[ID:4-6025602] [精]中考英语二轮语法专项系列导学案1:冠词
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中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 九年级英语语法专项系列导学案1: 专题1:冠词 一、命题趋势分析 通过分析期中、期末以及近几年中考试题可以看出,冠词为考试单选题常设考点,基本每次大型考试均有涉及。设题形式多为简单句,一个短句或两个单句的形式均有,考查以冠词基本用法为主。 高频考点为:①定冠词the(特指);②不定冠词a/an的区别;③零冠词;复习时应以冠词的基本用法为主,同时兼顾习语及固定搭配等特殊用法,做好考试准备。 二、常见考点梳理: 冠词的位置:冠词,主要用在名词前面,帮助说明名词所指的人或物,不能离开名词独立存在,因此,冠词是名词的标志。 冠词的分类:冠词分为定冠词(the)和不定冠词(a/an)。其中,定冠词the,表特指;不定冠词(a/an),表泛指,一般用于单数名词前。常见的零冠词,是指不用冠词的情况。 考点1:不定冠词a/an 不定冠词有a和an两种形式。一般情况下,a用在以辅音音素开头的单词前,an用在以元音音素开头的单词前。 有些单词虽以辅音字母开头,但使用不定冠词an,如hour和honest以辅音字母开头,但h并不发音,因此用an;有些单词虽然以元音字母开头,使用不定冠词a。如:useful和university以元音字母开头,但使用a。 辨一辨,练一练: — Do you know Robert? — Yes, he is_______ university student. He likes running for______ hour every morning. A.a; a B. a; an C. an; an D. an; a 答案: B 解析:考查不定冠词a/an的用法 解题思路:(1) 明确选择标准; 选择不定冠词a/an取决于() A. 单词的第一个字母是元音字母还是辅音字母; B. 单词的第一个字母的第一个音标是元音还是辅音 C. 单词的第一个音标是元音还是辅音 (2) 试总结u开头单词前的a/an选择问题 ① [?] an umbrella; an unhappy/unhealthy boy ② [j] a university; a useful book 常见用法为: 泛指(数量中的)“一个”或 (类别中的) “一类”。 如: He is an office worker. (本句中,an表数量中的一个,即一名工人) A plane is a machine. (本句中,a表类别中的一类,而不能理解为一架飞机) 用于第一次出现的人或物前,意为“一个”,如:This is a dictionary.这是一本词典。 辨析:事物第一次出现时用a/an,当同事物再次出现时需用the。 辨一辨,练一练: (2013 聊城中考)There is _____ American boy in our class and _____ boy can speak good Chinese. A. an/the B. a/an C. an/an D. a/the 答案: A 解析:根据句意得知,我们班有一位美国男孩,第一次出现且American的第一个因素是元音,故选择an。这个男孩汉语说得很好,第二次出现,表特制,选the。 3.用在序数词前,意为“又一, 再一” 如: He failed twice, but he still wanted to have a third try. 4.用在重量、长度、时间等单位名词前,表示“每一”,相当于 every。如: once a week每周一次。 5.用于某些固定短语中。如:a few一些; have a good time玩得高兴; have a rest/break休息一会; take a 1ook看一看;leave a message 留口信quite a few,相当多;go for a walk去散步;make a telephone call打电话 ??????????????????????????????????学以致用?????????????????????????????????? 1.— Look! Who's _____ boy over there? — Oh, he is my cousin, Bob. He is _____ honest boy. a: the B the: a C the; an D. a: an 解析:上句中over there用于修饰或限定boy,指那边的那位男孩,表特指,选the;下句中,他是一位诚实的男孩,honest的第一个音素为元音,所以选择C。 2. — Kate, are you _______ only child in your family? — Yes, but_______ new baby is on the way. A; the B an: the C the; a D the; the 解析:根据句意得知,Kate是家里唯一的孩子,表特指,选the;一个新婴儿正在路上,且new的第一个音是辅音/n/,所以选择a。 练一练,想一想: 1. _______ apple a day keeps the doctor away. A. A B. An C. The D.不填 2. Vera and Mike come from ___ European country. They are in ___ same school now. A. a; the B. an; the C. the; the D.an; an 3. — Does Heze have _______ airport? —No, but we can take ___ bus to Jinan or Zhengzhou. A.an; the B an; a C. the; a D a; a 考点2:定冠词the 1.表特指,用于被介词短语或限制性定语所修饰的名词前, 指特定的人或物。如: The man on the right is my father.右边的男人是我的父亲。上句中,介词短语on the right修饰名词man,表特指。 2.特指上文已提到的或谈话双方都知道的人或物前。如:On the right there was a bed, and on the bed there was a boy,在右边有张床,这张床上有个玩具。 想一想,练一练: — Kate,give me ____ book, please. — OK, here you are, Tom. A. a B. an C. the D. / 答案:A 解析:上述情景对话中,Tom与Kate谈论的对象明确,且对话双方都已知晓,选the。 3.用在乐器名词之前。如: She plays the piano well..她弹钢琴弹得很好。 4.①用在可数名词单数前,表示某一类人或物;②和某些形容词连用,表示一类人,在意义上常是复数;③用在姓氏的复数前,指一家人或夫妇。如:The dog is more useful than the cat.狗比猫更有用。the old老年人; the sick病人; the rich富人;the disabled 残疾人;the Smiths史密斯夫妇 5.用在序数词及形容词或副词的最高级前。如: the first floor第一层; the tallest tree最高的树 辨析:一般情况下,序数词前用the,意为“第……”,但不定冠词a/an也可用在序数词前,意为“又一, 再一”。 6.表示世界上独一无二的事物,用在江河、海洋、湖泊、山脉等名称前。如: the Pacific太平洋; the sun太阳 the world世界。 7.用于某些固定搭配中。如: all the year round整年; in the end最后; on the whole整体上,大体上;by the way顺便说一下; in the train在火车上;in the sun在阳光中; at the age of…在……岁时 ??????????????????????????????????学以致用?????????????????????????????????? 1. — Linda, have you heard _____song Little Apple? —Is it the one Chopsticks Brothers sang last year? Maybe it's _____ most popular song in 2014. A. a: the B. the; the C a: an D the: a 答案:B 解析:歌曲小苹果为特指,选the;popular的最高级前加定冠词the。 2. In Chinese, _____date 5-20 has a similar pronunciation to "I love you", making it _____ lucky and romantic day. A. a; the B 不填; a C. the; a D a; 不填 答案:C 解析:5-20为特定一天,特指,选the;根据句意得知,使得它成为一个幸运而又浪漫的日子,选a。 练一练,想一想: 1. — Have you watched _____ TV program Running Man? — Yes, it’s so excellent that I want to watch it __ second time. A. a; the B. a; an C. the; an D. the; a 2. — Do you know ____ woman in red? —Yes, she is a professor of ___university. A. the; a B. a; an C. the; an D.不填; the 3. This afternoon my grandfather bought a magazine and a newspaper. The magazine is in his bag, but he can’t remember where he put ___ newspaper. A. a B.an C. the D. 不填 考点3:零冠词 1.在三餐、球类运动和娱乐活动前,不加冠词。如:have breakfast吃早餐,play soccer踢足球 辨析:表球类运动时,不加冠词;表球类物品时,可加冠词。一般情况下,三餐前不加冠词,但三餐名词前有定语修饰词时,可加冠词。 2. 当by与交通工具连用时,后直接加交通工具的单数形式,不加冠词。如:by bus 乘公共汽车 温馨提示:直接+单数 在月份、季节、节日、假期、日期、星期等表示时间的名词前,不加冠词,如:in August in summer on Sunday。 如果季节、月份等日期名词前有限定词时,加定冠词,如:He came into Beijing in the winter of 1990. 4. 在人名、国名、称呼语或头衔等专有名词前,不加冠词。如:China is a great country.中国是一个伟大的国家。 5.某些短语中有无the,含义不同。如:go to school/go to the school; at table/at the table; in hospital/in the hospital; in front of/in the front of; by sea/by the sea; ??????????????????????????????????学以致用?????????????????????????????????? 1. —Does your father go to work by ___ car every day? —No, he sometimes takes ___ bus. A. a; the B. the;a C.不填a D. a;不填 答案:C 解析:当by与交通工具连用时,后直接加交通工具的单数形式,不加冠词,故选C。 2.—Will you stay for ____ supper with us? —Sure, I’d love to. Home cooking is just what I like. A. a B. an C. the D.不填 答案:D 解析:一般情况下,三餐前不加冠词。 练一练,想一想: 1. It’s a good habit to go to ___ bed early and get up early. A. a B. an C. the D.不填 2. —Do you play ___ piano in your free time? —No, I like sports. I often play ___ soccer with my friends. A. 不填; the B. the, 不填 C the; the D. a; a 3. ____man in a black hat is my PE teacher. He often plays ___football with us. A. A; the B. The;a C The; 不填 D. A; 不填 三、真题提升练: 1. Mr. Wang, our English teacher has ___ 18-year-old daughter. A. an B. a C. the D.不填 2. — You’ve dropped ____ “s” in the word “necessary”. — Oh, ___ letter “s” is doubled. A. a; a B. a; the C. an; the D. the; the 3.—How was ________ dinner at Mike’s house? —It was great. Mike’s mum is _________ wonderful cook. A. a; the B. the; a C. the; the D. a; an 4.—Listen! Someone is playing ______ piano. —Wow! ______beautiful music! I like it very much A. a; what B. an; How C. the; What D. 不填; How 5. Gelivable (给力) has become ______ hot word this year. A. a B. an C. the D. 不填 6. London will hold ______ 30th Olympic Games in July, 2012. A. a B. an C. the D. 不填 7. This is ______ 3-D printer. And this is an artificial (人工的) ear. Can you believe that scientists printed this artificial ear by this 3-D printer? A. a B. an C. the D. 不填 8.—Do you know________ girl in red? —Sure. She's my classmate Mary. A. the B. a C. an D. 不填 9. —Lily, there is _________ schoolbag near the window. Is it yours? —Yes, it is. Thank you! A. a B. an C. the D. 不填 10. A good beginning makes _________ good ending. A. a B. an C. the D. 不填 11. Samaranch, who is __ old friend of Chinese people, died on April 21, 2010. A. a B. an C. the D. 不填 12.—Mum, I want to buy ________ new toy car. —But ________ old one is still running, isn’t it? A. the; the B. the; an C. a; the D. a; an 13. Mary was born in 1998 and she began to play __ guitar at the age of seven. A. a B.不填 C.the D.an 14.—What do you think of the boy? —He is ___ honest student today and ___ useful man tomorrow. A. a; an B.an; a C.an; an D. a; a 15. Look!There is ___ bottle on the table. A. a B.an C.the D.不填 参考答案: 考点一:1. B 2. A 3.B 考点二:1. D 2. A 3. C 考点三:1. D 2.B 3.C 真题提升练:1. A 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. C 7. A 8. A 9. A 10. A 11. B 12. C 13. C 14. B 15. A 21世纪教育网 www.21cnjy.com 精品试卷·第 2 页 (共 2 页) 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)
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