[ID:4-5369588] 中考英语二轮专题复习 名词类单词、词组辨析
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第一部分 中考常用单词、 词组用法辨析 名词类单词、词组辨析 ★ 1. advice, suggestion 【辨析】 (1)advice多指“忠告;劝告”,是不可数名词,不可用an, many,a few等直接修饰,也不能在其后加s,但可以用some, much, a piece of等直接修饰。常见搭配有give some advice, ask for advice等。 (2)suggestion 多指供人参考的想法,是可数名词,可用a, some, many,a few等直接修饰,有复数形式。常见搭配有give a suggestion, make a suggestion等。 注意:advise与suggest分别为advice, suggestion的动词,意为“向……建议”。 【举例】 The lawyer gave me some helpful advice. 律师给了我一些有用的建议。 Do you have any suggestions on how to solve the problem properly?关于如何妥当地解决这个问题,你有什么建议吗? 【演练】 ( )1. Could you please give some _______ to the _______ teachers? A. advice; men B. advices; men C. suggestion; man D. suggestions; man A ( )2. I made a few _______ about how we could spend the afternoon. A. advice B. advise C. suggests D. suggestions ( )3. I have some problems with my English writing. Could you give me a piece of _______? A. advice B. decisions C. information D. suggestion D A ★2. cloth,clothes,clothing,dress,suit 【辨析】 (1)cloth意为“布;布料”,没有复数形式。当表示“一块布料”时,常用搭配为:a piece of cloth。当cloth指具体用途的“布”时,是可数名词。如:a table cloth一块桌布。 (2)clothes统指各种衣服,包括内衣、外套、裤子,还包括帽子、鞋袜、手套之类。它是复数名词,不能与表示具体数目的数词连用。当表示“一套衣服”时,常用搭配为:a suit of clothes。 (3)clothing是衣物的总称,是集体名词,只有单数形式。 (4)dress意为“礼服;连衣裙”等,指比较正式的服装。 (5)suit意为“套装;西装”,一般多指男士套装。 此外,dress,suit还可以作动词。dress作动词时,意为“打扮;给……穿衣”;suit作动词时,意为“适合;满足”等。 【举例】 Her clothes are made of fine cloth. 她的衣服布料精良。 This clothing is needed in warm countries. 暖和的国家需要这种衣物。 The black dress she wore at the party was beautiful. 晚会上她穿的那件黑色连衣裙非常漂亮。 James looked handsome in that gray suit. 詹姆斯穿着那套灰色西服看起来真帅气。 【演练】 ( )1. This woman cleaned the floor with an old _______. A. clothes B. clothing C. dress D. cloth ( )2. Cristina is an elegant lady,she often wears beautiful _______. A. cloth B. clothes C. suits D. clothing D B ( )3. The person opposite the street,who wears a _______,is a woman,not a man. A. dress B. clothing C. clothes D. cloth A ★3. people, person,man 【辨析】 (1)people表示“人;人们”时是集体名词,表复数概念,不能表示“一个人”,只有当表示两个或两个以上的人时才可用people,如two people意为“两个人”。people还可以表示“民族”,此时有单、复数之分, one people 意为“一个民族”, two peoples意为“两个民族”。 (2)person是个体名词,它泛指man,woman或child中的任何一个,其复数形式是persons。 (3)man意为“男人”,与woman相对,其复数形式为men;man也可表示“人;人类”,此时man用作单数名词,且不加冠词。 【举例】 This hall is spacious enough to hold at least 1,000 people. 这个大厅足够宽敞,至少可以容纳一千人。 We all know that there are 56 peoples in China. 我们都知道中国有五十六个民族。 Who is the youngest person in your class? 你们班里年龄最小的人是谁? Men and women are equal. 男女平等。 【演练】 ( )1. An old _______ came in. She looked pale. A. people B. man C. person D. persons C ( )2. Some _______ in this town speak Cantonese (广东话). A. people B. person C. peoples D. child ( )3. There are more than 20 _______ in Yunnan Province. A. people B. peoples C. persons D. person A B ★4. family, house, home 【辨析】 以上三者都牵涉到“家”。family意为“家;家人”,指家庭或家庭成员。house是指居住的建筑物(房屋、住宅),可以购买、出租或出售。home意为“家”,带有眷恋等感情色彩。 【举例】 How many people are there in Simon’s family? 西蒙家有几口人? He has bought a house in America. 他在美国买了一幢房子。 She gave up her job and stayed at home to care for her children. 她放弃了工作,留在家里照看孩子们。 【演练】 ( )1. My _______ have lived in this village for over ten years. A. house B. family C. home D. parent ( )2. She does her homework at ______ every night. A. family B.house C.home D. room B C ( )3. There is a big tree in front of my _______. A. family B. house C. home D. address B ★5. street, avenue, road, path, way, route 【辨析】 (1)street意为“街道”,指城市或村镇中两旁有房屋的路。 (2)avenue意为“通道;大街;林荫路”,在英国指通往乡村住宅,两旁栽树的小路。 (3)road意为“马路”,常指城市与城市之间的大路或乡村大路。 (4)path意为“道路;小路;轨道”,指未经开凿,通过践踏而自然形成的“小路”。 (5)way意为“道路;路线;路途”,指去某地的走法,又可泛指在途中。on the way to…意为“在某人去……的路途中”。 (6)route意为“路线”,通常是迂回的,可以包括数条道路或街道,有时甚至包括小路、小巷,使用范围也较广。 【举例】 Go along the street, you’ll see it on your right. 顺着这条街道走,它就在你的右边。 The Fifth Avenue is a good place for shopping. 第五大道是逛街的一个好去处。 There are many cars on the road. 马路上有许多汽车。 The path led up a steep hill. 小路通向一座陡峭的山丘。 Which is the way to East Park, please? 请问到东方公园怎么走? I met a friend on my way home yesterday. 昨天在回家的路上我遇见了一个朋友。 This bus route covers a large number of streets. 这路公共汽车行经许多街道。 【演练】 ( )1. How can I get there? I don’t know the _______. A. road B. street C. way D. path ( )2. There are many shops in the _______. A. route B. street C. path D. road C B ( )3. That postman is in charge of this _______. A. road B. way C. route D. avenue C ★6. noise, voice, sound 【辨析】 (1)noise意为“噪音;喧闹声”,常指不悦耳、不和谐的嘈杂声。 (2)voice指人的嗓音或说话、唱歌时发出的声音。 (3)sound泛指人们听到的各种“声音”,可以是人或动物的声音,也可以是大自然的任何声音。 【举例】 Don’t make any noise! 别吵闹! Sherry, the lovely girl, has a really sweet voice. 雪莉,那个可爱的女孩,有着相当甜美的嗓音。 Light travels much faster than sound. 光的传播速度比声音快得多。 【演练】 ( )1. Celion Dion is a fantastic singer. She has an amazing _______. A. noise B. voice C. sound D. music B ( )2. Can you hear the _______ of the river? A. sound B. noise C. voice D. noisy ( )3. Stop that _______, noisy boys! A. voice B. sound C. noise D. music A C ★7. problem,question 【辨析】 两者都可表示“问题”。problem指说话者认为难以解决的问题,常与动词 solve或settle(解决)搭配使用。question则指说话者需要寻找答案的问题,常与动词ask或answer连用。 此外,problem可用于指数学、化学或物理等的习题,而question却无此含义。 【举例】 The problem is difficult to be solved. 这个问题很难解决。 May I ask you some questions?我可以问你一些问题吗? Can you work out this chemistry problem?你能算出这道化学题吗? 【演练】 ( )1. —Can you fix this? —No _______. A. problem B. problems C. question D. questions A ( )2. The president refuses to answer further _______ on this subject. A. question B. questions C. problems D. problem ( )3. The physics _______ Max worked out was really difficult. He was a genius! A. questions B. problems C. problem D. question B C ★8. work, job 【辨析】 两者都可指“工作”。job指具体的职业或零工,是可数名词,a job表示“一份工作”。work通常用作动词,作名词时常用作不可数名词,a piece of work表示“一份工作”。 注意:work表示“著作;作品”之意时是可数名词,其复数为works。 【举例】 First of all, I should thank you all for your hard work. 首先,我应该感谢大家的辛勤工作。 In my opinion, this is Rembrandt’s greatest work. 在我看来,这是伦勃朗最伟大的作品。 Work hard, and you’ll get a promotion. 努力工作,这样你会升职的。 I heard you had changed jobs. 我听说你换了几份工作。 【演练】 ( )1. It’s not easy to find a good _______. A. job B. work C. jobs D. works ( )2. He _______ as a worker. A. work B.job C. works D. jobs A C ( )3. She has a lot of _______ to do today. A. thing B. work C. works D. job ( )4. Everyone’s done an excellent _______ in today’s debate(辩论). A. jobs B. job C. work D. thing B B ★9. desk, table 【辨析】 (1)desk 意为“课桌;书桌;写字台”,指读书、写字或办公用的桌子,一般都带有抽屉。另外,在车站等公共场所,专门提供服务的地方也可称为desk。如: Information Desk咨询处。 (2)table意为“桌子;餐桌;台”,指供吃饭、游戏、工作或安放其他各种东西的桌子或台子。从广义的角度来说,它包括desk在内。 【举例】 There are fifty desks in the classroom. 教室里有50张课桌。 We all sat at the same table. 我们同桌吃饭。 【演练】 ( )1. There are three plates on the _______. A. desk B. kitchen C. table D. drawer C ( )2. The speaker had several pages of notes in front of him on the _______. A. microphone B. table C. desk D. screen C ★10. earth, ground, field, land 【辨析】 (1)earth意为“地;地球;泥土”,它着重指“大地”,以区别于“天空”,也可以指区别于坚硬岩石的泥土。 (2)ground意为“地;地面”,主要指大地表面。不论是泥地、沙地或水泥地,均可用这个词表示,也可用来指运动场地。 (3)field意为“田;地”,常用于指种植农作物的“农田;土地”,有时也可指研究、活动的“范围;领域”。 (4)land意为“陆地”,与河流和海洋相对,也可指“土地”,还可以表示“国土;国家”。 【举例】 The earth moves round the sun. 地球围绕太阳转。 The ground is covered with leaves in the woods. 树林的地面上落满了树叶。 They are working in the fields. 他们正在农田里劳动。 We travelled by land until we reached the sea. 我们从陆路去一直旅行到大海。 【演练】 ( )1. Everyone knows that the _______ is bigger than the moon. A. field B. land C. earth D. ground ( )2. Fish cannot live on _______, they live in the water. A. floor B. land C. field D. earth ( )3. The little boy was lying on the _______, he looked really relaxed. A. ground B. field C. earth D. land C B A ★11. evening, night 【辨析】 两者都可意为“晚上”,但并不完全相同,它们的区别在于: (1)evening意为“傍晚;晚上”,尤其是指下午6点到晚上10点前,一般指晚上就寝之前的这段时间。它的反义词是morning。 (2)night意为“夜晚;黑夜”,是指晚上10点至午夜这段时间。它的反义词是day。 注意:下午下了班或过了正常工作时间是evening;到了睡觉的时候便从evening转为night。 【举例】 All he did that evening was sit around the house. 那天晚上他所做的就是闲坐在家里。 We sleep during the night and work during the day. 我们夜里睡觉,白天工作。 【演练】 ( )1. Time to sleep. Good _______, sweetheart. A. evening B. night C. day D. job ( )2. Supper will be served from 5:00 to 6:00 in the _______. A. afternoon B. evening C. night D. midnight B B ★12. boat, ship 【辨析】 (1)boat 意为“船;艇”,是普通用语,主要指用桨、帆或引擎推进的小船、小艇,但有时也指大轮船。 (2)ship 意为“船;舰”,多指大的航海船只。 【举例】 We crossed the river by boat. 我们乘船过河。 The ship is at sea. 船正在航海。 【演练】 ( )1. —Let’s go to row a _______ in the park this afternoon. —Great idea! A. vessel B. ship C. boat D. train ( )2. They went from England to America by _______. A. boat B. a car C. foot D. ship C D ★13. sport, game, match, race 【辨析】 (1)sport通常指“户外运动”“户外的游戏或娱乐活动”,以锻炼为主,如篮球、足球、田径运动、跳高、游泳等。其复数形式sports可指运动会。 (2)game(美式用法)意为“游戏;运动;比赛”,指两队之间有组织的比赛,强调是为了娱乐而运动,或指以比赛胜负为主的运动。 (3)match(英式用法),意为“竞赛;比赛”,大多数是指正式比赛。 (4)race主要是指赛跑、赛马(车、船等)的比赛。通常是指速度方面的比赛、从起点到终点的竞赛。 【举例】 Fishing is my favourite sport. 钓鱼是我特别喜爱的一项运动。 Some children were playing games on the bank. 河岸上有些孩子正在玩耍。 There are two basketball matches next Sunday morning. 下周日早上有两场篮球比赛。 He will take part in an important race across the Atlantic. 他将参加一次重大的横渡大西洋的比赛。 【演练】 ( )1. People all around the world enjoy _______. A. sport B. game C. match D. sports D ( )2. Let’s play the _______. A. match B. game C. race D. sport ( )3. They were strong and won the boat _____. A. sport B. game C. match D. race B D
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