是怎么制作它的”,答案为B选项。 链接书本 答案:I have no doubt that the novel is worth reading. 解析:我毫不怀疑 I have no doubt 或者I never doubt 后面的连接词用that 引导,值得一看 用句型be worth doing 答案:whether/if she could help him paint the wall 解析:此处考察宾语从句三个语法点:1)当宾语从句是一般疑问句是用引导词whether/if 连接2)语序用陈述句语序 3)主句的谓语动词是过去时asked,从句的时态can help要变成过去时态could help 答案: to ask for help 解析:此处考察宾语从句的简化,当从句的主语与主句主语一致,我们可以用to do 来代替宾语从句,所以填 to ask for help 答案:which club you will join next term 解析:此处考察宾语从句是特殊疑问句时,作为宾语从句连接词是特殊疑问词,此句的语序要变成陈述句语序,理应是I shall ,但是主句问的是Are you sure,所以从句的人称也要转变为you,那么shall 只能用于第一人称,就会相应变化成will。 【易错题汇编】 1.No one tells us ______________, so we need your help. A. how we should do B. what should we do C. how to do it D. what to do it 2. 一Could you please tell me Readers,a TV program hosted by Dong Qing? 一Well, it is fun and teaches us a lot of knowledge. A. how do people like B. how people liked C. why do many people like D. why many people like 3. 一I've just received a WeChat message-"ttyl". Do you know ? 一It stands for "talk to you later". A. how does it mean B. how it means C. what does it mean D. what it means 4. Today is Father's Day. I'm thinking about . A. what present I gave my father B. if I planned a party for my father C. how I can give my father a surprise D. where will my father and I have a big meal 5. I don't know . A. what the population of Tianshui is B. what is the population of Tianshui C. how much is the population of Tianshui D. how many the population in Tianshui are 6.---Jack, do you know ______ the basketball match will start? ---_____ half past ten. A. How soon;Until B. how long;Not until C. how long;Until D. how soon;Not until 7. Some of my friends are interested in science, but none of them can tell ____________. A. when UFOs appear next time B. if horses know the way or not C. where was this kind of plant found D. how elephants communicate 8.1Kitty asked her cousin how long______. A. he had come to Beijing B. he had been in Beijing C. had he come to Beijing D. had he come to Beijing 9.I didn’t know__________. A. how many times he has been to his favourite place of interest B. why did he go to France C. what’s the matter with the iPad I bought yesterday D. who to ask for help when in trouble 10.Can you tell me ____________________? A. what is the matter with him B. which door to go to check my ticket C. how to do with this summer D. who to ask to for help 11.–I am not sure whether ______ came into this room. --I see. But can you tell me whether there was ______ missing. A. someone, something B. someone, anything C. anyone, something D. anyone, anything 12.---What did Jack ask you just now? ---He wanted to know how long _________ when I reached the cinema. A. had the film been on B. the film had started C. the film had lasted D. had the film ended 13. ---How soon will you start your journey? ---I’m not sure. I haven’t decided ______. A. when shall I ask the boss for leave B. where I will go to spend the holiday C. whether I would go by train or by plane D. who could invite me to go 14. --- Can you tell me __________? --- Sorry, I’m not sure. A. where was the TV series In the Name of the People made B. who will be recommended as the host of the charity show C. how we will do with the water pollution D. whether they have married for 20 years 15.He wants to tell the children how important ______________________________________. A. is it to protect our environment B. it is to protect our environment C. to protect our environment D. is to protect our environment 1-10 CDDCA DDBDA 11-15 DCBBB 【链接中考】 1.(2018苏州14). —Do you know ? —We can try to produce less waste, reuse or recycle things. A. why can we live a green life B. how can we live a green life C. why we can live a green life D. how we can live a green life 2.(2018南京10). Before you start reading, ask yourself_____ you are reading this book. Most people read for two main reasons, pleasure or knowledge. A. why B. what C. where D. when 3.(2018南京14). Which of the following sentences has an object clause? A. His mother called him Robbie when he was a baby B. On Mars you might see people who wear special boots C. Mr. Green tells us that we'd better use the Internet properly D. Our life has improved because the environment is getting better. 4. (2018宿迁14)---Could you tell me_______? ----In five minutes, at 10: 25. A. when did the next underground arrive B. when the next underground arrived C. when will the next underground arrive D. when the next underground will arrive 5.(2018北京12)—— Alice,couldyoutellme________London? ——Sure.LastSunday A.whenMr.SmithleftB.whenMr.Smithwi11leave C.whendidMr.SmithleaveD.whenwillMr.Smithleave 6.(2018重庆35).—Excuseme!Doyouknow_______? —It’stwokilometersawayfromhere. A.whereisthesupermarketB.whendoesthesupermarketopen C.wherethesupermarketisD.whenthesupermarketopens 7.(2018福建34).— Canyouguess________? —ThenorthoftheChina.Helikesnoodlesbetter. A.whathedoesB.whoheisC.wherehe’sfrom 8.(2018扬州5) ----Mr. Wu has recommended many books. Have you decided first? ----Yes. The Little Prince. A. how to read B. which to read C. when to read D. where to read 9.(2018重庆B卷35)-Couldyoupleasetellme__________? -Intwoweeks. A.whendidhecomebackB.howsoonwillhecomeback C.whenhecamebackD.howsoonhewillcomeback 10.(2018青岛15).一Idon’tknow______tomorrow. —Youcanaskourteacherrightnow. A.ifwetakethebusthereB.whenwillweleave C.whatwillwedo D.howwewillgothere 11.(2018·四川成都37).—Howbeautifulyourskirtis!Couldyoupleasetellme? —Thanks.IboughtitonTaobao. A.whereyouboughtitB.whenyouboughtitC.whyyouboughtit 12.(2017连云港14).﹣Do you know_____The Belt and Road Forum("一带一路"高峰论坛) began? ﹣On May 14th,2017.(  ) A.that B.when C.if D.where 13.(2017无锡6).(1分)﹣I've just received a Wechat message﹣"ttyl".Do you know____? ﹣It stands for"talk to you later".(  ) A.how does it mean B.how it means C.what does it mean D.what it means 14. (2017苏州)2.Mom,haveyouseenmytoybear?Idon’tknow________Ihaveleftit. A.why B.when C.how D.where 15.(2017南通).—Therewillbeaconcertthisevening.ButIdon’tknow________. —Byunderground.Ittakeslesstime. A.whereitwillbeheld B.howcanIgo C.wherewillitbeheld D.howIcango 16.(2017镇江6).—HowisyourMayDayHoliday,John? —Notbad.Youseemsohappy.Couldyoutellme_______? A.whatplaceyouhavebeento B.ifyouvisityourgrandparents C.Whodidyouspendtheholidaywith D.thatyouwatchedafootballmatch 17.(2017淮安8).—Haveyoudecided______thissummerholiday? —Yes.ToParis. A.whenhewillhaveapicnicB.wherewillhehaveapicnic C.Wherehehadapicnic D.wheredidhehaveapicnic 18.(2017吉林).—Andy,Iwonder_______thenewsportsclothes. —Ofcoursebycreditcard. A.whatyoupaidfor B.howyoupaidforC.whyyoupaidfor D.whereyoupaidfor 19.(2017武汉).—I’dliketoknow_______fortheparty. —Ihavenoidea. A.whydidshebuysolittlefoodB.whatshehasprepared C.whetherwillshedance D.whenissheleaving 20.(2017广东17).—Doyouknow__________yesterday? —Yes.Hewentfortheboatrace. A.whydidn’tPetergotoschoolB.whydoesn’tPetergotoschool C.whyPeterdidn’tgotoschool D.whyPeterdoesn’tgotoschool 21.(2017广西).—Couldyoutellme________? —ThemovieTheFateoftheFurious. A.Whereyousawthemovie B.whichmovieyoulikebest C.wheredidyouseethemovie D.whichmoviedoyoulikebest Keys: DACDA CCBDD ABDDD AABBC B 21世纪教育网 www.21cnjy.com 精品试卷·第 2 页 (共 2 页) HYPERLINK "http://21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com) " 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)
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