[ID:4-5442458] 2019中考英语知识讲与练导学案—形容词和副词
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第 9 页 共 9 页 2019中考英语知识讲与练导学案—形容词和副词 In those boring years, all the beautiful things in my life were hidden, and now they are displayed in front of me.My existence has a new meaning. Failure is no longer my constant companion.Not long ago, since I began to remember that smile, emptiness, loneliness, weakness, sadness, annoyance and disappointment were no longer there.Others also smile to me and care for me. New words 1.displayed[d?sp'le?d] v陈列;显示( display的过去式和过去分词 ); 2.existence[?g?z?st?ns] n.存在, 3.constant [?k?nst?nt] adj.不断的,持续的;永恒的 4.companion [k?m?p?ni?n] n.同伴 5.emptiness[?emptin?s] n.空虚 6.loneliness['l??nl?n?s] n.孤独,寂寞 7.weakness[?wi:kn?s] n.弱点,软弱 8.sadness[?s?dn?s] n.悲哀,忧伤, 9.annoyance [??n???ns] n.恼怒,烦恼 译文: 在那些无聊的岁月中,我生命中一切美好的东西都隐藏起来,现在它们一一展现在我眼前。我的生存有了新的意义。失败不再是我的常伴。不久前,从我开始记住微笑时起,空虚、孤独、无力、悲伤、烦恼和失望就不复存在了。别人也同样向我微笑,对我关怀。 讲义纲要:1,本讲课程主要涉及形容词副词的用法和特殊使用情况; 2,教学任务:掌握形容词副词的用法、考点、难点。 知识概况:1,形容词(Adjective)主要用来描写或修饰名词或代词,表示人或事物的性质、?状态、特征 或属性,常用作定语,也可作表语、补语或状语。 2,副词(Adverb 简称adv.)是指在句子中表示行为或状态特征的词,用以修饰动词、形容词、其他副词或全句,表示时间、地点、程度、方式等概念。副词可分为:时间副词、频率副词、地点副词、方式副词、程度副词、疑问副词、连接副词、关系副词、表顺序的副词。 知识站点: 初中英语知识考点一览表 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 句子结构 时态 语态 名词 冠词 代词 形副 介词 数词 连词 非谓语动词 情态动词 宾语从句 定语从句 简单句 情景交际 知识精讲: 形容词副词 一、形容词 命题趋势:形容词是历年各省市中考必考知识点。从考查形式看,一般有单项选择、完形填空、词语运用等。所占分值通常为2~4分。从命题意图看,侧重考查考生在具体语言环境中使用形容词的能力。 考试重点:中考试题对形容词的考查涉及形容词原级,比较级和最高级的各种句型、形容词作定语的位置、易混淆的形容词用法辨析等。其中,形容词比较等级句型、形容词修饰不定代词something,anything,everything,nothing时的位置,易混淆的形容词用法辨析等是考查的热点。 1、形容词的一般用法 1.作定语,一般放在所修饰词的前面。 例如,It’s a cold and windy day. 2.作表语,放在系动词的后面。 例如,He looks happy today. 3.形容词修饰something,anything,nothing,everything等复合不定代词时,须放在其后。 例如,would you like something hot to drink? 4.表示长、宽、高、深及年龄的形容词,应放在相应的名词之后。 例如,how long is the river? it’s about two hundred metres long. 5.只能作表语的形容词:afraid害怕;alone独自的;asleep睡着的;awake醒着的;alive活着的;well健康的;ill病的;frightened害怕的 6.只能作定语的形容词:little小的;only唯一的;wooden木质的;woolen羊毛质的;elder年长的 7.貌似副词的形容词:lonely独自的;friendly友好的;lively生动的;lovely可爱的 8.复合形容词:snow-white雪白的 English-speaking说英语的;glass-topped玻璃罩的;full-time全日制的;well-known众所周知的;kind-hearted善良的;man-made人造的;take-away可以带走的;ten-year-old十岁的。 二、多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为: 限定词(冠词、指示代词、形容词性物主代词、数词)——描绘词(大小,长短,形状,新旧,长幼,颜色)——出处——材料性质——类别——名词 口诀一:限定描绘长大高,形状年龄和新老;颜色国籍跟材料,作用类别往后靠。 口诀二;美小圆旧黄,中国木书房。注:“美”代表“描述或性质类”形容词;“小”代表“大小、长短、高低、胖瘦类” 形容词;“圆”代表“形状类” 形容词;“旧”代表“新旧、年龄类” 形容词;“黄”代表“颜色类” 形容词;“中国”代表“来源、国籍、地区、出处类” 形容词;“木”代表“物质、材料、质地类” 形容词;“书”代表“用途、类别、功能、作用类” 形容词;“房”代表“中心名词”.例如: two beautiful new green silk evening dress 两件又新又漂亮的丝绸女士晚礼服;that hungry, tired, sleepy little match girl 那个饥饿、疲劳、困倦的卖火柴的小女孩;an old large brick dining hall 一个旧的红砖砌的大餐厅.  a small round table一张小圆桌a tall white building一幢高大的白色建筑物   a dirty old black shirt一件又脏又旧的黑色衬衣 a famous American medical school一个非常著名的美国医学院 口诀三:“限观形龄色国材” 3、形容词常用句型 1.“it’s +adj.+of+sb.+不定式”表示“某人(做某事)怎么样”。   注意:这一句型中常用描述行为者的性格、品质的形容词,如good(好的),kind(友善的),nice(友好的),polite(有礼貌的),clever(聪明的),foolish(愚蠢的),lazy(懒惰的),careful(细心的),careless(粗心的),right(正确的),wrong(错误的)等。   例如,it’s very kind of you to help me.(=you are very kind to help me.)你能帮助我,真好。 1.“it’s +adj.+of+sb.+不定式”表示“某人(做某事)怎么样”。   注意:这一句型中常用描述行为者的性格、品质的形容词,如good(好的),kind(友善的),nice(友好的),polite(有礼貌的),clever(聪明的),foolish(愚蠢的),lazy(懒惰的),careful(细心的),careless(粗心的),right(正确的),wrong(错误的)等。   例如,it’s very kind of you to help me.(=you are very kind to help me.)你能帮助我,真好。 注意:这一句型中常用的形容词有important(重要的),necessary(必要的),difficult(困难的),easy(容易的),hard(艰难的),dangerous(危险的),safe(安全的),useful(有益的),pleasant(舒适的),interesting(有趣的),impossible(不可能的)等。   例如,it’s not easy for them to learn a foreign language.(=to learn a foreign language is not easy for them.)对于他们来说学好一门外语不容易。 二、副词 考查重点:中考试题对副词的考查涉及常用副词的用法、副词等级的各种句型、易混淆的副词用法辨析等。其中,频度副词always,often,usually,sometimes,never,时间副词already,yet,still,just,疑问副词how,why,when,where,程度副词enough,quite以及too,also,either等的用法区别,副词比较等级句型是考查的热点。 一、副词的分类   副词按词汇意义可分为:   方式副词:well,fast,slowly,carefully,quickly   程度副词:very,much,enough,almost,rather,quite   地点副词:here,there,out,somewhere,abroad,home,   时间副词:today,early,soon,now,then,recently,still   频度副词:always,often,usually,sometimes,seldom,never   否定副词:no,not,neither,nor,   疑问副词:where,how,why   其他:also,too,only 形容词,副词的比较级、最高级 规则变化(略) 随堂训练: 选择填空: 1.Peter looked ___ when he learned that he hadn’t passed the final exam. A, sadly B, sad C, happily D, happy 2.Jack did badly at the school sports meeting. I did even ___. A, worse B, worst C, more bad D, more badly 3.Billy, is your mother cooking meat in the kitchen? It smells so ___! A, well B, badly C, nice D, pretty 4.The car stopped so ___ that the bus behind almost ran into it. A, closely B, immediately C, suddenly D, soon 5.We must finish cleaning the office ___. A, as soon as possible B, as quickly as soon C, as possible as soon D, as soon as possibly 6.What she said this time sounds ___. A, pleasantly B, nicely C, friendly D, truly 7.I didn’t work ___ my brother when I was young. A, as hard as B, harder C, hardest D, hardly 8.I’m going to move ___. It’s too noisy in our neighbourhood. A, somewhere quiet B, quiet somewhere C, anywhere D, quiet anywhere 9.Last year, 15 typhoons (台风) hit China and Khanun was ___. A, strong B, strongest C, stronger D, the strongest 10.It’s a good habit to keep the classroom ___ all the time. A, cleanly B, clearly C, clear D, clean 11.When class was over, our maths teacher came into the classroom and said, “Please stay at your seat. I have got ___ to announce.” A, nothing important B, important something C, important nothing D, something important 12.In the exam, the ___ you are, the ___ mistakes you’ll make. A, less careful, fewer B, more careful, less C, less careful, few D, more careful, fewer 13.What is ___ joke you have ever heard? A, more funny B, the more funny C, the most funny D, the funniest 14.This kind of material feels ___ silk. A, differently from B, the same to C, different as D, different from 15.A recent survey showed that Jingjing and Huanhuan were ___ among the five Olympic mascots (吉祥物). A, popular B, more popular C, most popular D, the most popular 16.A: Is there ___ in today’s newspaper? B: Yes. Shenzhou VI has been sent up into space successfully. A, nothing new B, anything new C, new nothing D, new anything 17.Visitors in the orchard can eat as ___ fruit as they want. A, many B, more C, much D, most 18.All of us were very ___ when we heard the ___ news. A, excited, exciting B, excited, excited C, exciting, exciting D, exciting, excited 19.Eddie, my best frind ___ Ben. A, is as high as B, works as careful as C, doesn’t sing as beautifully as D, writes more better than 20.Tom never does his homework ___ Alice. So he makes more mistakes. A, as carefully as B, so careful as C, less carefully than D, more careful than 21.Water pollution is one of ___ in our country. A, serious problem B, the more serious problems C, most serious problems D, the most serious problems 22.The pizza was too small, so she decided to look for ___ to eat. A, large something B, something else C, something other D, other something 23.We are too tired and hungry. So our steps are getting ___. A, slow and slower B, slower and slowest C, slower and slower D, more and more slowly 24.Most children in our kindergarten like to play with Barbie girls. They look so ___. A, nicely B, happily C, beautifully D, lovely 25.In winter, Chinese students like to kick the Jianzi (毽子) to keep themselves ___. A, warm B, warmly C, cold D, coldly 26.In order to keep healthy, you should eat ___ fast food, ___ fresh vegetables and take enough excises. A, fewer, fewer B, fewer, more C, less, more D, less, fewer 27.Don’t worry, My sister is ___ to take care of little Betty. A, enough carefully B, enough careful C, carefully enough D, careful enough 28.Of all the students in our class, Jack is ___. A, taller B, tallest C, the tallest D, very tall 29.In order to get full marks, Tim always does his lessons very ___. A, more carefully B, most carefully C, much carefully D, carefully 30.A: Is there ___ in today’s newspaper? B: Yes. It says that President Hu Jintao has reached Washington. A, anything important B, any important thing C, important anything D, any thing important 词性变换: 1.I don’t like him and it would be ______________ of me to do the opposite. (honest) 2.Our holidays in Thailand were really ______________ and unforgettable. (enjoy) 3.The government is doing everything possible to help those ______________ people after the earthquake. (home) 4.Put on the glasses so that you can see the word on the blackboard ______________. (clear) 5.The war made millions of people ______________. (home) 6.What is the most ______________ animal in the forest? (power) 7.It is ______________ to travel by train than by air. (cheap) 8.It is ______________ for him to finish the job in two hours. He is so slow. (possible) 9._________, over 28,000 civilians (平民) lost their lives during the three-year war in Iraq. (sad) 10.I feel quite comfortable at home when it is raining ______________ outside. (heavy) 11.Jack is such a ______________ fellow, for he always leaves this or that at the office. (forget) 12.It is not ______________ to eat food with Sudan I (苏丹红1号). (safely) 13.Lily is ______________ enough to get the prize in the 2006 Shanghai Junior High School English Contest. (luck) 14.We’d better drive our cars ______________ on rainy days. (slow) 15.One starry night, when the seven little dwarfs went back home from work, they found something ______________ at once. (usual) 语音训正: 双元音/au/的例句 1. If you sell the cow, you sell her milk too. 杀鸡取卵。 2. Knowledge makes humble, ignorance makes proud.? 知识使人谦卑,盲目使人自大。? 3. Out of office, out of danger. 无官一身轻。 双元音/?i/的例句 1. Spare the rod, spoil the child. 不打不成器。 2. Every coin has two sides. 凡事皆有两面性。
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