[ID:4-5565480] [精]中考英语易错专题6 连词的表达和运用(学生版+教师版)
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第6讲 连词的表达和运用 整体分析解读: 连词的考查在近几年的中考题中出现率 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)较高,测试内容涉及并列连词的用法、时间状语从句、让步状语从句等。遇到有关连词的单项选择题时,考生需注意下面的问题: 1. 简单连词的选择 首先找出连词在句中是连接词与词、短 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)语与短语还是连接句子与句子,以此来确定用并列连词还是从属连词。如果选择并列连词,应该根据具体的语境,通过句意来确定应该用表示平行或承接关系的连词、选择关系的并列连词还是表示因果关系的并列连词。 2. 复合连词和短语连词的选择。 复合连词和短语连词可以引导并列句和 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)各种不同的复合句。常见的有:both...and...;either...or...;neither...nor...;as well;not only...but also;as soon as 3. 从属连词的选择 如果需要选择从属连词,应该根据主句与从句 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)之间的关系确定是宾语从句还是状语从句。如果是状语从句,还要根据句意分析,从句是表示时间、条件、原因还是结果等。 然后确定所需的连词。 一、知识点概述 并列连词和从属连词的用法 连词是连结单词、短语、从句或句子的虚词, 在句子中不单独作句子成份。 连词按其性质可分为: 1.并列连词 如:and, or, but, for, 等, 连接并列的词与词,短语与短语,句子与句子。 如:Rice and potatoes are common foods. (词与词) Today we can travel by plane. (短语与短语) Many trees lose their leaves in winter, but evergreen trees do not. ( 句子与句子) 关联连词是一类成对使用的连词 如:both……and……, not……but……. not only……but also…… not only…but… as well either……or…… neither……nor…… 关联连词必须后接同样的语法结构。 如:Either the windows were opened or the door was opened. 2.从属连词 如:that, whether, when, because, though 等, 用以引导名词性从句和状语从句。 3.从属连词引导的从句不可以被断成一个句子。 如果断开,就错了。 如:When the alarm clock rang. (不完整) 4. though (although)引导让步状语从句,because 引导原因状语从句, 所以though(although)不能和并列连词but ,because 不能和并列连词 so一起使用。 只能单独使用。 二、复习时需要注意的要点 (1)表示选择关系的连词,连接的双方只取其一。常用连词有or, either...or, otherwise 例如: 1)You can go to Beijing either today or tomorrow 2)You must get up early or you won’t catch the early bus. (2)表示转折关系,连接的双方构成对比,意义上有转折。常用连词有but, however, while, only 例如: 1)? His brother is fond of football while he likes basketball. 2)? You can watch TV, but you must finish your homework first. (3)表示联合关系,联合的双方是对等的,意义上趋向一致。常用连词有:and, both...and, neither...nor, not only...but also, as well as, together with 例如: 1)? To study English well, we need both diligence and careful. 2)? That horse is not only the youngest among the five, but also runs the fastest. (4)表示因果关系,连接的双方,互为因果,或者前因后果,或者前果后因。常用的连词有:for, so, therefore 例如: 1)? It must have rained, for the ground is wet. 2)? You are in the right, therefore they should support you. 1. as,while,when, as用作连词时,含义比较多, A)引导时间状语从句。(1)用“as soon as”结构,意思是“一……就”。例如: Please e-mail me as soon as you get there. 请你一到那里就给我发电子邮件。 I'll tell him the news as soon as he comes back. 他一回来我就把这个消息告诉他。 (2)作“与……同时、一边……一边、当……的时候”讲时,强调主从句的动作同时发生,而从句的谓语动词必须是延续性动词。例如: He read the letter as he walked along the river. 他一边沿着河边走,一边读信。 As I waited at the stop, I heard a big noise. 我在车站候车的时候,听到了一声巨响。 B)引导比较状语从句。用于“as...as”结构中,第一个as是副词,第二个as是连词。否定句用not as/so...as结构。例如: He sings as well as his brother. 他唱歌和哥哥一样好。 Canoeing is not as/so interesting as sailing. 划独木舟没有航海有趣。 C)引导原因状语从句。表示明显的原因,意思是“由于、鉴于”。例如: We all like her as she is kind. 我们都喜欢她,因为她善良。 As you're tired, you'd better have a rest. 因为你疲劳,你最好休息一下。 D)引导让步状语从句。作“虽然、尽管”讲时,相当于though,但是没有as常用。例如: As/Though they (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)were tired,they still walked on. 尽管很累,他们还是继续走。 (=Tired as/though they were,they still walked on.) As I like it,I will not buy it. 虽然我喜欢这个东西,但是我不想买。 E)引导方式状语从句,意为“按照、如同”。如: I have changed it as you suggested. 我已经按照你的建议修改了。 As two is to three,four is to six. 四比六等于二比三。 含有as的短语和固定搭配常见的有: (1)as well as也 (2)as if 好像 (3)the same as 和……一样 (4)such as 例如 (5)as...as possible 尽可能 (6)so as to 为了要、以便 (7)as soon as 一……就 (8)as a matter of fact事实上/实际上 (9)as for 至于 (10)as well 也(=also/too) (11)not only...but also...不但……而且 (12)both...and...既……又…… as用作介词,意为“如同、作为、当作”,与介词like不同,as表示某人/物看起来完全一样或几乎相同,而表示相似关系,但不等同。如: Don't have him as a servant. 不要把他看作仆人。 He works as a servant. 他以仆人的身份工作着。 试比较:He works like a servant. 他像仆人一样工作。 (实际上不是。) as作“作为”讲时,相当于being。如: As a student,it (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)'s bad manners to be late for class. 作为学生,迟到是不礼貌的。(=Being a student,it's bad manners to be late for class.) as常与动词连用,构成短语或固定搭配如:l (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)ook upon...as把……看作;regard...as把……认为是/把……看作;act as担任、充当等。 as用作副词,意思是“同样地”,通常用来修饰副词或形容词。如: He works hard,but I study just as hard. 他努力学习,我学习也一样努力。 Their shool is as beautiful as ours. 他们的学校和我们的学校一样美丽。 when用作连词,引导时间状语从句,意为“当……的时候”。如: She wants to be a scientist when she grows up. 她长大后想当科学家。 When the game began,I was waiting for a taxi. 当比赛开始时,我在等出租车。 when可以引导宾语状语从句,后面跟陈述句语序,意思是“什么时候、何时”。如: Please tell me when you came here. 请告诉我你是什么时候到的。 He asked when the game would start. 他问比赛什么时候开始。 when用作疑问副词,意为“什么时候、何时”,引导特殊疑问句,可以问时间点,也可以问时间段。如: —When do you usually go to school every day? ——你每天通常什么时候上学? —At six o'clock. ——六点钟。 —When will he be back? ——他什么时候回来? —In a week. ——一个星期以后。 —When were you born? ——你是什么时候出生的? —I was born in 1995. ——我出生在1995年。 while用作连词时,意 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)为“当……的时候、和……同时”,引导时间状语从句,从句只能指时间段,不能指时间点,谓语动词必须是延续性动词或状态动词。如: Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。 Somebody broke into the house while we were out. 我们外出时有人破门而入。 while用作连词时,引导让步状语从句,意为“虽然、尽管”。如: While I admit his good points,I can see his shortcomings. 尽管我承认他的优点,我还是看到他的缺点了。 while用作名词,意思是“一会儿、一段时间”。如: Please wait a while. 请稍等。 I haven't seen him for a long while. 我好久没有看到他了。 2. because,since,as,for because 表示理由或直接原因, (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)意思是“因为”,语气最强。引导原因状语从句时,常用于句子中间,位于句首时,要用逗号隔开。单独成句时,通常用来回答why所提出的问题。例如: I like my parrot because it can sing. 因为鹦鹉会唱歌,所以我喜欢它。 Pandas are my favorite animals because they're very cute. 因为熊猫很可爱,所以它们是我最喜爱的动物。 —Why do you like giraffes? —Because they are very interesting. ——你为什么喜欢长颈鹿? ——因为它们很有趣。 because表示理由/原因时,不能与s (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)o直接连用。汉语中,表示因果关系时要用“因为……所以……”;而英语中,用because就不用so,用so就不用because。试比较: Nick caught a bad cold yesterday,so he had to stay at home. Because Nick (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?) caught a bad cold yesterday,he had to stay at home. 尼克昨天得了重感冒,因此他不得不待在家里。 because 可以与of连用,构成介词短语 because of,之后跟名词、代词、词组或短语表示理由/原因。如: He has poor eyesight because of doing lots of computer work. 由于做大量的电脑工作,他的视力差。 The match was put off because of the bad weather. 比赛由于天气不好被推迟了。 since 表达明显的或已 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)知的理由,意为“既然”。since 引导的从句常用于句首,语气不如because,但是比as语气强。引导的从句位于句子末尾时,可以作为补充说明。如: Since everybody is here,let's begin. 既然大家都到了,那我们就开始吧。 Since you don't want to go there,I won't force you to. 既然你不想去,我也不勉强你。 I'll go to ask someone else,since you have no time. 既然你没有时间,我就去找别人。 as 表示理由时,意为“ (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)由于”,引导原因状语从句时,主、从句并重,主句说明原因,从句说明结果,相当于since,但是语气不如since。如: As it was late,I left in a hurry. 因为天色已晚,我就匆忙离开了。 As I'm very busy,I can't go with you. 我很忙,所以不能和你一起去。 for是并列连词,表明附加或推断的理由,常用于口语中,意为“因为”。for连接的句子一般不用于句首,并列句之间可以用逗号分开。如: I must be away for a week,for I'll go to Shanghai. 我要离开一个星期,因为我要去上海。 He must be at home,for the light in the room is on. 他一定在家,因为房间里的灯亮着。 I'm late for class for I got up late. 我上学迟到是因为我起床迟了。 3. so...that,such...that so...that...意为“如此……以 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)至于……”, so是副词,后面跟形容词或副词,that后面跟句子表示结果,常见的句型结构有下面四种: A. so+形容词+that从句 The novel is so popular that it ran into two editions in a year. 这本小说是那么受欢迎,一年内就出了两版。 She was so surprised that she just stood there. 她是如此吃惊,就呆呆地站在那里。 B. so+副词+that从句 He drove so fast tha (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)t he found it difficult to stop at the red light. 他开车那么快,发现红灯时已无法刹车了。 His friends wer (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)e walking so slowly that he began to feel bored. 他的朋友走得那么慢,他开始感到厌倦。 C. so+形容词+a+单数名词+that从句 It is so heavy a stone that I can't lift it. 这么重的一块石头,我举不起来。 It is so lovely a day that I'd like to go swimming. 如此好的天气,我想去游泳。 D. so+形容词+复数名词+that从句 He had so many falls that he was black and blue all over. 他摔了那么多跤,以致浑身青一块、紫一块。 There were so many (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)people in the street that our car couldn't cross. 街上的人那么多,我们的小汽车过不去。 so...that...可以与以下结构转换: A. 与too...to...结构的转换 too...to...意为“太… (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)…而不能……”,与so...that...结构互换时,that从句中必须使用情态动词can't(如果是过去时则用couldn't)。如: He was so cle (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)ver that he couldn't make such stupid mistakes. → He was too clever to make such stupid mistakes. 他太聪明了,不会犯这么愚蠢的错误。 温馨提示:如果主从句的主语不一致,改为同义句时,要用too...for sb. to...结构。如: That question is so (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)difficult that I can't work it out. →That question is too difficult for me to work out. 这个问题太难,我算不出来。 B. 与enough to do/not enough to do 结构的转换 a)与enough to do sth. 结构的转换。 enough to do sth.意为“……足够做某事”,与so...that...结构转换时,that从句中必须使用情态动词can。如: You are so healthy (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)that you can get back to school. → You are healthy enough to get back to school. 你身体健康,可以回学校去了。 b)与not...enough to do结构的转换。 not...enough to do (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)意为“没到做某事的……”,与so...that...结构转换时,that从句中必须使用含有否定意义的情态动词。enough前面的形容词是so...that...结构中so后面形容词的反义词。如: The boy is so young (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)that he can't dress himself. →The boy is not old enough to dress himself. 这个孩子还没到自己穿衣服的年龄。 He is so impati (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)ent that he can't wait. → He is not patient enough to wait. 他没有足够的耐心等待。 C. 与such...that...结构的转换 such...that...意为“ (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)这样……以至于……”,与so...that...结构转换时,必须用“so+形容词+a+单数名词+that从句”结构。如: It is so interest (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)ing a TV that all of us want to see it again. → It is such an interesting TV that all of us want to see it again. 电视剧如此有趣,我们所有人都想再看一遍。 It is so heavy a (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)stone that I can't lift it. → It is such a heavy stone that I can't lift it. 这么重的石头,我举不起来。 such...that结构中的such是个形容词,后接名词或名词短语。如: It was such a hot day that he went swimming. 如此热的天气,以至于他去游泳。 如果在名词之前有many,much,little,few时,用so,不用such。如: He has so little education that he is unable to get a job. 他受到的教育很少以至于他找不到工作。 【考题精练】 ( )1.[2018·江西] —WeChat Pay makes our life convenient. —Yes, we can buy things________we don’t take any money.? A.unless B.because C.even if D.so that ( )2.[2018·无锡] He stayed up very late that night.________he woke up in the morning, the sun was already high up in the sky.? A.Until B.After C.While D.As ( )3.[2018·宜宾] She stopped talking________her mother came into the room.? A.as soon as B.unless C.though D.until ( )4.[2018·苏州] —Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the nearest underground station? —Walk straight on________you see a white building.It’s right there.? A.though B.since C.until D.if ( )5.[2018·泰州] Mum won’t let Simon go out unless he promises to be back________10 o’clock tonight.? A.till B.before C.as D.since ( )6.[2018·云南] We don’t know the love of our parents________we become parents ourselves one day.? A.until B.after C.when D.since ( )7.[2018·昆明]________I have lost everything in this terrible earthquake, I have not lost my life.? A.Because B.So C.Although D.If ( )8.[2017·云南] You’ll get good grades________you work hard.? A.although B.so C.if D.unless ( )9.[2017·曲靖] The TV news talked about a car accident near our house________I was eating.? A.as soon as B.since C.while D.until ( )10.[2018·昆明] We will go for a picnic________it rains tomorrow.? A.since B.if C.until D.unless ( )11.[2018·盐城] Work hard,________you’ll have a big success.? A.or B.but C.and D.yet ( )12.[2018·黄石] I always get up early on weekdays,________I’m afraid I will be late for school.? A.because B.so C.though D.then ( )13.[2018·黔南] Jack has learned more about teamwork(团队合作)________he joined the soccer team.? A.until B.since C.while D.though ( )14.[2018·咸宁] —Harry Potter is________an interesting novel________I want to read it again.? —I agree with you. A.so; that B.too; to C.such; that D.as; as ( )15.[2018·河南] The words “racecar”, “kayak” and “level” are the same________they are read left to right or right to left.? A.since B.though C.unless D.whether ( )16. [2018·湖北十堰]—Mike,please turn down the music. ________ Dabao ________ Erbao are sleeping. —Sorry,I'll do it right away. A. Neither;nor B. Either;or C. Both;and D. Not only;but also ( )17. [2018·浙江温州]Betty kept silent at first ________ soon she joined the other girls,chatting and laughing. A. so B. but C. or D. because ( )18. [2018·山西]When you're tired,you can get close to the nature ________ you'll feel relaxed in the beauty all around. A. or B. and C. but ( )19. [2018·上海]Peter spent half a day fishing by the river,________ he didn't catch anything. A. so B. or C. for D. but ( )20. [2018·湖北黄冈]—Which show do you prefer,Running Man or The Reader? —The Reader,of course. ________ I ________ my brother likes it. A. Both;and B. Neither;nor C. Either;or D. Not only;but also 1 第6讲 连词的表达和运用 整体分析解读: 连词的考查在近几年的中考题中出现率 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)较高,测试内容涉及并列连词的用法、时间状语从句、让步状语从句等。遇到有关连词的单项选择题时,考生需注意下面的问题: 1. 简单连词的选择 首先找出连词在句中是连接词与词、短 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)语与短语还是连接句子与句子,以此来确定用并列连词还是从属连词。如果选择并列连词,应该根据具体的语境,通过句意来确定应该用表示平行或承接关系的连词、选择关系的并列连词还是表示因果关系的并列连词。 2. 复合连词和短语连词的选择。 复合连词和短语连词可以引导并列句和 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)各种不同的复合句。常见的有:both...and...;either...or...;neither...nor...;as well;not only...but also;as soon as 3. 从属连词的选择 如果需要选择从属连词,应该根据主句与从句 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)之间的关系确定是宾语从句还是状语从句。如果是状语从句,还要根据句意分析,从句是表示时间、条件、原因还是结果等。 然后确定所需的连词。 一、知识点概述 并列连词和从属连词的用法 连词是连结单词、短语、从句或句子的虚词, 在句子中不单独作句子成份。 连词按其性质可分为: 1.并列连词 如:and, or, but, for, 等, 连接并列的词与词,短语与短语,句子与句子。 如:Rice and potatoes are common foods. (词与词) Today we can travel by plane. (短语与短语) Many trees lose their leaves in winter, but evergreen trees do not. ( 句子与句子) 关联连词是一类成对使用的连词 如:both……and……, not……but……. not only……but also…… not only…but… as well either……or…… neither……nor…… 关联连词必须后接同样的语法结构。 如:Either the windows were opened or the door was opened. 2.从属连词 如:that, whether, when, because, though 等, 用以引导名词性从句和状语从句。 3.从属连词引导的从句不可以被断成一个句子。 如果断开,就错了。 如:When the alarm clock rang. (不完整) 4. though (although)引导让步状语从句,because 引导原因状语从句, 所以though(although)不能和并列连词but ,because 不能和并列连词 so一起使用。 只能单独使用。 二、复习时需要注意的要点 (1)表示选择关系的连词,连接的双方只取其一。常用连词有or, either...or, otherwise 例如: 1)You can go to Beijing either today or tomorrow 2)You must get up early or you won’t catch the early bus. (2)表示转折关系,连接的双方构成对比,意义上有转折。常用连词有but, however, while, only 例如: 1)? His brother is fond of football while he likes basketball. 2)? You can watch TV, but you must finish your homework first. (3)表示联合关系,联合的双方是对等的,意义上趋向一致。常用连词有:and, both...and, neither...nor, not only...but also, as well as, together with 例如: 1)? To study English well, we need both diligence and careful. 2)? That horse is not only the youngest among the five, but also runs the fastest. (4)表示因果关系,连接的双方,互为因果,或者前因后果,或者前果后因。常用的连词有:for, so, therefore 例如: 1)? It must have rained, for the ground is wet. 2)? You are in the right, therefore they should support you. 1. as,while,when, as用作连词时,含义比较多, A)引导时间状语从句。(1)用“as soon as”结构,意思是“一……就”。例如: Please e-mail me as soon as you get there. 请你一到那里就给我发电子邮件。 I'll tell him the news as soon as he comes back. 他一回来我就把这个消息告诉他。 (2)作“与……同时、一边……一边、当……的时候”讲时,强调主从句的动作同时发生,而从句的谓语动词必须是延续性动词。例如: He read the letter as he walked along the river. 他一边沿着河边走,一边读信。 As I waited at the stop, I heard a big noise. 我在车站候车的时候,听到了一声巨响。 B)引导比较状语从句。用于“as...as”结构中,第一个as是副词,第二个as是连词。否定句用not as/so...as结构。例如: He sings as well as his brother. 他唱歌和哥哥一样好。 Canoeing is not as/so interesting as sailing. 划独木舟没有航海有趣。 C)引导原因状语从句。表示明显的原因,意思是“由于、鉴于”。例如: We all like her as she is kind. 我们都喜欢她,因为她善良。 As you're tired, you'd better have a rest. 因为你疲劳,你最好休息一下。 D)引导让步状语从句。作“虽然、尽管”讲时,相当于though,但是没有as常用。例如: As/Though they (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)were tired,they still walked on. 尽管很累,他们还是继续走。 (=Tired as/though they were,they still walked on.) As I like it,I will not buy it. 虽然我喜欢这个东西,但是我不想买。 E)引导方式状语从句,意为“按照、如同”。如: I have changed it as you suggested. 我已经按照你的建议修改了。 As two is to three,four is to six. 四比六等于二比三。 含有as的短语和固定搭配常见的有: (1)as well as也 (2)as if 好像 (3)the same as 和……一样 (4)such as 例如 (5)as...as possible 尽可能 (6)so as to 为了要、以便 (7)as soon as 一……就 (8)as a matter of fact事实上/实际上 (9)as for 至于 (10)as well 也(=also/too) (11)not only...but also...不但……而且 (12)both...and...既……又…… as用作介词,意为“如同、作为、当作”,与介词like不同,as表示某人/物看起来完全一样或几乎相同,而表示相似关系,但不等同。如: Don't have him as a servant. 不要把他看作仆人。 He works as a servant. 他以仆人的身份工作着。 试比较:He works like a servant. 他像仆人一样工作。 (实际上不是。) as作“作为”讲时,相当于being。如: As a student,it (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)'s bad manners to be late for class. 作为学生,迟到是不礼貌的。(=Being a student,it's bad manners to be late for class.) as常与动词连用,构成短语或固定搭配如:l (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)ook upon...as把……看作;regard...as把……认为是/把……看作;act as担任、充当等。 as用作副词,意思是“同样地”,通常用来修饰副词或形容词。如: He works hard,but I study just as hard. 他努力学习,我学习也一样努力。 Their shool is as beautiful as ours. 他们的学校和我们的学校一样美丽。 when用作连词,引导时间状语从句,意为“当……的时候”。如: She wants to be a scientist when she grows up. 她长大后想当科学家。 When the game began,I was waiting for a taxi. 当比赛开始时,我在等出租车。 when可以引导宾语状语从句,后面跟陈述句语序,意思是“什么时候、何时”。如: Please tell me when you came here. 请告诉我你是什么时候到的。 He asked when the game would start. 他问比赛什么时候开始。 when用作疑问副词,意为“什么时候、何时”,引导特殊疑问句,可以问时间点,也可以问时间段。如: —When do you usually go to school every day? ——你每天通常什么时候上学? —At six o'clock. ——六点钟。 —When will he be back? ——他什么时候回来? —In a week. ——一个星期以后。 —When were you born? ——你是什么时候出生的? —I was born in 1995. ——我出生在1995年。 while用作连词时,意 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)为“当……的时候、和……同时”,引导时间状语从句,从句只能指时间段,不能指时间点,谓语动词必须是延续性动词或状态动词。如: Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。 Somebody broke into the house while we were out. 我们外出时有人破门而入。 while用作连词时,引导让步状语从句,意为“虽然、尽管”。如: While I admit his good points,I can see his shortcomings. 尽管我承认他的优点,我还是看到他的缺点了。 while用作名词,意思是“一会儿、一段时间”。如: Please wait a while. 请稍等。 I haven't seen him for a long while. 我好久没有看到他了。 2. because,since,as,for because 表示理由或直接原因, (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)意思是“因为”,语气最强。引导原因状语从句时,常用于句子中间,位于句首时,要用逗号隔开。单独成句时,通常用来回答why所提出的问题。例如: I like my parrot because it can sing. 因为鹦鹉会唱歌,所以我喜欢它。 Pandas are my favorite animals because they're very cute. 因为熊猫很可爱,所以它们是我最喜爱的动物。 —Why do you like giraffes? —Because they are very interesting. ——你为什么喜欢长颈鹿? ——因为它们很有趣。 because表示理由/原因时,不能与s (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)o直接连用。汉语中,表示因果关系时要用“因为……所以……”;而英语中,用because就不用so,用so就不用because。试比较: Nick caught a bad cold yesterday,so he had to stay at home. Because Nick (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?) caught a bad cold yesterday,he had to stay at home. 尼克昨天得了重感冒,因此他不得不待在家里。 because 可以与of连用,构成介词短语 because of,之后跟名词、代词、词组或短语表示理由/原因。如: He has poor eyesight because of doing lots of computer work. 由于做大量的电脑工作,他的视力差。 The match was put off because of the bad weather. 比赛由于天气不好被推迟了。 since 表达明显的或已 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)知的理由,意为“既然”。since 引导的从句常用于句首,语气不如because,但是比as语气强。引导的从句位于句子末尾时,可以作为补充说明。如: Since everybody is here,let's begin. 既然大家都到了,那我们就开始吧。 Since you don't want to go there,I won't force you to. 既然你不想去,我也不勉强你。 I'll go to ask someone else,since you have no time. 既然你没有时间,我就去找别人。 as 表示理由时,意为“ (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)由于”,引导原因状语从句时,主、从句并重,主句说明原因,从句说明结果,相当于since,但是语气不如since。如: As it was late,I left in a hurry. 因为天色已晚,我就匆忙离开了。 As I'm very busy,I can't go with you. 我很忙,所以不能和你一起去。 for是并列连词,表明附加或推断的理由,常用于口语中,意为“因为”。for连接的句子一般不用于句首,并列句之间可以用逗号分开。如: I must be away for a week,for I'll go to Shanghai. 我要离开一个星期,因为我要去上海。 He must be at home,for the light in the room is on. 他一定在家,因为房间里的灯亮着。 I'm late for class for I got up late. 我上学迟到是因为我起床迟了。 3. so...that,such...that so...that...意为“如此……以 (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)至于……”, so是副词,后面跟形容词或副词,that后面跟句子表示结果,常见的句型结构有下面四种: A. so+形容词+that从句 The novel is so popular that it ran into two editions in a year. 这本小说是那么受欢迎,一年内就出了两版。 She was so surprised that she just stood there. 她是如此吃惊,就呆呆地站在那里。 B. so+副词+that从句 He drove so fast tha (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)t he found it difficult to stop at the red light. 他开车那么快,发现红灯时已无法刹车了。 His friends wer (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)e walking so slowly that he began to feel bored. 他的朋友走得那么慢,他开始感到厌倦。 C. so+形容词+a+单数名词+that从句 It is so heavy a stone that I can't lift it. 这么重的一块石头,我举不起来。 It is so lovely a day that I'd like to go swimming. 如此好的天气,我想去游泳。 D. so+形容词+复数名词+that从句 He had so many falls that he was black and blue all over. 他摔了那么多跤,以致浑身青一块、紫一块。 There were so many (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)people in the street that our car couldn't cross. 街上的人那么多,我们的小汽车过不去。 so...that...可以与以下结构转换: A. 与too...to...结构的转换 too...to...意为“太… (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)…而不能……”,与so...that...结构互换时,that从句中必须使用情态动词can't(如果是过去时则用couldn't)。如: He was so cle (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)ver that he couldn't make such stupid mistakes. → He was too clever to make such stupid mistakes. 他太聪明了,不会犯这么愚蠢的错误。 温馨提示:如果主从句的主语不一致,改为同义句时,要用too...for sb. to...结构。如: That question is so (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)difficult that I can't work it out. →That question is too difficult for me to work out. 这个问题太难,我算不出来。 B. 与enough to do/not enough to do 结构的转换 a)与enough to do sth. 结构的转换。 enough to do sth.意为“……足够做某事”,与so...that...结构转换时,that从句中必须使用情态动词can。如: You are so healthy (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)that you can get back to school. → You are healthy enough to get back to school. 你身体健康,可以回学校去了。 b)与not...enough to do结构的转换。 not...enough to do (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)意为“没到做某事的……”,与so...that...结构转换时,that从句中必须使用含有否定意义的情态动词。enough前面的形容词是so...that...结构中so后面形容词的反义词。如: The boy is so young (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)that he can't dress himself. →The boy is not old enough to dress himself. 这个孩子还没到自己穿衣服的年龄。 He is so impati (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)ent that he can't wait. → He is not patient enough to wait. 他没有足够的耐心等待。 C. 与such...that...结构的转换 such...that...意为“ (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)这样……以至于……”,与so...that...结构转换时,必须用“so+形容词+a+单数名词+that从句”结构。如: It is so interest (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)ing a TV that all of us want to see it again. → It is such an interesting TV that all of us want to see it again. 电视剧如此有趣,我们所有人都想再看一遍。 It is so heavy a (?http:?/??/?www.21cnjy.com?)stone that I can't lift it. → It is such a heavy stone that I can't lift it. 这么重的石头,我举不起来。 such...that结构中的such是个形容词,后接名词或名词短语。如: It was such a hot day that he went swimming. 如此热的天气,以至于他去游泳。 如果在名词之前有many,much,little,few时,用so,不用such。如: He has so little education that he is unable to get a job. 他受到的教育很少以至于他找不到工作。 【考题精练】 ( )1.[2018·江西] —WeChat Pay makes our life convenient. —Yes, we can buy things________we don’t take any money.? A.unless B.because C.even if D.so that 【答案】C 【解析】句意:微信支付使得我们生活很方便。是的,即便我们没有带太多的钱我们也可以买东西。本题考查的是连词。A.unless除非 ;B.because因为; C.even if 即使;D.so that 为了 故选C。 ( )2.[2018·无锡] He stayed up very late that night.________he woke up in the morning, the sun was already high up in the sky.? A.Until B.After C.While D.As 【答案】D 【解析】考查连词辨析,句意:那天晚上他熬夜到很晚,当他上午醒来的时候,太阳已经高挂在天空了。表示两个同步发展的动作和行为是应用“as”表示“当…时”故选D. ( )3.[2018·宜宾] She stopped talking________her mother came into the room.? A.as soon as B.unless C.though D.until 【答案】A 【解析】句意:她妈妈一进房间,她就不说话了。表示“一…就…”要用“as soon as”.故选A。 ( )4.[2018·苏州] —Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the nearest underground station? —Walk straight on________you see a white building.It’s right there.? A.though B.since C.until D.if 【答案】C 【解析】考查让步状语从句。Though尽管;since自从,until直到…才;if如果;根据句意选C。 ( )5.[2018·泰州] Mum won’t let Simon go out unless he promises to be back________10 o’clock tonight.? A.till B.before C.as D.since 【答案】B 【解析】句意:妈妈不会让西蒙出去的,除非他答应今晚十点前回来。表示“在…以前”,用before,故选B。 ( )6.[2018·云南] We don’t know the love of our parents____we become parents ourselves one day.? A.until B.after C.when D.since 【答案】A 【解析】本题考查的是连词。句意“直到将来某一天我们成为了父母,才懂得父母的爱。”表示“直到…才”用“not…until”故选A ( )7.[2018·昆明]________I have lost everything in this terrible earthquake, I have not lost my life.? A.Because B.So C.Although D.If 【答案】C 【解析】本题考查的是让步状语从句,表示“虽然…但是…”故选C。 ( )8.[2017·云南] You’ll get good grades________you work hard.? A.although B.so C.if D.unless 【答案】C 【解析】考查if引导的条件状语从句,符合主将从现原则。故选C。 ( )9.[2017·曲靖] The TV news talked about a car accident near our house________I was eating.? A.as soon as B.since C.while D.until 【答案】C 【解析】句意:我正在吃饭的时候电视新闻谈到了我们家附近的一起车祸。While“当…时”since “自从…以来”as soon as“一…就”until“直到”故选C。 ( )10.[2018·昆明] We will go for a picnic________it rains tomorrow.? A.since B.if C.until D.unless 【答案】D 【解析】句意:如果明天不下雨,我们将会去野餐。选项中只有unless表示“如果不”故选D。 ( )11.[2018·盐城] Work hard,________you’ll have a big success.? A.or B.but C.and D.yet 【答案】C 【解析】句意:努力工作你就会有很大的成功。表示顺承关系,故选C。 ( )12.[2018·黄石] I always get up early on weekdays,________I’m afraid I will be late for school.? A.because B.so C.though D.then 【答案】A 【解析】本题考查的是连词,句意:在周末我总是起的很早,因为我害怕我上学会迟到。表示因果关系的连词用because.故选A。 ( )13.[2018·黔南] Jack has learned more about teamwork(团队合作)___he joined the soccer team.? A.until B.since C.while D.though 【答案】B 【解析】句意:自从杰克加入了足球队,他就学会了团队合作。因为题干中的“has learned”是现在完成时态,故选B. ( )14.[2018·咸宁] —Harry Potter is________an interesting novel________I want to read it again.? —I agree with you. A.so; that B.too; to C.such; that D.as; as 【答案】A 【解析】句意《哈利波特》是一本非常有趣的小说,以至于我再想读一遍。故选A。 ( )15.[2018·河南] The words “racecar”, “kayak” and “level” are the same________they are read left to right or right to left.? A.since B.though C.unless D.whether 【答案】D 【解析】“whether”表示无论,不管…故选D。 ( )16. [2018·湖北十堰]—Mike,please turn down the music. ________ Dabao ________ Erbao are sleeping. —Sorry,I'll do it right away. A. Neither;nor B. Either;or C. Both;and D. Not only;but also 【答案】C 【解析】根据题干中的“are”确定是两者都。故选C。 ( )17. [2018·浙江温州]Betty kept silent at first ________ soon she joined the other girls,chatting and laughing. A. so B. but C. or D. because 【答案】B 【解析】根据句意可知:贝蒂一开始保持沉默,但后来他加入了其他女孩子们,边聊天边笑。表示转折关系“but”故选B。 ( )18. [2018·山西]When you're tired,you can get close to the nature ________ you'll feel relaxed in the beauty all around. A. or B. and C. but 【答案】B 【解析】根据句意前后表示的是顺承关系,故选B。 ( )19. [2018·上海]Peter spent half a day fishing by the river,________ he didn't catch anything. A. so B. or C. for D. but 【答案】D 【解析】句意:皮特花了半天的时间在河边钓鱼,但是他什么也没有钓到。表示转折关系,故选D。 ( )20. [2018·湖北黄冈]—Which show do you prefer,Running Man or The Reader? —The Reader,of course. ________ I ________ my brother likes it. A. Both;and B. Neither;nor C. Either;or D. Not only;but also 【答案】D 【解析】句意:《跑男》和《朗读者》你更喜欢哪个?当然是《朗读者》了,不仅我喜欢它而且我的弟弟也喜欢。A. Both;and 两者都,谓语动词复数; B. Neither;nor既不也不C. Either;or 或者…或者…D. Not only;but also不但而且;后三个都符合就近原则。因为是“likes”结合句意故选D。 1
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