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  • ID:3-6227027 2020届上海市复旦附中高三上数学综合练习(一)及答案(2019.9)

    高中数学/月考专区/高三

    答案 复旦附中高三数学综合练习() 20199 1.在(+2x)的展开式中,x 2.已知全集U=R,集合A={x|x<2},B={x|x<0,那么AICB 3.函数y=1的定义城是 数y=2x2-2(x≤-1)的反函数是 不等式a2+bx+c>0的解集是(-3),则不等式cx2+bx+a<0的解集为 6.若集合M={xx2+x-6=0},N={a-1=0},且NsM,则实数a的值为 7若函数y=x2-3x-4的定义域为[m,值域为25,4,则m的取值范围是 8.已知+2a+ +1对于任意的x∈(1:+∞)恒成立,则a的取值范围是 9.设关于x的不等式a+b>0的解集为(.+),则关于x的不等式x-53-6>0的解集 10.已知函数y=f(x)满足xy>0,且4x2-9y2=36,则该函数的定义域是 1l设Q是有理数,集合x={x|x=a+bE,ab∈Q,x≠0},在下列集合中 xxe;②已21x;③红+x1x,x1;④{x1x,x∈n 12.设集合I=12345},若非空集合满足:①A≤I;②4|≤mn(4(其中4表 4表示集合A中的最小元素),则称A为的一个好子集 I的所有好子集的个数为 实数a、b、c满足c0,x2>0,其+x2=}}(其中为正常数) (1)设l=xx2,求u的取值范围 (2)求证:当k21时,不等式(-xX-x2)≤(x--)对任意(x2x2)∈D恒成立 (3)求使不等式(-xX-x)2(个)对任意(x)∈D恒成立的k的范围

    • 2019-09-12
    • 下载0次
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  • ID:7-6193712 天津市南开翔宇学校2019-2020学年度上学期初三化学期初检测试卷(pdf版有答案)

    初中化学/开学考专区/九年级上册

    翔宇学校2019-2020学年度上学期初三化学 南开 期初检测试卷 八本试卷分为第1卷选择题)和第卷(非选择题)两部分。涕第卷第订页至第5页,第Ⅱ卷第5 页至第8页。试卷满分100分。考时时间6分钟 答卷前,考生务必将自己的姓名班级萼号填写在答题卡上。 第I卷(选择题共60分) 时深内融二,内一 选择题(本大题共20题,每小题2分共分点每小题给出的四个选项中,只有 个最符合题意,请将其序号涂在答题卡上。 奠定近代化学基础的是() A.分子原子论 B.元素周期,C物质不灭定律D,质量守间定律 2.下列变化前者是物理变化原者是化学变化的是点 A钢铁生锈、煤的燃烧y磁识B3冰融化成水物的光合鲜用 C火药爆炸、粉确不将2,300)油挥发源衣服咏手 3.加热某固体物质,产生了气体,对这一变化的分析正确的是() A.一定是化学变化、B.一定是物理变化、C.可能是化学变化D定不是化学变化 4.下列属于化学性质的是() B.甲烷密度小于空气密度 D氯化氢气体极易溶于水 5.关于错烛燃烧实验的现像描述课的是5) A.放出大量的热 B.发出黄白色火焰 eC生感一氧化碳和水 D火焰媳灭后有白樱飘出 6.能鉴别三瓶末知气体是空气、氧气和演化碳气体的方法是(. A.分别插入燃着的小木条 B.分别通入滑清石灰水中 C.分别插入带火星的小木条 D.观察颜色 7,下列有关仅器使用或用途的叙述中正确的是( A3试管:加热时所盛液体体积不超过试管容积的23 20192020年上学期期初考试第菲页共8页 B锥形瓶常用作大量试剂的反应容器可用酒精灯直接加热 C.酒精灯:熄灭酒精灯时可用嘴吹灭 D.玻璃棒:常用于搅拌过滤中引流或转移固体 8.正确量取85m的液体;应选用的合适仪器有() ①mL量筒量②10mL量简m量简④胶头滴管 B.①④ C.③④()改D②④穿 9.下列各图是初中化学常见的几个实验操作,其错误的是 速m素 0若在试管中加入23mL液体再加热正确的操作顺序是g) ①点燃酒精灯进行加热 子得在试管电加入m液体卖中 ③用试管夹夹在试管的中上部④将试剂瓶的瓶盖盖好,放在原处 B.③②④① g9③A 1.)试管加热固体药品时,有时因操作不当而出现试管炸裂的现象天下列操作不会造成试管炸裂的有 直科当实其家那读常垂,5 A.用酒精灯内焰加热 时:B:加热前没给试管预热空是3 C.试管口略向下倾斜 rD2加前试管外有水公中产空尽 12.某学生从量简中取溶液,取之前俯视,量简内液体体积为amL,倒出一部分后,仰视,量简内液体 体积为bmL,实际取出的液体体积为(2中本) A等于(b携能Bem它凤,C索叫D:无结确房 13.下列物质属于纯律物的是 管盐隐丽合骨且个一的意页 A洁净的气指米一氧化碳A即e石纸有平学,水 4.托盘天平调零后,在左盘村纸上置氧化制粉来,右衬纸上累1念5码:标尺示数如下 此时天平平衡,测被称量的氧化铜质量为() 别,果2一尝A B.77g g D.27g 20192020年上学期期初考试第2页共8页 A BCcC olly CC A A0 C Wlo ADDAC 2630 BACCC A 1lIsC13 33D (WLo BC ADD 3}.幻机:皱氢转浪 育号: he Al CI He Ag 32的少 9锌),子、不弟阅、十 ④段面处修 外格炮心 ②水英气 3鸩十氧小=氧乙 汞十氧胞氧 2.(1)小千 ()(⑨ 36.(1)涌(2)元法确 37.()15(2) 2.(13多红大量的园 十氧苞点卷 2角化 ()彬置气 (4)乡2

    • 2019-09-03
    • 下载0次
    • 1607.37KB
  • ID:4-6096772 人教版高中英语选修六辅导讲义 Unit5 The power of nature词汇篇及语法篇(教师版+学生版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修5、选修6/选修6/Unit 5 The power of nature

    Unit5 The power of nature-词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 单词讲解: volcano n. pl. volcanoes an active volcano活火山 an extinct volcano死火山 a dormant volcano休眠火山 volcanology火山学 volcanologist火山学家 erupt 1)(火山)爆发,喷发 Mount Vesuvius hasn’t erupted for a good many years. 维苏威火山已经多年没有爆发了。 2)(搏斗,暴力事件,噪音等)突然发生,爆发 Violence in street can erupt for no apparent reason. 街头暴力可以在没有明显原因的情况下爆发。 erupt into laughter/shouting/crying, etc.突然大笑/叫喊/大哭 He erupted into laughter without any reason. 他毫无理由地大笑起来。 alongside alongside: with? “和” It’s a pleasure to work alongside such men. 与这样的人一起工作是一件乐事。 beside “在...旁边” The boat pulled up alongside the dock. adv. 在旁边;沿着;靠拢着;并排地 The police car pulled up alongside. 那辆警车在旁边停下 equipment n.配备,装备 The complete equipment of the new hospital will take a year. 把这个新医院的设备配齐要化一年时间。 equip v.装备,使有准备使能够做某事 Equip ourselves with knowledge Equip the army with modern weapons Doing housework is a real bore. 做家务真是令人烦透了。 appoint???? vt.任命,指派????? appoint sb. as/to be They appointed him (to be) manager. 他们任命他为经理。 约定,指定;安排 Our visitors arrived at the appointed time. 我们的来宾在约定的时间到达了。 appointment???? n. (尤指正式的)约会???+with+to-v I have an appointment with them in the evening. 今晚我与他们有个约会。 evaluate 评估,评价 I cannot evaluate his ability without seeing his work. 没见过他的工作,我无法评估他的能力。 evaluation n. 评估,评价 They made an intensive evaluation of the healthcare program. burn to the ground 完全(楼房等)烧毁 He has no place to live in because his house has been burnt to the ground. 他无处栖身因为他的房子被烧掉了。 与burn搭配的常用词组有: ①burn away烧掉 Half of the candle had burnt away. 蜡烛已烧掉一半了。 ②burn down 渐渐烧完 The room grew colder as the fire burnt down. 随着炉火逐渐减弱,屋里越来越冷。 ③burn sth. down 把……烧得精光 Don‘t forget to turn off the gas----you might burn the house down. 别忘了关煤气,不然会把房子烧掉。 ④burn up 烧得更旺 He put more wood on the fire to make it burn up. 他往火里续了些木柴,让它烧得旺些。 ⑤burn sth. up 把……烧掉 He has burnt up all the garden rubbish. 他已把花园里的垃圾全烧掉了。 fountain 泉水;喷泉;水源 A beautiful stone fountain was set in the middle of the garden. 花园中央砌造了一个漂亮的石头喷水池。 (知识等的)源泉;根源[(+of)] Ancient Greece was a fountain of wisdom and philosophy. 古希腊是智慧和哲学的源泉。 absolute? adj. 完全的,真实的 It’s an absolute fact. absolutely??? adv.完全地,无条件地,完全对 absolutely right???????十分对,对极了,当然(口语,作为对一问题的回答或评语) -Do you let your kids walk alone at night? 你让你的孩子晚上单独行走吗? -Absolutely not. 当然不是。 suit n. (一套)衣服? [C] I picked out a black suit. vt.??1. 适合,中...的意 The arrangement suited us both. 这个安排对我们两人都合适。 2. (不用被动式)与...相配,与...相称 This dress suits you beautifully. 这件衣服你穿非常合适。 vi.相称;彼此协调[(+to/with)] The position suits with his abilities. make one’s way向某地走去,??有出息 She hesitated, but made her way forward. 她犹豫了一下,但向前走去. She hastily left the room ,and made her way to her bed她快速离开房间,朝她床边走去. If you want to make your way in the world, you must learn to work hard while you are still young. 你若想要有出息,趁年轻的时候要学会发奋. make way (for)让路,让位 All the traffic has to make way for a fire engine所有的车辆都得给救火车让路. I shall make way for a younger man. 我将把职务让给更年轻的人. potential n.? [U]. 可能性;潜力,潜能??? (+for) She has acting potential, but she needs training. 她有表演潜力,但需要训练。 potential: 潜在的;潜力 Education develops potential abilities.教育能开发人的潜能。 It was his high school teacher that discovered his potential and kept encouraging him. 是他的高中老师发现了他的潜力,并且不断地鼓励他。 candidate 候选人;候补者 They were in favor of the Democratic candidate for President. 他们支持民主党总统候选人。 求职应征者 Milo was the strongest candidate for the job. 米洛在求职应征者中具备最好的条件。 precious adj.?? 贵重的,宝贵的,珍贵的 He has sent me most precious gifts. 他送给我极为珍贵的礼物。 Time is precious. 时间是宝贵的。 unconscious??adj. 不省人事的,失去知觉的 He injured his head and was unconscious for one hour.???他伤着了头部,一个小时没有知觉。 不知道的,未发觉的???? (+of) They were so quiet that he was completely unconscious of their presence. 他们非常安静,他完全不知道他们在场。 无意识的,不知不觉的 an unconscious error无意识犯的错误 shoot??? vt.?? (shoot-shot?-shot) 发射,放射 He shot the arrow from the bow.他拉弓把箭射了出去。 拍摄 The new movie was shot in Africa.这部新的影片是在非洲拍摄的。 射(门);投(篮);击(球);掷(骰子) He shot two goals in the game.在比赛中,他进了两个球。 n.?幼芽,幼枝 tremble??? vi. tremble with …因…而发抖 tremble for …为…而担心 发抖;震颤??? +with Her voice trembled with anger. 她的声音因愤怒而颤抖。 They trembled with cold. 他们冷得发抖。 焦虑,担忧????+at/for 或 +to-v She trembled for her daughter's safety. 她为女儿的安全而焦虑不安。 摇晃,摇动 The whole house trembled as the train went by. 火车开过时,整幢房子都晃动。 n.???震颤,发抖;震动 anxious? adj. 焦虑的,挂念的?? +about /at / for I'm anxious about her safety. 我对她的安全担心。 令人焦虑的 The days of the earthquake was an anxious time for all of us. 地震的那段时间是使我们大家都焦虑不安的日子。 渴望的????? for / +to-v / +that We're anxious for your safe return. 我们盼望你平安归来。 I'm really anxious to see him. 我急于见他。 anxiety??n. 焦虑,挂念??? [U] [C]?????? + about / for The mother was filled with anxiety about her daughter's health. 母亲为女儿的健康忧心忡忡。 焦虑的原因;令人焦虑之事?? [C]?+to That is a great anxiety to me. 那是一件使我深感焦虑的事情。 渴望?? [C]??? +for?/ +to-v Their anxiety to go was obvious.他们想去的急切心情是显而易见的。 panic v. / n.(使)恐慌,惊慌失措 He had to force himself not to panic. He got into a panic when he found the door was locked.陷入恐慌 Be in a panic在惊慌中 glance through/at /down/over浏览,匆匆看一遍 I only had time to glance at the newspaper.我只来得及浏览了一下报纸。 He glanced briefly down the list of names.他草草看了一遍名单。 She glanced through the report.他大致浏览了一下报告。 vary from ……to…… 在……到……之间变动 The temperature varies from time to time. The weather varied from very cold to quite mild. vary with随……而变化 Leaves varies with the seasons. Vary 动词“变化” The security always varies its route. 保安车常常改变路线。 “彼此相异” (彼此)在这问题上意见很不一致。 Opinions on this matter vary. various?? adj. different from each other, of different kinds There has been snow today in various parts of the country. 今天全国不同地区都下了雪。 The products we sell are many and various. 我们出售的产品是各式各样的。 variety ?n. 1) = change (质量,种类和特征的)变化 He doesn’t like the work because it lacks variety. 他不喜欢这工作,因为它单调乏味。 2) = kind 种类,品种: different varieties of bananas不同种类的香蕉 a variety of?? 许多,各种各样 These T-shirts are available in a wide variety of colors. 这些体恤有各种各样的颜色供挑选. diversity=variety 变化多样, 多样性 The plants of Asia show great diversity of form. 亚洲的植物形态多种多样. (对此)准会纵说纷纭. There must be a wide diversity of opinions. appreciate 动词 “ 感激;赏识”后接从句或ing形式。 欣赏,赏识 Her talent for music was not appreciated. 她的音乐才能无人赏识。 感谢,感激 They deeply appreciated his kindness. 他们对他的好意深表感谢。 appreciate+形式宾语it+从句,it指代宾语从句 如果你能教我用电脑,我将不胜感激 I would appreciate if you would like to teach me how to use the computer. guarantee n.保证, 保证书, 担保 The TV set has a year‘s guarantee. 这架电视机有一年的保修期。 You have my guarantee that I'll finish the job on time. 我向你保证按时完成工作。 动词? “保证;担保” Perfect satisfaction is guaranteed to our customers. 保证我们的顾客完全满意。 I can guarantee it’s true ---I saw it myself.我能保证那是真的-我亲眼看见。 We guarantee to deliver within a week. 重点词组搭配: 1. be suitable for 适合…… 2. be appointed as  被任命为…… 3. be anxious about  因……而焦虑 4. vary from...to...  由……到……不等 5. make one’s way to  前往…… 6. burn to the ground  全部焚毁 7. be buried under the ruins  被埋在废墟下 8. glance through  匆匆看一遍 9. have a gift for  有……天赋 10. give birth to  产生;生产 重点句子讲解: 1. I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day. 我刚要再睡,突然我的卧室亮如白昼。 名师指津:be about to do...when...正要……这时……。 例句仿写:我正要去你家帮助你学英语,这时我叔叔来了。 I was about to go to your home to help you with your English when my uncle came. 2. The other two climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this being my first experience, I stayed at the top and watched them. 另外两人攀下火山口去收集供日后研究用的岩浆,我是第一次经历这样的事,所以留在山顶上观察他们。 名师指津:this being my first experience独立主格结构,在句中作原因状语。 例句仿写:他上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。 He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. 3. It is said that this boy, who had a great gift for languages and persuasion, is the father of the Manchu people. 据说这个男孩就是满族人的祖先,他具有语言天赋和很强的说服力。 名师指津:It is said that...据说……,是一个固定句式。 例句仿写:据说至少有20座楼房遭到破坏或彻底被摧毁。 It is said that at least a score of buildings were damaged or destroyed. 4. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast. 收集和评估这些信息之后,我就帮助其他科学家一起预测熔岩接着将往何处流,流速是多少。 名师指津:现在分词完成时作状语。 例句仿写:核实所有的门都锁好之后,史密斯先生就去伦敦度假了。 Having checked all the doors were locked, Mr. Smith left for London on holiday. 1. (2014·温州二测)If you are invited to dinner, you are supposed to arrive not later than the ________time. A. appoint B. appointing C. appointed D. appointment 2. (2014·山东师范大学附中)Working hard is not a ________of great success, but it is among the essential requirements. A. sign B. signal C. guarantee D. mark 3. (2014·山东省实验中学高三质检)—Why are you so hurried? —My mother will get a bit ________if I don’t get back on time. A. ashamed B. eager C. anxious D. patient 4. (2013·江西卷)She ________the carpet with some very nice curtains in colour. A. connected    B. fitted C. equipped D. matched 5. (2011·湖北卷)“Tommy, run! Be quick! The house is on fire!” the mother shouted, with ________clearly in her voice. A. anger B. rudeness C. regret D. panic 基础演练 一、语境填词 1. He parked his car __________ (在……旁边) the fence. 2. After a fire broke out in the lab, a lot of __________ (设备) was damaged. He was ________ (委派) to look into the matter. 3. I can’t ________ (评价) her ability without seeing her work. 4. Although it is impossible to ____________ (绝对地) predict that a volcano will ________ (爆发) at some minute, it is possible in some period. 5. The ________ (实际的) cost was much higher than we had expected. 6. He ________ (挥手) goodbye to his friend. 7. We should develop the children’s ________ (潜力) while they’re young. 8. I’ve found a job that ________ (适合) me down to the ground. 9. The ________ (小说家) lost her ________ (珍贵的) necklace on her way home. 10. We can’t __________ (保证) that our flights will never be delayed. 11. All of us were in a state of ________ (惊慌) when a man was ________ (射伤) on the spot. 12. Please accept this gift in ____________ (感谢) of all you’ve done for us. 13. He is full of ________ (焦虑), for the exam is coming. 14. I found an old woman lying ______________ (失去知觉的) on the ground. 15. She wiped the ________ (汗) from her face and drank a glass of water. 16. There are ________ (不同的) opinions about it. 巩固提高 一、单项填空 1. Yet, ________, we are not completely powerless. A. however we are weak B. however weak are we C. however are we weak D. however weak we are 2. However, the most important thing about my job is that I help________ ordinary people from one of the most powerful forces on earth—the volcano. A. prevent B. protect C. keep D. stop 3. I was________ as a volcanologist working for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory twenty years ago. A. appointed B. claimed C. appealed D. applied 4. Unfortunately, we cannot move their homes out of the way, and many houses have been covered with lava or________. A. burned to death B. burning to the ground C. burned to the ground D. burning to death 5. ________ quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already, I didn’t take much notice. A. Experience B. Having experienced C. Experienced D. Experiencing 6. I was about to go back to sleep________ suddenly my bedroom became as________ as day. A. while;bright B. before;brightest C. as;brighter D. when;bright 7. The day after this eruption I was________ to have a much closer look at it. A. enough lucky to have B. luckily enough having C. lucky enough to have D. enough luckily having 8. It was not easy to walk in these suits, but we slowly________ to the edge of the crater and looked down into the red, boiling centre. A. made our way B. in the way C. on the way D. lost our way 二、佳句翻译与仿写 1. Although my job is occasionally dangerous, I don’t mind because danger excites me and makes me feel alive. 翻译: 仿写: (1)我虽然有车,但因为交通堵塞很少使用。 ________________________, ________________________ because of the traffic jams. (2)他们虽穷却很慷慨。 They are generous ________________________. 2. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast. 翻译: 仿写: (1)做完所有的工作后,他回家了。 ________________________________, he left for home. (2)因为在这个城市住了很多年,所以我对它很熟悉。 ________________________________________, I knew it well. 3. I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day. 翻译: 仿写: (1)他正要离开,这时突然电话响了。 (2)今天早上我们正要吃饭,这时他来了。 4. The other two climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this being my first experience, I stayed at the top and watched them. 翻译: 仿写: (1)天气允许的话,我们明天就去郊游。 ______________________, we’ll go on an outing tomorrow. (2)向导领着路,我们毫不费劲地走出了森林。 ________________________________, we had no trouble getting out of the forest. 一、单项填空 1. People who don’t smoke have less________ of suffering from lung disease than those who do so. A. potential B. cause C. hope D. problem 2. Mr. Black is a careful and experienced engineer, so he is often________ to finish some challenging tasks. A. appreciated B. approached C. appointed D. agreed 3. Although the shirt________ me well, but the colour doesn’t________ me. So I don’t want to buy it. A. fits; fit for B. fits; suit C. fits for; suit D. is fit for; fit 4. Mr. Smith, ________ of the________ speech, started to read a novel. A. tired; boring B. tiring; bored C. tired; bored D. tiring; boring 5. His house was________ due to the big fire, ________ made him homeless. A. burnt to the ground; which B. rebuilt; what C. painted; that D. run out of; which 6. We were just________ calling you up________ you came in. A. about; when B. on the point of; while C. on the point of; when D. on the point; as 7. ________ in the field all day, I felt very tired. A. Working B. Having worked C. Worked D. Work 8. ________ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. A. Compare B. When comparing C. Comparing D. When compared 9. The young man rushed out of the room, ________ into his car and started it hurriedly, ________ to get to the hospital as soon as possible. A. got; hoped B. getting; and hoped C. got; hoping D. getting; hoped 10. —Do you think there is possibility that they will win the game? —________.They don’t co?operate with each other well. A. Absolutely B. Absolute not C. Absolutely not D. Certainly 二、词义辨析 1. 用suit, fit, match的适当形式填空 (1)Her shoes ________ her dress; they look very well together. (2)—How about eight o’clock outside the cinema? —That ________ me fine. (3)Do you think this colour ________ me? (4)I tried the dress on but it didn’t ________ me. It was too small. 2. 用force, strength, power, energy的适当形式填空 (1)I did everything in my ________ to help her. (2)The army took control of the region by ________. (3)He hasn’t got enough ________ to lift the box. (4)As we all know, knowledge is ________. (5)—You are always full of ________.Can you tell me the secret? —Taking plenty of exercise every day. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项填空 1. My mother always gets a bit________ if we don’t arrive when we say we will. A. anxious B. ashamed C. weak D. patient 2. The little boy trembled________ fear when he saw the snake coming towards him. A. for B. in C. with D. over 3. The new soldier________ the target, but didn’t________ it again, which was expected. A. shot; shoot B. shot at; shoot C. shot; shoot at D. shot at; shoot at 4. Mary has a great________ of interests, such as traveling, hiking and playing chess. A. kind B. difference C. sort D. diversity 5. The fridge is________ for one year. The company will repair or replace it if it breaks down within a year. A. permitted B. promised C. arranged D. guaranteed 6. The baby was lucky enough to escape________ in the earthquake. A. being killed B. killing C. to kill D. to be killed 7. After a successful operation, Catherine is beginning to________ and will soon come back to school. A. pick up B. wake up C. grow up D. show up 8. The sudden eruption of the volcano took the local people________ surprise. A. in B. by C. to D. with 9. He hurried to the supermarket, only________ he had left his wallet at home. A. to find B. found C. finding D. find 10. It is often ________ that human beings are naturally equipped to speak. A. said B. to say C. saying D. being said 二、完形填空 Scientists have searched for many years for a__1__to tell whether a volcano__2__will be small or large. Now, four scientists say they have discovered something in__3__that will help do this.They__4__the research on Mount Unzen on the southern Japanese island of Kyushu. Mount Unzen exploded__5__November, 1990.Since then, more explosions__6__43 people and destroyed the homes of more than 2,000 others. The volcano is still__7__today. The scientists say the lava of the volcano__8__high level of an element (成分), __9__is a sign of the presence of the lava from deep in the earth, not from the surface. They say it shows that the lava__10__directly from inside the earth is__11__with huge explosions instead of smaller ones. The scientists examined the lava from 18 explosions of Mount Unzen that took place during many__12__of years.They__13__studied the lava from other volcanoes in the area that are older than Mount Unzen. The lava studied came from__14__large and small explosions. The scientists found that large explosions contained__15__of the element than small__16__.The scientists say if they__17__this two years earlier, they__18__the people living in the area__19__Mount Unzen and saved many__20__. 1. A. glance B. method C. motor D. panic 2. A. eruption B. climate C. aspect D. district 3. A. lung B. ash C. lava D. crater 4. A. stated B. teased C. compared D. did 5. A. in B. on C. from D. off 6. A. have quitted B. have uttered C. have focused D. have killed 7. A. active B. abstract C. ridiculous D. mental 8. A. tries B. manages C. stresses D. contains 9. A. which B. that C. if D. when 10. A. going B. coming C. ending D. losing 11. A. decreased B. bored C. swallowed D. connected 12. A. hundred B. ten C. number D. thousands 13. A. also B. either C. too D. as well as 14. A. one B. neither C. both D. three 15. A. more B. much C. less D. few 16. A. that B. those C. ones D. this 17. A. knew B. had known C. know D. knowing 18. A. warn B. could have warned C. will warn D. can warn 19. A. on B. near C. away D. besides 20. A. lives B. life C. live D. believes 二、阅读理解 Animals and Earthquakes Scientists who try to predict earthquakes have got some new helpers recently—animals. Scientists have begun to catch on to what farmers have known for thousands of years. Animals often seem to know in advance that an earthquake is coming, and they show their fear by acting in strange ways. Before a Chinese quake in 1975 snakes awoke from their winter sleep early only to freeze to death in the cold air. Cows broke their halters (缰绳) and tried to escape. Chickens refused to enter their coops. All of this unusual behavior, as well as physical changes in Earth, alerted Chinese scientists to the coming quake. They moved people away from the dangerous area and saved thousands of lives. One task for scientists today is to learn exactly which types of animals’ behavior predicts quakes. It’s not an easy job. First of all, not every animal can react to the danger of an earthquake. Just before a California quake in 1977, for example, an Arabian horse became very nervous and tried to break out of his stall. The horse next to it, however, reminded perfectly calm. It’s also difficult at times to tell the difference between normal animals restless and “earthquake nerves”. A zoo keeper once called earthquake researchers to say that his cougar (美洲狮) had been acting strangely. It turned out that the cat had an upset stomach! A second task for scientists is to find out exactly what kind of warnings the animals receive. They know that animals sense far more of the world than humans do. Many animals can see, hear, and smell things that people do not even notice. Some can detect tiny changes in air pressure, gravity, or the magnetism (磁力) of Earth. This extra sense probably helps animals predict quakes. 1. What is the main idea of this passage? A. Animals don’t know when an earthquake is coming. B. Animals can predict earthquakes. C. The author doesn’t know whether the animals can feel the coming of an earthquake or not. D. Human beings have to move the animals away before an earthquake is coming. 2. Some animals could predict earthquakes because they can detect tiny changes________. A. in the air pressure B. in gravity C. in the magnetism of the earth D. all of the above 3. How do all the animals exactly know when an earthquake is coming? A. By their extra senses. B. By the changes in air pressure, gravity or the magnetism. C. People don’t know exactly. D. The passage doesn’t mention it. 4. The author’s purpose is mainly to________. A. express an argument B. make a serious proposal C. present a discovery D. express suspicions Last year I was put into a lower?level math class at school. The reason I was in this class had nothing to do with my intellect or math skills. I am blind. The only problem with being in this class was that I was surrounded by “at?risk” students. These were kids who did not do well in school and they were constantly in trouble with the school and the law. One Tuesday morning, I went to a Christian Student Union meeting before school. There was a guest speaker there that day talking to us about praying for our enemies. I began to think about this. As I considered the idea, I prayed and asked God how I could pray for the kids in my class. I had forgotten that they weren’t bad kids; they were just lost. At first, the prayers were mechanical. When I would hear their voices in class, I would pray, “Dear God, please bless so?and?so...” But as I continued, I began to think of the kids more often, and in my quiet time at home I would ask God to bless the rest of my classmates. As time went on, my classmates became more than just annoying kids to me. There was something growing inside my heart for them, something that wasn’t there before. They began to feel like family, and I was learning to love them in a way I never thought possible. I now see that praying is such a powerful act. Prayer is the most powerful tool a Christian has. When I pray for those around me, it also blesses my life, and it changes my opinion of others. I realized I needed God’s blessings to see the world through loving eyes. The prayers I said for others turned out to help me the most. 1. What’s the main idea of the passage? A. Praying for your enemies. B. The experience of the writer. C. How to get along with the kids. D. How to solve the problem about the “at?risk” students. 2. What did the writer think about the kids at first? A. They were lovely and friendly. B. They were always asking for trouble. C. They were as blind as the writer. D. They were less reliable. 3. What made the writer change his opinion about the kids? A. The suggestion made by the teacher. B. The idea about praying at a Christian Student Union meeting. C. The experience with the bad kids. D. The change with the time going by. 4. What can we learn from the passage? A. The kids in the writer’s class are bad. B. As time went on, the classmates became annoying. C. After praying, the writer changed his opinion of his classmates immediately. D. By praying for others, the writer learned a lot. Nature’s anger made life miserable from one end of the United States to the other this week, with people forced out of their homes by wildfires near both coasts and the Canadian border and by major flooding in the Midwest. And although the calendar still said spring, the first named storm of the year was whipping up surf on the beaches of the Southeast. Overall, it wasn’t quite a week for the record books. “It’s a major flood, ” National Weather Service meteorologist (气象学家) Suzanne Fortin said of the flood in Missouri.“It won’t be a record breaker, but it will be in the top three.” However, a three?week?old fire in southern Georgia had become that state’s biggest in five decades after burning 269 square km of forest and wet land. Smoke?filled air created a burning smell and a dusting of ashes that coated cars and buildings through much of Florida and southeastern Georgia. The fog over most of Florida even closed several highways and sent people with breathing problems indoors. The flooding was produced by the wet weekend thunderstorms across the Plains states that also destroyed Greensburg, Kansas. In addition to 11 tornadoes deaths, two drowning deaths were blamed on the storms, one each in Oklahoma and Kansas. High water had poured over the tops of at least 20 levees (大堤) along the Missouri River and other streams in the state, authorities said on Wednesday. Missouri National Guard troops were helping. And Highway Patrol (巡逻) troopers were working 24?hour shifts near Big Lake, a village town of about 150 in the state’s northwest corner, which was flooded by five levee breaks along the Missouri River and four smaller ones on other streams, said patrol Lieutenant John Hotz. No injuries were reported but the Missouri Water Patrol rescued about 20 people from their flooded homes, including Glenn Burger, who had the patrol return him to his home to rescue his two pet cockatiels (澳洲鹦鹉). 1. What is uncommon about the weather this year? A. The storm happened in spring. B. The storm lasted a long time. C. The wind brought about flood. D. The tornado struck a large area. 2. What can we say about the natural disaster which happened this year? A. This year the biggest flood happened in history. B. The damage caused by disasters is the greatest. C. This year saw the biggest fire in the US in recent years. D. Most lives were lost in American history this year. 3. It can be inferred from the passage that________. A. some highway accidents were caused in the fire B. 13 deaths altogether were caused in Greensburg C. flood broke most of the river banks of Missouri D. the big fire was caused by the strong storm 4. Two pet cockatiels are talked about in the last paragraph in order to________. A. show Americans were fond of their pet B. show no injuries were caused in the flood C. tell us humans could get over the flood D. tell us pets were friends of our humans Unit5 The power of nature-词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 单词讲解: volcano n. pl. volcanoes an active volcano活火山 an extinct volcano死火山 a dormant volcano休眠火山 volcanology火山学 volcanologist火山学家 erupt 1)(火山)爆发,喷发 Mount Vesuvius hasn’t erupted for a good many years. 维苏威火山已经多年没有爆发了。 2)(搏斗,暴力事件,噪音等)突然发生,爆发 Violence in street can erupt for no apparent reason. 街头暴力可以在没有明显原因的情况下爆发。 erupt into laughter/shouting/crying, etc.突然大笑/叫喊/大哭 He erupted into laughter without any reason. 他毫无理由地大笑起来。 alongside alongside: with? “和” It’s a pleasure to work alongside such men. 与这样的人一起工作是一件乐事。 beside “在...旁边” The boat pulled up alongside the dock. adv. 在旁边;沿着;靠拢着;并排地 The police car pulled up alongside. 那辆警车在旁边停下 equipment n.配备,装备 The complete equipment of the new hospital will take a year. 把这个新医院的设备配齐要化一年时间。 equip v.装备,使有准备使能够做某事 Equip ourselves with knowledge Equip the army with modern weapons Doing housework is a real bore. 做家务真是令人烦透了。 appoint???? vt.任命,指派????? appoint sb. as/to be They appointed him (to be) manager. 他们任命他为经理。 约定,指定;安排 Our visitors arrived at the appointed time. 我们的来宾在约定的时间到达了。 appointment???? n. (尤指正式的)约会???+with+to-v I have an appointment with them in the evening. 今晚我与他们有个约会。 evaluate 评估,评价 I cannot evaluate his ability without seeing his work. 没见过他的工作,我无法评估他的能力。 evaluation n. 评估,评价 They made an intensive evaluation of the healthcare program. burn to the ground 完全(楼房等)烧毁 He has no place to live in because his house has been burnt to the ground. 他无处栖身因为他的房子被烧掉了。 与burn搭配的常用词组有: ①burn away烧掉 Half of the candle had burnt away. 蜡烛已烧掉一半了。 ②burn down 渐渐烧完 The room grew colder as the fire burnt down. 随着炉火逐渐减弱,屋里越来越冷。 ③burn sth. down 把……烧得精光 Don‘t forget to turn off the gas----you might burn the house down. 别忘了关煤气,不然会把房子烧掉。 ④burn up 烧得更旺 He put more wood on the fire to make it burn up. 他往火里续了些木柴,让它烧得旺些。 ⑤burn sth. up 把……烧掉 He has burnt up all the garden rubbish. 他已把花园里的垃圾全烧掉了。 fountain 泉水;喷泉;水源 A beautiful stone fountain was set in the middle of the garden. 花园中央砌造了一个漂亮的石头喷水池。 (知识等的)源泉;根源[(+of)] Ancient Greece was a fountain of wisdom and philosophy. 古希腊是智慧和哲学的源泉。 absolute? adj. 完全的,真实的 It’s an absolute fact. absolutely??? adv.完全地,无条件地,完全对 absolutely right???????十分对,对极了,当然(口语,作为对一问题的回答或评语) -Do you let your kids walk alone at night? 你让你的孩子晚上单独行走吗? -Absolutely not. 当然不是。 suit n. (一套)衣服? [C] I picked out a black suit. vt.??1. 适合,中...的意 The arrangement suited us both. 这个安排对我们两人都合适。 2. (不用被动式)与...相配,与...相称 This dress suits you beautifully. 这件衣服你穿非常合适。 vi.相称;彼此协调[(+to/with)] The position suits with his abilities. make one’s way向某地走去,??有出息 She hesitated, but made her way forward. 她犹豫了一下,但向前走去. She hastily left the room ,and made her way to her bed她快速离开房间,朝她床边走去. If you want to make your way in the world, you must learn to work hard while you are still young. 你若想要有出息,趁年轻的时候要学会发奋. make way (for)让路,让位 All the traffic has to make way for a fire engine所有的车辆都得给救火车让路. I shall make way for a younger man. 我将把职务让给更年轻的人. potential n.? [U]. 可能性;潜力,潜能??? (+for) She has acting potential, but she needs training. 她有表演潜力,但需要训练。 potential: 潜在的;潜力 Education develops potential abilities.教育能开发人的潜能。 It was his high school teacher that discovered his potential and kept encouraging him. 是他的高中老师发现了他的潜力,并且不断地鼓励他。 candidate 候选人;候补者 They were in favor of the Democratic candidate for President. 他们支持民主党总统候选人。 求职应征者 Milo was the strongest candidate for the job. 米洛在求职应征者中具备最好的条件。 precious adj.?? 贵重的,宝贵的,珍贵的 He has sent me most precious gifts. 他送给我极为珍贵的礼物。 Time is precious. 时间是宝贵的。 unconscious??adj. 不省人事的,失去知觉的 He injured his head and was unconscious for one hour.???他伤着了头部,一个小时没有知觉。 不知道的,未发觉的???? (+of) They were so quiet that he was completely unconscious of their presence. 他们非常安静,他完全不知道他们在场。 无意识的,不知不觉的 an unconscious error无意识犯的错误 shoot??? vt.?? (shoot-shot?-shot) 发射,放射 He shot the arrow from the bow.他拉弓把箭射了出去。 拍摄 The new movie was shot in Africa.这部新的影片是在非洲拍摄的。 射(门);投(篮);击(球);掷(骰子) He shot two goals in the game.在比赛中,他进了两个球。 n.?幼芽,幼枝 tremble??? vi. tremble with …因…而发抖 tremble for …为…而担心 发抖;震颤??? +with Her voice trembled with anger. 她的声音因愤怒而颤抖。 They trembled with cold. 他们冷得发抖。 焦虑,担忧????+at/for 或 +to-v She trembled for her daughter's safety. 她为女儿的安全而焦虑不安。 摇晃,摇动 The whole house trembled as the train went by. 火车开过时,整幢房子都晃动。 n.???震颤,发抖;震动 anxious? adj. 焦虑的,挂念的?? +about /at / for I'm anxious about her safety. 我对她的安全担心。 令人焦虑的 The days of the earthquake was an anxious time for all of us. 地震的那段时间是使我们大家都焦虑不安的日子。 渴望的????? for / +to-v / +that We're anxious for your safe return. 我们盼望你平安归来。 I'm really anxious to see him. 我急于见他。 anxiety??n. 焦虑,挂念??? [U] [C]?????? + about / for The mother was filled with anxiety about her daughter's health. 母亲为女儿的健康忧心忡忡。 焦虑的原因;令人焦虑之事?? [C]?+to That is a great anxiety to me. 那是一件使我深感焦虑的事情。 渴望?? [C]??? +for?/ +to-v Their anxiety to go was obvious.他们想去的急切心情是显而易见的。 panic v. / n.(使)恐慌,惊慌失措 He had to force himself not to panic. He got into a panic when he found the door was locked.陷入恐慌 Be in a panic在惊慌中 glance through/at /down/over浏览,匆匆看一遍 I only had time to glance at the newspaper.我只来得及浏览了一下报纸。 He glanced briefly down the list of names.他草草看了一遍名单。 She glanced through the report.他大致浏览了一下报告。 vary from ……to…… 在……到……之间变动 The temperature varies from time to time. The weather varied from very cold to quite mild. vary with随……而变化 Leaves varies with the seasons. Vary 动词“变化” The security always varies its route. 保安车常常改变路线。 “彼此相异” (彼此)在这问题上意见很不一致。 Opinions on this matter vary. various?? adj. different from each other, of different kinds There has been snow today in various parts of the country. 今天全国不同地区都下了雪。 The products we sell are many and various. 我们出售的产品是各式各样的。 variety ?n. 1) = change (质量,种类和特征的)变化 He doesn’t like the work because it lacks variety. 他不喜欢这工作,因为它单调乏味。 2) = kind 种类,品种: different varieties of bananas不同种类的香蕉 a variety of?? 许多,各种各样 These T-shirts are available in a wide variety of colors. 这些体恤有各种各样的颜色供挑选. diversity=variety 变化多样, 多样性 The plants of Asia show great diversity of form. 亚洲的植物形态多种多样. (对此)准会纵说纷纭. There must be a wide diversity of opinions. appreciate 动词 “ 感激;赏识”后接从句或ing形式。 欣赏,赏识 Her talent for music was not appreciated. 她的音乐才能无人赏识。 感谢,感激 They deeply appreciated his kindness. 他们对他的好意深表感谢。 appreciate+形式宾语it+从句,it指代宾语从句 如果你能教我用电脑,我将不胜感激 I would appreciate if you would like to teach me how to use the computer. guarantee n.保证, 保证书, 担保 The TV set has a year‘s guarantee. 这架电视机有一年的保修期。 You have my guarantee that I'll finish the job on time. 我向你保证按时完成工作。 动词? “保证;担保” Perfect satisfaction is guaranteed to our customers. 保证我们的顾客完全满意。 I can guarantee it’s true ---I saw it myself.我能保证那是真的-我亲眼看见。 We guarantee to deliver within a week. 重点词组搭配: 1. be suitable for 适合…… 2. be appointed as  被任命为…… 3. be anxious about  因……而焦虑 4. vary from...to...  由……到……不等 5. make one’s way to  前往…… 6. burn to the ground  全部焚毁 7. be buried under the ruins  被埋在废墟下 8. glance through  匆匆看一遍 9. have a gift for  有……天赋 10. give birth to  产生;生产 重点句子讲解: 1. I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day. 我刚要再睡,突然我的卧室亮如白昼。 名师指津:be about to do...when...正要……这时……。 例句仿写:我正要去你家帮助你学英语,这时我叔叔来了。 I was about to go to your home to help you with your English when my uncle came. 2. The other two climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this being my first experience, I stayed at the top and watched them. 另外两人攀下火山口去收集供日后研究用的岩浆,我是第一次经历这样的事,所以留在山顶上观察他们。 名师指津:this being my first experience独立主格结构,在句中作原因状语。 例句仿写:他上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。 He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. 3. It is said that this boy, who had a great gift for languages and persuasion, is the father of the Manchu people. 据说这个男孩就是满族人的祖先,他具有语言天赋和很强的说服力。 名师指津:It is said that...据说……,是一个固定句式。 例句仿写:据说至少有20座楼房遭到破坏或彻底被摧毁。 It is said that at least a score of buildings were damaged or destroyed. 4. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast. 收集和评估这些信息之后,我就帮助其他科学家一起预测熔岩接着将往何处流,流速是多少。 名师指津:现在分词完成时作状语。 例句仿写:核实所有的门都锁好之后,史密斯先生就去伦敦度假了。 Having checked all the doors were locked, Mr. Smith left for London on holiday. 1. (2014·温州二测)If you are invited to dinner, you are supposed to arrive not later than the ________time. A. appoint B. appointing C. appointed D. appointment 解析:考查非谓语动词。句意为:如果你被邀请去吃饭,你到达的时间不应该晚于约定的时间。空处为过去分词作定语,选C。 答案:C 2. (2014·山东师范大学附中)Working hard is not a ________of great success, but it is among the essential requirements. A. sign B. signal C. guarantee D. mark 解析:考查名词词义辨析。句意为:勤奋工作不能保证你一定会取得巨大的成功,但它是取得成功的必要条件之一。由语意可知选guarantee保证。 答案:C 3. (2014·山东省实验中学高三质检)—Why are you so hurried? —My mother will get a bit ________if I don’t get back on time. A. ashamed B. eager C. anxious D. patient 解析:考查形容词词义。句意为:——你为什么如此匆忙?——如果我不能准时回去,我妈妈会有些担心。 ashamed惭愧的;eager渴望的;anxious忧虑的,担心的;patient耐心的。 答案:C 4. (2013·江西卷)She ________the carpet with some very nice curtains in colour. A. connected    B. fitted C. equipped D. matched 解析:考查动词辨析。句意为:她把地毯和一些非常漂亮的窗帘在颜色上搭配起来。connect A with B把A和B联系/连接起来;fit A with B让A适合/适应B;equip A with B用B来武装/装备A;match A with B把A和B搭配起来(形成一种搭配)。根据语境应选D项。 答案:D 5. (2011·湖北卷)“Tommy, run! Be quick! The house is on fire!” the mother shouted, with ________clearly in her voice. A. anger B. rudeness C. regret D. panic 解析:考查名词词义辨析。句意为:“汤米,快跑!快点儿!房屋失火了!”妈妈叫喊着,声音里明显带着“恐慌”。anger怒火,怒气;rudeness粗鲁;regret懊悔,遗憾;panic恐慌。D项符合语意。 答案:D 基础演练 一、语境填词 1. He parked his car __________ (在……旁边) the fence. 2. After a fire broke out in the lab, a lot of __________ (设备) was damaged. He was ________ (委派) to look into the matter. 3. I can’t ________ (评价) her ability without seeing her work. 4. Although it is impossible to ____________ (绝对地) predict that a volcano will ________ (爆发) at some minute, it is possible in some period. 5. The ________ (实际的) cost was much higher than we had expected. 6. He ________ (挥手) goodbye to his friend. 7. We should develop the children’s ________ (潜力) while they’re young. 8. I’ve found a job that ________ (适合) me down to the ground. 9. The ________ (小说家) lost her ________ (珍贵的) necklace on her way home. 10. We can’t __________ (保证) that our flights will never be delayed. 11. All of us were in a state of ________ (惊慌) when a man was ________ (射伤) on the spot. 12. Please accept this gift in ____________ (感谢) of all you’ve done for us. 13. He is full of ________ (焦虑), for the exam is coming. 14. I found an old woman lying ______________ (失去知觉的) on the ground. 15. She wiped the ________ (汗) from her face and drank a glass of water. 16. There are ________ (不同的) opinions about it. 答案:1.alongside 2.equipment appointed 3.evaluate 4. absolutely erupt 5.actual 6.waved 7.potential 8. Suits 9.novelist precious 10.guarantee 11.panic shot 12. appreciation 13.anxiety 14.unconscious 15.sweat 16. diverse 巩固提高 一、单项填空 1. Yet, ________, we are not completely powerless. A. however we are weak B. however weak are we C. however are we weak D. however weak we are 2. However, the most important thing about my job is that I help________ ordinary people from one of the most powerful forces on earth—the volcano. A. prevent B. protect C. keep D. stop 3. I was________ as a volcanologist working for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory twenty years ago. A. appointed B. claimed C. appealed D. applied 4. Unfortunately, we cannot move their homes out of the way, and many houses have been covered with lava or________. A. burned to death B. burning to the ground C. burned to the ground D. burning to death 5. ________ quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already, I didn’t take much notice. A. Experience B. Having experienced C. Experienced D. Experiencing 6. I was about to go back to sleep________ suddenly my bedroom became as________ as day. A. while;bright B. before;brightest C. as;brighter D. when;bright 7. The day after this eruption I was________ to have a much closer look at it. A. enough lucky to have B. luckily enough having C. lucky enough to have D. enough luckily having 8. It was not easy to walk in these suits, but we slowly________ to the edge of the crater and looked down into the red, boiling centre. A. made our way B. in the way C. on the way D. lost our way 答案:1.D 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. D 7. C 8. A  二、佳句翻译与仿写 1. Although my job is occasionally dangerous, I don’t mind because danger excites me and makes me feel alive. 翻译: 仿写: (1)我虽然有车,但因为交通堵塞很少使用。 ________________________, ________________________ because of the traffic jams. (2)他们虽穷却很慷慨。 They are generous ________________________. 2. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast. 翻译: 仿写: (1)做完所有的工作后,他回家了。 ________________________________, he left for home. (2)因为在这个城市住了很多年,所以我对它很熟悉。 ________________________________________, I knew it well. 3. I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day. 翻译: 仿写: (1)他正要离开,这时突然电话响了。 (2)今天早上我们正要吃饭,这时他来了。 4. The other two climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this being my first experience, I stayed at the top and watched them. 翻译: 仿写: (1)天气允许的话,我们明天就去郊游。 ______________________, we’ll go on an outing tomorrow. (2)向导领着路,我们毫不费劲地走出了森林。 ________________________________, we had no trouble getting out of the forest. 答案: 1.虽然我的工作偶尔也有危险,但是我并不在乎,因为危险让我兴奋,使我感到有活力。  (1)Although I have a car I seldom use it  (2)although they are poor 2. 收集和评估这些信息之后,我就帮助其他科学家一起预测熔岩接着将往何处流,流速是多少。 (1)Having finished all the work  (2)Having lived in the city for many years 3. 我刚要再睡,突然我的卧室亮如白昼。  (1)He was about to leave when the telephone rang.  (2)We were about to have breakfast when he came this morning. 4. 另外两人攀下火山口去收集供日后研究用的岩浆,我是第一次经历这样的事,所以留在山顶上观察他们。 (1)Weather permitting  (2)The guide leading the way 一、单项填空 1. People who don’t smoke have less________ of suffering from lung disease than those who do so. A. potential B. cause C. hope D. problem 2. Mr. Black is a careful and experienced engineer, so he is often________ to finish some challenging tasks. A. appreciated B. approached C. appointed D. agreed 3. Although the shirt________ me well, but the colour doesn’t________ me. So I don’t want to buy it. A. fits; fit for B. fits; suit C. fits for; suit D. is fit for; fit 4. Mr. Smith, ________ of the________ speech, started to read a novel. A. tired; boring B. tiring; bored C. tired; bored D. tiring; boring 5. His house was________ due to the big fire, ________ made him homeless. A. burnt to the ground; which B. rebuilt; what C. painted; that D. run out of; which 6. We were just________ calling you up________ you came in. A. about; when B. on the point of; while C. on the point of; when D. on the point; as 7. ________ in the field all day, I felt very tired. A. Working B. Having worked C. Worked D. Work 8. ________ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. A. Compare B. When comparing C. Comparing D. When compared 9. The young man rushed out of the room, ________ into his car and started it hurriedly, ________ to get to the hospital as soon as possible. A. got; hoped B. getting; and hoped C. got; hoping D. getting; hoped 10. —Do you think there is possibility that they will win the game? —________.They don’t co?operate with each other well. A. Absolutely B. Absolute not C. Absolutely not D. Certainly 答案:1.A 2. C 3. B 4. A 5. A 6. C  7. B 8. D 9. C 10. C  二、词义辨析 1. 用suit, fit, match的适当形式填空 (1)Her shoes ________ her dress; they look very well together. (2)—How about eight o’clock outside the cinema? —That ________ me fine. (3)Do you think this colour ________ me? (4)I tried the dress on but it didn’t ________ me. It was too small. 2. 用force, strength, power, energy的适当形式填空 (1)I did everything in my ________ to help her. (2)The army took control of the region by ________. (3)He hasn’t got enough ________ to lift the box. (4)As we all know, knowledge is ________. (5)—You are always full of ________.Can you tell me the secret? —Taking plenty of exercise every day. 答案: 1.(1)match (2)suits (3)suits (4)fit 2. (1)power (2)force (3)strength (4)power (5)energy _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项填空 1. My mother always gets a bit________ if we don’t arrive when we say we will. A. anxious B. ashamed C. weak D. patient 2. The little boy trembled________ fear when he saw the snake coming towards him. A. for B. in C. with D. over 3. The new soldier________ the target, but didn’t________ it again, which was expected. A. shot; shoot B. shot at; shoot C. shot; shoot at D. shot at; shoot at 4. Mary has a great________ of interests, such as traveling, hiking and playing chess. A. kind B. difference C. sort D. diversity 5. The fridge is________ for one year. The company will repair or replace it if it breaks down within a year. A. permitted B. promised C. arranged D. guaranteed 6. The baby was lucky enough to escape________ in the earthquake. A. being killed B. killing C. to kill D. to be killed 7. After a successful operation, Catherine is beginning to________ and will soon come back to school. A. pick up B. wake up C. grow up D. show up 8. The sudden eruption of the volcano took the local people________ surprise. A. in B. by C. to D. with 9. He hurried to the supermarket, only________ he had left his wallet at home. A. to find B. found C. finding D. find 10. It is often ________ that human beings are naturally equipped to speak. A. said B. to say C. saying D. being said 答案:1.A 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. D 6. A 7. A 8. B 9. A 10. A  二、完形填空 Scientists have searched for many years for a__1__to tell whether a volcano__2__will be small or large. Now, four scientists say they have discovered something in__3__that will help do this.They__4__the research on Mount Unzen on the southern Japanese island of Kyushu. Mount Unzen exploded__5__November, 1990.Since then, more explosions__6__43 people and destroyed the homes of more than 2,000 others. The volcano is still__7__today. The scientists say the lava of the volcano__8__high level of an element (成分), __9__is a sign of the presence of the lava from deep in the earth, not from the surface. They say it shows that the lava__10__directly from inside the earth is__11__with huge explosions instead of smaller ones. The scientists examined the lava from 18 explosions of Mount Unzen that took place during many__12__of years.They__13__studied the lava from other volcanoes in the area that are older than Mount Unzen. The lava studied came from__14__large and small explosions. The scientists found that large explosions contained__15__of the element than small__16__.The scientists say if they__17__this two years earlier, they__18__the people living in the area__19__Mount Unzen and saved many__20__. 1. A. glance B. method C. motor D. panic 2. A. eruption B. climate C. aspect D. district 3. A. lung B. ash C. lava D. crater 4. A. stated B. teased C. compared D. did 5. A. in B. on C. from D. off 6. A. have quitted B. have uttered C. have focused D. have killed 7. A. active B. abstract C. ridiculous D. mental 8. A. tries B. manages C. stresses D. contains 9. A. which B. that C. if D. when 10. A. going B. coming C. ending D. losing 11. A. decreased B. bored C. swallowed D. connected 12. A. hundred B. ten C. number D. thousands 13. A. also B. either C. too D. as well as 14. A. one B. neither C. both D. three 15. A. more B. much C. less D. few 16. A. that B. those C. ones D. this 17. A. knew B. had known C. know D. knowing 18. A. warn B. could have warned C. will warn D. can warn 19. A. on B. near C. away D. besides 20. A. lives B. life C. live D. believes 答案:1.B 2. A 3. C 4. D 5. A 6. D 7. A 8. D 9. A 10. B 11. D 12. D 13. A 14. C 15. A 16. C 17. B 18. B 19. B 20. A  二、阅读理解 Animals and Earthquakes Scientists who try to predict earthquakes have got some new helpers recently—animals. Scientists have begun to catch on to what farmers have known for thousands of years. Animals often seem to know in advance that an earthquake is coming, and they show their fear by acting in strange ways. Before a Chinese quake in 1975 snakes awoke from their winter sleep early only to freeze to death in the cold air. Cows broke their halters (缰绳) and tried to escape. Chickens refused to enter their coops. All of this unusual behavior, as well as physical changes in Earth, alerted Chinese scientists to the coming quake. They moved people away from the dangerous area and saved thousands of lives. One task for scientists today is to learn exactly which types of animals’ behavior predicts quakes. It’s not an easy job. First of all, not every animal can react to the danger of an earthquake. Just before a California quake in 1977, for example, an Arabian horse became very nervous and tried to break out of his stall. The horse next to it, however, reminded perfectly calm. It’s also difficult at times to tell the difference between normal animals restless and “earthquake nerves”. A zoo keeper once called earthquake researchers to say that his cougar (美洲狮) had been acting strangely. It turned out that the cat had an upset stomach! A second task for scientists is to find out exactly what kind of warnings the animals receive. They know that animals sense far more of the world than humans do. Many animals can see, hear, and smell things that people do not even notice. Some can detect tiny changes in air pressure, gravity, or the magnetism (磁力) of Earth. This extra sense probably helps animals predict quakes. 1. What is the main idea of this passage? A. Animals don’t know when an earthquake is coming. B. Animals can predict earthquakes. C. The author doesn’t know whether the animals can feel the coming of an earthquake or not. D. Human beings have to move the animals away before an earthquake is coming. 2. Some animals could predict earthquakes because they can detect tiny changes________. A. in the air pressure B. in gravity C. in the magnetism of the earth D. all of the above 3. How do all the animals exactly know when an earthquake is coming? A. By their extra senses. B. By the changes in air pressure, gravity or the magnetism. C. People don’t know exactly. D. The passage doesn’t mention it. 4. The author’s purpose is mainly to________. A. express an argument B. make a serious proposal C. present a discovery D. express suspicions 答案:1.B 2. D 3. C 4. C  Last year I was put into a lower?level math class at school. The reason I was in this class had nothing to do with my intellect or math skills. I am blind. The only problem with being in this class was that I was surrounded by “at?risk” students. These were kids who did not do well in school and they were constantly in trouble with the school and the law. One Tuesday morning, I went to a Christian Student Union meeting before school. There was a guest speaker there that day talking to us about praying for our enemies. I began to think about this. As I considered the idea, I prayed and asked God how I could pray for the kids in my class. I had forgotten that they weren’t bad kids; they were just lost. At first, the prayers were mechanical. When I would hear their voices in class, I would pray, “Dear God, please bless so?and?so...” But as I continued, I began to think of the kids more often, and in my quiet time at home I would ask God to bless the rest of my classmates. As time went on, my classmates became more than just annoying kids to me. There was something growing inside my heart for them, something that wasn’t there before. They began to feel like family, and I was learning to love them in a way I never thought possible. I now see that praying is such a powerful act. Prayer is the most powerful tool a Christian has. When I pray for those around me, it also blesses my life, and it changes my opinion of others. I realized I needed God’s blessings to see the world through loving eyes. The prayers I said for others turned out to help me the most. 1. What’s the main idea of the passage? A. Praying for your enemies. B. The experience of the writer. C. How to get along with the kids. D. How to solve the problem about the “at?risk” students. 2. What did the writer think about the kids at first? A. They were lovely and friendly. B. They were always asking for trouble. C. They were as blind as the writer. D. They were less reliable. 3. What made the writer change his opinion about the kids? A. The suggestion made by the teacher. B. The idea about praying at a Christian Student Union meeting. C. The experience with the bad kids. D. The change with the time going by. 4. What can we learn from the passage? A. The kids in the writer’s class are bad. B. As time went on, the classmates became annoying. C. After praying, the writer changed his opinion of his classmates immediately. D. By praying for others, the writer learned a lot. 答案:1. A 2. B 3. B 4. D  Nature’s anger made life miserable from one end of the United States to the other this week, with people forced out of their homes by wildfires near both coasts and the Canadian border and by major flooding in the Midwest. And although the calendar still said spring, the first named storm of the year was whipping up surf on the beaches of the Southeast. Overall, it wasn’t quite a week for the record books. “It’s a major flood, ” National Weather Service meteorologist (气象学家) Suzanne Fortin said of the flood in Missouri.“It won’t be a record breaker, but it will be in the top three.” However, a three?week?old fire in southern Georgia had become that state’s biggest in five decades after burning 269 square km of forest and wet land. Smoke?filled air created a burning smell and a dusting of ashes that coated cars and buildings through much of Florida and southeastern Georgia. The fog over most of Florida even closed several highways and sent people with breathing problems indoors. The flooding was produced by the wet weekend thunderstorms across the Plains states that also destroyed Greensburg, Kansas. In addition to 11 tornadoes deaths, two drowning deaths were blamed on the storms, one each in Oklahoma and Kansas. High water had poured over the tops of at least 20 levees (大堤) along the Missouri River and other streams in the state, authorities said on Wednesday. Missouri National Guard troops were helping. And Highway Patrol (巡逻) troopers were working 24?hour shifts near Big Lake, a village town of about 150 in the state’s northwest corner, which was flooded by five levee breaks along the Missouri River and four smaller ones on other streams, said patrol Lieutenant John Hotz. No injuries were reported but the Missouri Water Patrol rescued about 20 people from their flooded homes, including Glenn Burger, who had the patrol return him to his home to rescue his two pet cockatiels (澳洲鹦鹉). 1. What is uncommon about the weather this year? A. The storm happened in spring. B. The storm lasted a long time. C. The wind brought about flood. D. The tornado struck a large area. 2. What can we say about the natural disaster which happened this year? A. This year the biggest flood happened in history. B. The damage caused by disasters is the greatest. C. This year saw the biggest fire in the US in recent years. D. Most lives were lost in American history this year. 3. It can be inferred from the passage that________. A. some highway accidents were caused in the fire B. 13 deaths altogether were caused in Greensburg C. flood broke most of the river banks of Missouri D. the big fire was caused by the strong storm 4. Two pet cockatiels are talked about in the last paragraph in order to________. A. show Americans were fond of their pet B. show no injuries were caused in the flood C. tell us humans could get over the flood D. tell us pets were friends of our humans 答案:1. A 2. C 3. A 4. B Unit5 The power of nature-语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 理解非谓语动词的含义和用法; 能够正确运用非谓语动词进行造句,并做对相关题目。 一、定义:非谓语动词是在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式   在句中可起名词,形容词,副词的作用,在句中充当主语,宾语,表语,补语,定语或状语.即动词的非谓语形式除了不能独立作谓语外,可以承担句子的任何成分 3种形式:不定式,分词(现在分词、过去分词),动名词 二、非谓语动词用法: (一)动词不定式:(to)+do,具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。 1. 不定式的形式:(以动词write为例)  否定式:not + (to) do (1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作之后,例如: I'm glad to meet you. He seems to know a lot. We plan to pay a visit. He wants to be an artist. The patient asked to be operated on at once. The teacher ordered the work to be done. (2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,例如: The boy pretended to be working hard. He seems to be reading in his room. (3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,例如: I regretted to have told a lie. I happened to have seen the film. He is pleased to have met his friend. 2. 不定式的句法功能: (1)作主语: To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard. To lose your heart means failure. 动词不定式短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语,真正的主语不定式置于句后,例如上面两句可用如下形式: It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes. It means failure to lose your heart. 常用句式有: 1. It+be+名词+to do 2. It takes sb. +some time +to do 3. It+be+形容词+for sb. +to do 常用careless,,clever,good,foolish,honest,kind,lazy,nice,right,silly,stupid,wise,等表示赞扬或批评的形容词,不定式前的sb.可作其逻辑主语。 (2)作表语: Her job is to clean the hall. He appears to have caught a cold. (3)作宾语:   常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如: Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如: He gave us some advice on how to learn English. (4)作宾语补足语: 在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语:want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite. 此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如: With a lot of work to do, he didn't go to the cinema.   有些动词如make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have等与不带有to的不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,不定式要加to, 如: I saw him cross the road. He was seen to cross the road. (5)作定语: 动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系: ①动宾关系: I have a meeting to attend. 注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如: He found a good house to live in. The

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  • ID:4-6096770 人教版高中英语选修六辅导讲义 Unit4 Global warming词汇篇及语法篇(教师版+学生版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修5、选修6/选修6/Unit 4 Global warming

    Unit4 Global warming-词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 重点单词讲解: depend on/ upon+ n 依靠,依赖, 确(坚)信 You can’t depend on your parents forever. depend on/upon+sb.+to do 指望某人做…… You can’t depend on him to come on time. depend on/upon +it +that…. 指望….. You may depend on it that he will come. depend on/upon +wh-从句?? Whether you can pass the exam depends on how? hard you work. That (all) depends./ it all depends. (口语)视情况而定, I may help you. But that/ it depends. light 1)n. 光,线,灯 2)v.照亮,点燃 He lit a match. 他划着了一根火柴。 A smile of triumph lit up her face. 她的脸上闪耀着胜利的微笑。 The match lights easily. 这火柴容易划着 3)adj The suitcase is very light.(轻的) There was a light rain falling. He is a light sleeper. 他睡不沉。(易醒的) heat v. / heat up 是某物变热或变暖 heated adj. 热的激烈的 heated debate, heated discussion heatedly adv.愤怒地激昂地 heater加热器发热器 consume v.---- consumer?(n.). 消耗,花费;耗尽 She consumed most of her time in reading. 吃完,喝光 The kids soon consumed all the food on the table. 孩子们一会儿功夫便把桌上的食品全部吃光。 使全神贯注,使着迷+with The boy was consumed with curiosity. 那男孩充满好奇心。 as … as one can = as … as possible Please come here as soon as possible.= Please come here as soon as you can.. as many as 多达 as long as 长达,只要 as far as远至,就…而论 as well as 和…一样好,也,和 as early as 早在 trap vt. / n. 挡住圈套 Sand and leaves trapped the water in the stream. They finally trapped the mouse in a cage.最后,他们用笼子把老鼠逮着了。 The police set a trap for the thieves. She was trapped in the burning house. compare compare to/ with: 与…相比 Compared to/with many women, she was indeed very fortunate. compare A with B:相比(不同) If you compare her work with his, you will find hers is much better. compare A to B:把A比作B Poets have compared sleep to death. A teacher's work is often compared to a candle. The poet compares his lover to a rose in his poems. come about:发生=happen(无被动) This situation should never have come out. How did it come about that he had his leg hurt?他的腿伤着了,这是怎么发生的? This has not come about overnight.冰冻三尺,非一日之寒 Take place事件的发生有某种原因或事先的安排:The Olympic Games of 2008 took place in Beijing. Happen 偶然或突发性事件: what happened to you? I happened to see him on my way home= It happened that I saw him on my way home. Occur 发生或想到,突然想起,意为发生时=happen: what has occurred? I occurred to me that she didn’t know I had moved into the new house. Come about 事情发生了, 但还不知道为什么。常用于否定和疑问 When mother woke up, she didn’t know what had come about. Break out 常指战争灾难疾病争吵事件的发生 random 随意的胡乱的随机的/ randomly at random 任意地随便地 phenomenon (sing.) phenomena (pl.) the phenomena of nature自然现象 a social phenomenon 社会现象 Subscribe vi. Vt. Subscribe to 同意赞同,支持订阅签名 I subscribe to your opinion completely.(同意赞同) I subscribe to a weekly women’s magazine(订阅报纸杂志) She subscribes to a society which helps to protect animals(定期捐款) quantity 1) He likes reading and always buys books in quantity. 他喜欢阅读,总是成批地买书。 2) He prefers quality to quantity when food is concerned. 在吃的方面,他重质而不重量 3) A large quantity of air-conditioners has been sold since the temperature began to rise. 自从气温升高,大量的空调已经被卖出去了。 a large quantity of/large quantities of;大量的…,许多的… in quantity;成批地,大量地 a large quantity of/large quantities of之后接可数或不可数名词。 注意:a large quantity of…作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。large quantities of…作主语,谓语动词都用复数 Tend- tendency vt.照顾,护理  She is tending (to) a very sick patient. (她在护理一位重病人。) There is a farmer tending his sheep. vi. tend to易于,往往会;倾向于 When I’m tired, I tend to make mistakes. He tends to get angry when people oppose his opinion. result in 导致, 造成 =lead to The accident resulted in three people being killed. result from: 起因于,因为…? mild adj. 1) 温和的,温柔的 He is the mildest man alive. 他是世上最和善的人了。 2) 温暖的,暖和的 It's been a mild winter this year. 今年的冬天一直很暖和。 3) 味淡的,不浓烈的 Please make my drink a mild one. 请把我的酒调得淡一点。 4) 轻微的,不重的;宽大的 He was given a mild punishment. 他被从轻发落。 state-statement The witness stated that she had never seen Mr. Smith陈述;声明;说明 Ice is the solid state of water .形态 In china, the railway are owned by the state.国家,政府 There are 50 states in America. Everything was in a state of disorder.状态 The president has made an important statement about the matter. range 1)排列, 将...排成行The cards were ranged in alphabetical order. 2 )(在一定范围内)变化 3) It’s beyond the range of my ability. 4) I came within my range of vision. 5) he has a wide range of knowledge. beyond the range of超出…范围 within the range of在…范围内 range from A to B? 范围从A到B even if /though I wouldn't tell you even if I knew. Even if she survives, she'll never fully recover. Even though he's 24 now, he's still like a little child. I can still remember, even though it was so long ago. steady-steadily 平稳的,持续的,可靠地,稳固的 He has made a steady decision There has been a steady increase in car production in the past 6 months. Zhang Feng is a steady young man. Please keep the ladder steady. We?drove at a steady speed. A steady job/income稳定的工作/收入 A steady worker可靠的工人 Steady rain连绵的雨 tendency倾向 趋势 She has artistic tendencies. 她有艺术气质。 There is a growing tendency for people to work at home instead of in offices. Mary is nice but she has a tendency to talk too much. 有…倾向; +to/toward He has a tendency towards pessimism. 他有悲观的倾向。 Bob has a tendency to exaggerate things. 鲍勃有爱夸张的倾向。 Trend? tendency? current:这些名词均含“趋势,倾向”之意。 trend: 指事物发展总的方向、倾向或趋势。A? recent trend in literature, fashion trend tendency: 指固有或习得的倾向性,强调没有外来的影响或干扰。 current: 指向某一方面发展或在确趋向中行动 widespread 分布广的,普遍的 The forests are widespread in our country. ?我们的国家森林分布很广。 The new laws gained widespread acceptance.? Their suggestion met with widespread disagreement普遍的 There was a widespread belief in his innocence on the whole 总的来说;从总体上看 On the whole, he is a good boy. The weather this month has been cold on the whole. On the whole, I’m in favor of the idea. The paper is well written on the whole. average above the average在一般 水平以上, 中上; 在平均数以上 below the average在一般水平以下, 中下; 在平均数以下 on average 平均, 按平均数计算; 一般地说 on an average 平均, 按平均数计算; 一般地说 重点短语: 1. come about 发生;造成 2. subscribe to  同意,赞成,订阅 3. go up  上升;增长;升起 4. be opposed to  反对…… 5. keep on  继续 6. on the whole  大体上;基本上 7. on average   平均来看 below/above average  低于/高于平均水平 8. put up with  忍受;容忍 9. and so on  等等 10. quantities of  大量的 11. result in  导致 12. even if  甚至 13. on behalf of  代表……一方;作为……的代言人 14. so long as  只要 重点短语详解: on behalf of代表……一方 My husband could not be here tonight, but l want to thank you on his behalf. ?We attended the global conference on behalf of our country. The hero’s wife accepted the medal on behalf of her dead husband. make a difference :有关系,有影响,有重要性 make no difference:没有关系,没有重要性 It won't make much difference whether you go today or tomorrow. 你今天去或明天去没有多大关系. It make no difference if you light a lamp in the sunshine. 白天点灯多此一举。 put up with忍受;忍耐;受苦 We can’t put up with his endless complaint. I'm afraid you'll have to put up with his bad temper. That woman, as a housewife, has a lot to put up with. Noise is coming to the point where we can’t put up with it. 相关短语: put aside节省(钱、时间);储蓄;把……放在一边 put away收拾起来;储存(钱) put back放回原处;拖延 put down写下;记下;控制 put forward提出(意见、建议);推荐 put off延期;推迟 put out熄灭; 扑灭 put up举起;张开(伞);张贴;为……提供食宿 Match the phrases with the correct meaning so long as / as long as? 只要,如果 As long as you don't betray me, I'll do whatever you ask me to (do). You can go out, as / so long as you promise to be back before 11 o'clock. As long as you drive carefully, you will be very safe. You may borrow this book so long as you promise to give it back. I will stay as long as I can. on condition that …在……的条件下 1)I will go abroad on condition that I earn enough money.?如果我挣到足够的钱,我就出国。 2)We will help you on condition that/as long as you can offer us the proper reason. 只要你能给我们合适的原因,我们就会帮助你。 重点句子讲解: 1. There is no doubt that the earth is becoming warmer and that it is human activity that has caused this global warming rather than a random but natural phenomenon. 毫无疑问,地球正在变暖。而地球变暖正是人类活动导致的,并非是一种无规律的自然现象。 名师指津:There is no doubt that...毫无疑问,that引导同位语从句。 例句仿写: 毫无疑问,收音机和电视机是信息交流的重要方式。 There is no doubt that radio and television are important means ofcommunication. 2. Even if we start reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, the climate is going to keep on warming for decades or centuries. 即使我们开始减少二氧化碳和其他温室气体的含量,在未来几十年或几个世纪内,气候仍会持续转暖。 名师指津:even if即使;尽管,引导让步状语从句。 例句仿写:工程师们如此忙碌,以至于没时间做户外活动,即使他们对做户外活动很感兴趣。 The engineers are so busy that they have no time for outdoor sports activities, even if they have the interest. It is OK to leave an electrical appliance on so long as you are using it—if not, turn it off! 只要你在使用电器设备,你可以让它开着。如果不用就把它关掉! 名师指津:so long as=as long as只要,引导条件状语从句。 例句仿写:只要我们不失去信心,继续努力,我们一定能克服困难,实现目标。 As long as we don’t lose heart and keep on trying, we are sure to get over difficulties, and achieve our aims. They also agree that it is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has resulted in this increase in carbon dioxide. 他们还赞同正是由于越来越多燃烧化石燃料导致了二氧化碳的增加。 名师指津:宾语从句中的强调句型。 例句仿写:我不知道是什么事情使他那么伤心。 I don’t know what it is that made him so upset. (2014·宁波高三质检)—Would you like this gold necklace, Madam? —It’s beautiful, but out of my price________. A. control B. reach C. aim D. range (2014·浙江绍兴质检)—Do you ________to her pessimistic view of the state of the economy? —Absolutely not. I think it is just on the rise. A. appeal B. oppose C. subscribe D. respond (2014·安徽芜湖市模拟)—Oh, John, what shall I do? My boss dislikes me! —Well, come on! Let’s ________your troubles and enjoy the party! A. put away B. put off C. put aside D. put out (2014·陕西宝鸡质量检测)He will have to find some other work, for he can’t ________this loud noise any more. A. put up with B. come up with C. make up with D. keep up with (2014·甘肃兰州、靖远模拟)True happiness does not ________the possession of money, but the joy of achievement. A. contribute to B. lie in C. result in D. add to 基础演练 一、语境填词 1. When I’m tired, I t________ to make mistakes. 2. Don’t throw waste paper at r________ or you will be punished to be on duty again. 3. By the sea I saw a wide r________ of seashells. 4. This company pays more attention to quality than to q________. 5. Most air pollution is caused by the burning of f________ like coal, gas and oil. 6. He gave a ________ (一瞥) at his watch and then looked at the sky. 7. I ________ (反对) your going there alone. 8. We are making slow but ________ (平稳的) progress in our English. 9. Recently we have seen a gradual ________ (倾向) towards healthier food. 10. The ______________ (结果) was that many people were overweight. 11. The ________ (平均的) age of the boys in this class is fifteen. 12. Computers are now in ______________ (普遍的) use. 13. I think a cold drink can ________ (使恢复) you after your long hot journey. 14. Such ________ (随便的) dress would not be correct for a formal occasion. 15. There is a growing ________ (趋势) for people to work at home instead of in offices. 16. The ________ (生长) of plants needs sunlight. 17. Young people have made a great ____________ (贡献) to China’s economic development. 18. Twenty?five thousand deaths per year are caused by air ________ (污染). 19. Many experts ________ (提倡) rewarding your child for good behaviour. 20. I know I can trust her in any ______________ (情况). 巩固提高 一、选词填空 1. During the discussion, many members ____________________ my proposal, which upset me greatly. 2. My father still ________________ drinking and smoking after the doctor told him to give up. 3. Can you tell me how the accident ________________? 4. Prices of fruit and vegetables have ________________ quickly during the past few months. 5. The heavy snow can easily ________________ many accidents in winter. 6. In order to improve his English, he ________________ China Daily. 7. The police found ________________ drugs under his bed and above his ceiling. 8. ________________ we could afford it, we wouldn’t go abroad for our vacation. 二、佳句翻译与仿写 1. There is no doubt that the earth is becoming warmer and that it is human activity that has caused this global warming rather than a random but natural phenomenon. 翻译: 仿写: (1)毫无疑问, 小麦的价格将会上涨。 (2)我在他口袋里发现的是一枚钥匙。 ________________________________________________________________________ 2. All scientists subscribe to the view that the increase in the earth’s temperature is due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil to produce energy. 翻译: 仿写: (1)我们不同意我们已经失败的观点。 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ (2)他获得了奖学金的消息让我们都很吃惊。 The news ____________________________ surprised all of us. 3. Without the ‘greenhouse effect’, the earth would be about thirty?three degrees Celsius cooler than it is. 翻译: 仿写: (1)如果没有电, 今天的生活就会完全不同。 (2)没有你的帮助,我无论如何也不会成功。 4. Even if we start reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases,the climate is going to keep on warming for decades or centuries. 翻译: 仿写: (1)即使受到邀请我也不去参加他的生日聚会。 ______________________, I will not go to his birthday party. (2)即使天气不好,我们也要作一次旅行。 We’ll make a trip ________________________________. 一、单项填空 1. The air inside is warm because the glass traps the heat from the sun and keeps it________. A. escaping B. not to escape C. to escape D. from escaping 2. That probably does not seem much to you or me, but it is a rapid increase when________ to other natural changes. A. compared B. comparing C. to compare D. compare 3. It is human activity that has caused this global warming________ a random but natural phenomenon. A. more than B. other than C. rather than D. except for 4. It was a scientist called Charles Keeling, ________ made accurate measurements of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from 1957 to 1997. A. which B. what C. if D. who 5. All scientists________ the view that the increase in the earth’s temperature is due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil________ energy. A. apply to; produce B. correspond to; to produce C. cater to; produce D. subscribe to; to produce 6. Some byproducts of this process are called “greenhouse” gases, the most important one of________ is carbon dioxide. A. that B. whom C. which D. these 7. It means that more heat energy tends to be trapped in the atmosphere causing the global temperature to________. A. grow up B. go up C. build up D. bring up 8. It is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has________ this increase in carbon dioxide. A. resulted in B. led in C. resulted from D. as a result 9. On the other hand, there are those, like George Hambley, who are________ to this view and believe that we should not worry about high levels of carbon dioxide in the air. A. objected B. opposed C. supposed D. determined 10. ________ we start reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, the climate is going to keep on warming for decades or centuries. A. Even if B. As if C. Now that D. As long as 11. This restaurant has become popular for its wide ________of foods that suit all tastes and pockets. A. division B. area C. range D. circle 12. We strongly________ your decision to go abroad at this time of danger. It is not a wise decision. A. approve B. insist C. oppose D. appreciate 13. In________ of the heavy snow, there was a power off yesterday. A. consequence B. result C. lack D. case 14. The price of houses keeps________, which results in many complaints. A. going down B. going up C. going by D. going over 15. It’s already 10 o’clock. I wonder how it________ that she was two hours late on such a short trip. A. came over B. came out C. came about D. came up 16. The water level of the river has increased________ half a meter since it began to rain seven days ago. A. on B. for C. in D. by 17. We don’t doubt________ we will complete all the projects before the year 2012. A. that B. whether C. which D. when 18. —Why does the lake smell terrible? —Because large quantities of water________. A. have polluted B. is being polluted C. has been polluted D. have been polluted 19. I don’t mind her criticizing me, but________ is how she does it that I object to. A. it B. that C. this D. which 20. ________ she did not say a word, I felt her agreement from her eyes. A. As though B. Even though C. So that D. No wonder _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项填空 1. Last year the number of students who graduated with a driving license reached 200,000,a(n)________of 40,000 per year. A. average B. number C. amount D. quantity 2. The president can’t be here today, so I’m going to speak________ him. A. instead B. on behalf of C. in behalf D. represent 3. You can ask him again if you like, but it won’t________ any difference—he’ll still say no. A. tell B. make C. feel D. find 4. She got separated from her husband because she couldn’t________ his bad temper. A. keep up with B. put up with C. catch up with D. come up with 5. —How do you feel about your travel to Hainan? —________, I enjoyed it very much, although the weather of some days was unpleasant. A. In addition B. On the whole C. In other words D. On the other hand 6. Mr. Green is fond of rock music________ his wife enjoys folk music. A. when B. as C. while D. if 7. Under no circumstances________ to move to a new place far away from her workplace, because it isn’t convenient for her family and herself. A. Karen will agree B. will Karen agree C. Karen will disagree D. will Karen disagree 8. We all know that, ________, the situation will get worse. A. not if dealt carefully with B. if not dealt carefully with C. if dealt not carefully with D. not if carefully dealt with 9. —Our holiday cost a lot of money. —Did it? Well, that doesn’t matter ________you enjoyed yourselves. A. as long as B. unless C. as soon as D. though 10. —Let’s carry out the plan. —________ We had better consider it carefully. A. I really can’t agree with you. B. A good idea. C. Go ahead. D. Why don’t? 二、完形填空 The ice sheets in the poles and glaciers on the high mountains are melting and the world is in danger of__1__.While you were surprised by the special__2__, you know that it is just a made?up story and there will be a hero to save the world. But what if the ice sheets are really__3__? Can anyone save us? __4__to a scientific study last Monday, Arctic ice will completely__5__in the summers by the end of this century unless carbon dioxide emissions are greatly__6__. “The big melt has begun, ” said Jennifer Morgan, from the Climate Change Campaign for the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Arctic __7__are rising at twice the global__8__and could rise seven degrees centigrade by 2100. The melting will cause sea levels to rise__9__one metre, forcing many coastal populations__10__. “The polar bear is one__11__of an animal that could become extinct by the end of this century, ” the WWF said.__12__, on the positive side, rising sea levels__13__open up new areas for fishing and oil and gas exploration. “Industrial countries are__14__an uncontrolled experiment to study the effects of__15__change.The Arctic is their first victim, ” Morgan said. Russia this month__16__the Kyoto Protocol, an agreement to cut production of six greenhouse gases. But the US, the biggest polluter, __17__to do so. In 2002,104 countries, __18__China, accepted the agreement. The new__19__was sponsored by a group of industrial countries, including the US and Canada, __20__produce almost 30 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions. 1. A. snowing B. flooding C. watering D. raining 2. A. catastrophe B. luck C. movement D. existence 3. A. smelling B. smoking C. cooking D. melting 4. A. According B. Looking forward C. Used D. Seeing 5. A. renew B. manage C. await D. disappear 6. A. increased B. reduced C. died D. raised 7. A. size B. temperatures C. length D. weight 8. A. special B. normal C. average D. abstract 9. A. by B. on C. in D. to 10. A. to be moved B. move C. to move D. moved 11. A. pattern B. modal C. style D. example 12. A. But B. And C. So D. Or 13. A. should B. will C. may D. ought to 14. A. carrying forward B. carrying out C. carrying on D. carrying about 15. A.sky B. weather C. climate D. atmosphere 16. A. accepted B. received C. got D. pushed 17. A. agreed B. refused C. decided D. wanted 18. A. as well B. except C. without D. including 19. A. study B. learning C. knowledge D. understanding 20. A. where B. when C. how D. who 三、阅读理解 Bangkok, Thailand’s capital turned the lights out on Wednesday in an effort to raise awareness of global warming, with six Bangkok neighborhoods joining into partial darkness for 15 minutes. Officials ranged two million of the city’s residents to join in switching off non?essential lights at 7:00 p. m.(12:00 GMT) to alert Thais to the ill?effects of climate change. At downtown shopping mall Central World Plaza, Thais put away their credit cards for a moment to consider their energy consumption, as lights dimmed.“I waste a lot of energy at home, for example, I turn my television on while spending two hours on the Internet, ” said an 18?year?old student.“From now on, I will turn off the TV.” There was only partial darkness in Bangkok’s central shopping district, with some malls and hotels ignoring the request, but it was enough to make business owner Somas Thanyatote think about his energy habits. “I will turn off the air conditioner and use the electric fan or open the windows instead, ” the 58?year?old told AFP. “Street lights and other security?related lighting remained on and there will also be more police on duty in case that crimes increased.” Governor Apirak Kosayedhin said. Bangkok, a city with a population of 12 million, spews more than 26 million tons of carbon dioxide into the air each year, or nearly 20 percent of Thailand’s total CO2 emissions. Bangkok’s lights?out campaign included a public screening in a downtown shopping district of the Oscar?winning documentary “An Inconvenient Truth” by former US vice?president Al Gore. Australian city Sydney held a similar exercise in April, with a one?hour blackout observed by 65,000 homes and 2,000 businesses, which organisers estimated cut normal energy use by 10 percent. 1. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage? A. A Power Failure in Bangkok B. Bangkok’s Campaign to Remind Its Residents of Global Warming C. People’s Attitudes toward Global Warming D. Carbon Dioxide—the Major Factor of Global Warming 2. How many tons are the total CO2 emissions of Thailand? A. 12 million tons. B. 26 million tons. C. 60 million tons. D. 130 million tons. 3. From the passage we can infer that________. A. all the people in Bangkok would use the electric fan or open the windows instead of air conditioners to save energy B. the campaign in Bangkok also raised awareness of Sydney’s residents C. not all the residents were in favor of the campaign D. there were 6 cities taking part in the campaign that took place in Thailand 4. Which action of the following was not taken by Bangkok government? A. People would be fined if they didn’t switch off their lights. B. Extra police were on duty for fear that more crimes increased. C. 2,000,000 of the city’s residents were requested to join in switching off non?essential lights. D. A public screening was set up in public to make people enjoy a film by a former US vice?president. Premier Wen Jiabao has called it a prime job to maintain a stable and relatively fast economic development and take more direct, powerful and effective measures to carry out central policies on increasing domestic demands and promoting economic growth. During an inspection tour in southwest China’s Chongqing Municipality from Dec.21 to 22, Wen visited a number of local factories, communities, villages and worksites. In a visit to the reservoir worksite, Wen was told that Chongqing plans to invest 40 billion yuan ($5.88 billion)in water conservation projects in the coming five years as part of its efforts to increase domestic demands and improve the quality of life.“We must make good use of every coin of the people, ” he said. At a workshop of the Chang’ an Group, the premier showed great concerns over the negative impacts of the global financial crisis on the city’s automobile industry. The company’s car sales have been declining since November. It is expected to further decrease in the first quarter of next year, said the company’s president Xu Liuping. Wen said that the difficulties in the country’s automobile industry are temporary, because “China has a huge market.” Wen urged the company to depend on innovation and reform while improving quality and decreasing the cost.“Company leaders must be bold to shoulder responsibilities and the staff should unite as one, to get over the difficulties together, ” he said. On Monday morning, the premier paid a visit to communal social security center to learn about the life of low?income families.“The more financially challenged we are, the greater attention we should pay to those in need, ” he stressed. At the home of 76?year?old Ren Guoqing, the premier said the government had decided to continue increasing the pension of retirees, as well as the subsidies for low?income families and other families who receive government subsidies. During his tour in the city, Wen paid an unplanned visit to Chongqing University, where he met thousands of students and encouraged them to be confident in the difficult times. 1. The most important job, according to premier Wen Jiabao, is ________. A. getting over the current financial difficulties B. speeding up reform and development in China C. maintaining a stable and relatively fast economic development D. increasing the pension of retirees 2. Which of the following is TRUE? A. Chongqing has invested 40 billion yuan in water conservation projects. B. Automobile industry in Chongqing is expected to further increase in the next year. C. It is the government that is responsible for overcoming the financial difficulties. D. The financial crisis has influenced the automobile industry in Chongqing. 3. During his inspection tour, Premier Wen visited the places as planned except ________. A. local factories B. worksites C. Chongqing University D. communities 4. What’s the meaning of the underlined word “temporary” in Paragraph 6? A. Lasting. B. Short. C. Considerable. D. Promising. Moscow (RIA Novosti)—Dutch architect Erick van Egeraat has designed a Russia?shaped island to be created in the Black Sea near Sochi by 2014, when the city will host the Winter Olympics. At an investment forum in Sochi on September 21st, Erick van Egeraat presented an architectural design of his project, Federation Island. It gets its name from the planned shape of the coastline, which will resemble Russia’s boundaries. According to the plans, the 250?hectare island, to cost about 155 billion rubles (over$6 billion), will have two marinas (码头), religious centers, roads, parkland and artificial rivers, mimicking (模仿)Russia’s major rivers. The island will be conveniently located 13 km from the airport and 14 km from the railroad terminal in the resort city. It’s planned to be built in 2008~2013.Designed as a private project, the island has attracted Russian officials’ attention at the forum. The acting economics minister, German Gref, mentioned it in his speech, quoting its cost at about $10 billion. Van Egeraat, who’s also carrying out or planning a series of other projects in Russia, said a consortium(财团)of Russian and foreign companies had been created to build the island, which is similar to artificial islands that have been built in the United Arab Emirates. Palm Islands, the world’s three largest artificial islands, are being built in the Persian Gulf to encourage tourism near Dubai, and will add 520 km of beaches to the city. The investment forum in Sochi last week was focused on future investment in the development of Sochi’s infrastructure (基础设施)up to 2020, and the construction of sports facilities ahead of the Winter Olympic Games. 1. According to the passage, Federation Island ________. A. will only be built by Russian companies B. is designed for the 2014 Summer Olympics C. will be convenient for tourists to visit D. will take workers about ten years to build 2. The underlined word “It” in Paragraph 2 refers to ________. A. the coastline of Russia B. Russia’s boundaries C. Federation Island D. an investment forum 3. What does the underlined word “rubles” in Paragraph 3 refer to? A. The length of the coastline. B. The length of the rivers. C. The contents in Federation Island. D. The Russian money unit. 4. Most probably the construction of Federation Island will ________. A. promote Sochi’s local development B. meet unimaginable difficulties C. not gain the government’s approval D. be in the charge of German Gref Unit4 Global warming-词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 重点单词讲解: depend on/ upon+ n 依靠,依赖, 确(坚)信 You can’t depend on your parents forever. depend on/upon+sb.+to do 指望某人做…… You can’t depend on him to come on time. depend on/upon +it +that…. 指望….. You may depend on it that he will come. depend on/upon +wh-从句?? Whether you can pass the exam depends on how? hard you work. That (all) depends./ it all depends. (口语)视情况而定, I may help you. But that/ it depends. light 1)n. 光,线,灯 2)v.照亮,点燃 He lit a match. 他划着了一根火柴。 A smile of triumph lit up her face. 她的脸上闪耀着胜利的微笑。 The match lights easily. 这火柴容易划着 3)adj The suitcase is very light.(轻的) There was a light rain falling. He is a light sleeper. 他睡不沉。(易醒的) heat v. / heat up 是某物变热或变暖 heated adj. 热的激烈的 heated debate, heated discussion heatedly adv.愤怒地激昂地 heater加热器发热器 consume v.---- consumer?(n.). 消耗,花费;耗尽 She consumed most of her time in reading. 吃完,喝光 The kids soon consumed all the food on the table. 孩子们一会儿功夫便把桌上的食品全部吃光。 使全神贯注,使着迷+with The boy was consumed with curiosity. 那男孩充满好奇心。 as … as one can = as … as possible Please come here as soon as possible.= Please come here as soon as you can.. as many as 多达 as long as 长达,只要 as far as远至,就…而论 as well as 和…一样好,也,和 as early as 早在 trap vt. / n. 挡住圈套 Sand and leaves trapped the water in the stream. They finally trapped the mouse in a cage.最后,他们用笼子把老鼠逮着了。 The police set a trap for the thieves. She was trapped in the burning house. compare compare to/ with: 与…相比 Compared to/with many women, she was indeed very fortunate. compare A with B:相比(不同) If you compare her work with his, you will find hers is much better. compare A to B:把A比作B Poets have compared sleep to death. A teacher's work is often compared to a candle. The poet compares his lover to a rose in his poems. come about:发生=happen(无被动) This situation should never have come out. How did it come about that he had his leg hurt?他的腿伤着了,这是怎么发生的? This has not come about overnight.冰冻三尺,非一日之寒 Take place事件的发生有某种原因或事先的安排:The Olympic Games of 2008 took place in Beijing. Happen 偶然或突发性事件: what happened to you? I happened to see him on my way home= It happened that I saw him on my way home. Occur 发生或想到,突然想起,意为发生时=happen: what has occurred? I occurred to me that she didn’t know I had moved into the new house. Come about 事情发生了, 但还不知道为什么。常用于否定和疑问 When mother woke up, she didn’t know what had come about. Break out 常指战争灾难疾病争吵事件的发生 random 随意的胡乱的随机的/ randomly at random 任意地随便地 phenomenon (sing.) phenomena (pl.) the phenomena of nature自然现象 a social phenomenon 社会现象 Subscribe vi. Vt. Subscribe to 同意赞同,支持订阅签名 I subscribe to your opinion completely.(同意赞同) I subscribe to a weekly women’s magazine(订阅报纸杂志) She subscribes to a society which helps to protect animals(定期捐款) quantity 1) He likes reading and always buys books in quantity. 他喜欢阅读,总是成批地买书。 2) He prefers quality to quantity when food is concerned. 在吃的方面,他重质而不重量 3) A large quantity of air-conditioners has been sold since the temperature began to rise. 自从气温升高,大量的空调已经被卖出去了。 a large quantity of/large quantities of;大量的…,许多的… in quantity;成批地,大量地 a large quantity of/large quantities of之后接可数或不可数名词。 注意:a large quantity of…作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。large quantities of…作主语,谓语动词都用复数 Tend- tendency vt.照顾,护理  She is tending (to) a very sick patient. (她在护理一位重病人。) There is a farmer tending his sheep. vi. tend to易于,往往会;倾向于 When I’m tired, I tend to make mistakes. He tends to get angry when people oppose his opinion. result in 导致, 造成 =lead to The accident resulted in three people being killed. result from: 起因于,因为…? mild adj. 1) 温和的,温柔的 He is the mildest man alive. 他是世上最和善的人了。 2) 温暖的,暖和的 It's been a mild winter this year. 今年的冬天一直很暖和。 3) 味淡的,不浓烈的 Please make my drink a mild one. 请把我的酒调得淡一点。 4) 轻微的,不重的;宽大的 He was given a mild punishment. 他被从轻发落。 state-statement The witness stated that she had never seen Mr. Smith陈述;声明;说明 Ice is the solid state of water .形态 In china, the railway are owned by the state.国家,政府 There are 50 states in America. Everything was in a state of disorder.状态 The president has made an important statement about the matter. range 1)排列, 将...排成行The cards were ranged in alphabetical order. 2 )(在一定范围内)变化 3) It’s beyond the range of my ability. 4) I came within my range of vision. 5) he has a wide range of knowledge. beyond the range of超出…范围 within the range of在…范围内 range from A to B? 范围从A到B even if /though I wouldn't tell you even if I knew. Even if she survives, she'll never fully recover. Even though he's 24 now, he's still like a little child. I can still remember, even though it was so long ago. steady-steadily 平稳的,持续的,可靠地,稳固的 He has made a steady decision There has been a steady increase in car production in the past 6 months. Zhang Feng is a steady young man. Please keep the ladder steady. We?drove at a steady speed. A steady job/income稳定的工作/收入 A steady worker可靠的工人 Steady rain连绵的雨 tendency倾向 趋势 She has artistic tendencies. 她有艺术气质。 There is a growing tendency for people to work at home instead of in offices. Mary is nice but she has a tendency to talk too much. 有…倾向; +to/toward He has a tendency towards pessimism. 他有悲观的倾向。 Bob has a tendency to exaggerate things. 鲍勃有爱夸张的倾向。 Trend? tendency? current:这些名词均含“趋势,倾向”之意。 trend: 指事物发展总的方向、倾向或趋势。A? recent trend in literature, fashion trend tendency: 指固有或习得的倾向性,强调没有外来的影响或干扰。 current: 指向某一方面发展或在确趋向中行动 widespread 分布广的,普遍的 The forests are widespread in our country. ?我们的国家森林分布很广。 The new laws gained widespread acceptance.? Their suggestion met with widespread disagreement普遍的 There was a widespread belief in his innocence on the whole 总的来说;从总体上看 On the whole, he is a good boy. The weather this month has been cold on the whole. On the whole, I’m in favor of the idea. The paper is well written on the whole. average above the average在一般 水平以上, 中上; 在平均数以上 below the average在一般水平以下, 中下; 在平均数以下 on average 平均, 按平均数计算; 一般地说 on an average 平均, 按平均数计算; 一般地说 重点短语: 1. come about 发生;造成 2. subscribe to  同意,赞成,订阅 3. go up  上升;增长;升起 4. be opposed to  反对…… 5. keep on  继续 6. on the whole  大体上;基本上 7. on average   平均来看 below/above average  低于/高于平均水平 8. put up with  忍受;容忍 9. and so on  等等 10. quantities of  大量的 11. result in  导致 12. even if  甚至 13. on behalf of  代表……一方;作为……的代言人 14. so long as  只要 重点短语详解: on behalf of代表……一方 My husband could not be here tonight, but l want to thank you on his behalf. ?We attended the global conference on behalf of our country. The hero’s wife accepted the medal on behalf of her dead husband. make a difference :有关系,有影响,有重要性 make no difference:没有关系,没有重要性 It won't make much difference whether you go today or tomorrow. 你今天去或明天去没有多大关系. It make no difference if you light a lamp in the sunshine. 白天点灯多此一举。 put up with忍受;忍耐;受苦 We can’t put up with his endless complaint. I'm afraid you'll have to put up with his bad temper. That woman, as a housewife, has a lot to put up with. Noise is coming to the point where we can’t put up with it. 相关短语: put aside节省(钱、时间);储蓄;把……放在一边 put away收拾起来;储存(钱) put back放回原处;拖延 put down写下;记下;控制 put forward提出(意见、建议);推荐 put off延期;推迟 put out熄灭; 扑灭 put up举起;张开(伞);张贴;为……提供食宿 Match the phrases with the correct meaning so long as / as long as? 只要,如果 As long as you don't betray me, I'll do whatever you ask me to (do). You can go out, as / so long as you promise to be back before 11 o'clock. As long as you drive carefully, you will be very safe. You may borrow this book so long as you promise to give it back. I will stay as long as I can. on condition that …在……的条件下 1)I will go abroad on condition that I earn enough money.?如果我挣到足够的钱,我就出国。 2)We will help you on condition that/as long as you can offer us the proper reason. 只要你能给我们合适的原因,我们就会帮助你。 重点句子讲解: 1. There is no doubt that the earth is becoming warmer and that it is human activity that has caused this global warming rather than a random but natural phenomenon. 毫无疑问,地球正在变暖。而地球变暖正是人类活动导致的,并非是一种无规律的自然现象。 名师指津:There is no doubt that...毫无疑问,that引导同位语从句。 例句仿写: 毫无疑问,收音机和电视机是信息交流的重要方式。 There is no doubt that radio and television are important means ofcommunication. 2. Even if we start reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, the climate is going to keep on warming for decades or centuries. 即使我们开始减少二氧化碳和其他温室气体的含量,在未来几十年或几个世纪内,气候仍会持续转暖。 名师指津:even if即使;尽管,引导让步状语从句。 例句仿写:工程师们如此忙碌,以至于没时间做户外活动,即使他们对做户外活动很感兴趣。 The engineers are so busy that they have no time for outdoor sports activities, even if they have the interest. It is OK to leave an electrical appliance on so long as you are using it—if not, turn it off! 只要你在使用电器设备,你可以让它开着。如果不用就把它关掉! 名师指津:so long as=as long as只要,引导条件状语从句。 例句仿写:只要我们不失去信心,继续努力,我们一定能克服困难,实现目标。 As long as we don’t lose heart and keep on trying, we are sure to get over difficulties, and achieve our aims. They also agree that it is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has resulted in this increase in carbon dioxide. 他们还赞同正是由于越来越多燃烧化石燃料导致了二氧化碳的增加。 名师指津:宾语从句中的强调句型。 例句仿写:我不知道是什么事情使他那么伤心。 I don’t know what it is that made him so upset. (2014·宁波高三质检)—Would you like this gold necklace, Madam? —It’s beautiful, but out of my price________. A. control B. reach C. aim D. range 解析:考查名词词义。句意为:——你喜欢这条金项链吗,女士?——它很漂亮,但是我买不起。out of one’s price range超出某人能承受的价格范围,与句意相符。 答案:D (2014·浙江绍兴质检)—Do you ________to her pessimistic view of the state of the economy? —Absolutely not. I think it is just on the rise. A. appeal B. oppose C. subscribe D. respond 解析:句意为:——你同意她关于经济状况的悲观看法吗?——完全不。我认为经济在回升。subscribe to同意;appeal to吸引,呼吁,求助于;oppose to反对;respond to对……做出回应。根据答语可知C项正确。 答案:C (2014·安徽芜湖市模拟)—Oh, John, what shall I do? My boss dislikes me! —Well, come on! Let’s ________your troubles and enjoy the party! A. put away B. put off C. put aside D. put out 解析:考查动词短语辨析。句意为:—— John,我该怎么办?我的老板不喜欢我!——别这样,把你的烦恼先放一边(put aside),好好享受聚会时间。put away放好,储存;put off推迟;put out熄灭,出版,均不符合语境,故答案选C。 答案:C (2014·陕西宝鸡质量检测)He will have to find some other work, for he can’t ________this loud noise any more. A. put up with B. come up with C. make up with D. keep up with 解析:考查动词短语辨析。句意为:他将不得不再找别的工作,因为他再也不能忍受这么大的噪音。put up with忍受,忍耐;come up with提出,想出;make up with和好,和解;keep up with和(朋友)保持联系。 答案:A (2014·甘肃兰州、靖远模拟)True happiness does not ________the possession of money, but the joy of achievement. A. contribute to B. lie in C. result in D. add to 解析:考查动词短语。句意为:真正的幸福不在于对金钱的占有,而在于成功的喜悦。根据句意应选lie in,表示“在于”。A项“有助于,促成”;C项“导致”;D项“增加”。 答案:B 基础演练 一、语境填词 1. When I’m tired, I t________ to make mistakes. 2. Don’t throw waste paper at r________ or you will be punished to be on duty again. 3. By the sea I saw a wide r________ of seashells. 4. This company pays more attention to quality than to q________. 5. Most air pollution is caused by the burning of f________ like coal, gas and oil. 6. He gave a ________ (一瞥) at his watch and then looked at the sky. 7. I ________ (反对) your going there alone. 8. We are making slow but ________ (平稳的) progress in our English. 9. Recently we have seen a gradual ________ (倾向) towards healthier food. 10. The ______________ (结果) was that many people were overweight. 11. The ________ (平均的) age of the boys in this class is fifteen. 12. Computers are now in ______________ (普遍的) use. 13. I think a cold drink can ________ (使恢复) you after your long hot journey. 14. Such ________ (随便的) dress would not be correct for a formal occasion. 15. There is a growing ________ (趋势) for people to work at home instead of in offices. 16. The ________ (生长) of plants needs sunlight. 17. Young people have made a great ____________ (贡献) to China’s economic development. 18. Twenty?five thousand deaths per year are caused by air ________ (污染). 19. Many experts ________ (提倡) rewarding your child for good behaviour. 20. I know I can trust her in any ______________ (情况). 答案:1.tend 2.random 3.range 4.quantity 5.fuels 6. glance 7.oppose 8.steady 9.trend  10. consequence 11.average 12.widespread 13.refresh 14.casual 15. tendency 16.growth 17.contribution 18.pollution 19. advocate 20.circumstances 巩固提高 一、选词填空 1. During the discussion, many members ____________________ my proposal, which upset me greatly. 2. My father still ________________ drinking and smoking after the doctor told him to give up. 3. Can you tell me how the accident ________________? 4. Prices of fruit and vegetables have ________________ quickly during the past few months. 5. The heavy snow can easily ________________ many accidents in winter. 6. In order to improve his English, he ________________ China Daily. 7. The police found ________________ drugs under his bed and above his ceiling. 8. ________________ we could afford it, we wouldn’t go abroad for our vacation. 答案:1. were opposed to 2. kept on 3. came about 4. gone up 5. result in 6. subscribed to  7. quantities of 8. Even if 二、佳句翻译与仿写 1. There is no doubt that the earth is becoming warmer and that it is human activity that has caused this global warming rather than a random but natural phenomenon. 翻译: 仿写: (1)毫无疑问, 小麦的价格将会上涨。 (2)我在他口袋里发现的是一枚钥匙。 ________________________________________________________________________ 2. All scientists subscribe to the view that the increase in the earth’s temperature is due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil to produce energy. 翻译: 仿写: (1)我们不同意我们已经失败的观点。 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ (2)他获得了奖学金的消息让我们都很吃惊。 The news ____________________________ surprised all of us. 3. Without the ‘greenhouse effect’, the earth would be about thirty?three degrees Celsius cooler than it is. 翻译: 仿写: (1)如果没有电, 今天的生活就会完全不同。 (2)没有你的帮助,我无论如何也不会成功。 4. Even if we start reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases,the climate is going to keep on warming for decades or centuries. 翻译: 仿写: (1)即使受到邀请我也不去参加他的生日聚会。 ______________________, I will not go to his birthday party. (2)即使天气不好,我们也要作一次旅行。 We’ll make a trip ________________________________. 答案: 1.毫无疑问,地球是在变暖,而且全球转暖是人为的,而不是随意的自然现象。  (1)There is no doubt that the price of wheat will go up.  (2)It was a key that I found in his pocket. 2. 所有的科学家赞同这种观点:人们为了生产能量而燃烧化石燃料(如煤、天然气和石油等),从而引起了地球温度的升高。  (1)We don’t subscribe to the view that we have failed.  (2)that he won a scholarship 3. 如果没有这种‘温室效应’,地球的温度将比现在的温度还要低33摄氏度左右。  (1)Without electricity, life would be quite different today.  (2)Without your help, I wouldn’t have succeeded anyway. 4. 即使我们开始减少二氧化碳和其他温室气体的含量,在未来的几十年或几个世纪内,气候仍会持续转暖。 (1)Even if (I am) invited  (2)even if the weather is bad 一、单项填空 1. The air inside is warm because the glass traps the heat from the sun and keeps it________. A. escaping B. not to escape C. to escape D. from escaping 2. That probably does not seem much to you or me, but it is a rapid increase when________ to other natural changes. A. compared B. comparing C. to compare D. compare 3. It is human activity that has caused this global warming________ a random but natural phenomenon. A. more than B. other than C. rather than D. except for 4. It was a scientist called Charles Keeling, ________ made accurate measurements of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from 1957 to 1997. A. which B. what C. if D. who 5. All scientists________ the view that the increase in the earth’s temperature is due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil________ energy. A. apply to; produce B. correspond to; to produce C. cater to; produce D. subscribe to; to produce 6. Some byproducts of this process are called “greenhouse” gases, the most important one of________ is carbon dioxide. A. that B. whom C. which D. these 7. It means that more heat energy tends to be trapped in the atmosphere causing the global temperature to________. A. grow up B. go up C. build up D. bring up 8. It is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has________ this increase in carbon dioxide. A. resulted in B. led in C. resulted from D. as a result 9. On the other hand, there are those, like George Hambley, who are________ to this view and believe that we should not worry about high levels of carbon dioxide in the air. A. objected B. opposed C. supposed D. determined 10. ________ we start reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, the climate is going to keep on warming for decades or centuries. A. Even if B. As if C. Now that D. As long as 11. This restaurant has become popular for its wide ________of foods that suit all tastes and pockets. A. division B. area C. range D. circle 12. We strongly________ your decision to go abroad at this time of danger. It is not a wise decision. A. approve B. insist C. oppose D. appreciate 13. In________ of the heavy snow, there was a power off yesterday. A. consequence B. result C. lack D. case 14. The price of houses keeps________, which results in many complaints. A. going down B. going up C. going by D. going over 15. It’s already 10 o’clock. I wonder how it________ that she was two hours late on such a short trip. A. came over B. came out C. came about D. came up 16. The water level of the river has increased________ half a meter since it began to rain seven days ago. A. on B. for C. in D. by 17. We don’t doubt________ we will complete all the projects before the year 2012. A. that B. whether C. which D. when 18. —Why does the lake smell terrible? —Because large quantities of water________. A. have polluted B. is being polluted C. has been polluted D. have been polluted 19. I don’t mind her criticizing me, but________ is how she does it that I object to. A. it B. that C. this D. which 20. ________ she did not say a word, I felt her agreement from her eyes. A. As though B. Even though C. So that D. No wonder 答案:1.D 2. A 3. C 4. D 5. D 6. C 7. B 8. A 9. B 10. A 11.C 12. C 13. A 14. B  15. C 16. D 17. A 18. D 19. A 20. B  _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项填空 1. Last year the number of students who graduated with a driving license reached 200,000,a(n)________of 40,000 per year. A. average B. number C. amount D. quantity 2. The president can’t be here today, so I’m going to speak________ him. A. instead B. on behalf of C. in behalf D. represent 3. You can ask him again if you like, but it won’t________ any difference—he’ll still say no. A. tell B. make C. feel D. find 4. She got separated from her husband because she couldn’t________ his bad temper. A. keep up with B. put up with C. catch up with D. come up with 5. —How do you feel about your travel to Hainan? —________, I enjoyed it very much, although the weather of some days was unpleasant. A. In addition B. On the whole C. In other words D. On the other hand 6. Mr. Green is fond of rock music________ his wife enjoys folk music. A. when B. as C. while D. if 7. Under no circumstances________ to move to a new place far away from her workplace, because it isn’t convenient for her family and herself. A. Karen will agree B. will Karen agree C. Karen will disagree D. will Karen disagree 8. We all know that, ________, the situation will get worse. A. not if dealt carefully with B. if not dealt carefully with C. if dealt not carefully with D. not if carefully dealt with 9. —Our holiday cost a lot of money. —Did it? Well, that doesn’t matter ________you enjoyed yourselves. A. as long as B. unless C. as soon as D. though 10. —Let’s carry out the plan. —________ We had better consider it carefully. A. I really can’t agree with you. B. A good idea. C. Go ahead. D. Why don’t? 答案:1.A 2. B 3. B 4. B 5. B 6. C 7. B 8. B 9. A 10. A  二、完形填空 The ice sheets in the poles and glaciers on the high mountains are melting and the world is in danger of__1__.While you were surprised by the special__2__, you know that it is just a made?up story and there will be a hero to save the world. But what if the ice sheets are really__3__? Can anyone save us? __4__to a scientific study last Monday, Arctic ice will completely__5__in the summers by the end of this century unless carbon dioxide emissions are greatly__6__. “The big melt has begun, ” said Jennifer Morgan, from the Climate Change Campaign for the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Arctic __7__are rising at twice the global__8__and could rise seven degrees centigrade by 2100. The melting will cause sea levels to rise__9__one metre, forcing many coastal populations__10__. “The polar bear is one__11__of an animal that could become extinct by the end of this century, ” the WWF said.__12__, on the positive side, rising sea levels__13__open up new areas for fishing and oil and gas exploration. “Industrial countries are__14__an uncontrolled experiment to study the effects of__15__change.The Arctic is their first victim, ” Morgan said. Russia this month__16__the Kyoto Protocol, an agreement to cut production of six greenhouse gases. But the US, the biggest polluter, __17__to do so. In 2002,104 countries, __18__China, accepted the agreement. The new__19__was sponsored by a group of industrial countries, including the US and Canada, __20__produce almost 30 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions. 1. A. snowing B. flooding C. watering D. raining 2. A. catastrophe B. luck C. movement D. existence 3. A. smelling B. smoking C. cooking D. melting 4. A. According B. Looking forward C. Used D. Seeing 5. A. renew B. manage C. await D. disappear 6. A. increased B. reduced C. died D. raised 7. A. size B. temperatures C. length D. weight 8. A. special B. normal C. average D. abstract 9. A. by B. on C. in D. to 10. A. to be moved B. move C. to move D. moved 11. A. pattern B. modal C. style D. example 12. A. But B. And C. So D. Or 13. A. should B. will C. may D. ought to 14. A. carrying forward B. carrying out C. carrying on D. carrying about 15. A.sky B. weather C. climate D. atmosphere 16. A. accepted B. received C. got D. pushed 17. A. agreed B. refused C. decided D. wanted 18. A. as well B. except C. without D. including 19. A. study B. learning C. knowledge D. understanding 20. A. where B. when C. how D. who 答案:1.B 2. A 3. D 4. A 5. D 6. B 7. B 8. C 9. A 10. C 11. D  12. A 13. B 14. B 15. C 16. A 17. B 18. D 19. A 20. D  三、阅读理解 Bangkok, Thailand’s capital turned the lights out on Wednesday in an effort to raise awareness of global warming, with six Bangkok neighborhoods joining into partial darkness for 15 minutes. Officials ranged two million of the city’s residents to join in switching off non?essential lights at 7:00 p. m.(12:00 GMT) to alert Thais to the ill?effects of climate change. At downtown shopping mall Central World Plaza, Thais put away their credit cards for a moment to consider their energy consumption, as lights dimmed.“I waste a lot of energy at home, for example, I turn my television on while spending two hours on the Internet, ” said an 18?year?old student.“From now on, I will turn off the TV.” There was only partial darkness in Bangkok’s central shopping district, with some malls and hotels ignoring the request, but it was enough to make business owner Somas Thanyatote think about his energy habits. “I will turn off the air conditioner and use the electric fan or open the windows instead, ” the 58?year?old told AFP. “Street lights and other security?related lighting remained on and there will also be more police on duty in case that crimes increased.” Governor Apirak Kosayedhin said. Bangkok, a city with a population of 12 million, spews more than 26 million tons of carbon dioxide into the air each year, or nearly 20 percent of Thailand’s total CO2 emissions. Bangkok’s lights?out campaign included a public screening in a downtown shopping district of the Oscar?winning documentary “An Inconvenient Truth” by former US vice?president Al Gore. Australian city Sydney held a similar exercise in April, with a one?hour blackout observed by 65,000 homes and 2,000 businesses, which organisers estimated cut normal energy use by 10 percent. 1. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage? A. A Power Failure in Bangkok B. Bangkok’s Campaign to Remind Its Residents of Global Warming C. People’s Attitudes toward Global Warming D. Carbon Dioxide—the Major Factor of Global Warming 2. How many tons are the total CO2 emissions of Thailand? A. 12 million tons. B. 26 million tons. C. 60 million tons. D. 130 million tons. 3. From the passage we can infer that________. A. all the people in Bangkok would use the electric fan or open the windows instead of air conditioners to save energy B. the campaign in Bangkok also raised awareness of Sydney’s residents C. not all the residents were in favor of the campaign D. there were 6 cities taking part in the campaign that took place in Thailand 4. Which action of the following was not taken by Bangkok government? A. People would be fined if they didn’t switch off their lights. B. Extra police were on duty for fear that more crimes increased. C. 2,000,000 of the city’s residents were requested to join in switching off non?essential lights. D. A public screening was set up in public to make people enjoy a film by a former US vice?president. 答案:1.B 2. D 3. C 4. A  Premier Wen Jiabao has called it a prime job to maintain a stable and relatively fast economic development and take more direct, powerful and effective measures to carry out central policies on increasing domestic demands and promoting economic growth. During an inspection tour in southwest China’s Chongqing Municipality from Dec.21 to 22, Wen visited a number of local factories, communities, villages and worksites. In a visit to the reservoir worksite, Wen was told that Chongqing plans to invest 40 billion yuan ($5.88 billion)in water conservation projects in the coming five years as part of its efforts to increase domestic demands and improve the quality of life.“We must make good use of every coin of the people, ” he said. At a workshop of the Chang’ an Group, the premier showed great concerns over the negative impacts of the global financial crisis on the city’s automobile industry. The company’s car sales have been declining since November. It is expected to further decrease in the first quarter of next year, said the company’s president Xu Liuping. Wen said that the difficulties in the country’s automobile industry are temporary, because “China has a huge market.” Wen urged the company to depend on innovation and reform while improving quality and decreasing the cost.“Company leaders must be bold to shoulder responsibilities and the staff should unite as one, to get over the difficulties together, ” he said. On Monday morning, the premier paid a visit to communal social security center to learn about the life of low?income families.“The more financially challenged we are, the greater attention we should pay to those in need, ” he stressed. At the home of 76?year?old Ren Guoqing, the premier said the government had decided to continue increasing the pension of retirees, as well as the subsidies for low?income families and other families who receive government subsidies. During his tour in the city, Wen paid an unplanned visit to Chongqing University, where he met thousands of students and encouraged them to be confident in the difficult times. 1. The most important job, according to premier Wen Jiabao, is ________. A. getting over the current financial difficulties B. speeding up reform and development in China C. maintaining a stable and relatively fast economic development D. increasing the pension of retirees 2. Which of the following is TRUE? A. Chongqing has invested 40 billion yuan in water conservation projects. B. Automobile industry in Chongqing is expected to further increase in the next year. C. It is the government that is responsible for overcoming the financial difficulties. D. The financial crisis has influenced the automobile industry in Chongqing. 3. During his inspection tour, Premier Wen visited the places as planned except ________. A. local factories B. worksites C. Chongqing University D. communities 4. What’s the meaning of the underlined word “temporary” in Paragraph 6? A. Lasting. B. Short. C. Considerable. D. Promising. 答案:1. C 2. D 3. C 4. B  Moscow (RIA Novosti)—Dutch architect Erick van Egeraat has designed a Russia?shaped island to be created in the Black Sea near Sochi by 2014, when the city will host the Winter Olympics. At an investment forum in Sochi on September 21st, Erick van

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  • ID:4-6096764 人教版高中英语选修六辅导讲义 Unit3 A healthy life词汇篇及语法篇(教师版+学生版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修5、选修6/选修6/Unit 3 A healthy life

    Unit3 A healthy life-词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 单词讲解: abuse?? n.滥用,妄用;虐待,辱骂 vt. 滥用,妄用,虐待 e.g. He abused his power while in office.他在职时滥用权力。 Those captives were physically abused.那些俘虏遭受了肉体上的摧残 drug abuse 滥用毒品 child abuse 虐待儿童 abuse one’s position / power滥用职权/权利 abuse a privilege滥用特权 stress? 1)n.压力; 重音,重读 be under (the) stress (of) 在压力下 suffer from stress遭受压力 the stresses and strains of modern life现代生活的压力和紧张 强调, 重要性 e.g. Some school lay / put /place stress on foreign language education. 2)vt. 加压力于; 重读; 强调 e.g. He stressed the importance of the task. ban??? 1)n.禁令,禁止??? a?ban on sth 2)vt.禁止, 取缔 ban sb. from (doing) sth. 颁布禁令 impose a ban解除禁令 lift a ban e.g. Our government has put/ imposed a ban on plastic bags. due to??归因于, 归功于  e.g. The accident is due to your careless driving.?那意外事故归因于你驾驶不小心。 be due to do sth 定于某时做某事 e.g. He is due to speak at the meeting tomorrow. 可以被caused by 所代替 The train is due in five minutes.(预定的,预期的) My rent isn’t due till Wednesday.(到期的,立即支付的) In due course 在适当的时候 after due consideration经适当考虑之后 because of “由于”, 较口语化,只作状语 owing to 较正式,须用逗号与主句隔开 thanks to “多亏了” ,多用于正面的意义 as a result of “因为” as a result 副短, “因此” therefore 副词, “因此” so并列连词, “因此” because of ,due to , owing to , on account of和 thanks to 的用法比较 这一词都表示“由于”的意思,在使用时应该注意以下区别: 1. because of意为“由于,因为”,强调因果关系,在句中仅作状语,修饰句中的一部分,与其他成分不用逗号隔开。 如:We must not get discouraged because of such a minor setback. ? 我们决不可因为这样一个小小的挫折而灰心丧气。 2. owing to与because of一样,也强调因果关系,除作状语外,也可作表语。作状语时修饰整个句子,可在句首或句末,用逗号隔开。如: They decided to cancel the flight,owing to?the storm. 由于这场暴风雨,他们决定取消这个航班。 His death was owing to an accident. 他死于一场事故。 3. due to引出造成后果的原因,在句中作表语、状语和定语。作表语和状语时与owing to同义,作状语时,一般不与其他成分隔开。不用于句首。如: This accident was due to(owing to)his careless driving. 这次车祸是由于他开车疏忽大意造成的。 He arrived late due to(owing to)the storm. 由于暴风雨他来晚了。 Mistakes due to carelessness may have serious consequences. 由于疏忽大意造成的错误可能带来严重的后果。 4. on account of与because of,owing to同义,但语气较为正式。可作状语、表语,不作定语。如: He could not come on account of his illness. 他因病不能前来。 That was on account of lack of exercise. 那是由于缺乏锻炼。 5. thanks to表示“幸亏,多亏”多用于表达正面意思,相当于感谢,在句中作状语和表语。 如:Thanks to your advice,much trouble was saved. ?多亏你的建议,减少了许多麻烦。 tough 1)The wire is tougher than that. (坚韧的,不易磨损的) 2)You need to? be tough enough to?survive in the jungle.(坚忍不拔的,吃苦耐劳的) 3) a tough criminal(粗暴的,凶暴的) 4)tough measures to deal with terrorism(强硬的,严厉的) 5)a tough assignment / problem / choice(棘手的,困难的) 6) a tough steak(硬的,老的) fit 1) V. 1. The dress doesn’t fit me. 2. We can’t fit any more chairs into the room.(容纳) 3. be fitted with handles(安装) 4. His ideas did not quite fit in with our aims. 他的想法和我们的目标不完全一致。 (与…相一致,相协调) 2) Adj. keep fit be fit for / to do The book is fit (suitable) for children. The fresh air is fit to breath. 反义词: unfit??be unfit for / to do 区分fit , suit, match These shoes don’t fit me. Have you got?a larger size? 这鞋我穿不合适。你们有大点的吗? That haircut suits you. 那种发型很适合你。 The carpets should match the curtains. 地毯应该和窗帘相配。 You can’t match him in his knowledge of wild plants. 在野生植物知识方面,你无法与他相比。 addicted adj. “对某某上瘾”, “沉湎于某某” e.g. My children have become ???? hopelessly addicted to television. 我的几个孩子都成了电视迷,简直不可救药了。 构词法: addict? n. 吸毒成瘾的人 addiction? n.? 沉湎、成瘾 addictive adj.? 使人上瘾的 addict常用于下列结构: addict oneself to sth. 沉溺于某物 be addicted to sth. 专心做某事;上了…..的瘾 be addicted to doing sth. Eg. The parents felt helpless when they found their son had ____ love stories for long. A. addicted???? B. addicted to C. addicted himself D. been addicted to accustom v.使人习惯于、养成习惯 e.g. She found it necessary to accustom her child to getting up early.? 她觉得有必要让孩子养成早起的好习惯。 常用句式: 1) accustom+名词/oneself + to+名 eg. Children are quick to accustom themselves to new surroundings.孩子们很快就会适应新环境。 2) be accustomed to +名词 e.g. I am accustomed to walking long distances.???我习惯与长距离步行。 3) get/become/be accustomed to +名词 e.g. You will soon get accustomed to the job.??你将会习惯于这个工作。 同义词组:be / get / become used to 注意: 在英语中,to有时为动词不定式符号, 后跟动词原形; 有时用作介词,后跟名词、代词、或动名词。 下面的这些短语中的to 均为介词。 stick to???坚持????? lead to? 导致, 通向 pay a visit to 参观? sentence sb. to 宣判某人 come to? 谈到, 涉及??? see to? 处理,负责????? be up to 总计???????? devote…to 致力于??????????? ?get down to 开始 /着手 be opposed to / object to 反对 be devoted to? 致力于,献身于 be attached to adjust (adapt)… to be exposed to?????? look forward to pay attention to???? attend to contribute to? ??????? turn to admit to when it comes to withdraw-withdrawal The general refused to withdraw his troops.(收回,撤回) She withdrew all her savings and left the country.(取钱,提款) withdrawal symptoms 戒毒过程中出现的症状 quit 动词,过去式和过去分词均为quit,现在分词为quitting,接动词-ing形式, “停止做” e.g. She quit smoking when she got pregnant.???? 她一怀孕就戒了烟。 归类记忆:下列动词只能用-ing 形式作宾语 admit, advise, allow, appreciate, avoid, consider, deny , forbid(禁止), fancy(想象), finish, keep, mention, mind, miss, pardon, permit, prevent, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, imagine, postpone(推迟), practice, quit, resist(抵制), risk , suggest, tolerate, understand strengthen Practicing Kongfu strengthens our bodies. We must strengthen our socialist construction. We should strengthen the legal system. He lifted the stone with all his strength. The ability to keep calm is one of his many strengths. Bill was doing a lot of physical exercises to build up his strength. To make members of a team perform better, the trainer first of all has to know their strengths and weaknesses. decide –decision decide+名词/代词 The question will be decided by themselves.问题将由他们自己决定。 decide to do Last week, a group of Class 3 students decided to go to the museum. decide+从句 Let's first decide where we should go.   (=Let's first decide where to go.) It is not decided whether we will go there. It is decided that...: It is decided that we should start tomorrow. (注:这种从句要用虚拟语气。) 跟介词短语(跟on或upon,表示“就某事做出决定”): Don't decide on important matters too quickly.重要的事情不要匆忙做出决定。 make a decision determine to do / be determined to do make up one’s mind (s) to do feel like 想要, 只表示一次的想法, 后接动词-ing形式 e.g. It’s so hot today. I feel like going swimming. 今天好热啊, 我想去游泳。 摸起来像……, 像是…… e.g. The material feels like silk It feels like rain. would like to do e.g. I’d like to have dinner with you. remind remind sb of sth remind sb to to remind sb that… e.g. The story reminded me of an experience I once lived. You must remind him to take his medicine ,in case he forgets. Please remind me that I must return the book before noon. ashamed?? adj.??feel sorry or embarrassed e.g. She is ashamed to ask such a simple question. 相关短语:be ashamed of sb./ sth ????????????????? be ashamed that… ???????????? ?????be ashamed to do… ???????????????????What a shame! It’s a shame (pity) that…… ….真是遗憾 in spite of?? 尽管, 虽然,不顾。后接名词(despite) eg. She can’t see very well in spite of her glasses.?(despite) 尽管戴着眼镜她还是不能看得很清楚。 Despite (In spite of) the fact that we tried our best, we didn’t win. regardless of 不管,不顾,不理会 He says what he thinks and does what he wants to do, regardless of other people’s feelings. The law says everyone is equal, regardless of age, sex, or religion. Though / Although / Even if Even though it’s hard work, I enjoy it. Young as / though I am, I already know what career I want to follow. get into陷于, 染上什么习惯 ???? get into the habit of 养成什么习惯。 相当于fall into the habit of或者form the habit of e.g. The girl has got into the habit of playing with her hair while reading.? 那个女孩养成了阅读时玩弄头发的习惯。 at risk=in danger take risks/ a risk at the risk of??? 冒……的危险/风险 at your own risk? 自担风险 run the risk of 冒险(做某事) risk doing survival-survive-survivor Of the four people in the car accident, only one survived. Many customs have survived from earlier times.许多风俗习惯源源流长 The old lady has survived her husband.那老妇人的丈夫先她而去世了 He felt lucky to have survived the war.经历那场战争后能幸存下来他感到很幸运 possible, probable, likely 的用法 It’s possible (for sb) to do It’s possible that… It’s probable that… sth is probable It’s likely that…. 主语+be likely to do prejudice pride and prejudice 傲慢与偏见 She has a prejudice against modern music.? 她对现代音乐怀有偏见。 They accused him of having a prejudice against his women employees.?他们指责他歧视女雇员。 A new law has been brought in to discourage racial prejudice.?一项反对种族歧视的新法律已被提出。 重点词组: 1. due to 由于;归功于? 2. be/become addicted to 对……有瘾? 3. decide on (doing)sth对……做出决定? 4. be/become/grow accustomed to sth./doing sth.? 习惯于某事/做某事? 5. feel like (doing)?? 想要(做)? 6. in spite of 不管;不顾? 7. stand for 支持;代表? 8. get (sb.) into (sth.) 陷入;染上坏习惯;进入 get into the way/habit of doing sth. 学成做某事的方法/养成做某事的习惯? 9. be ashamed of/that.… 为……感到惭愧/羞愧 be ashamed to do sth. 羞于做某事? 10.take off?? 开除/脱衣/起飞/取消/休假? 11.quit (doing) sth. 停止做某事? 12.be at risk 处在危险之中 take risks(a risk)? 冒险? 13.manage to do sth. 设法做好/设法办到某事? 14.so far 到目前为止(与现在完成时连用)? 15.make sure 确定;查明;弄明白? 16.prevent sb. (from) doing sth. 阻止某人做某事? 17.every time 每次;每当……时 18.remind sb of sth 让某人想起某事 19. leave out 遗漏 20.benefit from 从…得益 重点词组讲解: take risks/a risk冒险 教材原句P20:He felt he had to make up his mind on every step instead of taking risks. 他觉得每一步都得作出决定而不是冒险。 at risk有风险 at the risk of...冒着……风险 take/run the risk of doing sth.冒险做某事 take risks (a risk) to do冒险做…… risk doing sth.冒险做某事 risk one’s life to do sth.冒着生命危险做某事 ①Whatever you do, don’t take unnecessary risks. 无论你做什么,都不要冒不必要的风险。 ②If you go online tomorrow, your computer might run the risk of being attacked by a virus. 你如果明天上网,你的电脑可能面临病毒攻击的危险。 ③He got well?prepared for the job interview, for he couldn’t risk losing the good opportunity.他为面试作了充分的准备,因为他不想冒失去这一次好机会的危险。 get into陷入;染上(坏习惯) 教材原句P20:Of course the best way to deal with these drugs is not to get into the habit in the first place!当然,对付毒品的最好的方法是首先就别养成(吸毒的)习惯。 get across(使)通过;(使)被理解;(把……)讲清楚 get along进展;相处 get away逃脱;离开 get away with...做了坏事而不受处罚 get down to认真工作 get over爬过;越过;克服困难;痊愈 get through穿越(马路);通过;接通电话;经历 ①(陕西高考)Many homeless people get into the habit of begging to get enough money to stay alive. 许多无家可归的人开始养成乞讨谋生的习惯。 ②(重庆高考)Hi, Bob, how are you getting along with your spoken report? 嗨,鲍勃,你的口头报告准备得怎样了? ③(2010·湖北卷单项填空)A smile can help us get through difficult situations and find friends in a world of strangers.微笑可以帮助我们渡过难关,在陌生人中找到朋友。 重点句型讲解: 1. I do hope so because I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I have.我的确希望这样,因为我想让你过上和我一样长寿而健康的生活。 名师指津:此句式为as+adj.+a/an+单数可数名词+as...结构。 例句仿写:这个小伙子希望和他爷爷一样过着俭朴的生活。 The man hopes to live as simple a life as his grandpa. 2. Every time you feel like smoking a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non?smoker. 每次你想吸烟的时候,要提醒自己你是一个不吸烟的人。 名师指津:every time引导时间状语从句。 例句仿写:我每次见他,他总是随身带着他的笔记本电脑。 Every time I meet him, he always carries his notebook computer. 3. As you know,if you do the same thing over and over again, you begin to do it automatically. 你知道,如果你反反复复地做同一件事,你就会自动地做它。 名师指津:as引导定语从句,意为“正如,正像”。 例句仿写:正如多次强调的那样,学好英语对你们今后的职业发展非常重要。 As has been stressed many times, learning English well is of great importance to your career development in future. 4. It is only when the disease has progressed to AIDS that a person begins to look sick. 只有当一个人发展成艾滋病时,他才开始看上去有病。 名师指津:本句为强调句型。 例句仿写:我还记得三年前是在北京初次遇到你。 I still remember it was in Beijing that I first met you three years ago. 5. It is no good crying over spilt milk. 覆水难收。 名师指津:It is no good/use doing sth. 做某事无用。 例句仿写:劝说他没用,他不会改变主意。 It is no good/use persuading him. He won’t change his mind. 1. (2014·福建质量检测)—When is the next train arriving? —It’s ________at 7:30. A. due B. normal C. straight D. convenient 2. (2014·宁夏银川一中第四次考试)Often organized outdoors or at big venues ________their popularity, music festivals provide one day or even several days of non?stop entertainment. A. due to B. in spite of C. in honor of D. apart from 3. (2014·长沙市重点中学高三联考)Accustomed to ________in the beautiful country. Bead found it difficult to live in the crowded city. A. living B. live C. having lived D. have lived 4. (2014·安徽芜湖市模拟)To our great surprise, the city girl became ________to country life very quickly. A. accessible B. devoted C. accustomed D. involved 5. (2014·太原模拟)The new survey shows that the number of students ________computer games has been on the increase in recent years. A. devoted to B. related to C. connected to D. addicted to 基础演练 一、语境填词 1. Because final exams are coming, most students are under a lot of ________ (压力). 2. She was __________ (绝望的) after the failure of her plan. 3. They promised to __________ (加强) the cooperation between the two nations in more fields. 4. My uncle has ________ (停止) smoking. 5. Are you very ______________ (失望的) at losing the game? 6. She was ________ (感到惭愧的) of having failed in the examination. 7. What you said has a great ________ (影响) on his thinking. 8. Her trouble was found to be ________ (精神的), not physical. 9. There is a ________ (禁令, 禁止) on smoking in theaters. 10. Breathing is an ________ (无意识的) function of the body. 11. He looked ________ (局促不安的) in this strange place. 12. When I began to sing, they laughed and made me ______________ (尴尬的). 13. His ________ (幸存) made us surprised and happy. 14. He has a ________ (偏见) against modern music. 15. He showed excellent __________ (判断力) in choosing a friend. 16. It is ________ (违法的) to steal things. 17. The bad weather resulted in the plan’s __________ (中途失败). 18. He has to take ________ (药片) to control his blood pressure. 巩固提高 一、单项填空 1. Your mother tells me that you started smoking________ ago and now you are finding it difficult to________. A. sometime; give up it B. some times; give away it C. some time; give it up D. sometimes; give it away 2. First, you can become physically________ to nicotine, which is one of the hundreds of chemicals in cigarettes. A. addict B. addicted C. addictive D. addiction 3. This means that after a while your body becomes accustomed________ nicotine in it. A. to having B. to have C. have D. having 4. However, ________ I________ know was that my girlfriend thought I smelt terrible. A. that; did B. what; did C. what; do D. that; do 5. When I was taken off the school football team because I was unfit, I knew it was time________. A. quit smoking B. to quit to smoke C. quit to smoke D. to quit smoking 6. It is not easy to stop smoking, but millions have managed to quit and________. A. so can you B. neither can you C. so you can D. neither you can 7. Every time you feel like________ a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non?smoker. A. to smoke B. smoked C. smoking D. smoke 8. If you start to feel nervous or stressed, do not reach for a cigarette. Try some deep breathing________. A. instead of B. instead C. however D. anyway 9. Do some relaxation exercises________ you feel stressed. A. until B. every time C. every time when D. even if 10. Do not be________ if you have to try several times________ you finally stop smoking. A. disappointing; before B. disappointed; when C. disappointing; when D. disappointed; before 二、佳句翻译与仿写 1. It seems amazing that at my age I am still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometres in an afternoon. 翻译: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)感到惊奇吧,他的儿子都到了参军的年龄。 ____________________________ his son is ____________________ the army. (2)你还没大到可以独自旅行的年龄。 You’re not ________________________ alone. 2. Your mother tells me that you started smoking some time ago and now you are finding it difficult to give it up. 翻译: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)我发现与她相处很难。 I on with her. (2)她觉得早上早起是必要的。 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3. Neither did I know that my cigarette smoke could affect the health of non?smokers. 翻译: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)我没有见过她,也没有收到过她的信。 I haven’t seen her and ____________________ heard from her. (2)我不知道他的名字,也不想知道。 I don’t know his name and ________________________. 4. I do hope so because I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I have. 翻译: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)我希望我能买得起和他的一样大而且漂亮的房子。 I hope I can afford ________________________________ he has. (2)玛丽和她姐姐是一样聪明的女孩。 Mary is ________________________ her sister. 5. Every time you feel like smoking a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non?smoker. 翻译: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)每当你想吃东西的时候,提醒自己不要吃的太多。 ________________________________, remind yourself not to eat too much. (2)我每次看见他,都觉得他变得更瘦了。 ________________________, I found he became thinner. 一、单项填空 1. Mr. Black is under________ because his wife is ill. A. stress B. trouble C. danger D. difficulty 2. He was late________ the very heavy traffic. A. rather than B. due to C. as a result D. because 3. —They are quiet,aren’t they? —Yes. They are accustomed________ at meals. A. to talk B. to not talk C. to talking D. to not talking 4. I have been told that smoking has a bad________ my health. A. affect on B. effect in C. effect on D. affect in 5. I feel like________ to the cinema tonight and I would like you________ me company. A. to go; keeping B. going; keeping C. to go; to keep D. going; to keep 6. —How do you find Qingdao, Mary? —It’s a beautiful seaside city. I have________ it for my next holiday. A. decided on B. tried on C. taken on D. carried on 7. ________ is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior schools is increasing. A. Which B. As C. That D. It 8. No one can attain great achievements________ he concentrates on what he is doing, even though a talent. A. because B. while C. unless D. if 9. He didn’t make________ clear when and where the meeting would be held. A. this B. that C. these D. it 10. I’m sorry you’ve been waiting so long, but it’ll still be some time________ Brian gets back. A. before B. since C. till D. after 二、选词填空 due to, addicted to, accustomed to, decide on, feel like, do damage to, reach for, by the way 1. Some students were so ________________ the play that they spent too much time in front of TV. 2. The thirsty patient ________________ the cup but couldn’t get it. 3. The car accident was __________________ careless driving. 4. It is still raining and it is difficult to ________________ a date to go on our project. 5. Do you ________________ sharing your experience with the rest of your group? 6. ________________, are you going to the café? 7. I’m a northerner, so I am not ________________ the kind of food that southerners often eat. 8. Man has ________ great ________________ the environment over the years. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项填空 1. I felt________ when I dropped the Tang Dynasty vase. A. embarrassed and awkward B. happy and worried C. glad and angry D. pleased and sad 2. ________ the high price, demand for these cars is very high. A. Because of B. In spite of C. In case of D. Due to 3. After climbing up to the top of the mountain, I was________. A. out of breath B. out of control C. out of danger D. out of date 4. It is necessary for you to call 110 when you________ the trouble of being attacked by others. A. shake with B. get into C. throw out D. take it easy 5. He is at________ now and________ is our duty to help him at once. A. risk; it B. danger; this C. danger; it D. risk; that 6. Though many of the heavy smokers have realized the serious effect that smoking has________ their health, they continue to smoke instead of________. A. for; giving it up B. on; leaving C. to; abandoning D. on; quitting 7. —What did she want to know, Tom? —She wondered________ we could complete the experiment. A. when was it B. it was when that C. it was when D. when it was that 8. The fire made________ difficult to rescue the people trapped under the ruins in the earthquake. A. / B. this C. that D. it 9. Tell him I need to see him________ he arrives. A. immediate B. the minute C. at the moment D. for the instant 10. —I thought it would be a good idea to go shopping this afternoon. —________ I have always wanted to do that. A. That’s a great idea! B. I don’t think so. C. Sorry. D. Why? 二、词义辨析 1. 用decide, decide on的适当形式填空 (1) You must ________________ the day when you will pay off the debt. (2) I’ve ________________ going to America for my holiday. (3) The boy ________ not to become a sailor. (4) Let’s first ________ where we should go. 2. 用ashamed, shameful填空 (1) He was ________ that he couldn’t give an answer. (2) It is ________ to cheat in the exam. (3) To our surprise, the cheat wasn’t ________ of his ________ conduct at all. 三、完形填空 How did you do it, Dad? How have you managed not to take a drinking for almost 20 years? It took me so long to have the __1__ to ask my father this personal question. When Dad first __2__ drinking, the whole family was on pins and needles (坐立不安) and wondered whether he would get into a __3__ under which he would start __4__ again. For a few years we were __5__ to bring it up. “It is a little poem that I have recited to myself at least four to five times a day, ” said Dad, __6__ to my 18?year?old unasked question.“The words are a constant __7__ to me that things are __8__ so hard that I could not deal with them.” Dad continued. Then he __9__ the poem with me. The poem was __10__ but profound (深刻的), which immediately became __11__ of my daily routine as well. About a month after this __12__ with my father, I received a gift in the mail from a friend of mine. It was a book of daily sayings of wisdom with one __13__ for each day of the year. Don’t you think it is an unforgettable __14__ that when you get something with days of the year on it, and you naturally turn to the page that lists your own __15__? I __16__ opened the book to November 10 to see __17__words of wisdom this book had in store for me. I was __18__ when I looked at the page, and then tears of appreciation __19__ down my face. There, on my birthday, was the exact same poem that had __20__ my father for all these years! It is called the Serenity (平静) Prayer. God, offer me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change;the courage to change the things I can; and the wisdom to know the difference. 1. A. chance B. courage C. ability D. right 2. A. gave up B. took up C. went on D. carried on 3. A. way B. habit C. situation D. house 4. A. reciting B. asking C. smoking D. drinking 5. A. sure B. uncertain C. afraid D. eager 6. A. reply B. words C. excuse D. reason 7. A. warning B. suggestion C. saying D. reminder 8. A. never B. seldom C. always D. ever 9. A. discussed B. shared C. offered D. talked 10. A. wonderful B. long C. simple D. boring 11. A. all B. that C. any D. part 12. A. talk B. quarrel C. trip D. lesson 13. A. listed B. included C. read D. said 14. A. method B. experience C. wealth D. message 15. A. character B. birthday C. qualities B. favorites 16. A. doubtfully B. carefully C. happily D. hurriedly 17. A. where B. whether C. what D. how 18. A. excited B. astonished C. disappointed D. frightened 19. A. hung B. pulled C. rolled D. pushed 20. A. troubled B. disturbed C. pleased D. helped 四、阅读理解 Healthy Habits, Healthy Body Feeling tired lately? Has a doctor said he can’t find anything wrong with you? Perhaps he sent you to a hospital, but all the advanced equipment there shows that there is nothing wrong with you. Then, consider this:you might be in a state of subhealth (亚健康). Subhealth, also called the third state or gray state, is explained as a borderline state between health and disease. According to the investigation (调查研究) by the National Health Organization, over 45 percent of subhealthy people are middle?aged or elderly. The percentage is even higher among people who work in management positions as well as students around exam time. Symptoms (征兆) include a lack of energy, depression (压抑), slow reactions, insomnia (失眠), agitation (焦虑), and poor memory. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, sweating and aching in the waist and legs. The key to preventing and recovering from subhealth, according to some medical experts, is to form good living habits, alternate work and rest, exercise regularly, and take part in open?air activities. As for meals, people are advised to eat less salt and sugar. They should eat more fresh vegetables, fruit and fish because they are rich in nutritional (营养的) elements—vitamins and trace elements (微量元素)—that are important to the body. Nutrition experts point out that it is not good to eat too much at one meal because it may cause unhealthy changes in the digestive tract (消化道). They also say that a balanced diet is very helpful in avoiding subhealth. 1. According to this passage, which of the following is right? A. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should stay home and keep silent. B. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should go to see a doctor and buy some medicine. C. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should have yourself examined in foreign countries. D. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should find out the reasons and relax yourself. 2. Middle?aged people may be easy to feel subhealthy because________. A. they have used to their energy B. they have lost their living hopes C. they have more pressure in life and work D. they begin to get older 3. As for food, experts suggested that________. A. we should never eat meat B. we should have meals with less salt and sugar C. we should eat less than usual D. we should have meals without salt or sugar 4. The underlined word “alternate” in the sixth paragraph is closest in meaning to “________”. A. arrange by turns B. cause to take place C. keep up D. take up Sleep Struggle One in every five young people has a sleep problem, so you’re not alone. Getting enough sleep has become as important as eating vegetables and exercising regularly. It’s very important for your body. Most young people only get seven hours of sleep each night, when they actually need nine hours. And making up for lost sleep during the week by sleeping on weekends doesn’t really work. In fact, sleeping late on weekends may actually do you more harm than good, if you have sleep problems. What happens if you don’t get enough sleep? If your sleep problem continues for a few nights, you could suffer serious problems. Lack of sleep can affect learning and memory. Worse, if your sleep difficulties last a long time, that could lead to anxiety or depression (抑郁). Therefore, you’ve got to have some healthy sleep habits. Below are some suggestions: ?GO TO BED AT THE SAME TIME—including weekends, if possible. ?WAKE UP AROUND THE SAME TIME EVERY MORNING. When you sleep late just one morning during the week, it may disturb your body clock. This will make it hard for you to sleep that night. ?DO SOMETHING RELAXING before going to bed. ?EXERCISE DURING THE DAY. Don’t exercise right before going to bed. ?AVOID DRINKING ALCOHOL. Alcohol makes you excited. This prevents you from falling asleep or wakes you up during the night. ?DON’T SMOKE. Smoking is always bad for the body. Smoking before bedtime keeps you awake. If trying these tips over a couple of weeks does not help you, speak to your doctor. Do not take any sleeping pills without first asking your doctor. Many of them have strong side effects. 1. The passage suggests that people with sleep problems should________. A. eat vegetables and exercise regularly B. make up for lost sleep on weekends C. follow a fixed timetable for sleep D. sleep seven hours every day 2. We can learn from the suggestions that________. A. getting up earlier one morning makes it easier to fall asleep that night B. listening to soft music before going to bed may help you fall asleep C. smokers and those who drink alcohol usually have sleep problems D. exercising in the evening will help you get to sleep 3. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A. Sleep problems are serious among young people. B. Sleeping late on weekends can make up for lost sleep. C. Your eating habits will be broken due to lack of sleep. D. You’ll no longer have your sleep problem if you try the tips. 4. What’s the main idea of this passage? A. Many young people have sleep problems. B. Don’t smoke before sleeping. C. How to keep healthy sleep habits. D. Smoking can make you awake. LEEDS, England—A Leeds University psychology (心理学) professor is teaching a course to help dozens of Britons forgive their enemies. “The hate we hold within us is a cancer,” Professor Ken Hart said, adding that holding in anger can lead to problems such as high blood pressure and heart disease. More than 70 people have become members in Hart’s first 20?week workshop in London—a course he says is the first of its kind in the world. “These are people who are sick and tired of living with a memory. They realize their bitterness is a poison they think they can pour out, but they end up drinking it themselves,” said Canadian?born Hart. The students meet in groups of eight to ten for a two?hour workshop with an adviser every fortnight. The course, ending in July, is expected to get rid of the cancer of hate in these people.“People have lots of negative attitudes towards forgiveness,” he said, “People confuse (混同) forgiveness with forgetting. Forgiveness means changing from a negative attitude to positive one.” Hart and his team have created instructions to provide the training needed. “The main idea is to give you guidelines on how to look at various kinds of angers and how they affect you, and how to change your attitudes towards the person you are angry with, ” said Norman Claringbull, a senior expert on the forgiveness project. Hart said he believes forgiveness is a skill that can be taught, as these people “want to get free of the past”. 1. From this passage we know that________. A. high blood pressure and heart disease are caused by hate B. high blood pressure can only be cured by psychology professors C. without hate, people will have less trouble connected with blood and heart D. people who suffer from blood pressure and heart disease must have many enemies 2. If you are angry with somebody, you should________. A. try your best to defeat him or her B. never meet him or her again C. persuade him or her to have a talk with you D. relax yourself by not thinking of him or her any more 3. If you were a member in Hart’s workshop, you would________. A. pay much money to Hart B. go to the workshop every night C. attend a gathering twice a month D. pour out everything stored in your mind 4. The author wrote this passage in order to________. A. persuade us to go to Hart’s workshop B. tell us the news about Hart’s workshop C. tell us how to run a workshop like Hart’s D. help us to look at various kinds of angers Unit3 A healthy life-词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 单词讲解: abuse?? n.滥用,妄用;虐待,辱骂 vt. 滥用,妄用,虐待 e.g. He abused his power while in office.他在职时滥用权力。 Those captives were physically abused.那些俘虏遭受了肉体上的摧残 drug abuse 滥用毒品 child abuse 虐待儿童 abuse one’s position / power滥用职权/权利 abuse a privilege滥用特权 stress? 1)n.压力; 重音,重读 be under (the) stress (of) 在压力下 suffer from stress遭受压力 the stresses and strains of modern life现代生活的压力和紧张 强调, 重要性 e.g. Some school lay / put /place stress on foreign language education. 2)vt. 加压力于; 重读; 强调 e.g. He stressed the importance of the task. ban??? 1)n.禁令,禁止??? a?ban on sth 2)vt.禁止, 取缔 ban sb. from (doing) sth. 颁布禁令 impose a ban解除禁令 lift a ban e.g. Our government has put/ imposed a ban on plastic bags. due to??归因于, 归功于  e.g. The accident is due to your careless driving.?那意外事故归因于你驾驶不小心。 be due to do sth 定于某时做某事 e.g. He is due to speak at the meeting tomorrow. 可以被caused by 所代替 The train is due in five minutes.(预定的,预期的) My rent isn’t due till Wednesday.(到期的,立即支付的) In due course 在适当的时候 after due consideration经适当考虑之后 because of “由于”, 较口语化,只作状语 owing to 较正式,须用逗号与主句隔开 thanks to “多亏了” ,多用于正面的意义 as a result of “因为” as a result 副短, “因此” therefore 副词, “因此” so并列连词, “因此” because of ,due to , owing to , on account of和 thanks to 的用法比较 这一词都表示“由于”的意思,在使用时应该注意以下区别: 1. because of意为“由于,因为”,强调因果关系,在句中仅作状语,修饰句中的一部分,与其他成分不用逗号隔开。 如:We must not get discouraged because of such a minor setback. ? 我们决不可因为这样一个小小的挫折而灰心丧气。 2. owing to与because of一样,也强调因果关系,除作状语外,也可作表语。作状语时修饰整个句子,可在句首或句末,用逗号隔开。如: They decided to cancel the flight,owing to?the storm. 由于这场暴风雨,他们决定取消这个航班。 His death was owing to an accident. 他死于一场事故。 3. due to引出造成后果的原因,在句中作表语、状语和定语。作表语和状语时与owing to同义,作状语时,一般不与其他成分隔开。不用于句首。如: This accident was due to(owing to)his careless driving. 这次车祸是由于他开车疏忽大意造成的。 He arrived late due to(owing to)the storm. 由于暴风雨他来晚了。 Mistakes due to carelessness may have serious consequences. 由于疏忽大意造成的错误可能带来严重的后果。 4. on account of与because of,owing to同义,但语气较为正式。可作状语、表语,不作定语。如: He could not come on account of his illness. 他因病不能前来。 That was on account of lack of exercise. 那是由于缺乏锻炼。 5. thanks to表示“幸亏,多亏”多用于表达正面意思,相当于感谢,在句中作状语和表语。 如:Thanks to your advice,much trouble was saved. ?多亏你的建议,减少了许多麻烦。 tough 1)The wire is tougher than that. (坚韧的,不易磨损的) 2)You need to? be tough enough to?survive in the jungle.(坚忍不拔的,吃苦耐劳的) 3) a tough criminal(粗暴的,凶暴的) 4)tough measures to deal with terrorism(强硬的,严厉的) 5)a tough assignment / problem / choice(棘手的,困难的) 6) a tough steak(硬的,老的) fit 1) V. 1. The dress doesn’t fit me. 2. We can’t fit any more chairs into the room.(容纳) 3. be fitted with handles(安装) 4. His ideas did not quite fit in with our aims. 他的想法和我们的目标不完全一致。 (与…相一致,相协调) 2) Adj. keep fit be fit for / to do The book is fit (suitable) for children. The fresh air is fit to breath. 反义词: unfit??be unfit for / to do 区分fit , suit, match These shoes don’t fit me. Have you got?a larger size? 这鞋我穿不合适。你们有大点的吗? That haircut suits you. 那种发型很适合你。 The carpets should match the curtains. 地毯应该和窗帘相配。 You can’t match him in his knowledge of wild plants. 在野生植物知识方面,你无法与他相比。 addicted adj. “对某某上瘾”, “沉湎于某某” e.g. My children have become ???? hopelessly addicted to television. 我的几个孩子都成了电视迷,简直不可救药了。 构词法: addict? n. 吸毒成瘾的人 addiction? n.? 沉湎、成瘾 addictive adj.? 使人上瘾的 addict常用于下列结构: addict oneself to sth. 沉溺于某物 be addicted to sth. 专心做某事;上了…..的瘾 be addicted to doing sth. Eg. The parents felt helpless when they found their son had ____ love stories for long. A. addicted???? B. addicted to C. addicted himself D. been addicted to accustom v.使人习惯于、养成习惯 e.g. She found it necessary to accustom her child to getting up early.? 她觉得有必要让孩子养成早起的好习惯。 常用句式: 1) accustom+名词/oneself + to+名 eg. Children are quick to accustom themselves to new surroundings.孩子们很快就会适应新环境。 2) be accustomed to +名词 e.g. I am accustomed to walking long distances.???我习惯与长距离步行。 3) get/become/be accustomed to +名词 e.g. You will soon get accustomed to the job.??你将会习惯于这个工作。 同义词组:be / get / become used to 注意: 在英语中,to有时为动词不定式符号, 后跟动词原形; 有时用作介词,后跟名词、代词、或动名词。 下面的这些短语中的to 均为介词。 stick to???坚持????? lead to? 导致, 通向 pay a visit to 参观? sentence sb. to 宣判某人 come to? 谈到, 涉及??? see to? 处理,负责????? be up to 总计???????? devote…to 致力于??????????? ?get down to 开始 /着手 be opposed to / object to 反对 be devoted to? 致力于,献身于 be attached to adjust (adapt)… to be exposed to?????? look forward to pay attention to???? attend to contribute to? ??????? turn to admit to when it comes to withdraw-withdrawal The general refused to withdraw his troops.(收回,撤回) She withdrew all her savings and left the country.(取钱,提款) withdrawal symptoms 戒毒过程中出现的症状 quit 动词,过去式和过去分词均为quit,现在分词为quitting,接动词-ing形式, “停止做” e.g. She quit smoking when she got pregnant.???? 她一怀孕就戒了烟。 归类记忆:下列动词只能用-ing 形式作宾语 admit, advise, allow, appreciate, avoid, consider, deny , forbid(禁止), fancy(想象), finish, keep, mention, mind, miss, pardon, permit, prevent, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, imagine, postpone(推迟), practice, quit, resist(抵制), risk , suggest, tolerate, understand strengthen Practicing Kongfu strengthens our bodies. We must strengthen our socialist construction. We should strengthen the legal system. He lifted the stone with all his strength. The ability to keep calm is one of his many strengths. Bill was doing a lot of physical exercises to build up his strength. To make members of a team perform better, the trainer first of all has to know their strengths and weaknesses. decide –decision decide+名词/代词 The question will be decided by themselves.问题将由他们自己决定。 decide to do Last week, a group of Class 3 students decided to go to the museum. decide+从句 Let's first decide where we should go.   (=Let's first decide where to go.) It is not decided whether we will go there. It is decided that...: It is decided that we should start tomorrow. (注:这种从句要用虚拟语气。) 跟介词短语(跟on或upon,表示“就某事做出决定”): Don't decide on important matters too quickly.重要的事情不要匆忙做出决定。 make a decision determine to do / be determined to do make up one’s mind (s) to do feel like 想要, 只表示一次的想法, 后接动词-ing形式 e.g. It’s so hot today. I feel like going swimming. 今天好热啊, 我想去游泳。 摸起来像……, 像是…… e.g. The material feels like silk It feels like rain. would like to do e.g. I’d like to have dinner with you. remind remind sb of sth remind sb to to remind sb that… e.g. The story reminded me of an experience I once lived. You must remind him to take his medicine ,in case he forgets. Please remind me that I must return the book before noon. ashamed?? adj.??feel sorry or embarrassed e.g. She is ashamed to ask such a simple question. 相关短语:be ashamed of sb./ sth ????????????????? be ashamed that… ???????????? ?????be ashamed to do… ???????????????????What a shame! It’s a shame (pity) that…… ….真是遗憾 in spite of?? 尽管, 虽然,不顾。后接名词(despite) eg. She can’t see very well in spite of her glasses.?(despite) 尽管戴着眼镜她还是不能看得很清楚。 Despite (In spite of) the fact that we tried our best, we didn’t win. regardless of 不管,不顾,不理会 He says what he thinks and does what he wants to do, regardless of other people’s feelings. The law says everyone is equal, regardless of age, sex, or religion. Though / Although / Even if Even though it’s hard work, I enjoy it. Young as / though I am, I already know what career I want to follow. get into陷于, 染上什么习惯 ???? get into the habit of 养成什么习惯。 相当于fall into the habit of或者form the habit of e.g. The girl has got into the habit of playing with her hair while reading.? 那个女孩养成了阅读时玩弄头发的习惯。 at risk=in danger take risks/ a risk at the risk of??? 冒……的危险/风险 at your own risk? 自担风险 run the risk of 冒险(做某事) risk doing survival-survive-survivor Of the four people in the car accident, only one survived. Many customs have survived from earlier times.许多风俗习惯源源流长 The old lady has survived her husband.那老妇人的丈夫先她而去世了 He felt lucky to have survived the war.经历那场战争后能幸存下来他感到很幸运 possible, probable, likely 的用法 It’s possible (for sb) to do It’s possible that… It’s probable that… sth is probable It’s likely that…. 主语+be likely to do prejudice pride and prejudice 傲慢与偏见 She has a prejudice against modern music.? 她对现代音乐怀有偏见。 They accused him of having a prejudice against his women employees.?他们指责他歧视女雇员。 A new law has been brought in to discourage racial prejudice.?一项反对种族歧视的新法律已被提出。 重点词组: 1. due to 由于;归功于? 2. be/become addicted to 对……有瘾? 3. decide on (doing)sth对……做出决定? 4. be/become/grow accustomed to sth./doing sth.? 习惯于某事/做某事? 5. feel like (doing)?? 想要(做)? 6. in spite of 不管;不顾? 7. stand for 支持;代表? 8. get (sb.) into (sth.) 陷入;染上坏习惯;进入 get into the way/habit of doing sth. 学成做某事的方法/养成做某事的习惯? 9. be ashamed of/that.… 为……感到惭愧/羞愧 be ashamed to do sth. 羞于做某事? 10.take off?? 开除/脱衣/起飞/取消/休假? 11.quit (doing) sth. 停止做某事? 12.be at risk 处在危险之中 take risks(a risk)? 冒险? 13.manage to do sth. 设法做好/设法办到某事? 14.so far 到目前为止(与现在完成时连用)? 15.make sure 确定;查明;弄明白? 16.prevent sb. (from) doing sth. 阻止某人做某事? 17.every time 每次;每当……时 18.remind sb of sth 让某人想起某事 19. leave out 遗漏 20.benefit from 从…得益 重点词组讲解: take risks/a risk冒险 教材原句P20:He felt he had to make up his mind on every step instead of taking risks. 他觉得每一步都得作出决定而不是冒险。 at risk有风险 at the risk of...冒着……风险 take/run the risk of doing sth.冒险做某事 take risks (a risk) to do冒险做…… risk doing sth.冒险做某事 risk one’s life to do sth.冒着生命危险做某事 ①Whatever you do, don’t take unnecessary risks. 无论你做什么,都不要冒不必要的风险。 ②If you go online tomorrow, your computer might run the risk of being attacked by a virus. 你如果明天上网,你的电脑可能面临病毒攻击的危险。 ③He got well?prepared for the job interview, for he couldn’t risk losing the good opportunity.他为面试作了充分的准备,因为他不想冒失去这一次好机会的危险。 get into陷入;染上(坏习惯) 教材原句P20:Of course the best way to deal with these drugs is not to get into the habit in the first place!当然,对付毒品的最好的方法是首先就别养成(吸毒的)习惯。 get across(使)通过;(使)被理解;(把……)讲清楚 get along进展;相处 get away逃脱;离开 get away with...做了坏事而不受处罚 get down to认真工作 get over爬过;越过;克服困难;痊愈 get through穿越(马路);通过;接通电话;经历 ①(陕西高考)Many homeless people get into the habit of begging to get enough money to stay alive. 许多无家可归的人开始养成乞讨谋生的习惯。 ②(重庆高考)Hi, Bob, how are you getting along with your spoken report? 嗨,鲍勃,你的口头报告准备得怎样了? ③(2010·湖北卷单项填空)A smile can help us get through difficult situations and find friends in a world of strangers.微笑可以帮助我们渡过难关,在陌生人中找到朋友。 重点句型讲解: 1. I do hope so because I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I have.我的确希望这样,因为我想让你过上和我一样长寿而健康的生活。 名师指津:此句式为as+adj.+a/an+单数可数名词+as...结构。 例句仿写:这个小伙子希望和他爷爷一样过着俭朴的生活。 The man hopes to live as simple a life as his grandpa. 2. Every time you feel like smoking a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non?smoker. 每次你想吸烟的时候,要提醒自己你是一个不吸烟的人。 名师指津:every time引导时间状语从句。 例句仿写:我每次见他,他总是随身带着他的笔记本电脑。 Every time I meet him, he always carries his notebook computer. 3. As you know,if you do the same thing over and over again, you begin to do it automatically. 你知道,如果你反反复复地做同一件事,你就会自动地做它。 名师指津:as引导定语从句,意为“正如,正像”。 例句仿写:正如多次强调的那样,学好英语对你们今后的职业发展非常重要。 As has been stressed many times, learning English well is of great importance to your career development in future. 4. It is only when the disease has progressed to AIDS that a person begins to look sick. 只有当一个人发展成艾滋病时,他才开始看上去有病。 名师指津:本句为强调句型。 例句仿写:我还记得三年前是在北京初次遇到你。 I still remember it was in Beijing that I first met you three years ago. 5. It is no good crying over spilt milk. 覆水难收。 名师指津:It is no good/use doing sth. 做某事无用。 例句仿写:劝说他没用,他不会改变主意。 It is no good/use persuading him. He won’t change his mind. 1. (2014·福建质量检测)—When is the next train arriving? —It’s ________at 7:30. A. due B. normal C. straight D. convenient 解析:考查形容词辨析。句意为:——下一班火车什么时候到?——预计是7∶30。due意为“预期,预计”。根据句意可知,选A项。 答案:A 2. (2014·宁夏银川一中第四次考试)Often organized outdoors or at big venues ________their popularity, music festivals provide one day or even several days of non?stop entertainment. A. due to B. in spite of C. in honor of D. apart from 解析:考查介词短语辨析。句意为:因为受欢迎,音乐节经常在户外或大的场地举行,它们提供一天甚至几天不停的娱乐。due to由于;in spite of尽管;in honor of为了表示对……的崇敬;apart from除……之外。根据句意可知A项正确。 答案:A 3. (2014·长沙市重点中学高三联考)Accustomed to ________in the beautiful country. Bead found it difficult to live in the crowded city. A. living B. live C. having lived D. have lived 解析:考查非谓语动词。be accustomed to doing sth.表示“习惯做某事”,其中to是介词,后面应用v.?ing形式,故选A项。 答案: A 4. (2014·安徽芜湖市模拟)To our great surprise, the city girl became ________to country life very quickly. A. accessible B. devoted C. accustomed D. involved 解析:考查形容词辨析。句意为:令我们大为惊讶的是,那个城市女孩很快习惯了(accustomed)乡村生活。accessible易接近的,可进入的,可理解的;devoted献身的,忠诚的;involved有关的,卷入的,复杂的,均不符合语境。 答案:C 5. (2014·太原模拟)The new survey shows that the number of students ________computer games has been on the increase in recent years. A. devoted to B. related to C. connected to D. addicted to 解析:be devoted to致力于;be related to与……有联系;be connected to与……相关联;be addicted to对……上瘾的。addicted to是分词短语作后置定语修饰“students”;指“对电脑游戏上瘾的学生”,因此D项正确。 答案:D 基础演练 一、语境填词 1. Because final exams are coming, most students are under a lot of ________ (压力). 2. She was __________ (绝望的) after the failure of her plan. 3. They promised to __________ (加强) the cooperation between the two nations in more fields. 4. My uncle has ________ (停止) smoking. 5. Are you very ______________ (失望的) at losing the game? 6. She was ________ (感到惭愧的) of having failed in the examination. 7. What you said has a great ________ (影响) on his thinking. 8. Her trouble was found to be ________ (精神的), not physical. 9. There is a ________ (禁令, 禁止) on smoking in theaters. 10. Breathing is an ________ (无意识的) function of the body. 11. He looked ________ (局促不安的) in this strange place. 12. When I began to sing, they laughed and made me ______________ (尴尬的). 13. His ________ (幸存) made us surprised and happy. 14. He has a ________ (偏见) against modern music. 15. He showed excellent __________ (判断力) in choosing a friend. 16. It is ________ (违法的) to steal things. 17. The bad weather resulted in the plan’s __________ (中途失败). 18. He has to take ________ (药片) to control his blood pressure. 答案:1.stress 2.desperate 3.strengthen 4.quit 5.disappointed 6.ashamed 7.effect 8.mental 9.ban 10. Automatic 11.awkward 12.embarrassed 13.survival 14.prejudice 15.judgement 16.illegal 17.abortion 18. pills 巩固提高 一、单项填空 1. Your mother tells me that you started smoking________ ago and now you are finding it difficult to________. A. sometime; give up it B. some times; give away it C. some time; give it up D. sometimes; give it away 2. First, you can become physically________ to nicotine, which is one of the hundreds of chemicals in cigarettes. A. addict B. addicted C. addictive D. addiction 3. This means that after a while your body becomes accustomed________ nicotine in it. A. to having B. to have C. have D. having 4. However, ________ I________ know was that my girlfriend thought I smelt terrible. A. that; did B. what; did C. what; do D. that; do 5. When I was taken off the school football team because I was unfit, I knew it was time________. A. quit smoking B. to quit to smoke C. quit to smoke D. to quit smoking 6. It is not easy to stop smoking, but millions have managed to quit and________. A. so can you B. neither can you C. so you can D. neither you can 7. Every time you feel like________ a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non?smoker. A. to smoke B. smoked C. smoking D. smoke 8. If you start to feel nervous or stressed, do not reach for a cigarette. Try some deep breathing________. A. instead of B. instead C. however D. anyway 9. Do some relaxation exercises________ you feel stressed. A. until B. every time C. every time when D. even if 10. Do not be________ if you have to try several times________ you finally stop smoking. A. disappointing; before B. disappointed; when C. disappointing; when D. disappointed; before 答案:1.C 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. D 6. A 7. C 8. B 9. B 10. D  二、佳句翻译与仿写 1. It seems amazing that at my age I am still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometres in an afternoon. 翻译: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)感到惊奇吧,他的儿子都到了参军的年龄。 ____________________________ his son is ____________________ the army. (2)你还没大到可以独自旅行的年龄。 You’re not ________________________ alone. 2. Your mother tells me that you started smoking some time ago and now you are finding it difficult to give it up. 翻译: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)我发现与她相处很难。 I on with her. (2)她觉得早上早起是必要的。 ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3. Neither did I know that my cigarette smoke could affect the health of non?smokers. 翻译: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)我没有见过她,也没有收到过她的信。 I haven’t seen her and ____________________ heard from her. (2)我不知道他的名字,也不想知道。 I don’t know his name and ________________________. 4. I do hope so because I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I have. 翻译: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)我希望我能买得起和他的一样大而且漂亮的房子。 I hope I can afford ________________________________ he has. (2)玛丽和她姐姐是一样聪明的女孩。 Mary is ________________________ her sister. 5. Every time you feel like smoking a cigarette, remind yourself that you are a non?smoker. 翻译: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)每当你想吃东西的时候,提醒自己不要吃的太多。 ________________________________, remind yourself not to eat too much. (2)我每次看见他,都觉得他变得更瘦了。 ________________________, I found he became thinner. 答案: 1.感到惊奇吧,像我这样的年龄,身体健康而且能在一个下午骑车跑20公里。  (1)It seems amazing that old enough to join  (2)old enough to travel 2. 你母亲告诉我一段时间前你开始吸烟而且现在你发现很难戒掉。  (1)find it hard to get  (2)She finds it necessary to get up early in the morning. 3. 我也不知道自己吸烟还会损害那些不吸烟人的健康。  (1)neither have I  (2)neither do I want to 4. 我的确希望如此,因为我希望你能像我这样活得健康长寿。 (1)as big and beautiful a house as  (2)as clever a girl as 5. 每当你想要吸烟的时候,你就提醒你自己:你(已经)是不吸烟的人了。  (1)Every time you feel like eating (2)Every time I saw him 一、单项填空 1. Mr. Black is under________ because his wife is ill. A. stress B. trouble C. danger D. difficulty 2. He was late________ the very heavy traffic. A. rather than B. due to C. as a result D. because 3. —They are quiet,aren’t they? —Yes. They are accustomed________ at meals. A. to talk B. to not talk C. to talking D. to not talking 4. I have been told that smoking has a bad________ my health. A. affect on B. effect in C. effect on D. affect in 5. I feel like________ to the cinema tonight and I would like you________ me company. A. to go; keeping B. going; keeping C. to go; to keep D. going; to keep 6. —How do you find Qingdao, Mary? —It’s a beautiful seaside city. I have________ it for my next holiday. A. decided on B. tried on C. taken on D. carried on 7. ________ is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior schools is increasing. A. Which B. As C. That D. It 8. No one can attain great achievements________ he concentrates on what he is doing, even though a talent. A. because B. while C. unless D. if 9. He didn’t make________ clear when and where the meeting would be held. A. this B. that C. these D. it 10. I’m sorry you’ve been waiting so long, but it’ll still be some time________ Brian gets back. A. before B. since C. till D. after 答案:1.A 2. B 3. D 4. C 5. D 6. A 7. B 8. C 9. D 10. A  二、选词填空 due to, addicted to, accustomed to, decide on, feel like, do damage to, reach for, by the way 1. Some students were so ________________ the play that they spent too much time in front of TV. 2. The thirsty patient ________________ the cup but couldn’t get it. 3. The car accident was __________________ careless driving. 4. It is still raining and it is difficult to ________________ a date to go on our project. 5. Do you ________________ sharing your experience with the rest of your group? 6. ________________, are you going to the café? 7. I’m a northerner, so I am not ________________ the kind of food that southerners often eat. 8. Man has ________ great ________________ the environment over the years. 答案:1. addicted to 2. reached for 3. due to 4. decide on 5. feel like 6. By the way  7. accustomed to 8. done damage to _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项填空 1. I felt________ when I dropped the Tang Dynasty vase. A. embarrassed and awkward B. happy and worried C. glad and angry D. pleased and sad 2. ________ the high price, demand for these cars is very high. A. Because of B. In spite of C. In case of D. Due to 3. After climbing up to the top of the mountain, I was________. A. out of breath B. out of control C. out of danger D. out of date 4. It is necessary for you to call 110 when you________ the trouble of being attacked by others. A. shake with B. get into C. throw out D. take it easy 5. He is at________ now and________ is our duty to help him at once. A. risk; it B. danger; this C. danger; it D. risk; that 6. Though many of the heavy smokers have realized the serious effect that smoking has________ their health, they continue to smoke instead of________. A. for; giving it up B. on; leaving C. to; abandoning D. on; quitting 7. —What did she want to know, Tom? —She wondered________ we could complete the experiment. A. when was it B. it was when that C. it was when D. when it was that 8. The fire made________ difficult to rescue the people trapped under the ruins in the earthquake. A. / B. this C. that D. it 9. Tell him I need to see him________ he arrives. A. immediate B. the minute C. at the moment D. for the instant 10. —I thought it would be a good idea to go shopping this afternoon. —________ I have always wanted to do that. A. That’s a great idea! B. I don’t think so. C. Sorry. D. Why? 答案:1.A 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. A 6. D 7. D 8. D 9. B 10. A  二、词义辨析 1. 用decide, decide on的适当形式填空 (1) You must ________________ the day when you will pay off the debt. (2) I’ve ________________ going to America for my holiday. (3) The boy ________ not to become a sailor. (4) Let’s first ________ where we should go. 2. 用ashamed, shameful填空 (1) He was ________ that he couldn’t give an answer. (2) It is ________ to cheat in the exam. (3) To our surprise, the cheat wasn’t ________ of his ________ conduct at all. 答案: 1.(1)decide on (2)decided on (3)decided (4)decide 三、完形填空 How did you do it, Dad? How have you managed not to take a drinking for almost 20 years? It took me so long to have the __1__ to ask my father this personal question. When Dad first __2__ drinking, the whole family was on pins and needles (坐立不安) and wondered whether he would get into a __3__ under which he would start __4__ again. For a few years we were __5__ to bring it up. “It is a little poem that I have recited to myself at least four to five times a day, ” said Dad, __6__ to my 18?year?old unasked question.“The words are a constant __7__ to me that things are __8__ so hard that I could not deal with them.” Dad continued. Then he __9__ the poem with me. The poem was __10__ but profound (深刻的), which immediately became __11__ of my daily routine as well. About a month after this __12__ with my father, I received a gift in the mail from a friend of mine. It was a book of daily sayings of wisdom with one __13__ for each day of the year. Don’t you think it is an unforgettable __14__ that when you get something with days of the year on it, and you naturally turn to the page that lists your own __15__? I __16__ opened the book to November 10 to see __17__words of wisdom this book had in store for me. I was __18__ when I looked at the page, and then tears of appreciation __19__ down my face. There, on my birthday, was the exact same poem that had __20__ my father for all these years! It is called the Serenity (平静) Prayer. God, offer me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change;the courage to change the things I can; and the wisdom to know the difference. 1. A. chance B. courage C. ability D. right 2. A. gave up B. took up C. went on D. carried on 3. A. way B. habit C. situation D. house 4. A. reciting B. asking C. smoking D. drinking 5. A. sure B. uncertain C. afraid D. eager 6. A. reply B. words C. excuse D. reason 7. A. warning B. suggestion C. saying D. reminder 8. A. never B. seldom C. always D. ever 9. A. discussed B. shared C. offered D. talked 10. A. wonderful B. long C. simple D. boring 11. A. all B. that C. any D. part 12. A. talk B. quarrel C. trip D. lesson 13. A. listed B. included C. read D. said 14. A. method B. experience C. wealth D. message 15. A. character B. birthday C. qualities B. favorites 16. A. doubtfully B. carefully C. happily D. hurriedly 17. A. where B. whether C. what D. how 18. A. excited B. astonished C. disappointed D. frightened 19. A. hung B. pulled C. rolled D. pushed 20. A. troubled B. disturbed C. pleased D. helped 答案:1.B 2. A 3. C 4. D 5. C 6. A 7. D 8. A 9. B 10. C 11. D 12. A 13. A 14. B 15. B 16. D 17. C 18. B 19. C 20. D  四、阅读理解 Healthy Habits, Healthy Body Feeling tired lately? Has a doctor said he can’t find anything wrong with you? Perhaps he sent you to a hospital, but all the advanced equipment there shows that there is nothing wrong with you. Then, consider this:you might be in a state of subhealth (亚健康). Subhealth, also called the third state or gray state, is explained as a borderline state between health and disease. According to the investigation (调查研究) by the National Health Organization, over 45 percent of subhealthy people are middle?aged or elderly. The percentage is even higher among people who work in management positions as well as students around exam time. Symptoms (征兆) include a lack of energy, depression (压抑), slow reactions, insomnia (失眠), agitation (焦虑), and poor memory. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, sweating and aching in the waist and legs. The key to preventing and recovering from subhealth, according to some medical experts, is to form good living habits, alternate work and rest, exercise regularly, and take part in open?air activities. As for meals, people are advised to eat less salt and sugar. They should eat more fresh vegetables, fruit and fish because they are rich in nutritional (营养的) elements—vitamins and trace elements (微量元素)—that are important to the body. Nutrition experts point out that it is not good to eat too much at one meal because it may cause unhealthy cha

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  • ID:4-6096758 人教版高中英语选修六辅导讲义 Unit2 Poems词汇篇及语法篇(教师版+学生版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修5、选修6/选修6/Unit 2 Poems

    Unit2 Poems-词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 单词讲解: convey vt. 1)输送, 搬运, 运输( from …to …)传达, 表达 (感情,意见, 思想)表明,说明 ( convey + clause) convey sth. to sb. 向某人传达/运送某物 convey sth./sb. to some place. 把某物/人送到某地 convey one’s feelings/thanks to sb. 向某人表达某种感情/谢意 The train conveys both goods and passengers. I found it hard to convey my feelings in words . He tried to convey how urgent the situation was. 易混辨析 convey/transfer/transport convey 指将物/人从一地运送到另一地,或指语言,信息等的传递。 transport 基本含义是运送。但该词通常局限于用交通工具运送货物和人 transfer 主要指工作地点的变换、住所及物体的转移,还可以指旅途中交通工具的变换, 如转车、转船等。也可指把财产转让给他人。 concrete adj.具体的 n.混凝土;凝结物 e.g. You need to offer concrete evidences to support your idea. It is easier to think in concrete terms rather than in the abstract Concrete is very strong and is used in many modern buildings. contradictory adj. 引起矛盾的;好反驳的vt. Contradict n. contradiction The evidence seems contradictory to our findings. His public speeches are in direct contradiction to his personal lifestyle. All evening his husband contradicted everything she said. flexible : adj.灵活的;可弯曲的adv: flexibly n: flexibility e.g. (1) The government needs a more flexible approach to education. (2) We can be flexible about your starting date. (3) Computers offer a much greater degree of flexibility in the way work is organized pattern n.模式,方式,形式 The illness doesn’t seem to follow its usual pattern. n.图案 She wore a dress with a pattern of roses on it. n.模范;榜样 The company set a pattern for others to follow. pattern sth on/after sth 模仿,效仿 This is a new technique patterned on Japanese ideas. take it easy. take. . . by surprise 突袭,使…大吃一惊 take. . . seriously 认真对待 take it for granted 认为理所当然 take it easy = take things easy The doctor told me to take it easy and not to worry too much. run out (of ) 用完;耗尽 ( vt.), 失效;过期 If he hadn’t run out of money , he would have bought it. My passport has run out. run out/ give out (燃料,食物,钱等) run out of exhaust / use up 筋疲力尽 E.g. I was exhausted by the hard training. I was used up after the argument. be made up of =make up 组成,构成 Girl students make up 40% of the student number. make up 编造;化装;弥补(同事) make up for sth. 弥补(用其它方式,以平衡) make out 理解,辨认出 make it 获得成功;准时到达 make for sth. 向……移动;促成…… be made of 由……制成(看出原料) be made from 由……制成(看不出原料) tease :v. 取笑;招惹;戏弄 Don’t get upset. I was only teasing. She used to tease me about my hair. Don’t tease the cat by pulling its tail. 拓展延伸 laugh at sb. 嘲笑某人 make fun of sb. 愚弄某人 play jokes on sb. 开某人的玩笑 play tricks on sb. 捉弄某人 end: v/n 末端,尽头,结束 endless: adj. 无止境的,无穷无尽的 ending: n. 结局,结尾 end in +n. 以……为告终 end up + prep./v-ing/ adj. 达到某种状态 end up with… 以……为结束 E.g. (1) end in tears/ failure/ divorce (2) end up in prison/ apologizing/ dead (3) end up with an English song transform vi. & vt. 转化;转换;改造 transform… into 改变为;转变为 They have transformed their rooms into a hotel. The situation has been greatly transformed eventually adv 最后;终于=finally 1)I was eventually granted an exit visa. 2)Eventually these feelings could be held in no longer. 3)She hopes to get a job on the local newspaper and eventually work for “The Times”. bare adj 赤裸的, 勉强的, 起码的,空的,没有…的(of)barely: adv. 勉强,仅仅 e.g. I barely passed my math class last semester. He was barely able to pay the tent last month. appropriate: adj. 适合的;合适的 [(+to/for)] 1) The movie is appropriate for children aged 12 and over. 2) She picked up a dress appropriate for the occasion. 归纳总结 be appropriate for 对……合适 it is appropriate for sb. to do sth. 适合某人做某事 exchange n. & v. 交换;交流;互换exchange sth. with sb. in exchange for 交换 exchange sth. for sth. 用某物换某物 e.g. He changed his old car for a new one. Solids can change into liquids. sponsor n.赞助人;主办者 vt.赞助;发起 Have you found out the sponsor of our basketball match? The bank had offered to sponsor him at university. hold on 等一下;别挂电话;继续,坚持;抓住,握住 (to/onto) 1) Hold on a minute! Isn’t that your brother’s car over there? 2)It was hard to keep the business going, but he held on. 3) Hold on to the rope. 拓展延伸 hold back 阻挡;隐瞒,抑制, hold down 压制,控制 hold off 推迟,拖延; hold out 伸出,坚持,维持 hold up 延误;举起, 经受得住 inspire vt. 激发;鼓励;启发 n. inspiration 灵感,好办法 adj. inspired 获得灵感的,超凡 inspiring 振奋人心的,激励人的 Be inspired by 受……的鼓励 Inspire sb to + n 鼓励某人(做)某事 Inspire sb with + n 激起某人的(感情,思想) let out 发出;泄漏 (1) Don’t let out the plan to the press (2) He let out the bird from the cage. 拓展延伸 let down 放下;使失望; let alone 更不用提;更别说 let go 放开;松手 let it go 算了;放手 load v. 放入;装载 1)At sunset, he came down the hill with his load of firewood. 2)I have a full load of work. 3)Knowing he was safe was a load off my mind. 4)I started loading the boxes into the truck. 5)Our site is loaded with hundreds of ads on each page. 6) The comment is loaded with emotion. 重点词组: 1. go over 复习,检查 2. make sense 有意义,说得通  (Sb.) make sense of sth 理解……  (Sth.) make sense to sb. 有意义,说得通 3. recite / read / explain sth. to sb. 给某人背诵/读 / 解释…… 4. couvey one`s emotions 表达情感 5. bow to … 向鞠躬 / 屈服 6. stay/sit up 熬夜 7. take it easy放轻松,别紧张 take one`s time 别着急,慢慢来 8. (Sb.) run out of sth. 用完,耗尽(及物)   (Sth.) run out 用完(不及物) 9. make up 组成 / 编造 / 化妆 / 弥补 / 和解 be made up of = consist of … 由……组成 10. a few more minutes 再多几分钟 11. be popular with … = be well received by … 很受欢迎 12. be brimful of = be full of … 充满 13. translate A into B 把A翻译成B 14. week in ,week out 一周又一周 day by day 一天又一天 on and on 继续不停地 16. by chance / accident 碰巧 17. hold on 继续 / 别挂断(电话) 18. (Sb. / Sth.) be likely to do sth.有可能….. 19. try out 试验 try on 试穿 20. let out 泄漏 / 发出(声音) / 释放 / 放宽(衣服) 21. look forward to 盼望 22. inspire sb to do sth 激励,鼓舞某人做某事 重点句型: 1. There are various reasons why people write poetry. 人们写诗有各种各样的原因。 名师指津:why引导定语从句修饰先行词reasons。 例句仿写:他起床晚的原因是他昨晚睡得太晚了。 The reason why he got up late was that he stayed up last night. 2. Should the traveler return, this stone would utter speech. 行人归来石应语。 名师指津:省略if的倒装句式。 例句仿写:要是明天下雨,我们会取消足球赛。 Should it rain tomorrow, we would cancel the football match. 3. With so many different forms of poetry to choose from, students may eventually want to write poems of their own. 有了这么多可供选择的诗歌类型,学生们最终也许是想自己写诗歌了。 名师指津:“With...to choose from”属于“with+复合宾语”结构。 例句仿写:有那么多问题要解决,我不能与你外出看电影。 With so many problems to settle, I can’t go out to see a film with you. 4. Do you think the speaker in the poem is more likely to be a girlfriend/boyfriend or a parent? 你认为诗中的发言者更有可能是一个女朋友、男朋友,还是一位父亲或母亲? 名师指津:be likely to do sth.可能做某事,表示猜测。 例句仿写:当那些年轻人确实要搬出去时,他们更有可能租车而不是买车。 When the young people do move out, they are more likely to rent a car than buy one. 1. (2014·江西重点中学协作体第三次联考)Is college, which is supposed to be a place for academic interests and independent thinking, being________into a factory only for producing professionals for a certain trade? A. transported B. transformed C. transferred D. transplanted 2. (2014·安徽皖南八校三联)General Manager of Walmart.com announced that viewers could watch shows and movies for free________watching advertising. A. in charge of B. in favor of C. in case of D. in exchange for 3. (2014·南昌二模)The photographer needs to charge up the digital camera every day as the battery________quickly. A. shuts up B. ends up C. runs out D. turns out 4. (2014·日照高三调研)The boy is working harder than ever, hoping to________the time he has wasted playing online games. A. take up B. bring up C. call up D. make up 5. (2014·东北三省四市联考二)Can you give me some advice on how to________the time I have lost? A. look up to B. make up for C. put up with D. break away from 基础演练 一、语境填词 1. Your room looks old. Why not t__________ it by painting it? 2. Don’t be upset about it any more; you see,e________ chances are awaiting you ahead. 3. I keep getting c__________ advice—some people tell me to keep it warm and some tell me to put ice on it. 4. The head office of the bank is in Beijing, but it has b________ all over the country. 5. His proposal is very ________ (具体的). We do not need any explanation. 6. We didn’t know how they ________ (运送) these stones over 380 miles without modern machines. 7. We can visit your company on Monday or Tuesday;our plans are ________ (灵活的). 8. She used to ________ (取笑) me about my hair. 9. The subject was so difficult that I __________ (最后) dropped it. 10. To my ________ (悲伤), my mother can’t attend our wedding. 二、单项填空 1. There are various reasons________ people write poetry. A. because B. why C. when D. which 2. Some poems tell a story or describe something in a way________ will give the reader a strong impression. Others try to________ certain emotions. A. that; transform B. which; transform C. that; convey D. /; convey 3. The poems may not________ and even seem contradictory, but they are easy________. A. make sense; to learn and recite B. make sure; to be learned and recited C. make up; to learn and recite D. make sense; to be learned and recited 4. Some rhyme (like B)________ others do not (like C). A. because B. while C. though D. as 5. We would have won if we________ so late the night before. A. stayed up B. hadn’t taken up C. took up D. hadn’t stayed up 6. Haiku is a Japanese form of poetry that is________ 17 syllables. A. consists of B. made up C. make up of D. made up of 7. It is not a traditional form of English poetry, but is very________ with English writers. A. popular B. familiar C. similar D. particular 8. English speakers also enjoy other forms of Asian poetry—Tang poems from China________. A. in return B. in particular C. in conclusion D. in place 9. It is easier than you might think and certainly worth________! A. try B. being tried C. to try D. a try 10. There was such a long queue for coffee at the interval that we________ gave up. A. eventually B. particularly C. gradually D. frequently 巩固提高 一、词义辨析 1. 用run out, run out of的适当形式填空 (1)—Will you lend me some paper? —Sorry, mine has ________________. (2)If we hadn’t ________________ money, we would have bought it. (3)In a mine accident, the trapped miners were ____________________ energy when help came. 2. 用common, ordinary, normal, usual填空 (1)It’s very disappointing that the violinist, popular with us, gave a very ________ performance at the concert last night. (2)Letter boxes are much more ________ in the UK than in the US, where most people have a mailbox instead. (3)The doctor said the child’s temperature was ________. (4)As ________ he stayed up late last night. (5)He is always acting foolishly;he has no ________ sense. 二、佳句翻译与仿写 1. And said though strange they all were true. 翻译: ____________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)她尽管年轻,但已到过很多国家进行演出。 __________________, she has travelled to many countries to put on shows. (2)她很小时就开始学习弹钢琴。 ____________________, she began to learn to play the piano. 2. We would have won if we hadn’t taken it easy. 翻译: ____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)如果你听从了老师的建议,你可能已经通过考试了。 If you ________________ your teacher’s advice,you ______________________ the exam. (2)如果他赢得了比赛的话,他就不会这么悲伤了。 ____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Another simple form of poem that students can easily write is the cinquain, a poem made up of five lines. 翻译: ____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)我们的新老师史密斯先生对我们很好。 Mr.Smith, ______________________, is very kind to us. (2)昨天我遇到了我弟弟的朋友汤姆。 Yesterday I met Tom, ________________________________. 4. With so many different forms of poetry to choose from, students may eventually want to write poems of their own. 翻译: ____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)还有那么多工作要做, 我们不能再在外面玩了。 ____________________________, we can’t play outside any longer. (2)有老师帮助我们,我们将取得更大的进步。 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Should the traveler return, this stone would utter speech. 翻译: ____________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)假如明天天气好,我们就去野餐。 ____________________________, we would go for a picnic. (2)如果她是我的女儿,我就不让她出国学习了。 ____________________________, I wouldn’t allow her to study abroad. 一、单项选择 1. —Mr. Smith is no longer the man who he used to be. —I agree with you. Success and wealth have________ him too much. A. trained B. translated C. transported D. transformed 2. Mothers holding jobs outside the home should have________ schedules to make it easier to care for their children. A. heavy B. smooth C. flexible D. complex 3. —I don’t know why we have to go to the supermarket tonight. You see I have a lot of work to do. —We are________ our food! A. running out B. running out of C. giving out D. used up 4. American Indians________ about five percent of the U. S.population. A. fill up B. bring up C. make up D. set up 5. The way________ she wrote the poem made her famous. A. which B. that C. in that D. by which 6. —Were you in time for the lecture? —If I________ told earlier, I would have. A. had been B. was C. were to be D. should be 7. —George, what do you think of the plan? —________ I accept the plan is not perfect, I do actually like it. A. When B. Since C. While D. Unless 8. ________ more and more forests destroyed, many animals are facing the danger of dying out. A. Because B. As C. With D. Since 9. The five firemen the director had________ the five people in the fire were highly praised. A. rescue B. rescued C. to rescue D. had rescued 10. —Is there anything wrong with me, doctor? —Just a cold.________ and you’ll be all right in a week. A. Take it easy B. Don’t mention it C. It depends D. No trouble at all 二、句型转换 1. We are running out of our money. Our money ________ ________ ________. 2. We would have won if we had trained harder. ________ we ________ harder, we wouldn’t have ________. 3. People in ancient times wrote poetry for a variety of reasons. There are ________ reasons ________ people in ancient times wrote poems. 4. Every day, the farmers work hard on their land, hoping to get a good harvest. ________ ________, ________ ________, the farmers work hard on their land in the hope of getting a good harvest. 5. There is nothing serious. Don’t be nervous. There is nothing serious. Just ________ ________ ________. 6. He told one story after another and that kept us laughing all through the meal. He ________ us laughing all through the meal ________ telling one story after another. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、语境填词 1. His casual clothes were not a____________ for such a formal occasion. 2. If you are lost in the woods, it’s very handy to have a c________ with you. 3. A l________ is a person who is in charge of or works in a library. 4. They promised to love each other f________. 5. After a few minutes, our eyes got used to the ____________ (黑暗). 6. We __________ (交换) our opinions about the event at the meeting. 7. She won a ____________ (奖学金) to study at Oxford University. 8. Knowing that they had arrived safely took a ________ (负担) off my mind. 9. The exhibition was __________ (举办) by the Society of Culture. 10. The ________ (暖和) of the fire made us sleepy. 二、单项填空 1. Although they plant trees in this area every year, the tops of some hills are still________. A. blank B. hollow C. vacant D. bare 2. His formal style of speaking was________ to the occasion. A. popular B. appropriate C. similar D. appreciate 3. These new ideas sound fine but they need________. A. trying on B. trying out C. to try on D. to try out 4. Don’t________ any detail in your account even if a word. A. let out B. take care C. make sure D. make out 5. The boy________ to the rope and was pulled out of the river by the police. A. caught hold B. held on C. threw away D. cut off 6. It is illegal for a public official to ask people for gifts or money________favors to them. A. in preference to B. in place of C. in agreement with D. in exchange for 7. The doctor recommended that you________ swim after eating a large meal. A. wouldn’t B. couldn’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t 8. —Do you think he can pass the exam? —He is________ to fail because he was ill for several days. A. possible B. probable C. likely D. maybe 9. While crossing the street, ________. A. the light must be green B. there are no policemen C. be careful D. it is necessary to be careful 10. John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work________, he gladly accepted it. A. finished B. finishing C. having finished D. was finished 三、完形填空 I met him first on a summer day in 1989.I __1__ into his ugly small shop to have my shoes repaired. It wasn’t much of a job, so I __2__ while he did it. He greeted me with a __3__ smile, “You are __4__ in this place, aren’t you?” I said I was. I had __5__ into this street only a week before. “This is a fine place, ” he said. I __6__ there with my shoes off, __7__ around as he got ready to make repairs. He looked __8__ at the leather. It was worn through because I had __9__ to have the repair job done. I grew __10__ impatient, for I was eager to meet a friend, and I had to get there without delay.“Please hurry, ” I begged. He looked at me __11__ his glasses, “We won’t be long. I must do a good job. You see, I have a tradition to live up to.” A tradition? In this ugly small shop that wasn’t __12__ any from so many other shops on the streets of New York. He must have felt my __13__ for he smiled as he __14__, “Yes, my father is a good shoemaker.” He always told me, “Son, do the best job on every shoe that __15__ the shop, and be proud of your own work. Do that always, and you’ll have both happiness and money enough to live on.” As he __16__ me the finished shoes, he said, “These will last a long time.” I left __17__, my friend would be waiting for me __18__. That evening I __19__ the shop. There he was. When he saw me, he waved and smiled. This was the beginning of our __20__ that came to mean more and more to me as time passed. 1. A. looked B. rushed C. slipped D. broke 2. A. left B. waited C. watched D. helped 3. A. sweet B. light C. cold D. forced 4. A. fresh B. young C. familiar D. new 5. A. came B. lived C. moved D. entered 6. A. stood B. lay C. sat D. talked 7. A. thinking B. moving C. turning D. looking 8. A. surprisingly B. sadly C. painfully D. angrily 9. A. failed B. managed C. wanted D. intended 10. A. more B. less C. greatly D. a little 11. A. under B. over C. in D. with 12. A. different B. special C. particular D. unusual 13. A. doubt B. surprise C. disappointment D. astonishment 14. A. said B. agreed C. continued D. answered 15. A. flies into B. brings to C. comes into D. introduces to 16. A. showed B. handed C. brought D. took 17. A. quietly B. slowly C. in time D. in a hurry 18. A. coldly B. happily C. anxiously D. angrily 19. A. entered B. passed C. visited D. saw 20. A. experience B. love C. friendship D. story 四、阅读理解 Do you still remember your favorite poem from high school or some other important periods in your life? Why is it that decades later it still stands out in your mind? Probably the main reason is that some aspect of that poem resonates (引起共鸣) with you. In the same way, you too as a school leader can touch the hearts of your staff and students. Poetry allows us to experience strong spiritual connections to things around us and to the past. The power that poetry has displayed over time and across cultures actually satisfies this common need of the human heart and soul. As one of the oldest art forms, poetry has successfully connected various strands of humanity (人性) from one generation to another. Referring to poetry, Hillyer makes a simple yet meaningful statement, “With this key mankind unlocked his heart.” School leaders can find and make use of the value of poetry for themselves, their students and their staff members. Beyond the simple use of poetry, techniques of poetry such as metaphors, repetitions and imagery can be used to take advantage of the power of language to transform communication, create meaning and a culture of care and attention. Since schools are mainly about people and relationships, school leaders,like poets,are required to inspire and encourage the human heart. The use of poetry—or even of some techniques of poetry—in school leadership not only helps to improve communication, but also serves to meet the human need for inspiration. 1. Who is the passage mainly for? A. Students. B. School teachers. C. School leaders. D. Poets. 2. The underlined part “this common need” in the second paragraph refers to________. A. the need to read poetry B. the need to be inspired C. the need to learn about the past D. the need to be connected with other people 3. The use of poetry or techniques of poetry in school leadership is in fact to make use of________. A. the power of language B. the power of school leaders C. people’s preference for poetry D. people’s desire for communication 4. What is the purpose of the passage? A. To show the readers that poetry is really powerful. B. To explain how poetry can be used in our daily life. C. To talk about the art of being a school leader. D. To encourage using the transformational power of poetry in school leadership. For a 400?year?old art form, opera had a bad fame: overweight actresses singing the words which were hard to understand in one of those romantic languages you were supposed to learn in high school. And with tickets costing as much as $145 a performance, opera?goers also had a certain appearance in people’s mind: rich, well?dressed and old. But now opera companies around the country are loosening their ties and kicking off their shoes in an attempt to keep opera alive and take it to a younger and not so wealthy audience. Opera producers have found that to attract this crowd, they need to associate opera with the common people. That means no formal suits, old?styled theatre or bank?breaking ticket prices. And because young people don’t or won’t come to the opera, companies are bringing the opera to them, giving performances in such usual places as parks, libraries and public schools. The Houston Grand Opera’s choice is the public library, where it performs “mobile operas”, shortened versions of child?friendly operas. This summer’s production is Hansel & Gretel. By performing smaller versions of large productions, producers are able to make people interested while keeping costs at a reasonable level. The San Francisco Opera, which will be celebrating its 75th anniversary this year, is staging Cinderella free of charge, keeping costs down by employing students from its Young Artists’ Training Program. 1. Which is the main idea of this passage? A. Opera is famous for its long history. B. Opera is only performed for rich people. C. Opera companies are trying to keep opera alive. D. Young people are not interested in opera. 2.The underlined phrase in the second paragraph means________. A. breaking up the old rules B. changing the dresses C. making the audience at ease D. advertising themselves 3. The San Francisco Opera employs students in order to________. A. celebrate its 75th anniversary B. reduce the cost C. attract young people D. make Cinderella popular 4. From the passage we can infer that________. A. the tickets for opera are very expensive B. opera is performed in a difficult language C. opera is not so popular an art form today D. students enjoy performing opera very much Sure, it’s good to get along with your teacher because it makes the time you spend in the classroom more pleasant. And yes, it’s good to get along with your teacher because, in general, it’s smart to learn how to relate to the different types of people you’ll meet throughout your life. But really, there’s one super?important reason why you should get along with your teacher. When you do, “learning bursts right open,” says Evelyn Vuko, a longtime teacher who writes an education column called “Teacher Says” for the WashingtonPost newspaper. In fact, kids who get along with their teachers not only learn more, but they’re more comfortable asking questions and getting extra help. This makes it easier to understand new material and do your best on tests. When you have this kind of relationship with a teacher, he or she can be someone to turn to with problems, such as problems with learning or school issues, such as bullying (欺负人). As a kid in a primary or middle school, you’re at a wonderful stage in your life. You’re like a sponge (海绵), able to soak up lots of new and exciting information. On top of that, you’re able to think about all this information in new ways. Your teacher knows that, and in most cases, he/she is very excited to be the person who’s giving you all that material and helping you put it together. Remember, teachers are people, too, and they feel great if you’re open to what they’re teaching you. That’s why they wanted to be teachers in the first place—to teach! Some kids may be able to learn in any situation, whether they like the teacher or not. But most kids are sensitive (敏感的) to the way they get along with the teacher, and if things aren’t going well, they won’t learn as well and won’t enjoy being in class. 1. In the passage, the author mainly talks about________. A. how to get along well with teachers B. the importance of a good relation with teachers C. how much the students are expected to get along with teachers D. how to make the time in the classroom more pleasant 2. “Learning bursts right open” in the third paragraph really means________. A. learning becomes easier for you at once B. you find an opening to learning C. there’ll be more problems with learning D. there’ll be no problems with learning 3. According to the passage, which of the following offers the best reasoning? A. You are getting on well with your teachers, so you have more questions than others. B. You find it comfortable to ask questions, so you can build a good relationship with teachers. C. You have a good relationship with a teacher, so you can turn to him/her when in trouble. D. You are in trouble, so you can build a good relationship with teachers. 4. Which of the comments is FALSE on teachers and their work according to the passage? A. Teachers are excited even if you wouldn’t like to accept their teaching. B. Teachers sometimes have the same feelings as students do. C. Though few there are still some students who can learn even if they don’t like the teacher. D. Having a bad relationship with your teachers does more or less harm to your studies. Unit2 Poems-词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 单词讲解: convey vt. 1)输送, 搬运, 运输( from …to …)传达, 表达 (感情,意见, 思想)表明,说明 ( convey + clause) convey sth. to sb. 向某人传达/运送某物 convey sth./sb. to some place. 把某物/人送到某地 convey one’s feelings/thanks to sb. 向某人表达某种感情/谢意 The train conveys both goods and passengers. I found it hard to convey my feelings in words . He tried to convey how urgent the situation was. 易混辨析 convey/transfer/transport convey 指将物/人从一地运送到另一地,或指语言,信息等的传递。 transport 基本含义是运送。但该词通常局限于用交通工具运送货物和人 transfer 主要指工作地点的变换、住所及物体的转移,还可以指旅途中交通工具的变换, 如转车、转船等。也可指把财产转让给他人。 concrete adj.具体的 n.混凝土;凝结物 e.g. You need to offer concrete evidences to support your idea. It is easier to think in concrete terms rather than in the abstract Concrete is very strong and is used in many modern buildings. contradictory adj. 引起矛盾的;好反驳的vt. Contradict n. contradiction The evidence seems contradictory to our findings. His public speeches are in direct contradiction to his personal lifestyle. All evening his husband contradicted everything she said. flexible : adj.灵活的;可弯曲的adv: flexibly n: flexibility e.g. (1) The government needs a more flexible approach to education. (2) We can be flexible about your starting date. (3) Computers offer a much greater degree of flexibility in the way work is organized pattern n.模式,方式,形式 The illness doesn’t seem to follow its usual pattern. n.图案 She wore a dress with a pattern of roses on it. n.模范;榜样 The company set a pattern for others to follow. pattern sth on/after sth 模仿,效仿 This is a new technique patterned on Japanese ideas. take it easy. take. . . by surprise 突袭,使…大吃一惊 take. . . seriously 认真对待 take it for granted 认为理所当然 take it easy = take things easy The doctor told me to take it easy and not to worry too much. run out (of ) 用完;耗尽 ( vt.), 失效;过期 If he hadn’t run out of money , he would have bought it. My passport has run out. run out/ give out (燃料,食物,钱等) run out of exhaust / use up 筋疲力尽 E.g. I was exhausted by the hard training. I was used up after the argument. be made up of =make up 组成,构成 Girl students make up 40% of the student number. make up 编造;化装;弥补(同事) make up for sth. 弥补(用其它方式,以平衡) make out 理解,辨认出 make it 获得成功;准时到达 make for sth. 向……移动;促成…… be made of 由……制成(看出原料) be made from 由……制成(看不出原料) tease :v. 取笑;招惹;戏弄 Don’t get upset. I was only teasing. She used to tease me about my hair. Don’t tease the cat by pulling its tail. 拓展延伸 laugh at sb. 嘲笑某人 make fun of sb. 愚弄某人 play jokes on sb. 开某人的玩笑 play tricks on sb. 捉弄某人 end: v/n 末端,尽头,结束 endless: adj. 无止境的,无穷无尽的 ending: n. 结局,结尾 end in +n. 以……为告终 end up + prep./v-ing/ adj. 达到某种状态 end up with… 以……为结束 E.g. (1) end in tears/ failure/ divorce (2) end up in prison/ apologizing/ dead (3) end up with an English song transform vi. & vt. 转化;转换;改造 transform… into 改变为;转变为 They have transformed their rooms into a hotel. The situation has been greatly transformed eventually adv 最后;终于=finally 1)I was eventually granted an exit visa. 2)Eventually these feelings could be held in no longer. 3)She hopes to get a job on the local newspaper and eventually work for “The Times”. bare adj 赤裸的, 勉强的, 起码的,空的,没有…的(of)barely: adv. 勉强,仅仅 e.g. I barely passed my math class last semester. He was barely able to pay the tent last month. appropriate: adj. 适合的;合适的 [(+to/for)] 1) The movie is appropriate for children aged 12 and over. 2) She picked up a dress appropriate for the occasion. 归纳总结 be appropriate for 对……合适 it is appropriate for sb. to do sth. 适合某人做某事 exchange n. & v. 交换;交流;互换exchange sth. with sb. in exchange for 交换 exchange sth. for sth. 用某物换某物 e.g. He changed his old car for a new one. Solids can change into liquids. sponsor n.赞助人;主办者 vt.赞助;发起 Have you found out the sponsor of our basketball match? The bank had offered to sponsor him at university. hold on 等一下;别挂电话;继续,坚持;抓住,握住 (to/onto) 1) Hold on a minute! Isn’t that your brother’s car over there? 2)It was hard to keep the business going, but he held on. 3) Hold on to the rope. 拓展延伸 hold back 阻挡;隐瞒,抑制, hold down 压制,控制 hold off 推迟,拖延; hold out 伸出,坚持,维持 hold up 延误;举起, 经受得住 inspire vt. 激发;鼓励;启发 n. inspiration 灵感,好办法 adj. inspired 获得灵感的,超凡 inspiring 振奋人心的,激励人的 Be inspired by 受……的鼓励 Inspire sb to + n 鼓励某人(做)某事 Inspire sb with + n 激起某人的(感情,思想) let out 发出;泄漏 (1) Don’t let out the plan to the press (2) He let out the bird from the cage. 拓展延伸 let down 放下;使失望; let alone 更不用提;更别说 let go 放开;松手 let it go 算了;放手 load v. 放入;装载 1)At sunset, he came down the hill with his load of firewood. 2)I have a full load of work. 3)Knowing he was safe was a load off my mind. 4)I started loading the boxes into the truck. 5)Our site is loaded with hundreds of ads on each page. 6) The comment is loaded with emotion. 重点词组: 1. go over 复习,检查 2. make sense 有意义,说得通  (Sb.) make sense of sth 理解……  (Sth.) make sense to sb. 有意义,说得通 3. recite / read / explain sth. to sb. 给某人背诵/读 / 解释…… 4. couvey one`s emotions 表达情感 5. bow to … 向鞠躬 / 屈服 6. stay/sit up 熬夜 7. take it easy放轻松,别紧张 take one`s time 别着急,慢慢来 8. (Sb.) run out of sth. 用完,耗尽(及物)   (Sth.) run out 用完(不及物) 9. make up 组成 / 编造 / 化妆 / 弥补 / 和解 be made up of = consist of … 由……组成 10. a few more minutes 再多几分钟 11. be popular with … = be well received by … 很受欢迎 12. be brimful of = be full of … 充满 13. translate A into B 把A翻译成B 14. week in ,week out 一周又一周 day by day 一天又一天 on and on 继续不停地 16. by chance / accident 碰巧 17. hold on 继续 / 别挂断(电话) 18. (Sb. / Sth.) be likely to do sth.有可能….. 19. try out 试验 try on 试穿 20. let out 泄漏 / 发出(声音) / 释放 / 放宽(衣服) 21. look forward to 盼望 22. inspire sb to do sth 激励,鼓舞某人做某事 重点句型: 1. There are various reasons why people write poetry. 人们写诗有各种各样的原因。 名师指津:why引导定语从句修饰先行词reasons。 例句仿写:他起床晚的原因是他昨晚睡得太晚了。 Thereasonwhy he got up latewasthathe stayed up last night. 2. Should the traveler return, this stone would utter speech. 行人归来石应语。 名师指津:省略if的倒装句式。 例句仿写:要是明天下雨,我们会取消足球赛。 Should it rain tomorrow, we would cancel the football match. 3. With so many different forms of poetry to choose from, students may eventually want to write poems of their own. 有了这么多可供选择的诗歌类型,学生们最终也许是想自己写诗歌了。 名师指津:“With...to choose from”属于“with+复合宾语”结构。 例句仿写:有那么多问题要解决,我不能与你外出看电影。 With so many problems to settle, I can’t go out to see a film with you. 4. Do you think the speaker in the poem is more likely to be a girlfriend/boyfriend or a parent? 你认为诗中的发言者更有可能是一个女朋友、男朋友,还是一位父亲或母亲? 名师指津:be likely to do sth.可能做某事,表示猜测。 例句仿写:当那些年轻人确实要搬出去时,他们更有可能租车而不是买车。 When the young people do move out, they are more likely to rent a car than buy one. 1. (2014·江西重点中学协作体第三次联考)Is college, which is supposed to be a place for academic interests and independent thinking, being________into a factory only for producing professionals for a certain trade? A. transported B. transformed C. transferred D. transplanted 解析:考查动词辨析。句意为:大学,这个本该是培养学术兴趣与独立思考的地方,是不是正在被转变为一个工厂,只会为某一特定行业培养专业人员?这里用transform表示“使改观,使转化”。transport运输;transfer转移,换乘;transplant移植。 答案:B 2. (2014·安徽皖南八校三联)General Manager of Walmart.com announced that viewers could watch shows and movies for free________watching advertising. A. in charge of B. in favor of C. in case of D. in exchange for 解析:考查介词短语辨析。句意为:Walmart.com的总经理宣布观众可以通过看广告以换取免费收看节目和电影。A.主管,负责;B.赞成,支持;C.以防,万一;D.作为……的交换。 答案:D 3. (2014·南昌二模)The photographer needs to charge up the digital camera every day as the battery________quickly. A. shuts up B. ends up C. runs out D. turns out 解析:考查动词短语。句意为:这位摄影师每天都需要给数码相机充电,因为电池很快就用完了。run out表示“用完,用尽”。 答案:C 4. (2014·日照高三调研)The boy is working harder than ever, hoping to________the time he has wasted playing online games. A. take up B. bring up C. call up D. make up 解析:考查动词短语辨析。句意为:为了把浪费在网络游戏上的时间弥补回来,男孩比之前学习更努力。make up弥补;make up the time把时间补回来。 答案:D 5. (2014·东北三省四市联考二)Can you give me some advice on how to________the time I have lost? A. look up to B. make up for C. put up with D. break away from 解析:考查动词短语辨析。look up to意为“尊敬”;make up for意为“补偿”;put up with意为“容忍”;break away from意为“脱离”。句意为:我怎样弥补失去的时间,你能给我些建议吗?根据句意可知应选B项。 答案:B 基础演练 一、语境填词 1. Your room looks old. Why not t__________ it by painting it? 2. Don’t be upset about it any more; you see,e________ chances are awaiting you ahead. 3. I keep getting c__________ advice—some people tell me to keep it warm and some tell me to put ice on it. 4. The head office of the bank is in Beijing, but it has b________ all over the country. 5. His proposal is very ________ (具体的). We do not need any explanation. 6. We didn’t know how they ________ (运送) these stones over 380 miles without modern machines. 7. We can visit your company on Monday or Tuesday;our plans are ________ (灵活的). 8. She used to ________ (取笑) me about my hair. 9. The subject was so difficult that I __________ (最后) dropped it. 10. To my ________ (悲伤), my mother can’t attend our wedding. 答案:1.transform 2.endless 3.contradictory 4.branches5. concrete 6.conveyed 7.flexible 8.tease 9.eventually 10.sorrow 二、单项填空 1. There are various reasons________ people write poetry. A. because B. why C. when D. which 2. Some poems tell a story or describe something in a way________ will give the reader a strong impression. Others try to________ certain emotions. A. that; transform B. which; transform C. that; convey D. /; convey 3. The poems may not________ and even seem contradictory, but they are easy________. A. make sense; to learn and recite B. make sure; to be learned and recited C. make up; to learn and recite D. make sense; to be learned and recited 4. Some rhyme (like B)________ others do not (like C). A. because B. while C. though D. as 5. We would have won if we________ so late the night before. A. stayed up B. hadn’t taken up C. took up D. hadn’t stayed up 6. Haiku is a Japanese form of poetry that is________ 17 syllables. A. consists of B. made up C. make up of D. made up of 7. It is not a traditional form of English poetry, but is very________ with English writers. A. popular B. familiar C. similar D. particular 8. English speakers also enjoy other forms of Asian poetry—Tang poems from China________. A. in return B. in particular C. in conclusion D. in place 9. It is easier than you might think and certainly worth________! A. try B. being tried C. to try D. a try 10. There was such a long queue for coffee at the interval that we________ gave up. A. eventually B. particularly C. gradually D. frequently 答案:1.B2. C 3. A 4. B 5. D 6. D 7. A 8. B 9. D 10. A  巩固提高 一、词义辨析 1. 用run out, run out of的适当形式填空 (1)—Will you lend me some paper? —Sorry, mine has ________________. (2)If we hadn’t ________________ money, we would have bought it. (3)In a mine accident, the trapped miners were ____________________ energy when help came. 2. 用common, ordinary, normal, usual填空 (1)It’s very disappointing that the violinist, popular with us, gave a very ________ performance at the concert last night. (2)Letter boxes are much more ________ in the UK than in the US, where most people have a mailbox instead. (3)The doctor said the child’s temperature was ________. (4)As ________ he stayed up late last night. (5)He is always acting foolishly;he has no ________ sense. 答案: 1.(1)run out (2)run out of (3)running out of 2. (1)ordinary (2)common (3)normal (4)usual(5)common 二、佳句翻译与仿写 1. And said though strange they all were true. 翻译: ____________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)她尽管年轻,但已到过很多国家进行演出。 __________________, she has travelled to many countries to put on shows. (2)她很小时就开始学习弹钢琴。 ____________________, she began to learn to play the piano. 2. We would have won if we hadn’t taken it easy. 翻译: ____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)如果你听从了老师的建议,你可能已经通过考试了。 If you ________________ your teacher’s advice,you ______________________ the exam. (2)如果他赢得了比赛的话,他就不会这么悲伤了。 ____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Another simple form of poem that students can easily write is the cinquain, a poem made up of five lines. 翻译: ____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)我们的新老师史密斯先生对我们很好。 Mr. Smith, ______________________, is very kind to us. (2)昨天我遇到了我弟弟的朋友汤姆。 Yesterday I met Tom, ________________________________. 4. With so many different forms of poetry to choose from, students may eventually want to write poems of their own. 翻译: ____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)还有那么多工作要做, 我们不能再在外面玩了。 ____________________________, we can’t play outside any longer. (2)有老师帮助我们,我们将取得更大的进步。 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Should the traveler return, this stone would utter speech. 翻译: ____________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)假如明天天气好,我们就去野餐。 ____________________________, we would go for a picnic. (2)如果她是我的女儿,我就不让她出国学习了。 ____________________________, I wouldn’t allow her to study abroad. 答案: 1.虽奇怪,但也把实情报。  (1)Though young (2)When very young 2. 如果我们没有放松警惕,我们就会夺冠了。  (1)had followed would have passed  (2)If he had won the game, he wouldn’t have been so sad. 3. 另外一种学生容易写的简体诗是由五行组成的,叫做五行诗。  (1)our new teacher  (2)a friend of my brother’s 4. 有了这么多可供选择的诗歌类型,学生们最终也许想自己作诗了。  (1)With so much work to do (2)With our teacher to help us, we will make greater progress. 5. 行人归来,石应语。  (1)Should it be fine tomorrow. (2)Were she my daughter 一、单项选择 1. —Mr. Smith is no longer the man who he used to be. —I agree with you. Success and wealth have________ him too much. A. trained B. translated C. transported D. transformed 2. Mothers holding jobs outside the home should have________ schedules to make it easier to care for their children. A. heavy B. smooth C. flexible D. complex 3. —I don’t know why we have to go to the supermarket tonight. You see I have a lot of work to do. —We are________ our food! A. running out B. running out of C. giving out D. used up 4. American Indians________ about five percent of the U. S.population. A. fill up B. bring up C. make up D. set up 5. The way________ she wrote the poem made her famous. A. which B. that C. in that D. by which 6. —Were you in time for the lecture? —If I________ told earlier, I would have. A. had been B. was C. were to be D. should be 7. —George, what do you think of the plan? —________ I accept the plan is not perfect, I do actually like it. A. When B. Since C. While D. Unless 8. ________ more and more forests destroyed, many animals are facing the danger of dying out. A. Because B. As C. With D. Since 9. The five firemen the director had________ the five people in the fire were highly praised. A. rescue B. rescued C. to rescue D. had rescued 10. —Is there anything wrong with me, doctor? —Just a cold.________ and you’ll be all right in a week. A. Take it easy B. Don’t mention it C. It depends D. No trouble at all 答案:1.D 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. B 6. A 7. C 8. C 9. A10. A  二、句型转换 1. We are running out of our money. Our money ________ ________ ________. 2. We would have won if we had trained harder. ________ we ________ harder, we wouldn’t have ________. 3. People in ancient times wrote poetry for a variety of reasons. There are ________ reasons ________ people in ancient times wrote poems. 4. Every day, the farmers work hard on their land, hoping to get a good harvest. ________ ________, ________ ________, the farmers work hard on their land in the hope of getting a good harvest. 5. There is nothing serious. Don’t be nervous. There is nothing serious. Just ________ ________ ________. 6. He told one story after another and that kept us laughing all through the meal. He ________ us laughing all through the meal ________ telling one story after another. 答案:1.isrunningout 2.Had; trained; failed 3.various;why 4.Dayin;dayout 5.takeiteasy  6.had;by _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、语境填词 1. His casual clothes were not a____________ for such a formal occasion. 2. If you are lost in the woods, it’s very handy to have a c________ with you. 3. A l________ is a person who is in charge of or works in a library. 4. They promised to love each other f________. 5. After a few minutes, our eyes got used to the ____________ (黑暗). 6. We __________ (交换) our opinions about the event at the meeting. 7. She won a ____________ (奖学金) to study at Oxford University. 8. Knowing that they had arrived safely took a ________ (负担) off my mind. 9. The exhibition was __________ (举办) by the Society of Culture. 10. The ________ (暖和) of the fire made us sleepy. 答案:1.appropriate 2.compass 3.librarian 4.forever 5.darkness 6.exchanged 7.scholarship  8.load 9. sponsored 10.warmth 二、单项填空 1. Although they plant trees in this area every year, the tops of some hills are still________. A. blank B. hollow C. vacant D. bare 2. His formal style of speaking was________ to the occasion. A. popular B. appropriate C. similar D. appreciate 3. These new ideas sound fine but they need________. A. trying on B. trying out C. to try on D. to try out 4. Don’t________ any detail in your account even if a word. A. let out B. take care C. make sure D. make out 5. The boy________ to the rope and was pulled out of the river by the police. A. caught hold B. held on C. threw away D. cut off 6. It is illegal for a public official to ask people for gifts or money________favors to them. A. in preference to B. in place of C. in agreement with D. in exchange for 7. The doctor recommended that you________ swim after eating a large meal. A. wouldn’t B. couldn’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t 8. —Do you think he can pass the exam? —He is________ to fail because he was ill for several days. A. possible B. probable C. likely D. maybe 9. While crossing the street, ________. A. the light must be green B. there are no policemen C. be careful D. it is necessary to be careful 10. John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work________, he gladly accepted it. A. finished B. finishing C. having finished D. was finished 答案:1.D 2. B 3. B 4. A 5. B6. D 7. D 8. C 9. C 10. A  三、完形填空 I met him first on a summer day in 1989.I __1__ into his ugly small shop to have my shoes repaired. It wasn’t much of a job, so I __2__ while he did it. He greeted me with a __3__ smile, “You are __4__ in this place, aren’t you?” I said I was. I had __5__ into this street only a week before. “This is a fine place, ” he said. I __6__ there with my shoes off, __7__ around as he got ready to make repairs. He looked __8__ at the leather. It was worn through because I had __9__ to have the repair job done. I grew __10__ impatient, for I was eager to meet a friend, and I had to get there without delay.“Please hurry, ” I begged. He looked at me __11__ his glasses, “We won’t be long. I must do a good job. You see, I have a tradition to live up to.” A tradition? In this ugly small shop that wasn’t __12__ any from so many other shops on the streets of New York. He must have felt my __13__ for he smiled as he __14__, “Yes, my father is a good shoemaker.” He always told me, “Son, do the best job on every shoe that __15__ the shop, and be proud of your own work. Do that always, and you’ll have both happiness and money enough to live on.” As he __16__ me the finished shoes, he said, “These will last a long time.” I left __17__, my friend would be waiting for me __18__. That evening I __19__ the shop. There he was. When he saw me, he waved and smiled. This was the beginning of our __20__ that came to mean more and more to me as time passed. 1. A. looked B. rushed C. slipped D. broke 2. A. left B. waited C. watched D. helped 3. A. sweet B. light C. cold D. forced 4. Afresh B. young C. familiar D. new 5. A. came B. lived C. moved D. entered 6. A. stood B. lay C. sat D. talked 7. A. thinking B. moving C. turning D. looking 8. A. surprisingly B. sadly C. painfully D. angrily 9. A. failed B. managed C. wanted D. intended 10. Atmore B. less C. greatly D. a little 11. Asunder B. over C. in D. with 12. A. different B. special C. particular D. unusual 13. A. doubt B. surprise C. disappointment D. astonishment 14. A. said B. agreed C. continued D. answered 15. A. flies into B. brings to C. comes into D. introduces to 16. A. showed B. handed C. brought D. took 17. A. quietly B. slowly C. in time D. in a hurry 18. A. coldly B. happily C. anxiously D. angrily 19. A. entered B. passed C. visited D. saw 20. A. experience B. love C. friendship D. story 答案:1.B 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. C6. C 7. D 8. B9. A 10. D 11. B12. A 13. B 14. C15. C 16. B 17. D 18. C 19. B 20. C 四、阅读理解 Do you still remember your favorite poem from high school or some other important periods in your life? Why is it that decades later it still stands out in your mind? Probably the main reason is that some aspect of that poem resonates (引起共鸣) with you. In the same way, you too as a school leader can touch the hearts of your staff and students. Poetry allows us to experience strong spiritual connections to things around us and to the past. The power that poetry has displayed over time and across cultures actually satisfies this common need of the human heart and soul. As one of the oldest art forms, poetry has successfully connected various strands of humanity (人性) from one generation to another. Referring to poetry, Hillyer makes a simple yet meaningful statement, “With this key mankind unlocked his heart.” School leaders can find and make use of the value of poetry for themselves, their students and their staff members. Beyond the simple use of poetry, techniques of poetry such as metaphors, repetitions and imagery can be used to take advantage of the power of language to transform communication, create meaning and a culture of care and attention. Since schools are mainly about people and relationships, school leaders,like poets,are required to inspire and encourage the human heart. The use of poetry—or even of some techniques of poetry—in school leadership not only helps to improve communication, but also serves to meet the human need for inspiration. 1. Who is the passage mainly for? A. Students. B. School teachers. C. School leaders. D. Poets. 2. The underlined part “this common need” in the second paragraph refers to________. A. the need to read poetry B. the need to be inspired C. the need to learn about the past D. the need to be connected with other people 3. The use of poetry or techniques of poetry in school leadership is in fact to make use of________. A. the power of language B. the power of school leaders C. people’s preference for poetry D. people’s desire for communication 4. What is the purpose of the passage? A. To show the readers that poetry is really powerful. B. To explain how poetry can be used in our daily life. C. To talk about the art of being a school leader. D. To encourage using the transformational power of poetry in school leadership. 答案:1.C 2. B 3. A 4. D  For a 400?year?old art form, opera had a bad fame: overweight actresses singing the words which were hard to understand in one of those romantic languages you were supposed to learn in high school. And with tickets costing as much as $145 a performance, opera?goers also had a certain appearance in people’s mind: rich, well?dressed and old. But now opera companies around the country are loosening their ties and kicking off their shoes in an attempt to keep opera alive and take it to a younger and not so wealthy audience. Opera producers have found that to attract this crowd, they need to associate opera with the common people. That means no formal suits, old?styled theatre or bank?breaking ticket prices. And because young people don’t or won’t come to the opera, companies are bringing the opera to them, giving performances in such usual places as parks, libraries and public schools. The Houston Grand Opera’s choice is the public library, where it performs “mobile operas”, shortened versions of child?friendly operas. This summer’s production is Hansel & Gretel. By performing smaller versions of large productions, producers are able to make people interested while keeping costs at a reasonable level. The San Francisco Opera, which will be celebrating its 75th anniversary this year, is staging Cinderella free of charge, keeping costs down by employing students from its Young Artists’ Training Program. 1. Which is the main idea of this passage? A. Opera is famous for its long history. B. Opera is only performed for rich people. C. Opera companies are trying to keep opera alive. D. Young people are not interested in opera. 2.The underlined phrase in the second paragraph means________. A. breaking up the old rules B. changing the dresses C. making the audience at ease D. advertising themselves 3. The San Francisco Opera employs students in order to________. A. celebrate its 75th anniversary B. reduce the cost C. attract young people D. make Cinderella popular 4. From the passage we can infer that________. A. the tickets for opera are very expensive B. opera is performed in a difficult language C. opera is not so popular an art form today D. students enjoy performing opera very much 答案:1. C 2. A 3. B 4. C  Sure, it’s good to get along with your teacher because it makes the time you spend in the classroom more pleasant. And yes, it’s good to get along with your teacher because, in general, it’s smart to learn how to relate to the different types of people you’ll meet throughout your life. But really, there’s one super?important reason why you should get along with your teacher. When you do, “learning bursts right open,” says Evelyn Vuko, a longtime teacher who writes an education column called “Teacher Says” for the Washington Post newspaper. In fact, kids who get along with their teachers not only learn more, but they’re more comfortable asking questions and getting extra help. This makes it easier to understand new material and do your best on tests. When you have this kind of relationship with a teacher, he or she can be someone to turn to with problems, such as problems with learning or school issues, such as bullying (欺负人). As a kid in a primary or middle school, you’re at a wonderful stage in your life. You’re like a sponge (海绵), able to soak up lots of new and exciting information. On top of that, you’re able to think about all this information in new ways. Your teacher knows that, and in most cases, he/she is very excited to be the person who’s giving you all that material and helping you put it together. Remember, teachers are people, too, and they feel great if you’re open to what they’re teaching you. That’s why they wanted to be teachers in the first place—to teach! Some kids may be able to learn in any situation, whether they like the teacher or not. But most kids are sensitive (敏感的) to the way they get along with the teacher, and if things aren’t going well, they won’t learn as well and won’t enjoy being in class. 1. In the passage, the author mainly talks about________. A. how to get along well with teachers B. the importance of a good relation with teachers C. how much the students are expected to get along with teachers D. how to make the time in the classroom more pleasant 2. “Learning bursts right open” in the third paragraph really means________. A. learning becomes easier for you at once B. you find an opening to learning C. there’ll be more problems with learning D. there’ll be no problems with learning 3. According to the passage, which of the following offers the best reasoning? A. You are getting on well with your teachers, so you have more questions than others. B. You find it comfortable to ask questions, so you can build a good relationship with teachers. C. You have a good relationship with a teacher, so you can turn to him/her when in trouble. D. You are in trouble, so you can build a good relationship with teachers. 4. Which of the comments is FALSE on teachers and their work according to the passage? A. Teachers are excited even if you wouldn’t like to accept their teaching. B. Teachers sometimes have the same feelings as students do. C. Though few there are still some students who can learn even if they don’t like the teacher. D. Having a bad relationship with your teachers does more or less harm to your studies. 答案:1. B 2. A3. C 4. A  Unit2 Poems-语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 进一步理解并巩固虚拟语气的用法; 能够熟练使用虚拟语气做题; 虚拟语气的用法 虚拟语气表示一种假设的情况,或一种主观的愿望,即动词所表示的动作或状态并非事实,或不可能实现。英语虚拟语气的形式有下列几种: 一、虚拟语气用于条件状语从句 注意:主句中的should通常用于第一人称,would可用于任何人称,同时也可根据意思用情态动词could, might等代替should, would。 与现在事实相反 连接词 条件从句 结果从句 If 1).动词过去式(或were) 2).助动词(过去式)+动词原形 Should/Would/Could/might+动词原形 If had the time, John would make a trip to China to see the Great Wall. If I were you, I would give up drinking immediately. 与过去事实相反 连接词 条件从句 结果从句 If had+过去分词 Should/Would/Could/might + have+过去分词 If I’d known that it was going to rain, I would never have gone for a walk in the country. 与将来事实相反 连接词 条件从句 结果从句 If 1.?should+动词原形 2.?动词过去式 3. were to+动词原形 Should/Would/could/might+动词原形 If it were to/should rain tomorrow, the meeting would be put off. If you went there next time, you would see what I mean. 错综时间虚拟语气 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间来调整。例如: If I were you, I would have gone home.(从句说的是现在,主句指的是过去。) If you had followed the doctor's advice, you would be quite all right now. (从句说的是过去,主句指的是现在。) If the weather had been more favorable, the crops would be growing still better. 其它状语从句 方式状语as if(as though) 如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时;表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用"had+过去分词";表示与将来事实相反;谓语动词用"would(might, could)+动词原形"。例如: He looks at me as if I were mad. He spoke English so fluently as if he had studied English in England. 但as if(as though)后的从句也常用陈述语气,这是因为从句中的情况往往是可能发生的或可能被设想为真实的。例如: It looks as if our side is going to win. 目的状语in order that, so that 从句谓语动词用" may/might, can/could)+动词原形"。 例如: She listened carefully in order that she might discover exactly what he wanted. 连词引导的条件状语从句: in case, unless, supposing , providing, on condition that从句谓语动词用(should)或" might, could)+动词原形"。 连词引导的步状语从句 lest ,for fear that等 We hid behind some bushes for fear that passer-by should see us. 二、虚拟语气用于宾语从句 Suggest, advise 等动词之后宾语从句须用虚拟语气,其句子结构如下: 要求:ask demand require request beg plead insist pray urge 建议:suggest advise propose recommend move 命令、决定:order command decide determine resolve 其它:consent deserve desire intend maintain prefer等后面的宾语从句中 +that…(should )+动词原形 注意:在此结构中that不可省略;should省不省均可。 He suggested that they (should ) stop smoking. They demanded that the black people should be treated as well as white people. 如果that 引导的从句所表达的内容是事实,也可用陈述语气。 He insists that he is right. 注意:insist作"力言"、"强调"解时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。只有当insist作"坚持(应该)"解时,宾语从句才用虚拟语气。例如: Mike insisted that he had never stolen anything. I insisted that you give me my money back. "wish+宾语从句"表示不能实现的愿望,汉语可译为"可惜……"、"……就好了"、"悔不该……"、 但愿……"等。表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语动词用过去式;表示将来不能实现的愿望,用"would(could)+动词原形";表示过去不能实现的愿望,用"had+过去分词"或"(could)would+have+过去分词"。例如: wish的用法 1). 与现在事实相反 :动词过去式或were I wish we could go to the seaside today. I wish I were a pop singer. (=I am sorry I am not a pop singer..) 2).与过去事实相反 : 主语+wish(that)+主语 + 动词过去完成式 We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier. I wish I had never stopped teaching. (=I am sorry I stopped teaching.) 3).与将来事实相反 :助动词过去式+动词原形 I wish they’d let us get some sleep. 注意:wish与hope接宾语从句的区别在于:hope表示一般可以实现的希望,宾语从句用陈述语气。wish表示很难或不大可能实现的希望,宾语从句用虚拟语气。试比较: (1) We hope they will come,(We don’t know if they can come.) (2) We wish they could come,(We know they are not coming.) 虚拟语气在would rather/would sooner/would just as soon后接从句: I'd rather you paid me now. (从句用过去时指现

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  • ID:4-6096751 人教版高中英语选修六辅导讲义 Unit1 Art词汇篇及语法篇(教师版+学生版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修5、选修6/选修6/Unit 1 Art

    Unit1 Art-词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 单词讲解: Abstract 1)Adj.深奥的,抽象的 Astronomy is an abstract subject. 天文学是一门深奥的学科。 The word “honesty” is an abstract noun. Beauty is abstract but a house is not .美是抽象的,房子是具体的。 2)V. “提炼” “抽取” The workers are abstracting metal from ore.工人们正在由矿砂提炼金属。 Rubber is abstractedfrom trees.橡胶是从树木提取的。 Salt can be abstracted from sea water.盐是从海水中提取出来的。 “转移(注意)等 distract one’s attention from sth从……上转移开某人的注意力 Nothing can distract his attention from his work. “概括,写摘要” He is abstracting a story for a book review.他在为一篇书评撰写故事摘要。 3)n. an abstract of a lecture一个演讲的摘要 would rather do sth情愿做…. would rather sb did sth情愿sb做… 情愿做….而不愿意做…: would rather do sth than do sth = would do sth rather than do sth = prefer to do sth rather than do sth = prefer doing sth to doing sth I would rather stay at home today. 我今天宁愿待在家里。 I would rather you came here tomorrow. 我宁愿你明天来。 I would rather you hadn’t told me about it yesterday.我宁愿你昨天没有告诉我关于它。 我宁愿跟你走而不愿意待在这里: I would rather go with you than stay here. I would go with you rather than stay here. I prefer to go with you rather than stay here. I prefer going with you to staying here. faith n. 信任,信仰 break one's faith with sb. 对某人不守信用 keep faith with 忠于信仰; 守信 I kept faith with him.我信守了对他的诺言。 He who loses faith, loses all.失去信心的人, 失去所有。 faithful adj. 忠诚的,可靠的 have faith in 相信, 信任 in good faith 老实地;诚恳地 consequently adv. 所以,因此 Mr Foster has never been to China. Consequently, he knows very little about it. 福斯特先生从未去过中国, 所以对中国了解得很少。 consequent adj. 作为结果的,随之发生的 as a consequence/result = in consequence = so She was found guilty, and lost her job in consequence (of it). 她被判有罪,因而失去了工作 consequence n. 结果 as a consequence/result of = because of aim 1)n. (C) 目标 without aim 无目的的/ 无目标的 achieve one’s aim miss one’s aim 打不中目标 (U) 对准, 瞄准 take aim at The hunter took aim at the lion sb/ sth’s aim is to do ……的目标是…. What is your aim in life? 你生活的目的是什么? The governor’s aim is to increase citizens’ income. 2)v. (以枪等) 对准,瞄准 aim at take aim at the target= aim at the target 瞄准靶子 The factory must aim at increasing its quality .他用枪瞄准老虎并开火,但没打中 He aimed his gun at the tiger, fired but missed it. aimless a. 无目标的,无目的的 She led an aimless life. 打算,计划, 以……为目标, 立志做…… aim at doing = aim to do 瞄准, 力求做到,力争达到 Harry aims at becoming a doctor. or: Harry aims to become a doctor. conventional adj.(traditional)常规的,通常的,传统的;受俗套束缚的,按习惯办事的,陈旧的,形式上的 conventional weapons 常规武器 a conventional design 传统图案 conventional opinions 旧观念 The chairman made a few conventional remarks. 主席说了几句客套话。 typical adj.典型的;具有代表性的;象征性的 a typical character 典型人物 typical example 典型事例 He is a typical pupil; he is like most of the other pupils. 他是一个有代表性的学生,他和大多数其他学生一样。 realistic 现实主义的,逼真的,现实的 in a more realistic way 以一种更逼真的形式 realism现实主义idealism realist现实主义者 terrorism 恐怖主义 terrorist 恐怖分子 real adj. 真的 realize v. 实现 adopt vt. 1.采取;采纳;吸收 After much deliberation, the president decided to adopt her suggestion. 再三考虑之后,我决定采纳她的建议。 2.过继,收养[(+as)] Mr. Kern adopted the orphan as his own son. 克恩先生将那孤儿收养为自己的儿子。 3.正式通过,接受 The agenda was adopted after some discussion.经过讨论,议事日程获得通过。 adopted adj. 被收养的,被采用的 adopted child possess 用作动词时,不能用于进行时。有多种不同的含义: 1)“有,拥有”。如: The library possesses a number of the artist’s early works. 图书馆里藏有那位画家的一些早期作品。 2)“具有……的特质”。常见搭配有 be possessed of sth,意为“具有某种品质或特征”。如: I’m afraid he doesn’t possess a sense of humor. 恐怕他没有什么幽默感。 He is possessed of great natural ability. 他很有天赋。 3)“支配,控制”。如: He was possessed by the desire to be rich. possession 【c】财产,所有物(常用复数) The ring is one of her most valuable possessions. 这只戒指是他最珍贵的财产之一。 personal possessions个人财产 He lost all his possessions in the fire. 【u】占有,拥有 take possession of 占领,夺取 come into possession of 占有 in possession of (表主动)占有 in the possession of (表被动) …被占有 He is in ~ of the house. 他拥有这套房子。 The house is in the ~ of him. 这套房子在他的占有之下。 convince convince sb. to do sth=convince sb of sth.说服某人做… convince sb that使某人确信某事 He convinced me of his sincerity. 他使我确信他的真诚。 I was convinced that he was sincere. Your mistakes convinced me that you hadn’t studied your lesson. 你的错误使我确信你没有学习功课。 convince vt. “使确信;使信服” convince sb. of sth. / that ... by coincidence 碰巧, 由于巧合 what a coincidence!多么凑巧的事情啊! What a coincidence to meet you here. 真巧在这儿碰到你。 I met him by coincidence. I didn’t know he was here. a great/ good deal 大量; 大量 Ever since the reform and opening, China has changed a great deal. (adv.修饰v.) A great deal has been studied and this is considered the best way to solve the difficult problem.(n.) He ran a great deal faster than me.(修饰比较级) a great/good deal of为adj,修饰[U] A great deal of money was spent on the project. 那个项目花费了大量金钱。 1)修饰可数名词: many a few a good/great many A great many buildings have been built along the street. a large/ big/ great/ / small number of Many a +单数名词 More than one +单数名词 2)修饰不可数名词: much a good/great deal of a large amount of (谓语动词用单数) large amounts of (谓语动词用复数) 3)修饰可数和不可数名词 a lot of/lots of plenty of a large quantity of (谓语动词用单数) large quantities of (谓语动词用复数) shadow 1)n.影子 The willow’s shadow falls on the lake.垂柳的影子倒映在湖面上。 The shadow of this early tragedy has affected her whole life.她年纪轻轻遭此劫,影响了她一生。 2)v.尾随,跟踪 He kept looking behind, afraid of being shadowed.他不停的回头看,害怕被跟踪。 He walked in the shadow hoping no one could recognize him. 对比:sit in the shade of a tree.树荫 ridiculous 1)adj.荒谬的,可笑的 It is ridiculous that she should accept a stranger’s invitation. 他竟然接受了一个陌生人的邀请真是荒唐。 v./n.嘲笑,奚落与“laugh at” 和”make fun of”意思相近。 He became an object of ridicule. They all ridicule my suggestion. controversial Adj.有争议的,引起争论的 He became a controversial figure in the world of politics. 他成为世界政坛上的一位有争议的人物。 n. controversy [ 'k?ntr?,v?:si ]争论;论战;辩论 The use of nuclear power is the subject of widespread controversy. 使用核武力是一个会引起广泛争议的问题。 scores of 很多 I have heard that scores of times. Scores of people attended the special performance. score =20 A score of people were present at the party. 有20个人参加了聚会 Two score of those people wanted to fly there. 那些人中有40人想乘飞机 attempt v.尝试,企图 v.①企图,试图;努力 ②试图,尝试:努力去执行,做或完成 attempt doing反复尝试做 attempt to do企图做 attempt to do/doing = try to do/doing The second question was so difficult; I didn’t even attempt it. 第二道题太难了,我连试都没试。 I attempted to speak but was told to be quiet. 我想开口说几句,但有人叫我别做声。 I attempted to read the entire novel in one sitting. We attempted the difficult maneuver without assistance. n. 企图或努力袭击;攻击 an attempt on someone's life.对某人生命的攻击 make an attempt to do sth make an attempt at doing sth She made an attempt to cook the dinner. 她试着做这顿饭。 The prisoner made an attempt to escape/ at escaping but failed. at one’s attempt 在sb尝试下 one’s first attempt 初次尝试 on the other hand 另一方面,相当于一个副词。常与on one hand连用。 On one hand……on the other hand一方面……另一方面 This job is not well paid, but on the other hand, I don’t have to work long hours. On one hand, I need a computer, but on the other hand, I don’t have enough money. at hand在手边,在附近 by hand用手的,手工的 go hand in hand with与……共同行动 predict 1)v.预言,预测后面加名词做宾语或接that从句/wh-从句。 Nobody can predict what will happen in the future. It is still not possible to accurately predict the occurrence of earthquakes. 现在还不可能准确预测地震的发生。 2) n. prediction 预言,预测 Her prediction turned out to be correct.她的预言证明是正确的。 specific明确的,详尽的,具体的,特有的 Can you be a bit more specific when you talk about your plan? 当你谈及你的计划时,你能说的再具体点吗? Each organ in our body has its specific function. 我们体内的每个器官都有自己独特的作用。 This kind of disease is specific to houses.这种病只有马才会得。 figure 1) 外形;体形;人影I saw a figure in the darkness. 2) 体态;风姿She has a slender figure. 3)人物;名人He has become a figure known to everyone. 4) 数字Where did you get those figures? 5)His work now commands huge figures. delicate He is a delicate child.纤弱的,娇弱的,瘦弱的 Be careful with those wine cups—they are very delicate.容易的 In such a delicate situation I have to weigh my words. 需要小心处理的;微妙的;棘手的 在这样微妙的情形下,我必须权衡一下我的话。 What a delicate work of art!精妙的 delicate china.精美的瓷器 1)aggressive adj. 敢作敢为的;有闯劲的;侵略性的;好斗的 He is very aggressive. 他生性好斗。 We regarded the Iraq War as an aggressive one. 我们认为伊拉克战争是侵略战争。 an aggressive salesman一干劲很大的售货员 aggressive weapons 攻击性武器 2)aggressively adv. 气势汹汹地 3)aggression n.侵略(行动)aggressor n. 侵略者 in the flesh活生生,本人,亲自 flesh n.肌肉;肉 Have you ever seen Jay Chou in the flesh?你见过周杰伦本人吗? He wouldn’t believe until he saw in the flesh他直到亲眼目睹才相信。 flesh and blood肉体,血肉之躯 Though he is a hero, he is still flesh and blood. lose flesh减肥 gain/put on flesh增肥 flesh-eating食肉的 preference - prefer 1)更加的喜爱,偏爱[U][C][(+for)] A window seat is my preference.我喜欢靠窗的座位。 We dress simply by preference.首先, 最好 2)偏爱的事物(或人)[C] Which is your preference, tea or coffee?你喜欢喝哪一样,茶还是咖啡? 3)偏袒[U][(+for)] Parents should not show preference for any one of their children. 父母不应流露出对任何一个孩子的偏心。 4)优先(权);优惠权[U][C] in preference to 优先于 Have a preference for偏爱 I have a preference for classic music.我更喜欢古典音乐。 We had a preference for sweet food.我们特别喜欢吃甜食. in preference to… 优先于 I’d choose the small car in preference to the larger one. 我宁可选择那辆小的汽车而不要那辆大的。 She chose to learn the violin in preference to the piano. 她愿学小提琴而不学钢琴. appeal vi. 1)呼吁,恳求 appeal to sb for sth. He appealed to me for help. 2)诉诸,求助[(+to)] We will appeal to a variety of sources of information. 3)有吸引力,迎合爱好[W][(+to)] The idea appealed to Mary. 4)【律】上诉[(+to/against)] He appealed against the five-year sentence he had been given. fragile adj.精细的;易碎的;脆弱的; As he broke up with his girlfriend, his heart was fragile. 由于他同女朋友分手了,他的心很脆弱。 reputation n. 名誉,名声[(+for)] The store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing. 该店买卖公平,声誉极佳。 He has a reputation for cheating in the exam.他以考试作弊而享有盛名。 have a reputation 享有盛名 好名声,声望;信誉 This restaurant has a fine reputation. 这家餐厅信誉很好。 Cheating at the game ruined that player‘s reputation. 比赛时作弊败坏了那位选手的声望。 live up to one’s reputation 不负盛名 lose one’s reputation 失去盛名; win a high reputation 赢得很高的声誉 more than 不仅仅是… more than+名词意为“不仅仅”,more than just相当于not only, not just的意思。如: Jason is more than a lecturer; he is a writer, too. 詹森不仅是一名讲师,他还是一个作家。 Modern science is more than a large amount of information.现代科学不仅仅是大量的信息。 1) more than+数词,意为“超过”相当于over,其反义词组为less than。如 There are more than two hundred people in the park. 公园里有200多人。 2)“more than+形容词/副词”是“很”或“非常”的意思。如: I am more than content with what you said. 我对你的讲话十分满意。 She was dressed more than simply. 她穿着太朴素了。 3) 在“more ... than ...”结构中,肯定“more”后面的内容而否定“than”后面的部分,常译为“是…… 而不是……” 或 “与其说……不如说……” 。如: Hearing the loud noise, the boy was more surprised than frightened. 听到这巨大的声响,男孩与其说是害怕不如说是感到很惊讶。 visual [ 'vizju?l ] 形容词 a. 1)视力的;视觉的 Near-sightedness is a visual defect. 近视是一个视力缺陷。 2)看得见的,可被看见的;视觉的 Primary school teachers use a lot of visual aids. 小学教师使用大量的视觉教具。 3)光学的 Telescopes and microscopes are visual instruments. 望远镜和显微镜是光学仪器。 30.Fragrant芬香的;馥郁的 Love is a fragrant flower; and friendship is a sweet fruit. 爱情是一朵芳香的鲜花,友情是一颗甜美的果实。 contemporary 1)adj. 当代的 His lecture is on contemporary American novelists. 他的演讲是关于当代美国小说家的。 He has furniture of contemporary style.他有现代款式的家具. 同时代的;同年龄的 Was Jonson contemporary with Shakespeare? 琼森是否与莎士比亚同辈? be contemporary with 与 … 同时代 2)n. [C] 同时代的人;同年龄的人 He was looked down upon by his contemporaries. 他被他的同时代的人瞧不起。 同时期的东西 当代人,现代人 permanent adj. 1)永久的,永恒的;永远的 Nature is permanent. 自然是永恒的。 2)固定性的;常在的 词组总结: 1. in the abstract? 抽象地,理论上 abstract sth. from sth.??从…中提取/抽象出… 2. as well as??也,同,和;同…一样 3. aim at sth.??瞄准 aim?at doing sth. 向着某个目标行动 aim?to do sth.??意欲,企图做某事 with the aim of???带有……的目的 4. focus on=concentrate on????集中 5. convince sb. of sth?????? 使某人确信/明白某事 convince sb. +that clause?? 使某人相信… convince sb.to do sth.??????? 说服某人做某事 6. a great deal(不可数)大量的 scores of?????许多,大量 7. in the flesh?? 活着的,本人 8. take the place of sb = replace?sb 代替,取代 take one’s place???代替,取代;入座;就位 9. break away from?????脱离,摆脱,放弃 10. at the same time?? 同时;但是 11. would rather do sth???????????(主语)宁愿做某事 would rather sb. did sth.?????????? 宁愿某人做某事(现在或将来) would rather sb. had done sth.????? 宁愿某人做某事(过去) 虚拟 12. as a consequence =in consequence = as a result?? 结果 as a consequence of =in consequence of =as a result of? 由于…的原因(接原因) 13. in possession of???拥有… take/ have possession of??拥有(占有) in the possession of sb =in one’s possession? 为某人所拥有 14. consider doing???考虑做某事 consider sb./sth. to be/as?= regard sb/sth to be/as 认为,看待??????????????????????????? consider that-clause????????????????????????认为 consider it adj./n.+to do sth. 15. be (well) worth doing??值得…(主动表被动) 16. be contemporary with???与…属同时期 17. attempt to do sth.?????????企图做某事 18. on one hand…… on the other hand……????? 一方面…另一方面… 19. not only……but also?????不但……而且 20. every two years?? every second year 每两年 every other year 重点句型: 1. At the time they were created, the Impressionist paintings were controversial, but today they are accepted as the beginning of what we call “modern art”. 在印象派作品的创建初期,它们是存在着争议的,但是如今已被人们接受而成为我们现在所说的“现代艺术”的始祖了。 名师指津: what we call “modern art”从句作介词of的宾语。 例句仿写:经过许多天的航行之后,他们到达了如今被称之为美洲的地方。 After many days’ voyage, they arrived in what is called America now. 2. Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worked in Paris. 在那些突破传统画法的画家中有生活和工作在巴黎的印象派画家。 名师指津:表示方位的介词短语位于句首时句子完全倒装。 例句仿写:我注意到,体育馆门前站着很多手拿鲜花的学生,他们在等待贵宾的到来。 I notice that in front of the stadium stand/are standing many students holding flowers waiting for the arrival of the honored guests. 3. Henry Clay Frick, a rich New Yorker, died in 1919, leaving his house, furniture and art collection to the American people. 亨利·克莱·弗里克是纽约的一位富豪,于1919年去世,他把房子、家具和艺术收藏品全部留给了美国人民。 名师指津:现在分词短语作结果状语。 例句仿写:南方的大雨造成了多个省份的洪灾。 It rained heavily in the south, causing serious flooding in several provinces. 4. By coincidence, oil paints were also developed at this time, which made the colors used in paintings look richer and deeper. 巧合的是,这一时期油画颜料也得到了发展,使得画的颜色看上去更丰富、更深沉。 名师指津:非限制性定语从句对前面的整个句子进行限定。 例句仿写:她说她在摄影比赛中获得了一等奖,对此我深感怀疑。 She said she won the first prize in the photo competition, whichIdoubtedverymuch. 5. Without the new paints and the new technique, we would not be able to see the many great masterpieces for which this period is famous. 没有新的颜料和新的(绘画)手法,我们就不能看到很多使这一时代著名的杰作。 名师指津:without引导含蓄虚拟条件句。 例句仿写:没有你及时的帮助,我不可能按时完成工作。 (2014·温州十校联考)The local government has taken some effective measures, ________at cutting down the cost during the tough economy. A. pointing B. approving C. managing D. aiming (2014·皖南八校一次联考)—Have you heard that George quit his job? —Yeah, but I can’t________why he did so. A. put out B. figure out C. carry out D. send out (2014·泉州五中高三质检)It seems that we value what we are trying to get more than what we________right now. A. take B. bring C. possess D. lose (2013·绵阳二诊)—Did the speaker say anything that ________you especially? —Not really. Actually I slept through his speech. A. adapted to B. took up C. broke down D. appealed to The young teacher wants to help his students as much as he can, but________, he’d better help them learn on their own. A. for one thing B. as usual C. in other words D. on the other hand 基础演练 一、单项填空 1. If you were an artist, what kind of pictures________ you________? A. would; have painted B. had; painted C. have; painted D. would; paint 2. They paid famous artists to paint pictures of themselves, their houses and possessions________ their activities and achievements. A. as long as B. as well as C. as far as D. as soon as 3. Without the new paints and the new technique, we would not be able to see the many great masterpieces________ this period is famous. A. for whom B. for that C. for which D. where 4. The Impressionists were the first painters________ outdoors. A. work B. to work C. worked D. working 5. Their paintings were not as detailed as________ of earlier painters. A. ones B. those C. it D. that 6. Today they are accepted as the beginning of________ we call “modern art”. A. what B. where C. which D. that 7. There are________ modern art styles, but without the Impressionists, many of these painting styles________. A. scores of; might not exist B. two scores of; would not have existed C. score of; might exist D. two scores; would have existed 8. The work of art is so________ that the visitors can’t see what the painter meant. A. absolute B. abstract C. absorbed D. attractive 9. He________ to get out of trouble, but no one would help him. A. succeeded B. attempted C. managed D. offered 10. On the one hand, we should develop our economy.________, we should protect the environment. A. On the other hand B. As a matter of fact C. That is D. In other words 二、语境填词 1. Her idea seems a little a________, so we don’t understand it. 2. He has no children so he a________ an orphan 2 months ago. 3. It’s urgent that we improve our ability to p________ earthquakes. 4. He a________ to escape from the prison, but he couldn’t find anybody to help him. 5. The s________ of the trees grew longer as the afternoon went on. 6. The teacher has lost ________ (信任) in the naughty boy. 7. He was charged with ____________ (拥有) a shotgun without a license. 8. Their ________ (目标) is to buy a villa of their own in two years. 9. His performance was absolutely ________ (极好的). 10. It was clearly ________ (明显的) that the boss of the company was in serious financial difficulties. 巩固提高 一、选词填空 by coincidence, scores of, as well as, concentrate on, would rather, on the other hand, lead to, break away from 1. My grandfather ________________ work in the garden than drink tea in the room. 2. I’d like to eat out, but ________________________ I should be trying to save money. 3. When the earthquake happened, ________________, about 150 students were having PE lessons on the playground. 4. The heavy rain last week ______________ serious floods. 5. On May Day, ________________ shoppers entered the supermarket. 6. I can’t __________________ my studies with all that noise going on. 7. She tried to ______________________ the old customs. 8. __________________ writing stories, I love reading and listening to music. 二、词义辨析 1. 用a great deal, a great deal of填空 (1)I see him __________________ in the park. (2)You will have to work ______________________ faster. (3)______________________ money has been spent on the new hospital. 2. 用that is, such as, for example填空 (1)Many great men have risen from poverty—Lincoln and Edison, ________________. (2)I have three friends, ________________, John, Jack and Tom. (3)Fruits ________________ apples and pears are good for health. (4)Only two persons can do the job, ________________ you and I. 三、佳句翻译与仿写 1. Would you rather have Chinese or Western style paintings in your home? 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)你更愿意做什么,是去看电影还是呆在家里? ________________________________, go to the cinema or stay at home? (2)你愿意步行还是坐公共汽车? _______________________________________________________________________ 2. But it was evident that ideas were changing in the 13th century when painters like Giotto di Bondone began to paint religious scenes in a more realistic way. 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)显然已经出了差错。 ______________________ a mistake has been made. (2)显然,他不能胜任那项工作。 _______________________________________________________________________ 3. When people first saw his paintings, they were convinced that they were looking through a hole in a wall at a real scene. 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)我相信他将比卓别林更出名。 ________________________ he would be more famous than Chaplin. (2)我相信他知道真相。 _______________________________________________________________________ 4. If the rules of perspective had not been discovered, no one would have been able to paint such realistic pictures. 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)如果你听了我的建议, 就不会考试不及格了。 If you ________________________, you ________________________________ in the exam. (2)如果我现在见到他, 我会很高兴的。 _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worked in Paris. 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)地上躺着一只生病的山羊。 ________________________ a sick goat. (2)铃一响,学生们就冲了出去。 __________________________ the moment the bell rang. 一、单项填空 1. We can’t accurately________ what will happen in the future. A. debate B. speak C. analyze D. predict 2. He studied hard, ________ the exam. A. aim at B. aiming at passing C. aiming passing D. aimed to passing 3. —Does the young tall man standing there________ the company? —No. The company is________ his father. A. have possession of; in the possession of B. in possession of; in the possession of C. take possession of; in possession of D. have possession of; in possession of 4. ________ work has been done to improve the people’s living standard. A. Large amounts of B. A good many C. A great deal of D. A large number of 5. After a two?hour talk, she________ the truth of the report. A. was persuaded B. was believed in C. was convinced of D. was advised 6. Shelly has been preparing carefully for the driving test so that she can be sure of passing it at her first________. A. intention B. purpose C. attempt D. desire 7. Jack is late again. It is________ of him to keep others waiting. A. normal B. ordinary C. common D. typical 8. I would rather go fishing________ stay at home. A. as B. to C. than D. while 9. I wish I________ you when we were badly in need of your help yesterday. A. did see B. had seen C. could see D. saw 10. —I’m going to the post office. —________!I need to mail a letter. Could you do it for me? A. How exciting B. What a coincidence C. How lucky D. That’s good 二、语境填词 1. This actress has a beautiful face and slim f________. 2. He has a p__________ for playing football among sports. 3. I long for a p________ job, for I’m tired of changing my job constantly. 4. We sent our teacher a b________ of fresh flowers on Teachers’ Day. 5. The beauty of the countryside a________ to me, so I decided to stay there for another two days. 6. We discourage you from smoking except in ________ (特定的) areas. 7. Can I have your ________ (署名) on this book? 8. A good salesperson has to be __________ (积极进取的) in today’s competitive market. 9. Be careful not to drop the cup;it’s very __________ (易碎的). 10. The sun can easily damage a child’s ________ (娇嫩的) skin. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项填空 1. The doctor is skilled at treating heart trouble and never accepts any gift from his patients, so he has a very good________. A. expectation B. reputation C. contribution D. civilization 2. —How did you like Nick’s performance last night? —To be honest, his singing didn’t________ to me much. A. appeal B. belong C. refer D. occur 3. I don’t like fish because I am________ to them. A. allergic B. aggressive C. familiar D. similar 4. The teacher asked the children to write on________ line but Tom just wrote very carelessly________ lines. A. other every; few every B. other every; every a few C. every other; every few D. every other; every a few 5. The girl is more beautiful________ than in her photographs. A. in the flesh B. flesh and blood C. in person D. in flesh 6. —Do you need any help, Lucy? —Yes. The job is________ I could do myself. A. less than B. more than C. no more than D. not more than 7. The book________ reading is worthy of________. A. worthy; being bought B. worthy; buying C. worth; being bought D. worth; buying 8. —Your aunt and uncle are leaving tomorrow morning. —I would rather they________ on an early train. A. left B. would leave C. leave D. had left 9. A small plane crashed into a hillside five miles east of the city, ________ all four people on board. A. killed B. killing C. kills D. to kill 10. —When shall we meet? —________.Any day is OK with me. A. It’s up to you B. All right C. That’s all right D. That depends 二、词义辨析 1. 用contain, include的适当形式填空 (1)The box________ a dozen bottles of wine. (2)You must ________ her when you send out the invitations. (3)The band played many songs, ________ some of my favorites/some of my favorites ________. (4)The drink doesn’t ________ any alcohol. 2. 用alive, live, living, lively填空 (1)The lessons given by Mr. Smith are always ________ and interesting. (2)A woman was dug out ________ after being buried deep in the ruins for more than 70 hours. (3)I saw a ________ football match on TV last night. (4)All ________ things need air, water and sunlight. (5)They kept the fish ________ for six weeks. 三、完成句子 1. The Summer Palace __________________________ (很值得一看). 2. The buses go ______________________ (每十分钟). 3. ____________________ (最好的办法) learn English is to do a lot of practice. 4. Pop songs ________________________________________________ (对当代的青少年有吸引力). 5. She told me that happiness ______________________ (在于帮助他人) to be happy. 6. ____________________________ (走了六十英里后),they finally arrived at the mountain village. 7. ________________________ (令人大为惊讶) she came up and shook my hand. 8. The young man with long hair walks ________________________ (像个女孩). 四、完形填空 While attending a conference, I returned to my hotel room late one evening. The overhead light outside my door was burned out and I had __1__finding the keyhole. When I __2__to open the door, I__3__around the wall for a light switch. I found a place where a switch was__4__installed...but no switch! Not discouraged easily, I remembered __5__ a lamp by the bed when I deposited my luggage __6__ in the day. I found the bed in the __7__ and then the lamp, but when I switched it on, nothing __8__!I thought that perhaps if I opened the curtains I might be able to use whatever light comes in from the __9__ to find another lamp. So I __10__ my way slowly across the room to the curtains and...no drawstring!I finally stumbled(跌跌撞撞地走)around __11__ I found a desk lamp which actually __12__! That evening I discovered in a whole new way just how dark the world __13__ be and how necessary light is!But even more necessary than __14__ light is the light that shines from people—the light of __15__ and faith. Because, for many people, the world is a dark and __16__ place. For someone today just may be stumbling in discouragement or sadness or fear and in __17__ of some light. So let your light shine. Whatever light you __18__ may be a beacon of hope and encouragement. And if you feel that your light is __19__ a candle in a forest, remember—there isn’t enough darkness in the world to __20__ the light of one small candle. 1. A. confidence B. respect C. admiration D. difficulty 2. A. managed B. failed C. wished D. meant 3. A. touched B. felt C. sensed D. looked 4. A. already B. never C. still D. once 5. A. equipping B. producing C. spotting D. removing 6. A. later B. earlier C. lower D. upper 7. A. light B. dark C. room D. corner 8. A. happened B. operated C. fired D. developed 9. A. machine B. street C. room D. car 10. A. wound B. forced C. made D. lost 11. A. after B. until C. while D. since 12. A. helped B. affected C. worked D. inspired 13. A. can B. shall C. will D. must 14. A. mental B. psychological C. electrical D. physical 15. A. existence B. love C. truth D. wisdom 16. A. lonely B. colorful C. friendly D. complex 17. A. short B. favor C. face D. need 18. A. make B. offer C. take D. contribute 19. A. not more than B. other than C. no more than D. rather than 20. A. put out B. give out C. get over D. set up 五、阅读理解 Throughout the history of the arts, the nature of creativity has remained constant to artists. No matter what objects they select, artists are to bring forth new forces and forms that cause change—to find poetry where no one has ever seen or experienced it before. Landscape (风景) is another unchanging element of art. It can be found from ancient times through the 17th?century Dutch painters to the 19th?century romanticists and impressionists. In the 1970s Alfred Leslie, one of the new American realists, continued this practice. Leslie sought out the same place where Thomas Cole, a romanticist, had produced paintings of the same scene a century and a half before. Unlike Cole who insists on a feeling of loneliness and the idea of finding peace in nature, Lesliepaints what he actually sees. In his paintings, there is no particular change in emotions and he includes ordinary things like the highway in the background. He also takes advantage of the latest developments of colour photography (摄影术) to help both the eyes and the memory when he improves his painting back in his workroom. Besides, all art begs the age?old question: What is real? Each generation of artists has shown their understanding of reality in one form or another. The impressionists saw reality in brief emotional effects, the realists in everyday subjects and in forest scenes, and the Cro?Magnon cave people in their naturalistic drawings of the animals in the ancient forests. To sum up, understanding reality is a necessary struggle for artists of all periods. Over thousands of years the function of the arts has remained relatively constant. Past or present, Eastern or Western, the arts are a basic part of our immediate experience. Many and different are the faces of art, and together they express the basic need and hope of human beings. 1. The underlined word “poetry” most probably means________. A. an object for artistic creation B. a collection of poems C. an unusual quality D. a natural scene 2. Leslie’s paintings are extraordinary because________. A. they are close in style to works in ancient times B. they look like works by 19th?century painters C. they draw attention to common things in life D. they depend heavily on colour photography 3. What does the author suggest about the arts in the last paragraph? A. They express people’s curiosity about the past. B. They make people interested in everyday experience. C. They are considered important for variety in form. D. They are regarded as a mirror of the human situation. 4. Which of the following is the main topic of the passage? A. History of the arts. B. Basic questions of the arts. C. New developments in the arts. D. Use of modern technology in the arts. The Law to Keep the Oil Industry under Control The Norwegian Government is doing its best to keep the oil industry under control. A new law limits exploration to an area south of the southern end of the long coastline; production limits have been laid down (though these have already been raised); and oil companies have not been allowed to employ more than a limited number of foreign workers. But the oil industry has a way of getting over such problems, and few people believe that the Government will be able to hold things back for long. As a Norwegian politician said last week, “We will soon be changed beyond all recognition.” Ever since the war, the Government has been carrying out a programme of development in the area north of the Arctic Circle. During the past few years, this programme has had a great deal of success: Tromso has been built up into a local capital with a university, a large hospital and a healthy industry. But the oil industry has already started to draw people south, and within a few years the whole northern policy could be in ruins. The effects of the oil industry would not be limited to the north, however, with nearly 100 percent employment, everyone can see a situation developing in which the service industries and the tourist industry will lose more of their workers to the oil industry. Some smaller industries might even disappear altogether when it becomes cheaper to buy goods from abroad. The real argument over oil is its threat to the Norwegian way of life. Farmers and fishermen do not make up most of the population, but they are an important part of it, because Norwegians see in them many of the qualities that they regard with pride as essentially Norwegian. And it is the farmers and the fishermen who are most critical of the oil industry because of the damage that it might cause to the countryside and to the sea. 1. The Norwegian Government would prefer the oil industry to________. A. provide more jobs for foreign workers B. slow down the rate of its development C. sell the oil it is producing abroad D. develop more quickly than at present 2. The Norwegian Government has tried to________. A. encourage the oil companies to discover new oil sources B. prevent oil companies employing people from northern Norway C. help the oil companies solve many of their problems D. keep the oil industry to something near its present size 3. According to the passage, the oil industry might lead northern Norway to________. A. the development of industry B. a growth in population C. the failure of the development programme D. the development of new towns 4. In the south, one effect to the development of the oil industry might be________. A. a large reduction on unemployment B. a growth in the tourist industry C. a reduction in the number of existing industries D. the development of a number of service industries Unit1 Art-词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 单词讲解: Abstract 1)Adj.深奥的,抽象的 Astronomy is an abstract subject. 天文学是一门深奥的学科。 The word “honesty” is an abstract noun. Beauty is abstract but a house is not .美是抽象的,房子是具体的。 2)V. “提炼” “抽取” The workers are abstracting metal from ore.工人们正在由矿砂提炼金属。 Rubber is abstractedfrom trees.橡胶是从树木提取的。 Salt can be abstracted from sea water.盐是从海水中提取出来的。 “转移(注意)等 distract one’s attention from sth从……上转移开某人的注意力 Nothing can distract his attention from his work. “概括,写摘要” He is abstracting a story for a book review.他在为一篇书评撰写故事摘要。 3)n. an abstract of a lecture一个演讲的摘要 would rather do sth情愿做…. would rather sb did sth情愿sb做… 情愿做….而不愿意做…: would rather do sth than do sth = would do sth rather than do sth = prefer to do sth rather than do sth = prefer doing sth to doing sth I would rather stay at home today. 我今天宁愿待在家里。 I would rather you came here tomorrow. 我宁愿你明天来。 I would rather you hadn’t told me about it yesterday.我宁愿你昨天没有告诉我关于它。 我宁愿跟你走而不愿意待在这里: I would rather go with you than stay here. I would go with you rather than stay here. I prefer to go with you rather than stay here. I prefer going with you to staying here. faith n. 信任,信仰 break one's faith with sb. 对某人不守信用 keep faith with 忠于信仰; 守信 I kept faith with him.我信守了对他的诺言。 He who loses faith, loses all.失去信心的人, 失去所有。 faithful adj. 忠诚的,可靠的 have faith in 相信, 信任 in good faith 老实地;诚恳地 consequently adv. 所以,因此 Mr Foster has never been to China. Consequently, he knows very little about it. 福斯特先生从未去过中国, 所以对中国了解得很少。 consequent adj. 作为结果的,随之发生的 as a consequence/result = in consequence = so She was found guilty, and lost her job in consequence (of it). 她被判有罪,因而失去了工作 consequence n. 结果 as a consequence/result of = because of aim 1)n. (C) 目标 without aim 无目的的/ 无目标的 achieve one’s aim miss one’s aim 打不中目标 (U) 对准, 瞄准 take aim at The hunter took aim at the lion sb/ sth’s aim is to do ……的目标是…. What is your aim in life? 你生活的目的是什么? The governor’s aim is to increase citizens’ income. 2)v. (以枪等) 对准,瞄准 aim at take aim at the target= aim at the target 瞄准靶子 The factory must aim at increasing its quality .他用枪瞄准老虎并开火,但没打中 He aimed his gun at the tiger, fired but missed it. aimless a. 无目标的,无目的的 She led an aimless life. 打算,计划, 以……为目标, 立志做…… aim at doing = aim to do 瞄准, 力求做到,力争达到 Harry aims at becoming a doctor. or: Harry aims to become a doctor. conventional adj.(traditional)常规的,通常的,传统的;受俗套束缚的,按习惯办事的,陈旧的,形式上的 conventional weapons 常规武器 a conventional design 传统图案 conventional opinions 旧观念 The chairman made a few conventional remarks. 主席说了几句客套话。 typical adj.典型的;具有代表性的;象征性的 a typical character 典型人物 typical example 典型事例 He is a typical pupil; he is like most of the other pupils. 他是一个有代表性的学生,他和大多数其他学生一样。 realistic 现实主义的,逼真的,现实的 in a more realistic way 以一种更逼真的形式 realism现实主义idealism realist现实主义者 terrorism 恐怖主义 terrorist 恐怖分子 real adj. 真的 realize v. 实现 adopt vt. 1.采取;采纳;吸收 After much deliberation, the president decided to adopt her suggestion. 再三考虑之后,我决定采纳她的建议。 2.过继,收养[(+as)] Mr. Kern adopted the orphan as his own son. 克恩先生将那孤儿收养为自己的儿子。 3.正式通过,接受 The agenda was adopted after some discussion.经过讨论,议事日程获得通过。 adopted adj. 被收养的,被采用的 adopted child possess 用作动词时,不能用于进行时。有多种不同的含义: 1)“有,拥有”。如: The library possesses a number of the artist’s early works. 图书馆里藏有那位画家的一些早期作品。 2)“具有……的特质”。常见搭配有 be possessed of sth,意为“具有某种品质或特征”。如: I’m afraid he doesn’t possess a sense of humor. 恐怕他没有什么幽默感。 He is possessed of great natural ability. 他很有天赋。 3)“支配,控制”。如: He was possessed by the desire to be rich. possession 【c】财产,所有物(常用复数) The ring is one of her most valuable possessions. 这只戒指是他最珍贵的财产之一。 personal possessions个人财产 He lost all his possessions in the fire. 【u】占有,拥有 take possession of 占领,夺取 come into possession of 占有 in possession of (表主动)占有 in the possession of (表被动) …被占有 He is in ~ of the house. 他拥有这套房子。 The house is in the ~ of him. 这套房子在他的占有之下。 convince convince sb. to do sth=convince sb of sth.说服某人做… convince sb that使某人确信某事 He convinced me of his sincerity. 他使我确信他的真诚。 I was convinced that he was sincere. Your mistakes convinced me that you hadn’t studied your lesson. 你的错误使我确信你没有学习功课。 convince vt. “使确信;使信服” convince sb. of sth. / that ... by coincidence 碰巧, 由于巧合 what a coincidence!多么凑巧的事情啊! What a coincidence to meet you here. 真巧在这儿碰到你。 I met him by coincidence. I didn’t know he was here. a great/ good deal 大量; 大量 Ever since the reform and opening, China has changed a great deal. (adv.修饰v.) A great deal has been studied and this is considered the best way to solve the difficult problem.(n.) He ran a great deal faster than me.(修饰比较级) a great/good deal of为adj,修饰[U] A great deal of money was spent on the project. 那个项目花费了大量金钱。 1)修饰可数名词: many a few a good/great many A great many buildings have been built along the street. a large/ big/ great/ / small number of Many a +单数名词 More than one +单数名词 2)修饰不可数名词: much a good/great deal of a large amount of (谓语动词用单数) large amounts of (谓语动词用复数) 3)修饰可数和不可数名词 a lot of/lots of plenty of a large quantity of (谓语动词用单数) large quantities of (谓语动词用复数) shadow 1)n.影子 The willow’s shadow falls on the lake.垂柳的影子倒映在湖面上。 The shadow of this early tragedy has affected her whole life.她年纪轻轻遭此劫,影响了她一生。 2)v.尾随,跟踪 He kept looking behind, afraid of being shadowed.他不停的回头看,害怕被跟踪。 He walked in the shadow hoping no one could recognize him. 对比:sit in the shade of a tree.树荫 ridiculous 1)adj.荒谬的,可笑的 It is ridiculous that she should accept a stranger’s invitation. 他竟然接受了一个陌生人的邀请真是荒唐。 v./n.嘲笑,奚落与“laugh at” 和”make fun of”意思相近。 He became an object of ridicule. They all ridicule my suggestion. controversial Adj.有争议的,引起争论的 He became a controversial figure in the world of politics. 他成为世界政坛上的一位有争议的人物。 n. controversy [ 'k?ntr?,v?:si ]争论;论战;辩论 The use of nuclear power is the subject of widespread controversy. 使用核武力是一个会引起广泛争议的问题。 scores of 很多 I have heard that scores of times. Scores of people attended the special performance. score =20 A score of people were present at the party. 有20个人参加了聚会 Two score of those people wanted to fly there. 那些人中有40人想乘飞机 attempt v.尝试,企图 v.①企图,试图;努力 ②试图,尝试:努力去执行,做或完成 attempt doing反复尝试做 attempt to do企图做 attempt to do/doing = try to do/doing The second question was so difficult; I didn’t even attempt it. 第二道题太难了,我连试都没试。 I attempted to speak but was told to be quiet. 我想开口说几句,但有人叫我别做声。 I attempted to read the entire novel in one sitting. We attempted the difficult maneuver without assistance. n. 企图或努力袭击;攻击 an attempt on someone's life.对某人生命的攻击 make an attempt to do sth make an attempt at doing sth She made an attempt to cook the dinner. 她试着做这顿饭。 The prisoner made an attempt to escape/ at escaping but failed. at one’s attempt 在sb尝试下 one’s first attempt 初次尝试 on the other hand 另一方面,相当于一个副词。常与on one hand连用。 On one hand……on the other hand一方面……另一方面 This job is not well paid, but on the other hand, I don’t have to work long hours. On one hand, I need a computer, but on the other hand, I don’t have enough money. at hand在手边,在附近 by hand用手的,手工的 go hand in hand with与……共同行动 predict 1)v.预言,预测后面加名词做宾语或接that从句/wh-从句。 Nobody can predict what will happen in the future. It is still not possible to accurately predict the occurrence of earthquakes. 现在还不可能准确预测地震的发生。 2) n. prediction 预言,预测 Her prediction turned out to be correct.她的预言证明是正确的。 specific明确的,详尽的,具体的,特有的 Can you be a bit more specific when you talk about your plan? 当你谈及你的计划时,你能说的再具体点吗? Each organ in our body has its specific function. 我们体内的每个器官都有自己独特的作用。 This kind of disease is specific to houses.这种病只有马才会得。 figure 1) 外形;体形;人影I saw a figure in the darkness. 2) 体态;风姿She has a slender figure. 3)人物;名人He has become a figure known to everyone. 4) 数字Where did you get those figures? 5)His work now commands huge figures. delicate He is a delicate child.纤弱的,娇弱的,瘦弱的 Be careful with those wine cups—they are very delicate.容易的 In such a delicate situation I have to weigh my words. 需要小心处理的;微妙的;棘手的 在这样微妙的情形下,我必须权衡一下我的话。 What a delicate work of art!精妙的 delicate china.精美的瓷器 1)aggressive adj. 敢作敢为的;有闯劲的;侵略性的;好斗的 He is very aggressive. 他生性好斗。 We regarded the Iraq War as an aggressive one. 我们认为伊拉克战争是侵略战争。 an aggressive salesman一干劲很大的售货员 aggressive weapons 攻击性武器 2)aggressively adv. 气势汹汹地 3)aggression n.侵略(行动)aggressor n. 侵略者 in the flesh活生生,本人,亲自 flesh n.肌肉;肉 Have you ever seen Jay Chou in the flesh?你见过周杰伦本人吗? He wouldn’t believe until he saw in the flesh他直到亲眼目睹才相信。 flesh and blood肉体,血肉之躯 Though he is a hero, he is still flesh and blood. lose flesh减肥 gain/put on flesh增肥 flesh-eating食肉的 preference - prefer 1)更加的喜爱,偏爱[U][C][(+for)] A window seat is my preference.我喜欢靠窗的座位。 We dress simply by preference.首先, 最好 2)偏爱的事物(或人)[C] Which is your preference, tea or coffee?你喜欢喝哪一样,茶还是咖啡? 3)偏袒[U][(+for)] Parents should not show preference for any one of their children. 父母不应流露出对任何一个孩子的偏心。 4)优先(权);优惠权[U][C] in preference to 优先于 Have a preference for偏爱 I have a preference for classic music.我更喜欢古典音乐。 We had a preference for sweet food.我们特别喜欢吃甜食. in preference to… 优先于 I’d choose the small car in preference to the larger one. 我宁可选择那辆小的汽车而不要那辆大的。 She chose to learn the violin in preference to the piano. 她愿学小提琴而不学钢琴. appeal vi. 1)呼吁,恳求 appeal to sb for sth. He appealed to me for help. 2)诉诸,求助[(+to)] We will appeal to a variety of sources of information. 3)有吸引力,迎合爱好[W][(+to)] The idea appealed to Mary. 4)【律】上诉[(+to/against)] He appealed against the five-year sentence he had been given. fragile adj.精细的;易碎的;脆弱的; As he broke up with his girlfriend, his heart was fragile. 由于他同女朋友分手了,他的心很脆弱。 reputation n. 名誉,名声[(+for)] The store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing. 该店买卖公平,声誉极佳。 He has a reputation for cheating in the exam.他以考试作弊而享有盛名。 have a reputation 享有盛名 好名声,声望;信誉 This restaurant has a fine reputation. 这家餐厅信誉很好。 Cheating at the game ruined that player‘s reputation. 比赛时作弊败坏了那位选手的声望。 live up to one’s reputation 不负盛名 lose one’s reputation 失去盛名; win a high reputation 赢得很高的声誉 more than 不仅仅是… more than+名词意为“不仅仅”,more than just相当于not only, not just的意思。如: Jason is more than a lecturer; he is a writer, too. 詹森不仅是一名讲师,他还是一个作家。 Modern science is more than a large amount of information.现代科学不仅仅是大量的信息。 1) more than+数词,意为“超过”相当于over,其反义词组为less than。如 There are more than two hundred people in the park. 公园里有200多人。 2)“more than+形容词/副词”是“很”或“非常”的意思。如: I am more than content with what you said. 我对你的讲话十分满意。 She was dressed more than simply. 她穿着太朴素了。 3) 在“more ... than ...”结构中,肯定“more”后面的内容而否定“than”后面的部分,常译为“是…… 而不是……” 或 “与其说……不如说……” 。如: Hearing the loud noise, the boy was more surprised than frightened. 听到这巨大的声响,男孩与其说是害怕不如说是感到很惊讶。 visual [ 'vizju?l ] 形容词 a. 1)视力的;视觉的 Near-sightedness is a visual defect. 近视是一个视力缺陷。 2)看得见的,可被看见的;视觉的 Primary school teachers use a lot of visual aids. 小学教师使用大量的视觉教具。 3)光学的 Telescopes and microscopes are visual instruments. 望远镜和显微镜是光学仪器。 30.Fragrant芬香的;馥郁的 Love is a fragrant flower; and friendship is a sweet fruit. 爱情是一朵芳香的鲜花,友情是一颗甜美的果实。 contemporary 1)adj. 当代的 His lecture is on contemporary American novelists. 他的演讲是关于当代美国小说家的。 He has furniture of contemporary style.他有现代款式的家具. 同时代的;同年龄的 Was Jonson contemporary with Shakespeare? 琼森是否与莎士比亚同辈? be contemporary with 与 … 同时代 2)n. [C] 同时代的人;同年龄的人 He was looked down upon by his contemporaries. 他被他的同时代的人瞧不起。 同时期的东西 当代人,现代人 permanent adj. 1)永久的,永恒的;永远的 Nature is permanent. 自然是永恒的。 2)固定性的;常在的 词组总结: 1. in the abstract? 抽象地,理论上 abstract sth. from sth.??从…中提取/抽象出… 2. as well as??也,同,和;同…一样 3. aim at sth.??瞄准 aim?at doing sth. 向着某个目标行动 aim?to do sth.??意欲,企图做某事 with the aim of???带有……的目的 4. focus on=concentrate on????集中 5. convince sb. of sth?????? 使某人确信/明白某事 convince sb. +that clause?? 使某人相信… convince sb.to do sth.??????? 说服某人做某事 6. a great deal(不可数)大量的 scores of?????许多,大量 7. in the flesh?? 活着的,本人 8. take the place of sb = replace?sb 代替,取代 take one’s place???代替,取代;入座;就位 9. break away from?????脱离,摆脱,放弃 10. at the same time?? 同时;但是 11. would rather do sth???????????(主语)宁愿做某事 would rather sb. did sth.?????????? 宁愿某人做某事(现在或将来) would rather sb. had done sth.????? 宁愿某人做某事(过去) 虚拟 12. as a consequence =in consequence = as a result?? 结果 as a consequence of =in consequence of =as a result of? 由于…的原因(接原因) 13. in possession of???拥有… take/ have possession of??拥有(占有) in the possession of sb =in one’s possession? 为某人所拥有 14. consider doing???考虑做某事 consider sb./sth. to be/as?= regard sb/sth to be/as 认为,看待??????????????????????????? consider that-clause????????????????????????认为 consider it adj./n.+to do sth. 15. be (well) worth doing??值得…(主动表被动) 16. be contemporary with???与…属同时期 17. attempt to do sth.?????????企图做某事 18. on one hand…… on the other hand……????? 一方面…另一方面… 19. not only……but also?????不但……而且 20. every two years?? ?every second year 每两年 ?every other year 重点句型: 1. At the time they were created, the Impressionist paintings were controversial, but today they are accepted as the beginning of what we call “modern art”. 在印象派作品的创建初期,它们是存在着争议的,但是如今已被人们接受而成为我们现在所说的“现代艺术”的始祖了。 名师指津: what we call “modern art”从句作介词of的宾语。 例句仿写:经过许多天的航行之后,他们到达了如今被称之为美洲的地方。 After many days’ voyage, they arrived in what is called America now. 2. Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worked in Paris. 在那些突破传统画法的画家中有生活和工作在巴黎的印象派画家。 名师指津:表示方位的介词短语位于句首时句子完全倒装。 例句仿写:我注意到,体育馆门前站着很多手拿鲜花的学生,他们在等待贵宾的到来。 I notice that in front of the stadium stand/are standing many students holding flowers waiting for the arrival of the honored guests. 3. Henry Clay Frick, a rich New Yorker, died in 1919, leaving his house, furniture and art collection to the American people. 亨利·克莱·弗里克是纽约的一位富豪,于1919年去世,他把房子、家具和艺术收藏品全部留给了美国人民。 名师指津:现在分词短语作结果状语。 例句仿写:南方的大雨造成了多个省份的洪灾。 It rained heavily in the south, causing serious flooding in several provinces. 4. By coincidence, oil paints were also developed at this time, which made the colors used in paintings look richer and deeper. 巧合的是,这一时期油画颜料也得到了发展,使得画的颜色看上去更丰富、更深沉。 名师指津:非限制性定语从句对前面的整个句子进行限定。 例句仿写:她说她在摄影比赛中获得了一等奖,对此我深感怀疑。 She said she won the first prize in the photo competition, which I doubted very much. 5. Without the new paints and the new technique, we would not be able to see the many great masterpieces for which this period is famous. 没有新的颜料和新的(绘画)手法,我们就不能看到很多使这一时代著名的杰作。 名师指津:without引导含蓄虚拟条件句。 例句仿写:没有你及时的帮助,我不可能按时完成工作。 (2014·温州十校联考)The local government has taken some effective measures, ________at cutting down the cost during the tough economy. A. pointing B. approving C. managing D. aiming 解析:句意为:当地政府已经采取了一些有效措施, 目的是在经济困难时期减少开销。aim at意为“以……为目的”,aiming at...在此作后置定语,相当于非限制性定语从句。 答案:D (2014·皖南八校一次联考)—Have you heard that George quit his job? —Yeah, but I can’t________why he did so. A. put out B. figure out C. carry out D. send out 解析:考查动词短语辨析。put out熄灭,出版;figure out弄明白;carry out贯彻,执行;send out发出,长出。答句意为“是的,但是我不明白他为什么要辞掉工作”。 答案:B (2014·泉州五中高三质检)It seems that we value what we are trying to get more than what we________right now. A. take B. bring C. possess D. lose 解析:句意为:好像我们更重视想得到的东西而不是现在拥有的东西。possess拥有,占有,符合题意。take带走;bring带来,造成;lose失去。 答案:C (2013·绵阳二诊)—Did the speaker say anything that ________you especially? —Not really. Actually I slept through his speech. A. adapted to B. took up C. broke down D. appealed to 解析:考查动词短语辨析。句意为:——演讲者有没有说什么特别吸引你的东西?——没有。事实上他演讲时我自始至终都在睡觉。adapt to适应,适合;take up占据;break down分解,出故障;appeal to吸引。根据句意可知D项正确。 答案:D The young teacher wants to help his students as much as he can, but________, he’d better help them learn on their own. A. for one thing B. as usual C. in other words D. on the other hand 解析:on the other hand另一方面,由but一词可知此处表示转折。for one thing一方面;as usual通常;in other words换句话说。 答案:D。 基础演练 一、单项填空 1. If you were an artist, what kind of pictures________ you________? A. would; have painted B. had; painted C. have; painted D. would; paint 2. They paid famous artists to paint pictures of themselves, their houses and possessions________ their activities and achievements. A. as long as B. as well as C. as far as D. as soon as 3. Without the new paints and the new technique, we would not be able to see the many great masterpieces________ this period is famous. A. for whom B. for that C. for which D. where 4. The Impressionists were the first painters________ outdoors. A. work B. to work C. worked D. working 5. Their paintings were not as detailed as________ of earlier painters. A. ones B. those C. it D. that 6. Today they are accepted as the beginning of________ we call “modern art”. A. what B. where C. which D. that 7. There are________ modern art styles, but without the Impressionists, many of these painting styles________. A. scores of; might not exist B. two scores of; would not have existed C. score of; might exist D. two scores; would have existed 8. The work of art is so________ that the visitors can’t see what the painter meant. A. absolute B. abstract C. absorbed D. attractive 9. He________ to get out of trouble, but no one would help him. A. succeeded B. attempted C. managed D. offered 10. On the one hand, we should develop our economy.________, we should protect the environment. A. On the other hand B. As a matter of fact C. That is D. In other words 答案:1.D 2. B 3. C 4. B 5. B 6. A 7. A 8. B 9. B 10. A  二、语境填词 1. Her idea seems a little a________, so we don’t understand it. 2. He has no children so he a________ an orphan 2 months ago. 3. It’s urgent that we improve our ability to p________ earthquakes. 4. He a________ to escape from the prison, but he couldn’t find anybody to help him. 5. The s________ of the trees grew longer as the afternoon went on. 6. The teacher has lost ________ (信任) in the naughty boy. 7. He was charged with ____________ (拥有) a shotgun without a license. 8. Their ________ (目标) is to buy a villa of their own in two years. 9. His performance was absolutely ________ (极好的). 10. It was clearly ________ (明显的) that the boss of the company was in serious financial difficulties. 答案:1.abstract 2.adopted 3.predict 4.attempted 5. shadows 6.faith 7.possessing 8.aim 9.superb 10. evident 巩固提高 一、选词填空 by coincidence, scores of, as well as, concentrate on, would rather, on the other hand, lead to, break away from 1. My grandfather ________________ work in the garden than drink tea in the room. 2. I’d like to eat out, but ________________________ I should be trying to save money. 3. When the earthquake happened, ________________, about 150 students were having PE lessons on the playground. 4. The heavy rain last week ______________ serious floods. 5. On May Day, ________________ shoppers entered the supermarket. 6. I can’t __________________ my studies with all that noise going on. 7. She tried to ______________________ the old customs. 8. __________________ writing stories, I love reading and listening to music. 答案:1.would rather 2.on the other hand 3.by coincidence4. led to 5.scores of 6.concentrate on 7.break away from 8.As well as 二、词义辨析 1. 用a great deal, a great deal of填空 (1)I see him __________________ in the park. (2)You will have to work ______________________ faster. (3)______________________ money has been spent on the new hospital. 2. 用that is, such as, for example填空 (1)Many great men have risen from poverty—Lincoln and Edison, ________________. (2)I have three friends, ________________, John, Jack and Tom. (3)Fruits ________________ apples and pears are good for health. (4)Only two persons can do the job, ________________ you and I. 答案: 1.(1)a great deal (2)a great deal (3)A great deal of 2. (1)for example (2)that is (3)such as (4)that is 三、佳句翻译与仿写 1. Would you rather have Chinese or Western?style paintings in your home? 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)你更愿意做什么,是去看电影还是呆在家里? ________________________________, go to the cinema or stay at home? (2)你愿意步行还是坐公共汽车? _______________________________________________________________________ 2. But it was evident that ideas were changing in the 13th century when painters like Giotto di Bondone began to paint religious scenes in a more realistic way. 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)显然已经出了差错。 ______________________ a mistake has been made. (2)显然,他不能胜任那项工作。 _______________________________________________________________________ 3. When people first saw his paintings, they were convinced that they were looking through a hole in a wall at a real scene. 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)我相信他将比卓别林更出名。 ________________________ he would be more famous than Chaplin. (2)我相信他知道真相。 _______________________________________________________________________ 4. If the rules of perspective had not been discovered, no one would have been able to paint such realistic pictures. 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)如果你听了我的建议, 就不会考试不及格了。 If you ________________________, you ________________________________ in the exam. (2)如果我现在见到他, 我会很高兴的。 _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worked in Paris. 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 仿写: (1)地上躺着一只生病的山羊。 ________________________ a sick goat. (2)铃一响,学生们就冲了出去。 __________________________ the moment the bell rang. 答案: 1.在你的家里,你更喜欢拥有中国的还是西方的油画? (1)Which would you rather do (2)Would you rather walk or take the bus? 2. 但是很显然,在13世纪时(人们的)思想正经历着变化,像乔托这样的画家们开始以一种比较现实的风格来画宗教场景。  (1)It is evident that  (2)It is evident that he is not equal to the job. 3. 当人们第一次看到他的画时,还以为是透过墙上的小洞来观看真实的场景。  (1)I was convinced that (2)I was convinced that he knew the truth. 4. 如果没有发现透视法,就没有人能画出如此逼真的画。 (1)had taken my advice wouldn’t have failed (2)If I saw him now, I would be very happy. 5. 在那些突破传统画法的画家中有工作和生活在巴黎的印象派画家。  (1)On the ground lay  (2)Out rushed the students 一、单项填空 1. We can’t accurately________ what will happen in the future. A. debate B. speak C. analyze D. predict 2. He studied hard, ________ the exam. A. aim at B. aiming at passing C. aiming passing D. aimed to passing 3. —Does the young tall man standing there________ the company? —No. The company is________ his father. A. have possession of; in the possession of B. in possession of; in the possession of C. take possession of; in possession of D. have possession of; in possession of 4. ________ work has been done to improve the people’s living standard. A. Large amounts of B. A good many C. A great deal of D. A large number of 5. After a two?hour talk, she________ the truth of the report. A. was persuaded B. was believed in C. was convinced of D. was advised 6. Shelly has been preparing carefully for the driving test so that she can be sure of passing it at her first________. A. intention B. purpose C. attempt D. desire 7. Jack is late again. It is________ of him to keep others waiting. A. normal B. ordinary C. common D. typical 8. I would rather go fishing________ stay at home. A. as B. to C. than D. while 9. I wish I________ you when we were badly in need of your help yesterday. A. d

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  • ID:4-6096308 人教版高中英语必修五辅导讲义Unit1 Great scientists词汇篇及语法篇(教师版及学生版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修5、选修6/必修5/Unit 1 Great Scientists

    Unit 1 Great scientists 词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 【重点词汇精讲】 1. put forward: 提出(计划、建议等);将…提前;把钟表拨快 e.g. He put forward a good plan for this project. 他为这项工程提出了一个好的方案。 The match has been put forward to 1:30. 比赛已经提前到一点半举行。 Put the clock forward by ten minutes. 把钟表拨快十分钟。 【词语联想】 ? put away: 收起来;贮存,储蓄 ? put down: 放下;写下,记下 ? put off: 推迟;延期 ? put up: 张贴;撑开(帐篷)e.g. put up a poster put up a tent: 搭起帐篷 ? put on: 穿上;增加;上演(戏剧)e.g. put on weight: 增加了体重 put on a new play: 上演新戏剧 2. conclude: v. 作结论,断定(conclusion: n. 结论) e.g. The jury concluded that he was guilty. 陪审团认定他有罪。 【习惯用语】★ draw a conclusion 作出结论 ★come to/reach/arrive at a conclusion 得出结论 ★ in conclusion 最后 3. defeat vt.打败, 击败, 战胜; 使(希望, 计划等)失败, 挫败; 阻挠, 使无效 e.g. He finally conceded defeat. 他最终承认了失败。 ◆ 区别: defeat, conquer, overcome ? defeat 指“赢得胜利”, 尤其指“军事上的胜利”,e.g. defeat the enemy 打败敌人。 ? conquer指“征服”、”战胜”,特别指“获得对人、物或感情的控制”, e.g. conquer nature 征服自然 ? overcome指“战胜”、“压倒”、“克服”尤指“感情”而言, e.g. overcome difficulties 克服困难 4. attend vt. &vi 参加,注意,照料 ① be present at参加attend a ceremony / lecture / a meeting ② attend to (on): to look after, care for, serve伺候, 照顾,看护 e.g. The queen had a good doctor attending (on )her. 女皇有个好医生照顾她。 e.g. Dr. Smith attended her in hospital. 史密斯医生在医院照顾她。 e.g. Mother had to attend to her sick son. 妈妈不得不照顾她生病的儿子。 ③ attend to处理,注意倾听 e.g. Can you attend to the matter immediately? 你能及时处理这件事吗? e.g. I may be late – I have got one or two things to attend. 我可能会迟到。——我有些事要处理。 5. expose ①暴露 ? expose sb./sth. to sth. ? He exposes his skin to the sun. 他把皮肤暴露在阳光下。 ②揭露 ? He exposed their plot. 他揭穿了他们的阴谋。? The crime of the corrupt officials must be exposed without any reserve. 对贪官污吏的罪行一定要毫无保留地予以揭发。 6. blame v. 责备;谴责;把……归咎于 n. 过失;责备;(过失、过错等)责任 ①blame sb. for sth. / doing sth.为某事责备某人 / 责备某人做了某事 They blamed the secretary for the delay of the plan. ② blame sth. on sb. / sth. 把某事归咎于某人;因某事而指责某人 The police blamed the traffic accident on jack’s careless driving. ③ be to blame for(doing)sth. 因(做)某事某人应该受到谴责;注意:be to blame应受责备(主动表被动);应负责任 The driver was not to blame for the traffic accident. ④ accept / bear / take the blame for sth. 对某事负责任 He is ready to take the blame for what had happened. ⑤ put / lay the blame for sth. on sb. 将某事归咎于某人 7. in addition: 除此之外,另外, 意思相当于 besides, what’s more e.g. I paid 100 Yuan in addition. 我额外付了100元。 e.g. In addition to English, he has to study a second language. 除了英语,他不得不学第二语言。 ◆ 区别: in addition to, except, besides, beside, apart from ? in addition to:除…之外,还有…,表示递进关系。 e.g. The company provided the workers with free lunch in addition to paid holidays. 这家公司为员工们提供带薪假期,还有免费午餐。 ? except: 除…之外,表示在整体中排除, e.g. Everyone except me got an invitation. 除了我以外, 所有人都收到了请柬. ? besides 表示“除了……以外,还有……”,与in addition to 同义, e.g. Besides Mr Wang, we also went to see the film.王先生也去了。 We all agreed besides him.我们都同意, 他也同意。 ? beside : 在…旁边。表示方位。 e.g. Lily sits beside me in class. 莉莉在班上做我旁边。 ? apart from有两种含义: 1)相当于besides.意为“除……以外(还包括)” e.g. Apart from my mother tongue, I speak several foreign languages as well. 除了母语外,我还会讲好几种外语。 2)相当于except.意为“除……以外(不包括)” e.g. I like all the subjects apart from English.除了英语外,我喜欢所有学科。 ★ 同义句转换 1)He speaks French as well as English. = He speaks French in addition to/besides English. 2) Apart from the salary, it’s not a bad job. = In addition to/Except the salary, it’s not a bad job. 8. absorb vt. ★专注,聚精会神 e.g. be absorbed in=put one’s heart into集中精力做某事 e.g. I was absorbed in a book and didn’t hear your call. 我正专心看书,没听到你的电话。 e.g. Absorbed in his work,Tom simply forgot food and sleep.汤姆专心工作,几乎忘记了吃饭和睡觉。 ★ 吸收,把……吸收入(absorb...into...) e.g. Black cloth absorbs light.黑布吸收光线。 e.g. The big company has gradually absorbed these small companies into its own organization.这家大公司逐渐将这些小公司吞并了。 e.g. The clever boy absorbed all the knowledge his teacher could give him.那个聪明的男孩把他老师所能教他的所有知识都理解了。 【重点句子精讲】 1. Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. 对于它的起因和治疗方法人们都不清楚。 ★ neither...nor...既不……也不,连接句中两个相同成分。 ①I neither knew nor cared what had happened to him.我既不知道也不关心他出了什么事。 ②Neither France nor Britain will attend the meeting next week.法国和英国都将不会参加下星期的会议。 ③Neither Jim nor his parents have seen the film. =Neither his parents nor Jim has seen the film.吉姆和她的父母都没有看过这部电影。 ★ cure vt. 治疗,治愈,改正 n. 治疗,治愈,治疗法 ①cure sb(of sth)治好了某人(的...,...) e.g. The only way to cure backache is to rest. 治疗背痛的唯一办法是休息。 e.g. When I left the hospital I was completely cured. e.g. That nasty shock cured him of his inquisitiveness for ever.那一沉重教训根除了他凡事爱打听的毛病。e.g. This illness cannot be cured easily. 这种病不好治. ②a cure for sth.治疗…的方法;解决问题,改善困境 e.g. Is there a certain cure for cancer yet? 癌症迄今有无有效的治疗方法? e.g. The prices are going up every day, but there is no cure for rising prices. 2. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak.人们既不知道它的病因,也不懂如何治疗。每次爆发霍乱时就有成千上万惊恐的人病死。 (1)本句为复合句,“So many thousands of terrified people died” 为主句,every time引导时间状语从句,意思是“每当……”。 (2)有些名词短语或副词可以起连词的作用,引导时间状语从句。例如:every time, each time, the last time, next time, the moment, the minute, immediately, instantly等。 ①Every time/Each time I express an opinion, she argues back.每当我发表意见时, 她总是反驳。 ②I found myself in an entirely new world the moment/the minute/immediately I arrived here.我一到这里就感到耳目一新。 ③The last time I saw him, he was quite well.我最后一次看到他时,他还相当健康。 ④Give your father my best regards next time you see him.下次你见到你父亲时,请代我向他致以最好的问候。 [拓展延伸]  (1)for the first time是介词短语,常用作时间状语,而the first time是连词,引导时间状语从句。 (2)It is the first time that...如果前面用is,从句动词用现在完成时;如果前面用was,则从句动词用过去完成时. (3)It’s (high) time that...从句动词用过去时或should+动词原形。 e.g. It’s high time we took immediate action to prevent pollution.该到我们立即采取措施阻止污染的时候了。 3. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus.利用这个额外证据,约翰·斯诺就可以很有把握地宣布污染水携带病菌。 ★ announce vt. (1)宣布,宣告(决定、计划等) ? announce sth.(to sb.)(向某人)宣布、通告某事? announce that...宣布……;通知…… ? It is announced that...据宣布… e.g. Please announce to your class that there will be no school tomorrow.请通知你们班明天不上学。 e.g. It has been officially announced that he will pay a second visit to China soon.据官方消息称,他不久将再次来中国访问。 (2) (事情)显示……;预告 e.g. The bright flowers announced that spring was here.鲜艳的花朵显示春天已经来到。 [拓展延伸] announcement n.宣布;口头通知 announcer n.播音员 make an announcement下通知 1. An interesting suggestion on how to measure the temperature on the moon has been______.  (2014.湖北宜昌高二联考) A. put forward B. put down C. put away D. put off 2. They have discussed the plan for a long time, but they haven’t ________ a conclusion. A. arrived B. come C. drawn D. reached to 3. But he became ________ when he thought about helping ordinary people ________ to cholera. A. inspired;exposing B. inspired;exposed C. inspiring;exposing D. inspiring;exposed 4. He put forward his suggestion at the meeting that every means_____ to save the crops before the storm came. (2014河北唐山一中高二上期中) A. was tried B. should try C. be tried D. tried 5. According?to?the?driver’s?explanation,?it?was?not?his?carelessness?but?the?bad?road?conditions? that?______?for?the?accident.?? (2014.云南玉溪一中高二上学期中) 基础演练 一、单词拼写 1.Everyone should ________(贡献) what he or she can afford to helping the poor. 2.He always has a ________(积极的) attitude when correcting students’ mistakes. 3.If we were too ________(小心的),we might lose a good business opportunity. 4.The new school is under ________(建设). 5.He ________(拒绝) all the suggestions his parents put forward. 6.My friend was very ________(热情的) and he was always ready to help me. 7.The ice skater was ________(旋转) faster and faster. 8.Who should be ________(负责的) for the accident? 9.I had a broken leg, so ________(活动,移动) was quite impossible. 10.I lost my balance and fell ________(向后地). 二、单项填空 1. It is her outgoing personality attracts me most. (北京市西城区2014-2015学年高二上学期期末) A. that B. which C. how D. what 2. Tom sounds very much ________ in the job, but I’m not sure whether he can manage it. A. interested B. interesting C. interestingly D. interestedly 3. As nobody here knows what is wrong with the machine, we must send for an engineer to ________ the problem. A. handle B. raise C. face D. present 4.—The lights were left on all night long. —Yes. It seemed that Zhang Peng is ________. He was the last who left the classroom yesterday evening. A. blaming B. blamed C. to blame D. to be blamed 5. It’s?so?nice?to?hear?from?her?again. , we?last?met?more?than?thirty?years?ago. (2014年北京高考) A.?What’s?more??????????B.?That’s?to?say? C.?In?other?words?????????????????D.?Believe?it?or?not? 6. To our surprise, the man, who was looked down upon by others in the past, is now ________ the whole project. A. beyond control B. in control of C. out of control D. losing control of 7. Her pale face suggested that she ________ ill. Her parents suggested that she ________ to see a doctor. A. be;go B. be;went C. was;go D. was;went 8. Out he rushed ________ he heard the bell ringing. A. soon B. quickly C. shortly D. immediately 9. Not until I came home last night ________ to bed. A. Mum did go B. did Mum go C. went Mum D. Mum went 10. ________ writing the article, Mrs. Curie even forgot her dinner. A. Absorbed in B. Absorbing at C. Having absorbed by D. To absorb in 巩固提高 A shepherd was herding(放牧) his sheep when suddenly a brand?new sports car came out of a dust cloud towards him.The___1__was a young man in a new designer suit, designer___2__, designer sunglasses and a designer tie.He___3__out the window and asked the shepherd, “If I tell you__4__ how many sheep you have here, will you give me one?” The shepherd__5__the man, then his peaceful sheep and___6__answered, “Sure, why not?” The young man__7__his car, took out his__8__, connected it to his mobile phone, surfed to a page on the Internet where he called up a satellite navigation system(卫星导航系统).__9__, he printed out a full?color,150?page report on his hi?tech__10__, he turned to the shepherd and said, “You have exactly 1,586 sheep.” “That’s right.” said the shepherd, “I guess you can__11__ one of my sheep.” The shepherd then said to the young man, “Hey, if I can__12__you exactly what your__13__ is, will you give me back my sheep?” The young man thought about it for a (an)__14__and then said, “Okay, __15__?” “You are a consultant (顾问), ” said the shepherd. “Wow! That’s__16__.” said the young man, “But how did you__17__that?” “No guessing required.” answered the shepherd.“You showed up here__18__nobody called you. You want to get__19__for an answer that I already knew, to a question I__20__asked and it’s obvious you don’t know a thing about my business...Now give me back my sheep.” 1. A. cyclist B. driver C. teacher D. pilot 2. A. clothes B. trousers C. socks D. shoes 3. A. leaned B. took C. put D. looked 4. A. exactly B. generally C. quickly D. similarly 5. A. turned to B. stared at C. looked at D. pointed to 6. A. stilly B. quietly C. angrily D. calmly 7. A. moved B. turned C. parked D.ran 8. A. counter B. computer C. book D. pencil 9. A. Finally B. However C. Even D. Therefore 10. A.car B. Internet C. printer D. phone 11. A. bring B. fetch C. take D. carry 12. A. know B. guess C. tell D. look 13. A. business B. car C. computer D. matter 14. A. hour B. day C. minute D. second 15. A. for what B. why not C. why D. if not 16. A. all right B. all C. correct D. so 17. A. get B. guess C. work D. have 18. A. as though B. even so C. if so D. even though 19. A. paid B. praised C. done D. called 20. A. often B. constantly C. sometimes D. never 一、同义词辨析 1. 用defeat, beat或win的适当形式填空。 (1) We ________________ them at football match yesterday. (2) In that battle, our soldiers ________ the enemy. (3) We ________ the football game yesterday. (4) Mary ________ the first prize for swimming. 2. 用join, join in, take part in或attend的适当形式填空。 (1) Please ________ us ________ playing basketball. (2) He ________ the army at the age of 18. (3) I first just watched the game, and then was invited to ________________. (4) She is sure to ________ the wedding. (5) The old man ________________ the students’ movements when he was young. 3.用announce或declare的适当形式填空。 (1) They ________ that she would give one extra song. (2) The results of the election will be ________ soon. (3) The use of certain chemicals has now been ______ illegal. 答案: 1.(1) defeated/beat (2) defeated (3) won  (4) won 2.(1) join;in  (2) joined  (3) join in (4) attend (5) took part in 3.(1) announced  (2) declared (3) declared 二、佳句翻译与仿写 1. Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. 翻译:______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____ 仿写:他和我都不打算去参加这次会议。 ________________________________________________________________________ 2. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. 翻译:_________________________________________________________ __________ _________________________________________________________________ _______ 仿写:我每次去北京都会去参观长城。 _________________________________________________________________ _______ _________________________________________________________________ _______ 3. He knew that cholera would never be controlled until its cause was found. 翻译:______________________________________________________________ ______ 仿写:我亲眼所见后才会相信他的话。 _______________________________________________________________ ____ _____ ___________________________________________________________________ _____ 4. It seemed that the water was to blame. 翻译 _________________________________________________________________ ___ 仿写:好像那次交通事故应该怪司机。 ______________________________________________________________________ __ __________________________________________________________________ ______ 5. To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined. 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ______ 仿写:我建议他改天再来。 _______________________________________________________________ _________ ________________________________________________________________ ________ 答案: 1. 人们既不知道它的病源,也不了解它的治疗方法。  Neither he nor I am going to attend the meeting. 每次爆发霍乱时,就有大批惊恐的老百姓死亡。  Every time I went to Beijing, I would visit the Great Wall. 他知道,直到找到病源,霍乱才能控制住。  I will never believe him until I see with my own eyes. 看来霍乱的流行要归罪于饮用水了。  It seemed that the driver was to blame for the traffic accident. 为了防止这种情况再度发生,约翰·斯诺建议,所有水源都要经过检测。  I suggested (that) he (should) come another day. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Linus Pauling, the only person who has won two undivided Nobel Prizes, was born in Portland, Oregon. He attended Washington High School but because of an unimportant detail he did not receive his diploma until 1962, long after he had received his Bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from Orgon State College in 1922.He had chosen to study his major because he could get a good job with it. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1954 for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the explanation of the structure of complex substance. His interest in the “behavior” of molecules(分子) led him from physical chemistry to biological chemistry, especially of the human body. He began with proteins and their main parts, the amino acids(氨基酸), which are called the “building blocks of life”. In 1950, he constructed the first satisfactory model of a protein molecule, a discovery very important to the understanding of the living cell. During World WarⅡ, Pauling was a member of the Research Board for National Security, for which he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Merit in 1948. However, the use of the atomic bomb near the end of the war turned Pauling in a new direction. Having long worked on the structure of molecules, he took an immediate interest in the deadly effects of nuclear fallout on human molecular structures. From then on, Pauling protested the production of the hydrogen bomb and supported the prevention of the spread of nuclear weapons. Through his efforts, The Nuclear?Test?Ban Treaty, declaring all nuclear tests to be illegal except underground ones, came into effect on October 10, 1963, the same day Linus Pauling was awarded the Nobel Peace. 1. From the first Paragraph, we learn that Linus Pauling________. A. didn’t study hard while in Washington High School B. is the only scientist who has won two Nobel Prizes C. was once badly treated in Washington High School D. chose to study chemical engineering to earn his living 2. Which of the following things did Pauling pay much attention to at first? A. The “behavior” of molecules. B. Physical chemistry. C. Biological chemistry. D. The human body. 3. Which of the following is legal according to The Nuclear?Test?Ban Treaty? A. The use of nuclear weapons. B. Testing hydrogen bomb on the ground. C. Testing hydrogen bomb on underground. D. The production of hydrogen bombs. 4. The main idea of the passage is to show________. A. Linus Pauling’s attitude towards nuclear weapons B. Linus Pauling’s contributions to the world C. Linus Pauling’s research on the structure of molecules D. Linus Pauling’s got the Nobel Prize for Peace 答案:1. D 2. B 3. C 4. B Albert Einstein had a great effect on science and history, and his achievement was even greater than only a few other great scientists have achieved. An American university president once said that Einstein had made a new outlook, a new view of the universe. It may be some time before the average mind understands fully the identity(识别) of time and space and so on—but even ordinary men now understand that the universe is something larger than ever thought before. By 1914 young Einstein had been world?famous. He accepted the offer to become a professor at the Prussian Academy of Science in Berlin. He had few duties, little teaching and unlimited chances for study, but soon his peace and quietness were broken by World War Ⅰ. Einstein hated fighting and killing. The great suffering of war affected him deeply, and he sat unhappily in his office doing little. He lost interest in his research. Only when peace came in 1918 was he able to get back to work. In the year following World War Ⅰ’ honors were increasingly put on him. He became head of the Kaiser Whihem Institute of Theoretical Physics. But he himself refused the effort to put him in a position far above other people. He was well known for his humble(谦逊的) manner. He often said that his success would certainly have been achieved by others if he had never lived. In 1921 he won the Nobel Prize, and he was honored in Germany until the rise of Nazism(纳粹) when he was driven from Germany because he was a Jew. 1. The main idea of the first paragraph is ________. A. the difficulty of Einstein’s thought to others B. the feeling of an American university president towards Einstein C. the difference between science and history D. the change in human thought produced by Einstein 2. It seems to the American university president that ________. A. Einstein achieved more than any other scientist in history B. everybody understands Einstein’s scientific ideas C. the new view of the universe can be quickly learned by everyone D. our ideas about the universe are different today because of Einstein 3. Einstein did his greatest work ________. A. when Nazism rose B. when he was young C. during World War Ⅰ D. after he left Europe 4. From the passage we can know that ________. A. Germans usually have a high respect for science B. Einstein had other interests besides science C. Einstein was forced to work again in 1918 D. Einstein led a quiet life during World War Ⅰ 答案:1. D 2. D 3. B 4. A Unit 1 Great scientists 词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握重点词汇的搭配及用法,能够正确完成基础类型题。 掌握重点句型的用法,会模仿句型进行写作。 【重点词汇精讲】 1. put forward: 提出(计划、建议等);将…提前;把钟表拨快 e.g. He put forward a good plan for this project. 他为这项工程提出了一个好的方案。 The match has been put forward to 1:30. 比赛已经提前到一点半举行。 Put the clock forward by ten minutes. 把钟表拨快十分钟。 【词语联想】 ? put away: 收起来;贮存,储蓄 ? put down: 放下;写下,记下 ? put off: 推迟;延期 ? put up: 张贴;撑开(帐篷)e.g. put up a poster put up a tent: 搭起帐篷 ? put on: 穿上;增加;上演(戏剧)e.g. put on weight: 增加了体重 put on a new play: 上演新戏剧 2. conclude: v. 作结论,断定(conclusion: n. 结论) e.g. The jury concluded that he was guilty. 陪审团认定他有罪。 【习惯用语】★ draw a conclusion 作出结论 ★come to/reach/arrive at a conclusion 得出结论 ★ in conclusion 最后 3. defeat vt.打败, 击败, 战胜; 使(希望, 计划等)失败, 挫败; 阻挠, 使无效 e.g. He finally conceded defeat. 他最终承认了失败。 ◆ 区别: defeat, conquer, overcome ? defeat 指“赢得胜利”, 尤其指“军事上的胜利”,e.g. defeat the enemy 打败敌人。 ? conquer指“征服”、”战胜”,特别指“获得对人、物或感情的控制”, e.g. conquer nature 征服自然 ? overcome指“战胜”、“压倒”、“克服”尤指“感情”而言, e.g. overcome difficulties 克服困难 4. attend vt. &vi 参加,注意,照料 ① be present at参加attend a ceremony / lecture / a meeting ② attend to (on): to look after, care for, serve伺候, 照顾,看护 e.g. The queen had a good doctor attending (on )her. 女皇有个好医生照顾她。 e.g. Dr. Smith attended her in hospital. 史密斯医生在医院照顾她。 e.g. Mother had to attend to her sick son. 妈妈不得不照顾她生病的儿子。 ③ attend to处理,注意倾听 e.g. Can you attend to the matter immediately? 你能及时处理这件事吗? e.g. I may be late – I have got one or two things to attend. 我可能会迟到。——我有些事要处理。 5. expose ①暴露 ? expose sb./sth. to sth. ? He exposes his skin to the sun. 他把皮肤暴露在阳光下。 ②揭露 ? He exposed their plot. 他揭穿了他们的阴谋。? The crime of the corrupt officials must be exposed without any reserve. 对贪官污吏的罪行一定要毫无保留地予以揭发。 6. blame v. 责备;谴责;把……归咎于 n. 过失;责备;(过失、过错等)责任 ①blame sb. for sth. / doing sth.为某事责备某人 / 责备某人做了某事 They blamed the secretary for the delay of the plan. ② blame sth. on sb. / sth. 把某事归咎于某人;因某事而指责某人 The police blamed the traffic accident on jack’s careless driving. ③ be to blame for(doing)sth. 因(做)某事某人应该受到谴责;注意:be to blame应受责备(主动表被动);应负责任 The driver was not to blame for the traffic accident. ④ accept / bear / take the blame for sth. 对某事负责任 He is ready to take the blame for what had happened. ⑤ put / lay the blame for sth. on sb. 将某事归咎于某人 7. in addition: 除此之外,另外, 意思相当于 besides, what’s more e.g. I paid 100 Yuan in addition. 我额外付了100元。 e.g. In addition to English, he has to study a second language. 除了英语,他不得不学第二语言。 ◆ 区别: in addition to, except, besides, beside, apart from ? in addition to:除…之外,还有…,表示递进关系。 e.g. The company provided the workers with free lunch in addition to paid holidays. 这家公司为员工们提供带薪假期,还有免费午餐。 ? except: 除…之外,表示在整体中排除, e.g. Everyone except me got an invitation. 除了我以外, 所有人都收到了请柬. ? besides 表示“除了……以外,还有……”,与in addition to 同义, e.g. Besides Mr Wang, we also went to see the film.王先生也去了。 We all agreed besides him.我们都同意, 他也同意。 ? beside : 在…旁边。表示方位。 e.g. Lily sits beside me in class. 莉莉在班上做我旁边。 ? apart from有两种含义: 1)相当于besides.意为“除……以外(还包括)” e.g. Apart from my mother tongue, I speak several foreign languages as well. 除了母语外,我还会讲好几种外语。 2)相当于except.意为“除……以外(不包括)” e.g. I like all the subjects apart from English.除了英语外,我喜欢所有学科。 ★ 同义句转换 1)He speaks French as well as English. = He speaks French in addition to/besides English. 2) Apart from the salary, it’s not a bad job. = In addition to/Except the salary, it’s not a bad job. 8. absorb vt. ★专注,聚精会神 e.g. be absorbed in=put one’s heart into集中精力做某事 e.g. I was absorbed in a book and didn’t hear your call. 我正专心看书,没听到你的电话。 e.g. Absorbed in his work,Tom simply forgot food and sleep.汤姆专心工作,几乎忘记了吃饭和睡觉。 ★ 吸收,把……吸收入(absorb...into...) e.g. Black cloth absorbs light.黑布吸收光线。 e.g. The big company has gradually absorbed these small companies into its own organization.这家大公司逐渐将这些小公司吞并了。 e.g. The clever boy absorbed all the knowledge his teacher could give him.那个聪明的男孩把他老师所能教他的所有知识都理解了。 【重点句子精讲】 1. Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. 对于它的起因和治疗方法人们都不清楚。 ★ neither...nor...既不……也不,连接句中两个相同成分。 ①I neither knew nor cared what had happened to him.我既不知道也不关心他出了什么事。 ②Neither France nor Britain will attend the meeting next week.法国和英国都将不会参加下星期的会议。 ③Neither Jim nor his parents have seen the film. =Neither his parents nor Jim has seen the film.吉姆和她的父母都没有看过这部电影。 ★ cure vt. 治疗,治愈,改正 n. 治疗,治愈,治疗法 ①cure sb(of sth)治好了某人(的...,...) e.g. The only way to cure backache is to rest. 治疗背痛的唯一办法是休息。 e.g. When I left the hospital I was completely cured. e.g. That nasty shock cured him of his inquisitiveness for ever.那一沉重教训根除了他凡事爱打听的毛病。e.g. This illness cannot be cured easily. 这种病不好治. ②a cure for sth.治疗…的方法;解决问题,改善困境 e.g. Is there a certain cure for cancer yet? 癌症迄今有无有效的治疗方法? e.g. The prices are going up every day, but there is no cure for rising prices. 2. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak.人们既不知道它的病因,也不懂如何治疗。每次爆发霍乱时就有成千上万惊恐的人病死。 (1)本句为复合句,“So many thousands of terrified people died” 为主句,every time引导时间状语从句,意思是“每当……”。 (2)有些名词短语或副词可以起连词的作用,引导时间状语从句。例如:every time, each time, the last time, next time, the moment, the minute, immediately, instantly等。 ①Every time/Each time I express an opinion, she argues back.每当我发表意见时, 她总是反驳。 ②I found myself in an entirely new world the moment/the minute/immediately I arrived here.我一到这里就感到耳目一新。 ③The last time I saw him, he was quite well.我最后一次看到他时,他还相当健康。 ④Give your father my best regards next time you see him.下次你见到你父亲时,请代我向他致以最好的问候。 [拓展延伸]  (1)for the first time是介词短语,常用作时间状语,而the first time是连词,引导时间状语从句。 (2)It is the first time that...如果前面用is,从句动词用现在完成时;如果前面用was,则从句动词用过去完成时. (3)It’s (high) time that...从句动词用过去时或should+动词原形。 e.g. It’s high time we took immediate action to prevent pollution.该到我们立即采取措施阻止污染的时候了。 3. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus.利用这个额外证据,约翰·斯诺就可以很有把握地宣布污染水携带病菌。 ★ announce vt. (1)宣布,宣告(决定、计划等) ? announce sth.(to sb.)(向某人)宣布、通告某事? announce that...宣布……;通知…… ? It is announced that...据宣布… e.g. Please announce to your class that there will be no school tomorrow.请通知你们班明天不上学。 e.g. It has been officially announced that he will pay a second visit to China soon.据官方消息称,他不久将再次来中国访问。 (2) (事情)显示……;预告 e.g. The bright flowers announced that spring was here.鲜艳的花朵显示春天已经来到。 [拓展延伸] announcement n.宣布;口头通知 announcer n.播音员 make an announcement下通知 1. An interesting suggestion on how to measure the temperature on the moon has been______.  (2014.湖北宜昌高二联考) A. put forward B. put down C. put away D. put off 解析:put forward提出(意见、方案等),符合题意。put down放下,记下,镇压;put away把……收拾放好;put off推迟,关上(电灯、电器等)。 答案:A  2. They have discussed the plan for a long time, but they haven’t ________ a conclusion. A. arrived B. come C. drawn D. reached to 解析:arrive at/come to/draw/reach a conclusion“得出结论”。 答案:C  3. But he became ________ when he thought about helping ordinary people ________ to cholera. A. inspired;exposing B. inspired;exposed C. inspiring;exposing D. inspiring;exposed 解析:inspired“受到鼓舞的”,常用于修饰人,inspiring“鼓舞人心的,令人振奋的”,常用于修饰物;排除C、D两项。第二空用过去分词短语作后置定语,表示被动。 答案:B 4. He put forward his suggestion at the meeting that every means_____ to save the crops before the storm came. (2014河北唐山一中高二上期中) A. was tried B. should try C. be tried D. tried 解析:句意:他在会议上提出建议,要在暴风雨来临之前尝试各种方法保护庄稼主从复合句中that引导同位语从句,解释说明suggestion的具体内容。此时同位语从句要用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用(should)+动词原形形式。从句主语means与谓语try为被动关系,故应使用被动语态。 答案:C 5. According?to?the?driver’s?explanation,?it?was?not?his?carelessness?but?the?bad?road?conditions? that?______?for?the?accident.?? (2014.云南玉溪一中高二上学期中) A.?was?to?blame???B.?was?to?be?blamed???C.?were?to?be?blamed???D.?were?to?blame?? 解析:be to blame for表示:因……而备受责备,是固定结构,用主动形式表示被动意义。 答案:D 基础演练 一、单词拼写 1.Everyone should ________(贡献) what he or she can afford to helping the poor. 2.He always has a ________(积极的) attitude when correcting students’ mistakes. 3.If we were too ________(小心的),we might lose a good business opportunity. 4.The new school is under ________(建设). 5.He ________(拒绝) all the suggestions his parents put forward. 6.My friend was very ________(热情的) and he was always ready to help me. 7.The ice skater was ________(旋转) faster and faster. 8.Who should be ________(负责的) for the accident? 9.I had a broken leg, so ________(活动,移动) was quite impossible. 10.I lost my balance and fell ________(向后地). 答案: 1.conclude 2.attended 3.suspected 4.polluted 5.link 6.instruct 7.absorb 8.severe 9.challenge 10.foresee 二、单项填空 1. It is her outgoing personality attracts me most. (北京市西城区2014-2015学年高二上学期期末) A. that B. which C. how D. what 2. Tom sounds very much ________ in the job, but I’m not sure whether he can manage it. A. interested B. interesting C. interestingly D. interestedly 3. As nobody here knows what is wrong with the machine, we must send for an engineer to ________ the problem. A. handle B. raise C. face D. present 4.—The lights were left on all night long. —Yes. It seemed that Zhang Peng is ________. He was the last who left the classroom yesterday evening. A. blaming B. blamed C. to blame D. to be blamed 5. It’s?so?nice?to?hear?from?her?again. , we?last?met?more?than?thirty?years?ago. (2014年北京高考) A.?What’s?more??????????B.?That’s?to?say? C.?In?other?words?????????????????D.?Believe?it?or?not? 6. To our surprise, the man, who was looked down upon by others in the past, is now ________ the whole project. A. beyond control B. in control of C. out of control D. losing control of 7. Her pale face suggested that she ________ ill. Her parents suggested that she ________ to see a doctor. A. be;go B. be;went C. was;go D. was;went 8. Out he rushed ________ he heard the bell ringing. A. soon B. quickly C. shortly D. immediately 9. Not until I came home last night ________ to bed. A. Mum did go B. did Mum go C. went Mum D. Mum went 10. ________ writing the article, Mrs. Curie even forgot her dinner. A. Absorbed in B. Absorbing at C. Having absorbed by D. To absorb in 答案: 1.B 2.A 3.A 4.C 5.D 6.B 7.C 8.D 9.B 10.A  巩固提高 A shepherd was herding(放牧) his sheep when suddenly a brand?new sports car came out of a dust cloud towards him.The___1__was a young man in a new designer suit, designer___2__, designer sunglasses and a designer tie.He___3__out the window and asked the shepherd, “If I tell you__4__ how many sheep you have here, will you give me one?” The shepherd__5__the man, then his peaceful sheep and___6__answered, “Sure, why not?” The young man__7__his car, took out his__8__, connected it to his mobile phone, surfed to a page on the Internet where he called up a satellite navigation system(卫星导航系统).__9__, he printed out a full?color,150?page report on his hi?tech__10__, he turned to the shepherd and said, “You have exactly 1,586 sheep.” “That’s right.” said the shepherd, “I guess you can__11__ one of my sheep.” The shepherd then said to the young man, “Hey, if I can__12__you exactly what your__13__ is, will you give me back my sheep?” The young man thought about it for a (an)__14__and then said, “Okay, __15__?” “You are a consultant (顾问), ” said the shepherd. “Wow! That’s__16__.” said the young man, “But how did you__17__that?” “No guessing required.” answered the shepherd.“You showed up here__18__nobody called you. You want to get__19__for an answer that I already knew, to a question I__20__asked and it’s obvious you don’t know a thing about my business...Now give me back my sheep.” 1. A. cyclist B. driver C. teacher D. pilot 2. A. clothes B. trousers C. socks D. shoes 3. A. leaned B. took C. put D. looked 4. A. exactly B. generally C. quickly D. similarly 5. A. turned to B. stared at C. looked at D. pointed to 6. A. stilly B. quietly C. angrily D. calmly 7. A. moved B. turned C. parked D.ran 8. A. counter B. computer C. book D. pencil 9. A. Finally B. However C. Even D. Therefore 10. A.car B. Internet C. printer D. phone 11. A. bring B. fetch C. take D. carry 12. A. know B. guess C. tell D. look 13. A. business B. car C. computer D. matter 14. A. hour B. day C. minute D. second 15. A. for what B. why not C. why D. if not 16. A. all right B. all C. correct D. so 17. A. get B. guess C. work D. have 18. A. as though B. even so C. if so D. even though 19. A. paid B. praised C. done D. called 20. A. often B. constantly C. sometimes D. never 答案: 1.B 2.D 3.A 4.A 5.C 6.D 7.C 8.B 9.A 10.C 11.C 12.C 13.A 14.D 15.B 16.C 17.B 18.D 19.A 20.D 一、同义词辨析 1. 用defeat, beat或win的适当形式填空。 (1) We ________________ them at football match yesterday. (2) In that battle, our soldiers ________ the enemy. (3) We ________ the football game yesterday. (4) Mary ________ the first prize for swimming. 2. 用join, join in, take part in或attend的适当形式填空。 (1) Please ________ us ________ playing basketball. (2) He ________ the army at the age of 18. (3) I first just watched the game, and then was invited to ________________. (4) She is sure to ________ the wedding. (5) The old man ________________ the students’ movements when he was young. 3.用announce或declare的适当形式填空。 (1) They ________ that she would give one extra song. (2) The results of the election will be ________ soon. (3) The use of certain chemicals has now been ______ illegal. 答案: 1.(1) defeated/beat (2) defeated (3) won  (4) won 2.(1) join;in  (2) joined  (3) join in (4) attend (5) took part in 3.(1) announced  (2) declared (3) declared 二、佳句翻译与仿写 1. Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. 翻译:______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____ 仿写:他和我都不打算去参加这次会议。 ________________________________________________________________________ 2. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. 翻译:_________________________________________________________ __________ _________________________________________________________________ _______ 仿写:我每次去北京都会去参观长城。 _________________________________________________________________ _______ _________________________________________________________________ _______ 3. He knew that cholera would never be controlled until its cause was found. 翻译:______________________________________________________________ ______ 仿写:我亲眼所见后才会相信他的话。 _______________________________________________________________ ____ _____ ___________________________________________________________________ _____ 4. It seemed that the water was to blame. 翻译 _________________________________________________________________ ___ 仿写:好像那次交通事故应该怪司机。 ______________________________________________________________________ __ __________________________________________________________________ ______ 5. To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined. 翻译:____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ______ 仿写:我建议他改天再来。 _______________________________________________________________ _________ ________________________________________________________________ ________ 答案: 1. 人们既不知道它的病源,也不了解它的治疗方法。  Neither he nor I am going to attend the meeting. 每次爆发霍乱时,就有大批惊恐的老百姓死亡。  Every time I went to Beijing, I would visit the Great Wall. 他知道,直到找到病源,霍乱才能控制住。  I will never believe him until I see with my own eyes. 看来霍乱的流行要归罪于饮用水了。  It seemed that the driver was to blame for the traffic accident. 为了防止这种情况再度发生,约翰·斯诺建议,所有水源都要经过检测。  I suggested (that) he (should) come another day. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Linus Pauling, the only person who has won two undivided Nobel Prizes, was born in Portland, Oregon. He attended Washington High School but because of an unimportant detail he did not receive his diploma until 1962, long after he had received his Bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from Orgon State College in 1922.He had chosen to study his major because he could get a good job with it. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1954 for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the explanation of the structure of complex substance. His interest in the “behavior” of molecules(分子) led him from physical chemistry to biological chemistry, especially of the human body. He began with proteins and their main parts, the amino acids(氨基酸), which are called the “building blocks of life”. In 1950, he constructed the first satisfactory model of a protein molecule, a discovery very important to the understanding of the living cell. During World WarⅡ, Pauling was a member of the Research Board for National Security, for which he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Merit in 1948. However, the use of the atomic bomb near the end of the war turned Pauling in a new direction. Having long worked on the structure of molecules, he took an immediate interest in the deadly effects of nuclear fallout on human molecular structures. From then on, Pauling protested the production of the hydrogen bomb and supported the prevention of the spread of nuclear weapons. Through his efforts, The Nuclear?Test?Ban Treaty, declaring all nuclear tests to be illegal except underground ones, came into effect on October 10, 1963, the same day Linus Pauling was awarded the Nobel Peace. 1. From the first Paragraph, we learn that Linus Pauling________. A. didn’t study hard while in Washington High School B. is the only scientist who has won two Nobel Prizes C. was once badly treated in Washington High School D. chose to study chemical engineering to earn his living 2. Which of the following things did Pauling pay much attention to at first? A. The “behavior” of molecules. B. Physical chemistry. C. Biological chemistry. D. The human body. 3. Which of the following is legal according to The Nuclear?Test?Ban Treaty? A. The use of nuclear weapons. B. Testing hydrogen bomb on the ground. C. Testing hydrogen bomb on underground. D. The production of hydrogen bombs. 4. The main idea of the passage is to show________. A. Linus Pauling’s attitude towards nuclear weapons B. Linus Pauling’s contributions to the world C. Linus Pauling’s research on the structure of molecules D. Linus Pauling’s got the Nobel Prize for Peace 答案:1. D 2. B 3. C 4. B Albert Einstein had a great effect on science and history, and his achievement was even greater than only a few other great scientists have achieved. An American university president once said that Einstein had made a new outlook, a new view of the universe. It may be some time before the average mind understands fully the identity(识别) of time and space and so on—but even ordinary men now understand that the universe is something larger than ever thought before. By 1914 young Einstein had been world?famous. He accepted the offer to become a professor at the Prussian Academy of Science in Berlin. He had few duties, little teaching and unlimited chances for study, but soon his peace and quietness were broken by World War Ⅰ. Einstein hated fighting and killing. The great suffering of war affected him deeply, and he sat unhappily in his office doing little. He lost interest in his research. Only when peace came in 1918 was he able to get back to work. In the year following World War Ⅰ’ honors were increasingly put on him. He became head of the Kaiser Whihem Institute of Theoretical Physics. But he himself refused the effort to put him in a position far above other people. He was well known for his humble(谦逊的) manner. He often said that his success would certainly have been achieved by others if he had never lived. In 1921 he won the Nobel Prize, and he was honored in Germany until the rise of Nazism(纳粹) when he was driven from Germany because he was a Jew. 1. The main idea of the first paragraph is ________. A. the difficulty of Einstein’s thought to others B. the feeling of an American university president towards Einstein C. the difference between science and history D. the change in human thought produced by Einstein 2. It seems to the American university president that ________. A. Einstein achieved more than any other scientist in history B. everybody understands Einstein’s scientific ideas C. the new view of the universe can be quickly learned by everyone D. our ideas about the universe are different today because of Einstein 3. Einstein did his greatest work ________. A. when Nazism rose B. when he was young C. during World War Ⅰ D. after he left Europe 4. From the passage we can know that ________. A. Germans usually have a high respect for science B. Einstein had other interests besides science C. Einstein was forced to work again in 1918 D. Einstein led a quiet life during World War Ⅰ 答案:1. D 2. D 3. B 4. A  Unit 1 Great scientists 语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 理解过去分词做定语和表语的语法功能; 了解现在分词与过去分词作定语的区别; 能够正确使用过去分词作定语,学会作相关题目; 过去分词做定语和表语 1. 过去分词作定语 1)语法功能 过去分词或过去分词短语作定语时,其功能相当于一个定语从句。被修饰的词是分词所表示的行为的承受者;在逻辑上,它们是动宾关系。 The stolen bike belongs to Jack. The bike which was stolen belongs to Jack. The lecture given by Professor Zhang is about environment protection. The lecture which was given by Professor Zhang is about the environment protection. 单个的过去分词作定语时,位于它所修饰的名词或代词前面 the affected people受感染的人 a broken heart一颗破碎的心 a lost dog丧家之犬 a broken glass被打破的玻璃杯 Attention:过去分词修饰 something, everything, anything, nothing, somebody, nobody, those 等不定代词时,要放在这些词后面。 Is?there?anything?unsolved?? There?is?noting?changed?here?since?I?left?this?town. 过去分词短语作定语:通常后置,其作用相当于定语从句。 people exposed to cholera= people who was exposed to cholera the book recommended by Jack= the book which was recommended by Jack the machines produced last year= the machines which were produced last year c. 不及物动词的过去分词作定语时不表被动,只表完成。 a risen sun已升起的太阳 the gone days 逝去的时光 fallen leaves 落叶 现在分词与过去分词作定语的区别: 现在分词作定语,表示正在进行的动作;过去分词作定语,所表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生,(或者没有一定的时间性)。 The letter posted yesterday will soon reach him. Have you read the book recommended by your teacher? 这是你老师推荐的书吗? 对比: ①the changing world(正在变化的)the changed world(变化了的) ②boiling water(正在沸腾的)boiled water(已经沸腾过的) ③fading flowers(正在凋谢的) faded flowers(已经凋谢的) ④a developing country(发展中的) a developed country(发达的) ⑤a drowning man快要淹死的人 a drowned man已经淹死的人 ⑥falling leaves正在飘落的树叶 fallen leaves落叶 ⑦a retired worker退休工人 an escaped prisoner逃犯 3)及物动词的过去分词(done)与现在分词的被动式 (being done)都可以表示“被动”,但前者多表示一个完成了的动作,而后者则表示一个正在进行的动作。如:the problem discussed yesterday; the problem being discussed 2. 过去分词做表语 1) 过去分词(短语)作表语时, 其作用相当于adj.,说明的是主语的状态。 如: ①All the windows are broken. ②All hope is gone. ③He looked worried after reading the letter. 常见作表语的过去分词有: disappointed, drunk, amused, frightened, married, excited, experienced, interested, confused, pleased, puzzled, satisfied, tired, worried, gone, dressed, lost等。 注意: 过去分词作表语时和动词的被动语态结构相似,但两者表达的意思明显不同,前者说明主语的特点及所处的状态,而后者强调被动的动作。 如: ①My glasses are broken.我的眼镜碎了。(状态) ②My glasses were broken by my son.我的眼镜被我儿子摔碎了。(动作) 1. —Where are the papers for the Smith project? —They are in the folder ________ “S”. (2014. 北京西城区二模) A. marking B. marked C. to be marked D. to mark 2. ________ the police thought he was the most likely one, since they had no exact proof about it, they could not arrest him. A. Although B. As long as C. If only D. As soon as 3. Seeing their son playing computer games all day,the parents don’t know ________it. A. how to do B. what to do C. how to deal with D. how to do with 4. We ________ his idea for a music club, and decided to have an art club instead. A. rejected B. accepted C. followed D. arranged 5. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise ________ on. A. going B. goes C. went D. to go 基础演练 1. The disc, digitally ______ in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. having recorded 2. Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, ____ as 3M. A. knowing B. known C. being known D. to be known 3. Most of the artists _____ to the party were from South Africa. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited 4. As soon as she entered the room, the girl caught sight of the flowers ____ by her mother. A. buying B. being bought C. were bought D. bought 5. Don’t use words, expressions or phrases _____ only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known 6. The computer center, _____ last year, is very popular among the students in this school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened 7. Cleaning women in big cities get _____ by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay 8. As we joined the big crowd I got _____ from my friends. A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed 9. The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain ___ as the plane was making a landing. A. seat B. seating C. seated D. to be seating 10. Sarah, hurry up. I’m afraid you can’t have time to _____ before the party. A. get changed B. get change C. get changing D. get to change 11. Prices of daily goods ____ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying 12. With a lot of different problems ____, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 13. The rooms are ____, so you can’t move in. A. painted B. painting C. being painted D. to be painted 14. As soon as he entered the city, he ____. A. was losing B. got losing C. grew lost D. got lost 15. What he has done is really ____.Now his parents are _____ him. A. disappointing; disappointed at B. disappointed; disappointed about C. disappointing; disappointed with D. disappointed; disappointing by 16. I don’t know the girl ______ in the snow storm. A. to catch B. caught C. catching D. to be catching 17. The girl _______ down by a car was dying. A. knock B. knocking C. knocked D. to knock 18. The foreign guests, ________ by an interpreter, came out of the hall. A. following B. to follow C. followed D. to be followed 19. The knowledge ____ in one’s childhood will make a stronger impression on him than what he learns at any other life stage. (2014. 杭州第一次质检) A. acquired B. acquiring C. being acquired D having acquired 20. The children __________ at the hospital yesterday were seriously ill. A. to examine B. examined C. examine D. examining 巩固提高 完形填空(共20小题) 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从1~20各题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中,选出最佳选项。 Almost all scientists failed many times before they finally succeeded. In their scientific work, they were all strict __1__ themselves. When they first __2__ their ideas, they were always rejected. __3__, they did not give up. It was their perseverance __4__ made them successful. A __5__ theory is the result of the scientific method. Scientists look at the world and try to describe and explain what they see. First they carefully observe what they are __6__ in. To explain what they have seen, they build a theory about the way __7__ things happen and the causes and effects. Then they were __8__ in their work. Finally the scientists test the theory to see if it matches what they have seen and if it can __9__ future events. In fact, every new thought or idea has to be __10__ to what we already knew. Great thinkers or scientists are aware of this and try to __11__ new and old ideas in __12__ many different ways as possible. Some of the greatest scientists forced themselves to develop new ideas even when they tired or did not feel __13__. They all knew that for each new idea that works, there are __14__ ten that do not. If we want to develop our __15__, we can try using some of the __16__ strategies(策略) of the great and famous. We may not be interested in becoming scientists, but we probably all want to find new ways to improve our __17__. __18__ knows, perhaps your next thought will be a new idea that changes the world? So we should be well prepared to meet __19__ in life now and try our best to make great __20__ to our future society. 1. A. in B. on C. with D. for 2. A. put up B. put on C. put aside D. put forward 3. A. So B. Therefore C. However D. But 4. A. that B. what C. which D. whether 5. A. scientific B. certain C. sure D. expert 6. A. curious B. interested C. cautious D. characteristic 7. A. which B. in which C. where D. how 8. A. absorbed B. absorbing C. absorb D. to absorb 9. A. see B. watch C. notice D. foresee 10. A. linking B. link C. linked D. to link 11. A. construct B. expose C. analyse D. combine 12. A. as B. than C. so D. such 13. A. inspiring B. inspired C. responsible D. enthusiasm 14. A. at most B. at last C. at least D. in the least 15. A. creativity B. conclusion C. enquiry D. chart 16. A. think B. thought C. thinking D. thoughts 17. A. life B. level C. universe D. sense 18. A. Who B. What C. How D. Which 19. A. suspect B. challenges C. clue D. announcement 20. A. contributions B. contribution C. contribute D. construction 第一题:单项填空(共20小题;每小题0.5分,满分10分) 从A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 1. Annie Salmon, disabled, is attended throughout her school days by a nurse _______ to guard her. (2014.浙江高考) A. to appoint B. appointing C. appointed D. having appointed 2. The writer was so ________ in her work that she didn’t notice him enter the room. A. abandoned B. focused C. absorbed D. centered 3. After the stranger left, suspicion(猜疑)________ among the villagers. A. rose B. arose C. raised D. lifted 4. Yesterday the firemen ________the ground carefully,but were not able to find any ________glass. A. examined; breaking B. cared; broken C. examined; broken D. cared; breaking 5. Take care during the holidays! Drinking too much can ________ heart disease and cause high blood pressure. A. contribute to B. deal with C. attend to D. devote to 6. While waiting for the opportunity to get , Henry did his best to perform his duty. (2014.安徽高考) A. promote B. promoted C. promoting D. to promote 7. Jenny hopes that Mr. Smith will suggest a good way to have her written English ________ in a short period. A. improved B. improving C. to improve D. improve 8. The students were sitting in the classroom with their eyes ________ on the teachers. A. fixing B. fixed C. were fixed D. being fixed 9. It’s a pity that the young girl drowned herself after all her hopes were________. A. beaten B. defeated C. failed D. realized 10. A ________traffic accident happened on the highway,but the driver was not ________for the traffic accident. A. severe;to be blamed B. severely;to be blamed C. severe;to blame D. severely;to blame 11. ________gene, intelligence also depends on a right diet,a good education and a nice home environment. A. In addition to B. Besides C. Apart from D. A,B and C 12. I ________ everyone make full use of time. A. wish B. hope C. want D. suggest 13. We walked as fast as we could, ________ to get there on time. A. hoping B. to hope C. hoped D. being hoped 14. Only when I left my parents for Italy ________ how comfortable it was to live in our home country. A. I realized B. I had realized C. did I realize D. had I realized 15. For breakfast he only drinks juice from fresh fruit ________ on his own farm. A. grown B. being grown C. to be grown D. to grow 16. In 2009 many countries are going through financial crisis,________has a great effect on many walks of life. A. it B. which C. that D. what 17. It is said that chances are high ________the Chinese Communist Party will co?operate with Kuomintang for the third time. A. that B. as C. if D. what 18. Helen always helps her mother do the housework even though going to school ________most of her day. A. takes up B. makes up C. saves up D. uses up 19. The producer comes regularly to collect the cameras _______ to our shop for quality problems. (2014. 重庆高考) A. returning B. returned C. to return D. to be returned 20. ________I met him,he was working as a secretary in a big company. A. Since the first time B. The first time C. For the first time D. The first time which _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、用所给词的适当形式填空 1. His father seems ________ (please) with his results. 2. Don’t drink ________(pollute) water,because it carries some disease. 3. Some of the people ________(invite) to the party couldn’t come. 4. There is a car ________(park) outside the house. 5. We were ________(inspire) by the ________(inspire) news. 6. Why are you looking so ________(disappoint)? 7. With his ________ (break) English, he can’t make himself understood. 8. Did you attend the meeting ________(hold) yesterday? 9. When he saw the letter, he became ________(excite). 10. The first textbook ________(write) for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. 二、单项填空 1. Mrs. White showed her students some old maps ________from the library. A. to borrow B. to be borrowed C. borrowed D. borrowing 2. In April,thousands of holidaymakers remained ______abroad due to the volcanic ash cloud. A. sticking B. stuck C. to be stuck D. to have stuck 3. So far nobody has claimed the money ________in the library. A. discovered B. to be discovered C. discovering D. having discovered 4. I’m calling to enquire about the position ________in yesterday’s China Daily. A. advertised B. to be advertised C. advertising D. having advertised 5. A great number of students ________said they were forced to practise the piano. A. to question B. to be questioned C. questioned D. questioning 6. Don’t use words or phrases ________ only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known 7. Mr. Smith,________of the ________speech, started to read a novel. A. tired;boring B. tiring;bored C. tired;bored D. tiring;boring 8. The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain ________as the plane was making a landing. A. seat B. seating C. seated D. to be seating 9. This is the problem ________so quickly last evening. A. having been settled B. settle C. be settled D. settled 10. I don’t know the girl ________in the storm. A. to catch B. caught C. catching D. to be catching 11. The little boy ________ by his father left home last night. A. having been scolded B. to be scolded C. scolded D. who has been scolded 12. The ________ look on his face showed that he hadn’t expected it. A. astonished B. astonishing C. being astonished D. having astonished 13. His ability ________in those years was praised by all of us. A. showing B. be showing C. shown D. was shown 14. There is a big dog ________to a fence outside the house. A. tying B. tied C. to tie D. ties 15. The Olympic Games, ________ in 776 B. C.,did not include women players until 1912. A. first played B. to be first played C. first playing D. to be first playing 三、借助过去分词翻译句子 1. 李明对打篮球感兴趣。 ________________________________________________________________________ 2. 地上有许多落叶。 ________________________________________________________________________ 3. 他爸爸生气时,这孩子很害怕。 ________________________________________________________________________ 4. 他写的这本书很好。 ________________________________________________________________________ 5. 在昨天的会议上讨论的问题很难解决。 ________________________________________________________________________ 四、阅读理解 There was a story many years ago of a school teacher—Mrs. Thompson. She told the children on the first day that she loved them all the same. But that was a lie. There in the front row was a little boy named Teddy Stoddard. He didn’t play well with the other children and he always needed a bath. She did not like him. Then Mrs. Thompson got to know that Teddy was actually a very good boy before the death of his mother. Mrs. Thompson was ashamed of herself. She felt even worse when,like all her other students,Teddy brought her a Christmas present too. It was his mother’s perfume(香水). Teddy said,“Mrs. Thompson,today you smell just like my Mom used to. ”After the children left she cried for at least an hour. On that very day,she stopped teaching reading, writing and math. Instead, she began to teach children. Mrs. Thompson paid particular attention to Teddy. The boy’s mind seemed to come alive. The more she encouraged him, the faster he improved. By the end of the sixth grade, Teddy had become one of the smartest children in the class. Six years went by before she got a note from Teddy. He wrote that he had finished high school, third in his class, and that she was still the best teacher he ever had in his whole life. He went to college. Mrs. Thompson got two more letters from him with the last one signed, Theodore F. Stoddard, M.D. (医学博士). The story didn’t end there. On his wedding day, Dr. Stoddard whispered in Mrs. Thompson’s ear, “Thank you, Mrs. Thompson, for believing in me. You made me feel important and showed me that I could make a difference. ” Mrs. Thompson, with tears in her eyes, whispered back, “Teddy, you have it all wrong. You were the one who taught me that I could make a difference. I didn’t know how to teach until I met you. ” 1. What did Mrs. Thompson do on the first day of school? A. She made Teddy feel ashamed. B. She asked the children to play with Teddy. C. She changed Teddy’s seat to the front row. D. She told the class something untrue about herself. 2.What did Mrs. Thompson find out about Teddy? A. He often told lies. B. He was good at math. C. He needed motherly care. D. He enjoyed playing with others. 3. In what way did M

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  • ID:4-6094459 人教版高中英语必修四辅导讲义:Unit5 Theme parks词汇篇及语法篇(教师版及学生版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修3、4/必修4/Unit 5 Theme parks

    Unit5 A Theme parks 词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1. be famous/known for 由于……而闻名;以……而著称 E.g. The area is famous for its green tea. 这个地区以绿茶出名。 E.g. New York is known for its skyscrapers. 纽约以其摩天大楼驰名。 be famous/known as sth. 作为……而被知道,了解 be famous/known to sb. 被某人所知道 2. no wonder = it’s no wonder that... 难怪;不足为奇…… E.g. You went to bed at 4 am. No wonder you are so tired. 你早上四点才睡觉,难怪你这么疲倦。 E.g. It is no wonder that he has passed the exam. 难怪他考试及格了。 It is a wonder that... 真想不到,令人惊奇的是…… do/work wonders 创造奇迹 wonder to do sth 惊讶(奇怪)干某事 wonder that... 感到奇怪,觉得惊讶 wonder whether (if)/when/why/how... 想知道是否/什么时候/为什么/怎么…… 3. be modeled after/on 根据……模仿;仿造 E.g. She models herself on her favorite novelist. 她以最喜爱的小说家为榜样。 E.g. The design of the building is modeled on classical Greek forms. 那建筑物的设计是模仿希腊的古典形式。 model...after/on 根据……模仿;以……作……的榜样 a working model 一个劳模 a model husband /employee一个模范丈夫、职员 the latest model最新的型号 4. come to life vi. 活跃起来;苏醒过来,振作起来,表现生动 E.g. The wounded soldier came to life again.伤兵又苏醒过来。 E.g. The quiet girl has come to life since she worked as a saleswoman. 那个少言寡语的姑娘自从当上售货员后变得活跃起来。 come to结果达到;归结为;涉及;苏醒;恢复生机 come into life(机器等)突然发动起来 come to sb (that...): occur to sb(指看法)被某人想出 come to sb (from sb)(指钱、财产等)作为遗产送给或留给某人 come to one’s help 来帮某人 bring sb. / sth. to life使苏醒;使生动 E.g. Everyone wishes the war would come to an end soon.大家都希望战争快点结束。 E.g. Fresh evidence has recently come to light which suggests that he didn’t in fact commit the murder. 最近出现的新证据表明他其实没有犯谋杀罪。 lead a...life过……生活 lose one’s life失去生命 for life终生 make/start a new life重新开始生活 risk one’s life冒生命危险 save one’s life救某人的命 take sb.’s life要某人的命 a matter of life and death一件生死攸关的事 be true to life 逼真 full of life充满生机 5. within (easy) reach of... 在……可(容易)到达或前往的距离以内 E.g. The hotel is within easy reach of the beach. 这家旅馆离海滩很近。 E.g. Please put the dictionary within my arm’s reach. 请把词典放在我伸手够得着的地方。 beyond/out of/within (one’s) reach 超出/在某人所及的范围/能力(外/内) 6. more than more than用在数词前,意为“多于,超过”;用在名词前,意为“不只是,不仅仅是”。 E.g. He made more than 100, 000 yuan last year.去年他赚了10万多元。 E.g. Jason is more than a lecturer; he is a writer, too.贾森不仅仅是一名讲师,还是一个作家。 more...than...比……更……;与其说……不如说…… This book seems to be more a dictionary than a grammar book. 这本书与其说是一本语法书,倒不如说是一本词典。 not more than 不超过;至多 no more than 仅仅 no more...than... 与……一样不 7. take part in/join/join in与attend的区别 take part in强调参与性,特别是有众多人参加的活动,如会议、群众性活动等,着重说明句子主语参加该项活动并在活动中发挥作用。 E.g. John takes an active part in many school activities.约翰积极参加学校的许多活动。 join有两种用法: ①指加入某个党派、团体、组织等,成为其成员之一。 E.g. She joined the Young Pioneers.她加入了少先队。 ②和某人一道做某事,其结构为:join sb.in(doing) sth.,根据上下文,in(doing) sth. 也可以省去。 E.g. Will you join us in the discussion? 你要参加我们的讨论吗? E.g. He’ll join us in singing the song.他将和我们一道唱歌。 join in多指参加小规模的活动,如“球赛、游戏”等,常用于日常口语。 E.g. Come along,and join in the ball game.快,来参加球赛。 attend是正式用语,及物动词,指参加会议、婚礼、葬礼、典礼,去上课、上学、听报告等。句子的主语只是去听、去看,自己不一定起积极作用。 E.g. He’ll attend an important meeting tomorrow.他明天要参加一个重要会议。 take part in是惯用词组,part前一般不用冠词,但part前有形容词修饰时,要用不定冠词。 8. get close to接近;靠近;几乎。to为介词,后面跟名词或动名词;close (adv.)紧紧地;接近地。 E.g. Follow him close to see where he is going.紧跟着他,看他要去哪里。 close (adj.) (1)靠近的,近的,接近的 E.g. The church is close to the school. 教堂离学校很近。 (2)亲密的;紧密的 E.g. There weren’t many people at the funeral, just close relatives.葬礼上人不多,只有近亲属。 (3)周密的;严密的 E.g. We kept a close watch on the prisoners.我们严密监视着囚犯。 (n.) 结束,完结 E.g. He soon brought the meeting to a close.他很快结束了会议。 close ( vt. & vi.) (1)关闭,封闭,封锁,不开放 They’ve closed the road because of an accident.因为一场事故,他们封锁了道路。 (2)结束,终止 E.g. He closed his speech with a joke.他用一句笑话结束了演讲。 closely (adv)接近地;紧密地;紧紧地;仔细地;严密地 E.g. Both politicians have been closely associated with the movement.两位政治家与该运动密切相关。 二、词义辨析 1. whichever / no matter which whichever无论哪一个;任何一个/些。 1)引导名词从句, 即主语从句或宾语从句; 2) 引导让步状语从句= no matter which, 译作“无论哪一个”。 no matter which 只能引导让步状语从句。 2. cloth / clothe / clothes / clothing cloth(n.)指“衣料”时是不可数名词,作“(特殊用途的)布”时,是可数名词, E.g. a table cloth;a dish-cloth clothe (vt.)给“给……穿衣,为……提供衣物”, E.g. He has to work hard to feed and clothe his large family. clothes ( n.) 指“衣服\服装”;包括“上衣\裤子\内衣”等,是复数名词,没有单数,不能直接和 连词连用,后面要接复数动词。 E.g. These new clothes are all for her. 用cloth/clothe/clothes/clothing填空 1). We have enough food and ________for the winter. 2). She’s got many beautiful________. 3). Now they are able to feed and ________ their children better. 4). He was following_______ behind. 5).She began cleaning the wound with a piece of _______. 6). Wipe the surface of the table with a damp _______. Keys: 1). clothing 2).clothes 3).clothe 4).closely 5).cloth 6).cloth 3. preserve / reserve preserve意为“保护;维护;保养;防止(食物)腐败”,强调使不受破坏。 reserve意为“保留,储备,订(座位),预定”,强调为某一特殊目的。 preserve (vt.)保存;保留;保护 n. [c, u] 保护(区):No hunting in the preserve.保护区内禁止打猎 preservation(n.)保存;储藏;维护 in good preservation处于良好的保存状态 E.g. Oil preserves metal from rust.油保护金属免于生锈。 E.g. No hunting is allowed in the preserve.保护区内禁止打猎。我们已采取有效措施保护自然资源。 preserve sb./sth.保护某人;保存某物 preserve sb./sth. from保护某人/某物免受…… preserve sth for为……而保存/保留某物 well?preserved保存良好的 nature preserve自然保护区 preserve our natural resources保护我们的自然资源 preserve peace维持和平 keep sth.in preserve=put sth.on preserve保存/保留某物 用preserve/reserve填空 1). At minus 130?C, a living cell can be ______for a thousand years. 2). We are _______ these seats for our parents. 3). You’d better _______your strength for the basketball game. 4). The government ______ the rights of the individual person. Keys: 1).preserved 2).reserving 3).reserve 4).preserves 三、要点梳理 1. central adj.中央的,核心 的;(位于)中心的;主要的 center n.圆心,正中;中心v. 把……集中于 centrally adv. 中央地,集中地 2. attract (vt.) 吸引,引起……的注意 attraction (n.)吸引(力);具有吸引力的人或物 attractive( adj.)有吸引力的,引起注意的 attract/draw/catch one's attention吸引某人的注意力 be attracted by被……所吸引 3. tourism n. 旅游事业 tour v. 旅行,游历 tourist n.旅游者,观光者 4. length n.长,长度,距离;一段,一节 lengthen v. (使)变长,延伸 long adj./adv. 长(期)的(地) n.长时间 vi.渴望 5. settler n.移居者;殖民者 settle vt. 调停;安排;支付 vi.定居;飞落 settlement n.解决,协议;居留地 6. translator n. 译者 translate v. 翻译 translation n.翻译,译文 7. admission n. 准许进(加) 入;入场费(卷);承认 make an admission of sth. =admit sth. 承认某事 He made an admission of guilt at last. 他最终认罪了。 He did break the window on his own admission.正如他自己所承认的那样,他确实打碎了窗户。 admit (vt.& vi. )承认;供认;准许进入;接纳;容纳 admit sb./ sth. in/into许可(人或物)进入,让……进入 It’s generally admitted that...一般认为…… admit of...容许;有……的余地 admit(to) doing sth. 承认;供认 E.g. The servant opened the door and admitted me into the house.仆人打开门,让我进屋。 E.g. The words admit of no other meanings.这些词语不容许有别的意义。 E.g. He was admitted into/to school.他被学校录取了。 E.g. She admitted that she was wrong.她承认自己错了。 E.g. Our hall can admit 3,000 persons.我们的大厅可容纳3,000人。 8. vary( vi.&vt.)有变化;改变 vary from…to…从……到……不等 vary with/according to/depending on随着……而变化 vary in(=be different in, differ in)在某方面不同 vary the rule修改规则 vary one’s readings使自己的阅读多样化 opinions on this matter vary.在这个问题上意见不一致 variety ( n.) 变化;种种;种类 “各种各样的”几种表达方式: various (adj.)= a variety of = varieties of=all sorts/kinds of各种各样的 E.g. Their hobbies are many and various. 他们的业余爱好五花八门。 E.g. There are various colors to choose from. 有各种各样的颜色可供选择。 many and various 各种各样的(多作表语) for various reasons 由于种种原因 a considerable/great/wide variety of 各种各样的 in a variety of ways 用种种方法 9. amusement (n.) 娱乐品;娱乐;快乐 amuse (v.)使消遣;逗(某人)笑 amusing(adj)有趣的,引人发笑的 E.g. China’s Cultural Theme Park offers its visitors a variety of amusement. 中华民俗园为游人提供了各种各样的娱乐项目。 E.g. To her great amusement the actor’s wig fell off. 使她感到极其好笑的是那个演员的假发掉了下来。 amuse oneself with 以……自娱 be amused at/by/with... 以……为乐,被某事物逗得开心 be amused to do... 做……取乐 to one’s amusement 使某人高兴/发笑的是 for amusement为消遣 10. swing (swung, swung) vt.&vi.摇摆;摆动 n.[c]摇摆;千秋 E.g. His arms swung / He swung his arms as he walked. 他走路时摆动着手臂。 E.g. The girl sat on a swing, swinging back and forth. 那个女孩坐在千秋上,前后摇摆。 swing around/round 突然转向相反方向 swing sb. from sth. to sth. (使某人) 突然改变观点或情绪等 11. wonder ( n.) 惊讶,惊奇,惊异,惊叹;奇迹,奇观,奇事,奇妙之处 (vi.) 想知道,感到诧异,非常惊讶 E.g. The decision of one age or country is a wonder to another. 一个时代或一个国家的决定对于另一个时代或国家是一件令人惊异之事。 E.g. The man gazed with wonder at the northern lights.那个人惊奇地注视着北方的天光。 E.g. the Seven Wonders of the World世界七大奇观 E.g. I wonder in England,each man speaks a different language. 我感到十分惊奇在英国每个人都说着一种不同的语言。 He wondered why people built ugly homes,when they could have beautiful ones. 他很奇怪为什么人们本可以造出漂亮的房屋,却偏偏建造出丑陋的房子来。 in wonder 惊讶地;惊奇地 it’s a wonder(that)... 令人惊奇的是;莫名其妙的是 (it’s) no/little/small wonder(that)... 不足为奇;并不奇怪;难怪 No wonder you’re tired, you’ve been walking for hours.难怪你累了呢,你一直走了好几个小时。 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译 1). She ________ (swing) her legs from side to side. 2). She _______ _______ (突然转过身来) on him angrily. 3). He swings _______ (介词) wild optimism _______ (介词) total despair. Keys: 1). swung 2). swung round 3). from; to 11. fun (u) 有趣的人或事,玩笑,娱乐 funny( adj.)可笑的,有趣的,滑稽的 E.g. Skating is good fun. 滑冰很有趣。 E.g. Your friend is great fun. 你的朋友真逗趣。 What fun it is to do sth. 做某事多有趣啊! be full of fun 好玩得很 E.g. The little dog’s full of fun.这小狗很顽皮。 have fun =(do a bit of fun)作乐,玩乐 for fun 非认真地,开玩笑地,为了好玩 for the fun of it为了取乐(好玩,消遣) in fun 开玩笑地,非故意地 make fun of 取笑,拿……开玩笑 fun n. 嬉戏;顽皮;娱乐;乐趣;玩笑 do not see the fun of不懂得……的趣味,不以为有趣 What fun! 多么有趣! E.g. There’s no fun in spending the whole evening playing cards.整个晚上打扑克牌没有意思。 E.g. He’s fond of fun.他喜欢玩笑。 12.advance vi.前进 vt. 预先发放,提前 n. 进展 advanced adj. 高级的;先进的 E.g. Our troops have advanced two miles. 我们的部队已经前进了两英里。 E.g. We benefit from the continued advance of civilization. 我们得益于文明的不断进步。 advance on/towards sb/sth 向某人/物前进 advance in sth 改进/改善某物 in advance (of sth) = beforehand = ahead of time 预先,事先,事前 13. perform ( vt. & vi.) 演出;执行,履行,完成;(机器等)工作,运转 E.g. The singer had never performed in Beijing before.这位歌唱家以前从未在北京演唱过。 E.g. He will be performing on the flute tonight.今晚他将演奏笛子。 E.g. One should always perform what one promises.一个人应始终履行自己的诺言。 E.g. This jeep performed well on hills.这种吉普车在山路上走得很好。 performance (n.) 表演;演出;操作 performer (n.) 演出者;操作者 14. survive (v.) 生存,存活,继续存在;幸存,幸免于难,比……活(或存在)的时间长 E.g. After the heavy earthquake only a few lucky people survived. 在这次严重的地震后,只有少数幸运者存活下来。 E.g. The ship sank on its first trip to Liverpool, few passengers survived. 那船在去利物浦的第一次航行中沉没,几乎没有人生还。 E.g. I can’t survive on such a low salary.这么少的薪水,我无法维持生活。 E.g. Few buildings here survived the earthquake.地震后这里没几座完好的建筑了。 E.g. She survived her husband by ten years.丈夫死后她又活了十年。 survive on sth. 靠……生存(意思等同于live on sth.) survive sb.(by...) 比某人多活…… survival (n.) 意为“生存,存活;幸存”,为不可数名词;也可以指“过去时代留存下来的事物、 风俗、信仰等”,为可数名词。 E.g. Sometimes there is survival of people in the air crash.有时空难事故中会有人大难不死。 E.g. This is a ceremony which is a survival from pre-Christian times.这是一个从公元前沿袭下来的礼 仪活动 15. brand (n.)商标,牌子;烙铁(vt.)使铭记 cement brand 水泥牌号 imitation brand 冒牌 E.g. Do you like this brand of tea? 你喜欢这种牌子的茶吗? E.g. famous brand high-quality products 名优产品 E.g. brand the lesson on one’s mind 永远记住这个教训 E.g. On big farms cattle are usually branded. 在大农场里,牲畜身上通常都被打上烙印。 16. way 由way构成的短语很多,下列是较常见的: in a/one way在某种程度上,在某一点上 in no way决不 in the way挡道 on the way在路上,在途中 under way在进行中 by the way顺便by way of通过……方法 feel one’s way谨慎行事 lose one’s way迷路 E.g. Your article is well written in a way.从某方面来看,你的文章写得不错。 E.g. Don’t stand in the way. 不要挡道(不要妨碍别人)。 E.g. Learning English by way of watching TV is very good.通过看电视学英语的方法很不错。 E.g. Preparations for the test are under way.测试的准备工作正在进行。 17. unique(adj.)独一无二的,独特的 be unique to sb./sth.对某人/某事(物)来说是特有的 unique customs独特的风俗 a unique situation独特的情况 unique ly(adv.)独特地,唯一地 18. beyond (prep.)在……那一边;超过;迟于 (adv.) 在远处;向远处;更远地 E.g. The house is beyond the bridge. 房屋在桥的那一边。 E.g. He asks a price beyond what I can pay. 他要的价钱是我所支付不起的。 E.g. This is beyond human power. 这非人力所能。 E.g. The rumor is beyond belief. 这谣言不可信。 E.g. Some shops keep open beyond midnight. 有些商店营业到半夜以后。 E.g. Your ball did not fall here ,look beyond for it. 你的球没掉到这儿,往远处找找看。 E.g. Men can travel to the moon and beyond. 人们能到月球或更远处旅行。 beyond one’s power 超出某人的能力 beyond the sea在海外 beyond China在中国以外 beyond description/praise/expression无法描述/赞扬/表达 beyond hope没有希望 beyond reason毫无道理 beyond one’s power某人力所不能及的 beyond sb.超出(某人的理解力) beyond all praise极好 19. minority( n.)少数;少数民族 in the minority占少数 the minority of+n.少数…… majority n.多数 in the majority占大多数 E.g. The Chinese nation includes 55 national minorities besides the Hans. 中华民族除汉族外,还有55个少数民族 例1.(2014江苏)--How much do you know about the Youth Olympic Games to be held in Nanjing? --Well, the media ________it in a variety of forms. A. cover B. will cover C. have covered D. covered 例2(2014湖北宜昌模拟)The rest of us are punished for even the smallest wrongdoing, while he can________ committing anything big. A. fit in with B. get away with C. give birth to D. get close to 例3.(2014安徽望江月考)When the old woman died, it________ that she was actually very rich. A. came to an end B. went to light C. came to life D. came to light 例4.(2014江西赣州期中)We should learn to those who are different from us. A. preserve B. ignore C. tolerate D. punish 例5.(2014浙江)Facing up to your problems________ running away from them is the best approach to working things out. A. more than B. rather than C. along with D. or rather 基础演练 单词填空 1. Unlike traditional park, t________ parks often want to teach visitors something. 2. Today many people are experiencing the joy of the a _________ park for the first time. 3. There’s gas e________ somewhere. Can you smell it? 4. When in conferences, he often leaves for v________ reasons. 5. They will c________ at least $600 for moving the piano. 6. The _________(设备)of Information Technology is expensive indeed. 7. Only a m_______(少数)of students receive(s) the scholarship. 8. Many people would agree that it is one of the most technologically _________(先进的) theme parks in the world after visiting Futuroscope on France. 9. Stop looking for the perfect job---it’s just a ________ (幻想). 10. In science fictions, aliens are _________(生物) from the outer world. 11. You’d better leave now if you want to _________(弄清楚) of getting there on time. 12. You are very cool with your family, but with your friends you really ____________(活跃). 13. What I said about Tom ________(对……适用) everyone in our class. 14. Tasmania ___________(以……命名) its discoverer, A.J. Tasman. 15. How many countries will ____________(参加) in the next Olympic Games, do you know? 16. The teacher said to Bruce that he should come to class on time_________(以后). 17. Don’t _______(卷入) me in solving the troublesome situation. 18. The architecture (建筑) in the town center is a successful _______(结合) of old and new. 19. We should __________(准备) any trouble that may happen. 20. Don’t worry, but I will try to _______(分摊,均分) the cost with you. 巩固提高 1. You can imagine what great trouble they have______ the problem______. A.to solve; being talked about B. solving; discussing C.to solve; to talk about D. solving; being discussed 2. Most members of the committee were in favor of the suggestion; only a (n) _____were against it. A. majority B. minority C. quantity D. amount 3.Not only______ the activity______ public awareness of world hunger, but raised a lot of money for the poor children. A. /; has increased B. is; increase C. has; increased D. /; increased 4. Sorry, Madam. You’d better come tomorrow because it’s______ the visiting hours. A. during B.at C. beyond D. before 5. The person who was taking photos asked the family to sit______ and listen______ to his order. A. closely; close B. close; closely C. close; close D .closely; closely 6. More and more people choose to shop in a supermarket as it offers a great_____ of goods. A. variety B. mixture C. extension D. combination 7. Everything______ life in the spring with the warm weather and long days. A. comes back B. comes down C. comes to D. comes along 8.--It seems that he is______ our village. --He spent_____ of his childhood here. A. new to; most B. familiar with; part C. similar to; a part D. like; much 9. What about the two of us______ to the newly opened theme park in our city this afternoon? A. going B.to go C. go D. will go 10. I can’t say which wine is best—it’s a(n)_____ of personal taste. A. affair B. event C. matter D. variety 11. Leaves are found on all kinds of trees, but they differ greatly______ size and shape. A. on B. from C.by D.in 12._____ tomorrow, our ship will set sail for Macao. A. However the weather is like B. However is the weather like C. Whatever is the weather like D. Whatever the weather is like 13. In October, the price of the______ to Mount Tai has risen by 50 yuan. A. permission B. admission C. introduction D. instruction 14. We’re______ at the______ news that Saddam was sentenced to death. A. amazing; amazed B. amaze; amazing C. amazed; amazing D. amazed; amazed 15.______ by the beauty of nature, the girl from London decided to spend another two days on the farm. A. Attracting B. Attracted C. To be attracted D. Having attracted 16. Most of us know we should cut down on fat, but knowing such things isn't much help when it ______ shopping and eating. A. refers to B. speaks of C. focuses on D. comes to 17. In spite of failing to save every endangered species,we may preserve the majority _____extinction. A. off B. with C. beyond D. from 18. _____ you sing so well. You are practising every day. A. No doubt B. No hurry C. No way D. No wonder 19. It has been years since Iben Browning predicted a massive earthquake would ______ Haiti of Latin America. A. beat B. strike C. happen D. occur 20. I have ________ a table at the restaurant. A. observed B. deserved C. preserved D. reserved 1. I’m sorry to have hurt you, but I didn’t do it ______. A. on purpose B. in common C. on occasion D. on the purpose 2. More natural resources should be made good use of ______ the ______ need of energy. A. meeting; increasing B. to meet; increased C. meeting; increased D. to meet; increasing 3. --Why were you so angry? --The shop assistant ______ me too much for the book. A. cost B. charged C. required D. requested 4. --It will_____ determination and hard work to master a foreign language. --There is no doubt about it. A. spend B. cost C. pay D. take 5. --Can Lihua help me with my English? --I regret to tell you her English is______ yours. A. as good as B. no more than C. not better than D. as much as 6. How disappointed! They have finished ______ 5% of the work. A no more than B. no less than C. more than D. not less than 7. Without facts, we cannot form a worthwhile opinion, for we need to have factual knowledge _____ our thinking. A. upon which to base B. which to be based on C. which to base on D. to which to be based on 8. The seller would sell the skirt for 50 dollars, but the customer ___ only half the price, and finally they agreed ____ the price. A. supplied; on B. charged; on C. offered; with D. offered; on 9. He ___ to lend me his bicycle but I refused, for I didn’t want to trouble him. A. failed B. offered C. considered D. insisted on 10. Having ______the training of MS Company, he was ______ an important position in management. A. accepted; offered B. received; offered C. offered; received D. received; accepted 11. The mother, along with her two daughters, ______from the sinking aircraft by a passing ship. A. have rescued B. have been rescued C. has rescued D. has been rescued 12. What about the two of us _______a walk after supper? A. to take B. take C. taking D. to be taking 13. They know the important part _____ computer _____ here. A. that; play B. which; do C. in which; play D. in that; do 14. Many students signed up for the ______ race in the sports meeting to be held next week. A. 800-metre-long B.800-metres-long C.800 meter length D. 800 meters length 15. The new bridge ______by the end of last month. A. has been designed B .had been designed C. was designed D .would be designed _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1. I don’t know the restaurant, but it’s _______ to be quite a good one. A. said B. told C. spoken D. talked 2.--How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers? --The key _______ the problem is to meet the demand _______ by the customers. A.to solving; making B.to solving; made C.to solve; making D.to solve; made 3. Not just I but also Tom and Mary ______ fond of watching television. A.am B.is C. are D.be 4. How much do you _______ for mending one light? A. spend B. cost C. charge D. take 5. I don’t want to be _______ in this problem, which will bring me a lot of troubles. A. suffered B. contained C. introduced D. involved 6. How about _______ shopping this afternoon? A.to go B. go C. going D. will go 7. Most of English learners want to know how the differences between British and American English _______. A. come along B. come over C. come about D. come up with 8. Li Ming ______ in that village after reading the news. A. was volunteered teaching B. volunteered to teach C. volunteered teaching D. was volunteered to teach 9. We _______ our friends a good trip when we saw them off. A. hoped B. wanted C. expected D. wished 10. I can’t quite follow you-what you just said doesn’t _______. A. make sense B. give sense C. make sense of D. come to sense 11. He is famous _______ his acting _______ an actor. A. for; for B.as; for C. for; as D.as; as 12. At minus 130°C, a living cell can be _______ for a thousand years. A. spared B. protected C. preserved D. developed 13.He had a wide _______ of interests, which made him a popular person that all of us like to make friends with. A. world B. variety C. various D. difference 14. The _______ for tonight’s talk is protection of environment. A. title B. theme C. subjects D. words 15.China Daily is _______ a newspaper,it can also help us to improve our English. A. less than B. more than C. not more than D.no more than 二、作文 假设你是校图书馆馆长的学生助理李华,图书馆要进行网络系统升级,请在阅览室向在场的留学生口头通知相关事宜,并请他们转告其他留学生。 1.时间:2015年5月1日至5月10日。 2.在此期间,关闭阅览室、暂停电子阅览。 3.仅周二和周五可以借、还图书。 注意:1.词数不少于50。 2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Unit5 A Theme parks 词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1. be famous/known for 由于……而闻名;以……而著称 E.g. The area is famous for its green tea. 这个地区以绿茶出名。 E.g. New York is known for its skyscrapers. 纽约以其摩天大楼驰名。 be famous/known as sth. 作为……而被知道,了解 be famous/known to sb. 被某人所知道 2. no wonder = it’s no wonder that... 难怪;不足为奇…… E.g. You went to bed at 4 am. No wonder you are so tired. 你早上四点才睡觉,难怪你这么疲倦。 E.g. It is no wonder that he has passed the exam. 难怪他考试及格了。 It is a wonder that... 真想不到,令人惊奇的是…… do/work wonders 创造奇迹 wonder to do sth 惊讶(奇怪)干某事 wonder that... 感到奇怪,觉得惊讶 wonder whether (if)/when/why/how... 想知道是否/什么时候/为什么/怎么…… 3. be modeled after/on 根据……模仿;仿造 E.g. She models herself on her favorite novelist. 她以最喜爱的小说家为榜样。 E.g. The design of the building is modeled on classical Greek forms. 那建筑物的设计是模仿希腊的古典形式。 model...after/on 根据……模仿;以……作……的榜样 a working model 一个劳模 a model husband /employee一个模范丈夫、职员 the latest model最新的型号 4. come to life vi. 活跃起来;苏醒过来,振作起来,表现生动 E.g. The wounded soldier came to life again.伤兵又苏醒过来。 E.g. The quiet girl has come to life since she worked as a saleswoman. 那个少言寡语的姑娘自从当上售货员后变得活跃起来。 come to结果达到;归结为;涉及;苏醒;恢复生机 come into life(机器等)突然发动起来 come to sb (that...): occur to sb(指看法)被某人想出 come to sb (from sb)(指钱、财产等)作为遗产送给或留给某人 come to one’s help 来帮某人 bring sb. / sth. to life使苏醒;使生动 E.g. Everyone wishes the war would come to an end soon.大家都希望战争快点结束。 E.g. Fresh evidence has recently come to light which suggests that he didn’t in fact commit the murder. 最近出现的新证据表明他其实没有犯谋杀罪。 lead a...life过……生活 lose one’s life失去生命 for life终生 make/start a new life重新开始生活 risk one’s life冒生命危险 save one’s life救某人的命 take sb.’s life要某人的命 a matter of life and death一件生死攸关的事 be true to life 逼真 full of life充满生机 5. within (easy) reach of... 在……可(容易)到达或前往的距离以内 E.g. The hotel is within easy reach of the beach. 这家旅馆离海滩很近。 E.g. Please put the dictionary within my arm’s reach. 请把词典放在我伸手够得着的地方。 beyond/out of/within (one’s) reach 超出/在某人所及的范围/能力(外/内) 6. more than more than用在数词前,意为“多于,超过”;用在名词前,意为“不只是,不仅仅是”。 E.g. He made more than 100, 000 yuan last year.去年他赚了10万多元。 E.g. Jason is more than a lecturer; he is a writer, too.贾森不仅仅是一名讲师,还是一个作家。 more...than...比……更……;与其说……不如说…… This book seems to be more a dictionary than a grammar book. 这本书与其说是一本语法书,倒不如说是一本词典。 not more than 不超过;至多 no more than 仅仅 no more...than... 与……一样不 7. take part in/join/join in与attend的区别 take part in强调参与性,特别是有众多人参加的活动,如会议、群众性活动等,着重说明句子主语参加该项活动并在活动中发挥作用。 E.g. John takes an active part in many school activities.约翰积极参加学校的许多活动。 join有两种用法: ①指加入某个党派、团体、组织等,成为其成员之一。 E.g. She joined the Young Pioneers.她加入了少先队。 ②和某人一道做某事,其结构为:join sb.in(doing) sth.,根据上下文,in(doing) sth. 也可以省去。 E.g. Will you join us in the discussion? 你要参加我们的讨论吗? E.g. He’ll join us in singing the song.他将和我们一道唱歌。 join in多指参加小规模的活动,如“球赛、游戏”等,常用于日常口语。 E.g. Come along,and join in the ball game.快,来参加球赛。 attend是正式用语,及物动词,指参加会议、婚礼、葬礼、典礼,去上课、上学、听报告等。句子的主语只是去听、去看,自己不一定起积极作用。 E.g. He’ll attend an important meeting tomorrow.他明天要参加一个重要会议。 take part in是惯用词组,part前一般不用冠词,但part前有形容词修饰时,要用不定冠词。 8. get close to接近;靠近;几乎。to为介词,后面跟名词或动名词;close (adv.)紧紧地;接近地。 E.g. Follow him close to see where he is going.紧跟着他,看他要去哪里。 close (adj.) (1)靠近的,近的,接近的 E.g. The church is close to the school. 教堂离学校很近。 (2)亲密的;紧密的 E.g. There weren’t many people at the funeral, just close relatives.葬礼上人不多,只有近亲属。 (3)周密的;严密的 E.g. We kept a close watch on the prisoners.我们严密监视着囚犯。 (n.) 结束,完结 E.g. He soon brought the meeting to a close.他很快结束了会议。 close ( vt. & vi.) (1)关闭,封闭,封锁,不开放 They’ve closed the road because of an accident.因为一场事故,他们封锁了道路。 (2)结束,终止 E.g. He closed his speech with a joke.他用一句笑话结束了演讲。 closely (adv)接近地;紧密地;紧紧地;仔细地;严密地 E.g. Both politicians have been closely associated with the movement.两位政治家与该运动密切相关。 二、词义辨析 1. whichever / no matter which whichever无论哪一个;任何一个/些。 1)引导名词从句, 即主语从句或宾语从句; 2) 引导让步状语从句= no matter which, 译作“无论哪一个”。 no matter which 只能引导让步状语从句。 2. cloth / clothe / clothes / clothing cloth(n.)指“衣料”时是不可数名词,作“(特殊用途的)布”时,是可数名词, E.g. a table cloth;a dish-cloth clothe (vt.)给“给……穿衣,为……提供衣物”, E.g. He has to work hard to feed and clothe his large family. clothes ( n.) 指“衣服\服装”;包括“上衣\裤子\内衣”等,是复数名词,没有单数,不能直接和 连词连用,后面要接复数动词。 E.g. These new clothes are all for her. 用cloth/clothe/clothes/clothing填空 1). We have enough food and ________for the winter. 2). She’s got many beautiful________. 3). Now they are able to feed and ________ their children better. 4). He was following_______ behind. 5).She began cleaning the wound with a piece of _______. 6). Wipe the surface of the table with a damp _______. Keys: 1). clothing 2).clothes 3).clothe 4).closely 5).cloth 6).cloth 3. preserve / reserve preserve意为“保护;维护;保养;防止(食物)腐败”,强调使不受破坏。 reserve意为“保留,储备,订(座位),预定”,强调为某一特殊目的。 preserve (vt.)保存;保留;保护 n. [c, u] 保护(区):No hunting in the preserve.保护区内禁止打猎 preservation(n.)保存;储藏;维护 in good preservation处于良好的保存状态 E.g. Oil preserves metal from rust.油保护金属免于生锈。 E.g. No hunting is allowed in the preserve.保护区内禁止打猎。我们已采取有效措施保护自然资源。 preserve sb./sth.保护某人;保存某物 preserve sb./sth. from保护某人/某物免受…… preserve sth for为……而保存/保留某物 well?preserved保存良好的 nature preserve自然保护区 preserve our natural resources保护我们的自然资源 preserve peace维持和平 keep sth.in preserve=put sth.on preserve保存/保留某物 用preserve/reserve填空 1). At minus 130?C, a living cell can be ______for a thousand years. 2). We are _______ these seats for our parents. 3). You’d better _______your strength for the basketball game. 4). The government ______ the rights of the individual person. Keys: 1).preserved 2).reserving 3).reserve 4).preserves 三、要点梳理 1. central adj.中央的,核心 的;(位于)中心的;主要的 center n.圆心,正中;中心v. 把……集中于 centrally adv. 中央地,集中地 2. attract (vt.) 吸引,引起……的注意 attraction (n.)吸引(力);具有吸引力的人或物 attractive( adj.)有吸引力的,引起注意的 attract/draw/catch one's attention吸引某人的注意力 be attracted by被……所吸引 3. tourism n. 旅游事业 tour v. 旅行,游历 tourist n.旅游者,观光者 4. length n.长,长度,距离;一段,一节 lengthen v. (使)变长,延伸 long adj./adv. 长(期)的(地) n.长时间 vi.渴望 5. settler n.移居者;殖民者 settle vt. 调停;安排;支付 vi.定居;飞落 settlement n.解决,协议;居留地 6. translator n. 译者 translate v. 翻译 translation n.翻译,译文 7. admission n. 准许进(加) 入;入场费(卷);承认 make an admission of sth. =admit sth. 承认某事 He made an admission of guilt at last. 他最终认罪了。 He did break the window on his own admission.正如他自己所承认的那样,他确实打碎了窗户。 admit (vt.& vi. )承认;供认;准许进入;接纳;容纳 admit sb./ sth. in/into许可(人或物)进入,让……进入 It’s generally admitted that...一般认为…… admit of...容许;有……的余地 admit(to) doing sth. 承认;供认 E.g. The servant opened the door and admitted me into the house.仆人打开门,让我进屋。 E.g. The words admit of no other meanings.这些词语不容许有别的意义。 E.g. He was admitted into/to school.他被学校录取了。 E.g. She admitted that she was wrong.她承认自己错了。 E.g. Our hall can admit 3,000 persons.我们的大厅可容纳3,000人。 8. vary( vi.&vt.)有变化;改变 vary from…to…从……到……不等 vary with/according to/depending on随着……而变化 vary in(=be different in, differ in)在某方面不同 vary the rule修改规则 vary one’s readings使自己的阅读多样化 opinions on this matter vary.在这个问题上意见不一致 variety ( n.) 变化;种种;种类 “各种各样的”几种表达方式: various (adj.)= a variety of = varieties of=all sorts/kinds of各种各样的 E.g. Their hobbies are many and various. 他们的业余爱好五花八门。 E.g. There are various colors to choose from. 有各种各样的颜色可供选择。 many and various 各种各样的(多作表语) for various reasons 由于种种原因 a considerable/great/wide variety of 各种各样的 in a variety of ways 用种种方法 9. amusement (n.) 娱乐品;娱乐;快乐 amuse (v.)使消遣;逗(某人)笑 amusing(adj)有趣的,引人发笑的 E.g. China’s Cultural Theme Park offers its visitors a variety of amusement. 中华民俗园为游人提供了各种各样的娱乐项目。 E.g. To her great amusement the actor’s wig fell off. 使她感到极其好笑的是那个演员的假发掉了下来。 amuse oneself with 以……自娱 be amused at/by/with... 以……为乐,被某事物逗得开心 be amused to do... 做……取乐 to one’s amusement 使某人高兴/发笑的是 for amusement为消遣 10. swing (swung, swung) vt.&vi.摇摆;摆动 n.[c]摇摆;千秋 E.g. His arms swung / He swung his arms as he walked. 他走路时摆动着手臂。 E.g. The girl sat on a swing, swinging back and forth. 那个女孩坐在千秋上,前后摇摆。 swing around/round 突然转向相反方向 swing sb. from sth. to sth. (使某人) 突然改变观点或情绪等 11. wonder ( n.) 惊讶,惊奇,惊异,惊叹;奇迹,奇观,奇事,奇妙之处 (vi.) 想知道,感到诧异,非常惊讶 E.g. The decision of one age or country is a wonder to another. 一个时代或一个国家的决定对于另一个时代或国家是一件令人惊异之事。 E.g. The man gazed with wonder at the northern lights.那个人惊奇地注视着北方的天光。 E.g. the Seven Wonders of the World世界七大奇观 E.g. I wonder in England,each man speaks a different language. 我感到十分惊奇在英国每个人都说着一种不同的语言。 He wondered why people built ugly homes,when they could have beautiful ones. 他很奇怪为什么人们本可以造出漂亮的房屋,却偏偏建造出丑陋的房子来。 in wonder 惊讶地;惊奇地 it’s a wonder(that)... 令人惊奇的是;莫名其妙的是 (it’s) no/little/small wonder(that)... 不足为奇;并不奇怪;难怪 No wonder you’re tired, you’ve been walking for hours.难怪你累了呢,你一直走了好几个小时。 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译 1). She ________ (swing) her legs from side to side. 2). She _______ _______ (突然转过身来) on him angrily. 3). He swings _______ (介词) wild optimism _______ (介词) total despair. Keys: 1). swung 2). swung round 3). from; to 11. fun (u) 有趣的人或事,玩笑,娱乐 funny( adj.)可笑的,有趣的,滑稽的 E.g. Skating is good fun. 滑冰很有趣。 E.g. Your friend is great fun. 你的朋友真逗趣。 What fun it is to do sth. 做某事多有趣啊! be full of fun 好玩得很 E.g. The little dog’s full of fun.这小狗很顽皮。 have fun =(do a bit of fun)作乐,玩乐 for fun 非认真地,开玩笑地,为了好玩 for the fun of it为了取乐(好玩,消遣) in fun 开玩笑地,非故意地 make fun of 取笑,拿……开玩笑 fun n. 嬉戏;顽皮;娱乐;乐趣;玩笑 do not see the fun of不懂得……的趣味,不以为有趣 What fun! 多么有趣! E.g. There’s no fun in spending the whole evening playing cards.整个晚上打扑克牌没有意思。 E.g. He’s fond of fun.他喜欢玩笑。 12.advance vi.前进 vt. 预先发放,提前 n. 进展 advanced adj. 高级的;先进的 E.g. Our troops have advanced two miles. 我们的部队已经前进了两英里。 E.g. We benefit from the continued advance of civilization. 我们得益于文明的不断进步。 advance on/towards sb/sth 向某人/物前进 advance in sth 改进/改善某物 in advance (of sth) = beforehand = ahead of time 预先,事先,事前 13. perform ( vt. & vi.) 演出;执行,履行,完成;(机器等)工作,运转 E.g. The singer had never performed in Beijing before.这位歌唱家以前从未在北京演唱过。 E.g. He will be performing on the flute tonight.今晚他将演奏笛子。 E.g. One should always perform what one promises.一个人应始终履行自己的诺言。 E.g. This jeep performed well on hills.这种吉普车在山路上走得很好。 performance (n.) 表演;演出;操作 performer (n.) 演出者;操作者 14. survive (v.) 生存,存活,继续存在;幸存,幸免于难,比……活(或存在)的时间长 E.g. After the heavy earthquake only a few lucky people survived. 在这次严重的地震后,只有少数幸运者存活下来。 E.g. The ship sank on its first trip to Liverpool, few passengers survived. 那船在去利物浦的第一次航行中沉没,几乎没有人生还。 E.g. I can’t survive on such a low salary.这么少的薪水,我无法维持生活。 E.g. Few buildings here survived the earthquake.地震后这里没几座完好的建筑了。 E.g. She survived her husband by ten years.丈夫死后她又活了十年。 survive on sth. 靠……生存(意思等同于live on sth.) survive sb.(by...) 比某人多活…… survival (n.) 意为“生存,存活;幸存”,为不可数名词;也可以指“过去时代留存下来的事物、 风俗、信仰等”,为可数名词。 E.g. Sometimes there is survival of people in the air crash.有时空难事故中会有人大难不死。 E.g. This is a ceremony which is a survival from pre-Christian times.这是一个从公元前沿袭下来的礼 仪活动 15. brand (n.)商标,牌子;烙铁(vt.)使铭记 cement brand 水泥牌号 imitation brand 冒牌 E.g. Do you like this brand of tea? 你喜欢这种牌子的茶吗? E.g. famous brand high-quality products 名优产品 E.g. brand the lesson on one’s mind 永远记住这个教训 E.g. On big farms cattle are usually branded. 在大农场里,牲畜身上通常都被打上烙印。 16. way 由way构成的短语很多,下列是较常见的: in a/one way在某种程度上,在某一点上 in no way决不 in the way挡道 on the way在路上,在途中 under way在进行中 by the way顺便by way of通过……方法 feel one’s way谨慎行事 lose one’s way迷路 E.g. Your article is well written in a way.从某方面来看,你的文章写得不错。 E.g. Don’t stand in the way. 不要挡道(不要妨碍别人)。 E.g. Learning English by way of watching TV is very good.通过看电视学英语的方法很不错。 E.g. Preparations for the test are under way.测试的准备工作正在进行。 17. unique(adj.)独一无二的,独特的 be unique to sb./sth.对某人/某事(物)来说是特有的 unique customs独特的风俗 a unique situation独特的情况 unique ly(adv.)独特地,唯一地 18. beyond (prep.)在……那一边;超过;迟于 (adv.) 在远处;向远处;更远地 E.g. The house is beyond the bridge. 房屋在桥的那一边。 E.g. He asks a price beyond what I can pay. 他要的价钱是我所支付不起的。 E.g. This is beyond human power. 这非人力所能。 E.g. The rumor is beyond belief. 这谣言不可信。 E.g. Some shops keep open beyond midnight. 有些商店营业到半夜以后。 E.g. Your ball did not fall here ,look beyond for it. 你的球没掉到这儿,往远处找找看。 E.g. Men can travel to the moon and beyond. 人们能到月球或更远处旅行。 beyond one’s power 超出某人的能力 beyond the sea在海外 beyond China在中国以外 beyond description/praise/expression无法描述/赞扬/表达 beyond hope没有希望 beyond reason毫无道理 beyond one’s power某人力所不能及的 beyond sb.超出(某人的理解力) beyond all praise极好 19. minority( n.)少数;少数民族 in the minority占少数 the minority of+n.少数…… majority n.多数 in the majority占大多数 E.g. The Chinese nation includes 55 national minorities besides the Hans. 中华民族除汉族外,还有55个少数民族 例1.(2014江苏)--How much do you know about the Youth Olympic Games to be held in Nanjing? --Well, the media ________it in a variety of forms. A. cover B. will cover C. have covered D. covered 解析:根据句意“--关于将在南京举办的青奥会你了解多少?--嗯,媒体已经用各种形式进行了报道。” 考查动词时态用法。根据句意可以判定出,本题用现在完成时态,强调过去的事情对现在的影响还存在。 答案:C。 例2(2014湖北宜昌模拟)The rest of us are punished for even the smallest wrongdoing, while he can________ committing anything big. A. fit in with B. get away with C. give birth to D. get close to 解析:根据句意“我们中的其他人都会为甚至是所犯最小的错误受惩罚,然而他却能够逃脱犯大错的惩罚。”fit in with与……合得来;get away with做错事而不受惩罚;give birth to 生产,生育;get close to然而…… 答案:B。 例3.(2014安徽望江月考)When the old woman died, it________ that she was actually very rich. A. came to an end B. went to light C. came to life D. came to light 解析:根据句意“当老人死后,人们才知道她实际上很有钱。”come to an end 结束;come to life活跃起来,苏醒过来; come to light暴露,变得周所周知;没有go to light短语。从结构判断句中it是代替后面that从句做主语,指老人实际很富有这件事。 答案:D。 例4.(2014江西赣州期中)We should learn to those who are different from us. A. preserve B. ignore C. tolerate D. punish 解析:根据句意“我们应该学着包容那些与我们不同的人。”preserve保护;ignore忽视;tolerate容忍,包容;punish惩罚 答案:C。 例5.(2014浙江)Facing up to your problems________ running away from them is the best approach to working things out. A. more than B. rather than C. along with D. or rather 解析:根据句意“勇敢地面对你的问题而不是逃避它们是最好的解决问题的方法。”more than多余;rather than而不是;C. along with与……一起;or rather确切地说。face up to勇敢面对; 答案:B。 基础演练 单词填空 1. Unlike traditional park, t________ parks often want to teach visitors something. 2. Today many people are experiencing the joy of the a _________ park for the first time. 3. There’s gas e________ somewhere. Can you smell it? 4. When in conferences, he often leaves for v________ reasons. 5. They will c________ at least $600 for moving the piano. 6. The _________(设备)of Information Technology is expensive indeed. 7. Only a m_______(少数)of students receive(s) the scholarship. 8. Many people would agree that it is one of the most technologically _________(先进的) theme parks in the world after visiting Futuroscope on France. 9. Stop looking for the perfect job---it’s just a ________ (幻想). 10. In science fictions, aliens are _________(生物) from the outer world. 11. You’d better leave now if you want to _________(弄清楚) of getting there on time. 12. You are very cool with your family, but with your friends you really ____________(活跃). 13. What I said about Tom ________(对……适用) everyone in our class. 14. Tasmania ___________(以……命名) its discoverer, A.J. Tasman. 15. How many countries will ____________(参加) in the next Olympic Games, do you know? 16. The teacher said to Bruce that he should come to class on time_________(以后). 17. Don’t _______(卷入) me in solving the troublesome situation. 18. The architecture (建筑) in the town center is a successful _______(结合) of old and new. 19. We should __________(准备) any trouble that may happen. 20. Don’t worry, but I will try to _______(分摊,均分) the cost with you. Keys: 1. theme 2. amusement 3. escaping 4. various 5. charge 6. equipment 7. minority 8. advanced 9. fantasy 10. creatures 11. make certain 12. come to life 13. goes for 14. was named after 15. take part in 16. involve 17. system 18. combination 19. prepare for/ be prepared for 20. share 巩固提高 1. You can imagine what great trouble they have______ the problem______. A.to solve; being talked about B. solving; discussing C.to solve; to talk about D. solving; being discussed 2. Most members of the committee were in favor of the suggestion; only a (n) _____were against it. A. majority B. minority C. quantity D. amount 3. Not only______ the activity______ public awareness of world hunger, but raised a lot of money for the poor children. A. /; has increased B. is; increase C. has; increased D. /; increased 4. Sorry, Madam. You’d better come tomorrow because it’s______ the visiting hours. A. during B.at C. beyond D. before 5. The person who was taking photos asked the family to sit______ and listen______ to his order. A. closely; close B. close; closely C. close; close D .closely; closely 6. More and more people choose to shop in a supermarket as it offers a great_____ of goods. A. variety B. mixture C. extension D. combination 7. Everything______ life in the spring with the warm weather and long days. A. comes back B. comes down C. comes to D. comes along 8.--It seems that he is______ our village. --He spent_____ of his childhood here. A. new to; most B. familiar with; part C. similar to; a part D. like; much 9. What about the two of us______ to the newly opened theme park in our city this afternoon? A. going B.to go C. go D. will go 10. I can’t say which wine is best—it’s a(n)_____ of personal taste. A. affair B. event C. matter D. variety 11. Leaves are found on all kinds of trees, but they differ greatly______ size and shape. A. on B. from C.by D.in 12._____ tomorrow, our ship will set sail for Macao. A. However the weather is like B. However is the weather like C. Whatever is the weather like D. Whatever the weather is like 13. In October, the price of the______ to Mount Tai has risen by 50 yuan. A. permission B. admission C. introduction D. instruction 14. We’re______ at the______ news that Saddam was sentenced to death. A. amazing; amazed B. amaze; amazing C. amazed; amazing D. amazed; amazed 15.______ by the beauty of nature, the girl from London decided to spend another two days on the farm. A. Attracting B. Attracted C. To be attracted D. Having attracted 16. Most of us know we should cut down on fat, but knowing such things isn't much help when it ______ shopping and eating. A. refers to B. speaks of C. focuses on D. comes to 17. In spite of failing to save every endangered species,we may preserve the majority _____extinction. A. off B. with C. beyond D. from 18. _____ you sing so well. You are practising every day. A. No doubt B. No hurry C. No way D. No wonder 19. It has been years since Iben Browning predicted a massive earthquake would ______ Haiti of Latin America. A. beat B. strike C. happen D. occur 20. I have ________ a table at the restaurant. A. observed B. deserved C. preserved D. reserved 一、单项选择 1-5 DBCCB 6-10ACBAC 11-15DDBCB 16-20 DDDBD 1. I’m sorry to have hurt you, but I didn’t do it ______. A. on purpose B. in common C. on occasion D. on the purpose 2. More natural resources should be made good use of ______ the ______ need of energy. A. meeting; increasing B. to meet; increased C. meeting; increased D. to meet; increasing 3. --Why were you so angry? --The shop assistant ______ me too much for the book. A. cost B. charged C. required D. requested 4. --It will_____ determination and hard work to master a foreign language. --There is no doubt about it. A. spend B. cost C. pay D. take 5. --Can Lihua help me with my English? --I regret to tell you her English is______ yours. A. as good as B. no more than C. not better than D. as much as 6. How disappointed! They have finished ______ 5% of the work. A no more than B. no less than C. more than D. not less than 7. Without facts, we cannot form a worthwhile opinion, for we need to have factual knowledge _____ our thinking. A. upon which to base B. which to be based on C. which to base on D. to which to be based on 8. The seller would sell the skirt for 50 dollars, but the customer ___ only half the price, and finally they agreed ____ the price. A. supplied; on B. charged; on C. offered; with D. offered; on 9. He ___ to lend me his bicycle but I refused, for I didn’t want to trouble him. A. failed B. offered C. considered D. insisted on 10. Having ______the training of MS Company, he was ______ an important position in management. A. accepted; offered B. received; offered C. offered; received D. received; accepted 11. The mother, along with her two daughters, ______from the sinking aircraft by a passing ship. A. have rescued B. have been rescued C. has rescued D. has been rescued 12. What about the two of us _______a walk after supper? A. to take B. take C. taking D. to be taking 13. They know the important part _____ computer _____ here. A. that; play B. which; do C. in which; play D. in that; do 14. Many students signed up for the ______ race in the sports meeting to be held next week. A. 800-metre-long B.800-metres-long C.800 meter length D. 800 meters length 15. The new bridge ______by the end of last month. A. has been designed B .had been designed C. was designed D .would be designed Keys: 1--5ADBDC 6--10AADBB 11--15 DCAAB _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1. I don’t know the restaurant, but it’s _______ to be quite a good one. A. said B. told C. spoken D. talked 2.--How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers? --The key _______ the problem is to meet the demand _______ by the customers. A.to solving; making B.to solving; made C.to solve; making D.to solve; made 3. Not just I but also Tom and Mary ______ fond of watching television. A.am B.is C. are D.be 4. How much do you _______ for mending one light? A. spend B. cost C. charge D. take 5. I don’t want to be _______ in this problem, which will bring me a lot of troubles. A. suffered B. contained C. introduced D. involved 6. How about _______ shopping this afternoon? A.to go B. go C. going D. will go 7. Most of English learners want to know how the differences between British and American English _______. A. come along B. come over C. come about D. come up with 8. Li Ming______ in that village after reading the news. A. was volunteered teaching B. volunteered to teach C. volunteered teaching D. was volunteered to teach 9. We _______ our friends a good trip when we saw them off. A. hoped B. wanted C. expected D. wished 10. I can’t quite follow you-what you just said doesn’t _______. A. make sense B. give sense C. make sense of D. come to sense 11. He is famous _______ his acting _______ an actor. A. for; for B.as; for C. for; as D.as; as 12. At minus 130°C, a living cell can be _______ for a thousand years. A. spared B. protected C. preserved D. developed 13.He had a wide _______ of interests, which made him a popular person that all of us like to make friends with. A. world B. variety C. various D. difference 14. The _______ for tonight’s talk is protection of environment. A. title B. theme C. subjects D. words 15.China Daily is _______ a newspaper,it can also help us to improve our English. A. less than B. more than C. not more than D.no more than 二、作文 假设你是校图书馆馆长的学生助理李华,图书馆要进行网络系统升级,请在阅览室向在场的留学生口头通知相关事宜,并请他们转告其他留学生。 1.时间:2015年5月1日至5月10日。 2.在此期间,关闭阅览室、暂停电子阅览。 3.仅周二和周五可以借、还图书。 注意:1.词数不少于50。 2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 一、单项选择 1--5ABCCD 6--10CCBDA 11--15CCBBB 完形填空 1--5CAADB 6--10BCDCD 11--15ACBDA 16--20 BDCAB 二、作文 One possible version: Hello everybody! May I have your attention? The library will soon be carrying out an update of the Internet system. I would like everybody to know that between the dates of 1st May and 10th May, the reading room will be closed and the e-reading system will be temporarily stopped. You will only be able to take out and return books on Tuesdays and Fridays. Please pass on this message to those who are not here, today. Thank you. Unit5 A Theme parks语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法----英语构词法并能熟练运用相关语法知识解决相应类型的题。 英语构词法种类 英语构词法主要有:合成法,转化法,派生法,混成法,截短法和词首字母缩略法。 定义与精讲 1.合成:两个单词连在一起合成一个新词,前一个词修饰或限定后一个词。 合成名词的主要构成方式 (1)名词+名词 sunlight 阳光 handbag 手提包 (2)形容词+名词 blackboard 黑板 darkroom 暗室 (3)副词/介词+名词 afternoon 下午 uproar 喧嚣 (4)动词+名词 postcard 明信片 pickpocket 扒手 (5)名词+动名词 sightseeing 观光 handwriting 书法 (6)动词+副词 get-together 聚会 break-through 突破 (7)其他方式构成的合成名词 passer-by 过路人 grown-up 成年人 合成形容词的主要构成方式 (1)名词+形容词 snow-white 雪白的 world-famous 世界闻名的 (2)形容词+名词 open-air 户外的 old-style 旧式的 (3)名词/形容词+名词+-ed kind-hearted 好心的 blue-eyed 蓝眼睛的 (4)名词/形容词/副词+现在分词 good-looking 好看的 well-written 写得好的 合成动词的主要构成方式 (1)名词+动词 sunbathe 晒日光浴 typewrite 打字 (2)副词+动词 underline 画底线标出 overcome 克服 (3)形容词+动词 blacklist 将……列入黑名单 whitewash 用石灰水把……刷白 1)有些合成词保留了原来两个单词的意思。 keyword 关键词 toothache 牙痛 2)有些合成词与原来两个单词的意思区别很大。 eggplant 茄子 parkway 驾车专用道注意: 2.派生:是通过在词根上加前缀或者后缀构成一个新词。 前缀 词根加前缀多数不改变词性,只改变词义。 表示相反意义的前缀有:un-,in-,im-,il-,ir-,non-,dis-, mis-等。如: ①名词派生词 imbalance 不平衡 displeasure不快 ②形容词派生词 impatient 不耐烦的 uncommon 不普通的 ③动词派生词 disagree 不同意 inactivate使不活跃 (2)表示其他意义的前缀有:re- (重新), anti- (反,防), bi- (双),en- (使成为), co- (共同), sub- (下面的), post- (后的), fore- (先的),pre- (预先的), auto- (自动的), inter- (之间的), super- (超级的,上层的)等。如:retell复述 superman 超人 subway 地铁 international 国际的 后缀 许多名词、形容词、副词和动词是由词根加后缀构成的。 (1)构成名词的后缀 ①-er, -or, -ist, -ee, -ian, -ese, -ant 等构成表示人或事物的名词。如: employee 雇员 translator 翻译家 ②-ance, -ence, -ancy, -(a)tion, -sion, -ment, -bility, -ship,-hood, -age, -ing, -ity, -ness, -th, -ty, -ism 等构成表示行为、性质、状态等的抽象名词。如: invention发明 movement运动 (2)构成形容词的常用后缀有:-able, -ible, -al, -ful, -less, -ish, -ive, -ous, -ent, -y 等。如: responsible 负责的 natural 天然的 (3)构成副词的常用后缀有:-ly, -ward, -wise 等。如: carefully 细心地 otherwise 否则 (4)构成动词的常用后缀有:-ise (ize), -en, -ify 等。如: realize 意识到 strengthen 加强 3.转化: 英语中有些单词,词形不变, 词性却可以由一种转化成另一种。一个单词由某一种词类转用为另一种词类, 这就是转化。单词转换后的意义往往与未转换前的意义有密切的联系。 转化法? 动词转化为名词? 很多动词可以转化为名词,大多数意思没有多大的变化(如下①);有时意思有一定变化(如下②);有的与一个动词和不定冠词构成短语,表示一个动作(如下③)。如:? Let’s go out for a walk.?我们到外面去散散步吧。? He is a man of strong build.?他是一个体格健壮的汉子。? Let’s have a swim.?咱们游泳吧。? 名词转化为动词? 很多表示物件(如下①)、身体部位(如下②)、某类人(如下③)的名词可以用作动词来表示动作,某些抽象名词(如下④)也可作动词。如:? E.g.①Did you book a seat on the plane? 你订好飞机座位了吗?? E.g.②Please hand me the book.请把那本书递给我。? E.g.③She nursed her husband back to health.她看护她丈夫,使他恢复了健康。? E.g.④We lunched together.?我们在一起吃了午餐。? 形容词转化为动词? 有少数形容词可以转化为动词。? E.g. We will try our best to better our living conditions.?我们要尽力改善我们的生活状况。? 副词转化为动词? 有少数副词可以转化为动词。 E.g. Murder will out.?(谚语)恶事终将败露。? 形容词转化为名词? 表示颜色的形容词常可转化为名词(如下①);某些形容词如old, young, poor, rich, wounded, injured等与the连用,表示一类人,作主语时,谓语用复数(如下②)。 E.g.①You should be dressed in black at the funeral.?你在葬礼中该穿黑色衣服。? E.g.②The old in our village are living a happy life.? 我们村的老年人过着幸福的生活。 4.截短法(缩略法) 截短法,即将单词缩写,词义和词性保持不变,主要有截头、去尾、截头去尾等形式。 1)截头 telephone → phone aeroplane → plane omnibus → bus 2)去尾 mathematics → maths co-operate → co-op examination → exam kilogram → kilo laboratory → lab taxicab → taxi 3)截头去尾 influenza → flu refrigerator → fridge prescription → script 5.混合法(混成法) 混合法,即将两个词混合或各取一部分紧缩而成一个新词。后半部分表示主体;前半部分表示属性。 news broadcast → newscast新闻广播 television broadcast →telecast电视播送 smoke and fog → smog烟雾 helicopter airport → heliport直升飞机场 6.首尾字母缩略法 首尾字母缩略法,即用单词首尾字母组成一个新词。读音主要有两种形式,即各字母分别读音;作为一个单词读音。 very important person→ VIP(读字母音)要人;大人物 television→TV(读字母音)电视 Testing of English as a Foreign Language →TOEFL托福 例1.(2014湖北孝感月考)In recent years many new roads have been built, which are of great ______to the areas around. A. distance B. benefit C. scenery D. puzzle 例 2.(2014浙江)We most prefer to say yes to the ______ of someone we know and like. A. attempts B. requests C. doubts D. promises 例3.(2014江苏鹰潭期末)It took us quite a long time to get to the amusement park. It was ____ journey. A. three hour B. a three-hours C. a three-hour D. three hours 例4.(2014浙江杜桥月考)The incomes of skilled workers went up. _____ , unskilled workers saw their earnings fall. A. Moreover B. Therefore C. Meanwhile D. Otherwise 例5.(2014江西赣州期中)He tried to ________ some childhood memory ,which would tell him tell him whether he come to London. A. make out B. set out C. take out D. squeeze out 基础演练 一、给下列单词加上前缀dis-,un-,in-或im-来构成反义词 1. complete __________ 2.proper __________ 3. visible __________ 4.comfort __________ 5. practical _________ 6.seen __________ 7. fit _________ 8.like ___________ 9. happy __________ 10.formal __________ 二、单选 1. -- How much do you ________ for mending my bike? -- Only one dollar, sir. A. pay B. charge C. offer D. apply 2. What about the two of us ________ to the newly opened theme park in our city this afternoon? A. going B. to go C. go D. will go 3. Most members of the committee were in favour of the suggestion; only a ________ were against it. A. majority B. minority C. quantity D. amount 4. In October, the price of the ________ to Mount Tai has risen by 50 yuan. A. permission B. admission C. introduction D. instruction 5. -- She is unhappy. -- So she is. She has got ________ in the quarrel between Jane and Susan. A. involved B. involve C. involving D. involvement 6. Not only the USA and Russia but also China ________ manned satellites to circle the earth. A. has sent up B. has been sent up C. have sent up D. have been sent up 7. While seeing the film, what had happened on the battlefield ________ in the old man’s mind. A. made a life B. made a living C. come to life D. come to live 8. We all know that a good sleeping bag is a necessary part of every camper’s ________. A. experiment B. entertainment C. equipment D. settlement 9. -- Can you tell me why more and more people choose to shop in a supermarket? -- Because it offers a great ________ of goods. A. variety B. mixture C. connection D. combination 10. -- How could they forget the airline tickets? -- They were in ________. A. a rush so anxious B. a such anxious rush C. so an anxious rush D. such an anxious rush 11. He didn’t wa

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  • ID:4-6094456 人教版高中英语必修四辅导讲义:Unit4 A Body language词汇篇及语法篇(教师版及学生版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修3、4/必修4/Unit 4 Body language

    Unit4 Body language 词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1. at ease 舒适;快活;自由自在 2. lose face 丢脸 3. turn one's back to... 背对;背弃 4.拥抱某人 give a hug to sb. 5.上下点头 nod the head up and down 6.尊敬某人 be respectable to sb. 7. be likely to 很可能……;有希望 8. in general 总的来说;通常 9.protect against 保卫……以免受 二、词义辨析 1. represent与stand for represent 用来表示“代表某人/某个团体/政府等”,“某种标志代表什么“,“某物(书、塑料等)表示的是什么”和“把某人/某物描绘成什么” stand for 往往用来表示“(字母、数字符号等)代表/象征什么” 2. close/closely close 动词 关闭;结束 形容词 亲密的;亲近的 副词 离……很近,相当于near表具体的概念,多用来修饰由介词引导的短语 名词 结束;终止 closely 副词 (具体含义)离……很近 副词 (抽象含义)亲密地;仔细地;严密地,多修饰动词和过去分词 3. defend/guard/protect defend:用在军事上,指防御、保卫、抵御或击退外来威胁或攻击;用于非军事意义时指保护、辩护。其宾语可具体可抽象。 guard:指守卫、监视或戒备潜在的危险。 protect:指设置障碍或掩护,以保护某人、某物免遭危害、损失等。常用于抵御风雨、寒冷、烈日、疾病或保护经济、法律权益等。 4. likely/possible/probable likely 指从外表、迹象上进行判断,有可能发生,既可以用于人也可用物作主语 It is likely that…或sb./sth. is likely to… possible 指客观上有可能但往往含有希望很小的意味。不能用人作主语 It is possible (for sb.)to do sth. It is possible that… probable 可能性比possible大表示“很可能、十有八九”也不能用人作主语 It is probable that...,不能用于It is probable (for sb.)to do sth. 5. replace/take the place of /in place of/in place/instead of replace 最普通用词,指任何形式的替代,尤指以新的替代旧的、老的和坏的等,指人指物均可。Electric lights have replaced candles. take the place of 动词词组,“替代(职务、工作等)”作“代替”解时,不可将the去掉或改换为one's。Most scientists agree that computers can’t completely take the place of humans. in place of 介词短语“代替”,通常后接名词或代词,可与instead of 互换,但instead of sb./sth.可省去介词of及其宾语,而in place of通常不能将其省略 People often use plastics in place of/instead of wood or metal. instead of 是介词短语,意思是“代替,而不是”,后接名词、代词宾格、或动名词。 You should take some exercise instead of staying indoors all day long. in place 意为“在适当的位置”。其反义词组为out of place(不在适当的位置;不合适) Carefully lay each slab in place. 6. at ease/with ease at ease舒适;自在(相当于relaxed) E.g. Only in my home do I feel at ease With ease容易地(相当于easily) E.g. He passed the exam with ease. 三、要点梳理 1. greet (vt.) (1)欢迎;致意;问好;打招呼 E.g. He greeted us by shouting a friendly “Hello!”遇见我们时,他友好地喊了声“哈罗”。 E.g. She greeted him with a kiss.她以一个深情的吻迎接他。 (2)受到……的对待 E.g. The speech was greeted by/with loud cheers.演讲受到了热烈的欢呼。 (3)(景象或声音等)映入眼帘,入耳 E.g. As we entered the room complete disorder greeted us.我们走进房间,只见一片混乱的景象。 知识拓展: greet sb. with...用……迎接……;用……向某人打招呼 greet sb./sth. with/by sth.(以某种方式)对……作出反应 (2)greeting(常用复数形式)问候;祝贺;贺词 E.g. They exchanged greetings and sat down to lunch.他们互相致意后便坐下吃午饭。 E.g. My mother sends her greetings to you all.我母亲向你们大家问好。 2. represent(vt.) (1)代表;象征 E.g. The competition attracted over 500 contestants representing 8 different countries. 这次比赛吸引了代表8个不同国家的500多名参赛者。 E.g. The red lines on the map represent railways.这张地图上的红线代表铁路。 (2)(用图画、戏剧、雕刻等)展示,描绘 E.g. The picture represents a hunting scene.这是一幅行猎图。 E.g. He represented himself as an expert.他声称自己是个专家。 (3)正式提出(意见、想法等) E.g. I'll represent to him the risks that he is running.我会向他说明他所冒的危险。 E.g. The lawyer represented to the court that the defendant was mentally unstable. 律师向法庭陈述被告精神不正常。 知识拓展: represent sb. as/to be...宣称某人是…… represent oneself as/to be...自称…… represent sth. to sb.向某人说明或传达某事 represent... as...把……描绘成…… E.g. He represented himself to be a friend of us, but now we know the truth. 他自称是我们的朋友,但现在我们知道真相了。 E.g. His fans represented him as a true hero. 他的粉丝把他描绘成真正的英雄。 3. curiously adv.好奇地 E.g. But curiously enough it was Katharine who refused this.可奇怪的是,凯瑟琳居然不同意。 巧学助记 curiosity(n.)好奇;好奇心 with curiosity好奇地 out of curiosity出于好奇 curiously (adv.)好奇地 curious(adj.)好奇的 be curious about 对……好奇 be curious to do极想做…… E.g. The children were curious to know what was happening over there. 孩子们好奇地想知道那边正在发生什么。 E.g. We were burning with curiosity over what was in the box.我们急切地想知道箱子里是什么东西。 4. closely adv. 紧密地;紧紧地 E.g. The first person to arrive was Tony Garcia from Colombia, closely followed by Julia Smith from Britain.第一个到达的是从哥伦比亚来的托尼·加西亚,紧随其后的是来自英国的朱莉娅·史密斯。 E.g. The prisoners were closely guarded by armed soldiers.囚犯们被武装士兵严密看守。 5. approach (1)(vi. /vt.) 走近,靠近,接近 E.g. As you approach the town the first building you see is the church. 接近那座城镇的时候,首先看到的就是教堂。 E.g. The time is approaching when we have to leave.我们要离开的时刻越来越近了。 (2)(n.) 靠近,接近,临近;通路,入口;方法,方式(常与介词to连用) E.g. All approaches to the town were blocked.通往这座城镇的所有道路都被封锁了。 E.g. He decided to adopt a different approach and teach the Bible through story-telling. 他决定采用一种不同的方法,通过讲故事来教授《圣经》。 知识拓展: (1)...be approaching……快到了 with... approaching随着……的临近 (2)the approach of...……即将到达 make approaches to sb.设法接近某人 approach to(做某事的)方法 E.g. These signs show that a crisis is approaching. 这些征兆表示危机即将来临。 E. g. Everyone has their own approach to dealing with them.每个人都有自己的方法来处理它们。 名师点拨 (1)approach(方法)常与介词to连用,即approach to (doing) sth. (2)记住以下“做某事的方法”表达。 ①the way to do/of (doing) sth. ②the means of (doing) sth. ③the method of(doing) sth. 6. defence (n.)防御;保卫 E.g. She stepped back appearing surprised and put up her hands, as if in defence. 她后退几步,看上去有些吃惊,并举起了手,好像是自卫。 E.g. She spoke in defence of her beliefs.她为其信仰辩护。 知识拓展 (1)in defence (of...)保卫(……) (2)defend sb./sth. from/against sb./sth.保护某人(某物)免受伤害 defend oneself against sth.为自己辩护 E.g. It is our duty to defend our country. 保卫我们的国家是我们的责任。 E.g. They have the ability to defend against dangerous actions in outer space. 他们具备在外层空间抵御危险行动的能力。 7. likely adj.可能的 E.g. Train fares are likely to remain unchanged.火车票价很可能会保持不变。 E.g. A team which is full of enthusiasm is more likely to win.情绪高涨的队更可能获胜。 E.g. It is likely that the thieves don't know how much it is worth.盗贼很可能不知道此物的价值。 知识拓展 be likely to do sth.可能发生某种情况 It's likely that...=sb. be likely to do...做某事是可能的 not likely不见得;不大可能 8. major (1)adj.主要的;重要的;大的 E.g. Shanghai is one of the major cities in China.上海是中国的主要城市之一。 (2)n. ①[C]主修课程;专业课 E.g. Her major is French.她的主修科目是法语。 ②[C]主修学生;主修生 E.g. She is a French major.她是法语专业的学生。 ③[C]少校 E.g. He's a major in the US army. 他是美国陆军少校。 (3) v. major in sth.主修 E.g. She majored in maths and physics (at university). 她(在大学)主修数学和物理。 知识拓展 (1)majority(n.)多数,大半 E.g. The majority of doctors agree that smoking is harmful to health.大多数医生认为吸烟危害健康。 (2)minor (adj.)较小的;次要的;轻微的 minority (n.) 少数;小部分 E.g. There may be some minor changes to the schedule.时间安排也许会有小小的变动。 9. dash v. 突然而急促的往前冲;急奔 E.g. The children dashed out immediately the bell rang.铃声刚响过,孩子们就冲了出去。 知识拓展 dash n. 猛冲;急奔 the 100-meter dash 百米赛跑 E.g. When the door opened, there was a mad dash for seats.门一开,人们便疯狂地朝座位奔去 10. reach one's hand out 伸出手 E.g. As they were introduced, George reached his hand out to the Japanese student. 当我为他们作介绍时,乔治把手伸向了这位日本学生。 reach 1)伸手;够得着 2)与……取得联系 3)提升到(某一水平、速度等)11. cut off切断,断绝 E.g. He cut off some branches from the tree.他从树上剪掉几根树枝。 E.g. They cut off the gas supply.他们停止了煤气供应。 4)(大或长等)足够达到 E.g. They were confident that they could reach their aim.他们有信心达到目标。 E.g. He can always be reached on the office telephone.可以通过办公室电话随时与他取得联系。 E.g. No agreement has been reached so far.到现在为止还没有达成协议。 E.g. They saw nothing but houses as far as the eye could reach. 他们极目远眺,除了房子外什么也看不到。 短语拓展 1)reach out one's hand for sth.某人伸手够某物 2)within one's reach某人够得到的地方 3)out of/beyond one's reach某人够不到的地方 11. on the contrary 与此相反;正相反 E.g. Ahmed Aziz, on the contrary, simply nodded at the girls. 相反,艾哈迈德·阿齐兹却只是朝女孩们点了点头。 短语拓展 on the contrary为介词短语,在句中作状语,表示相反的意见,是对上文内容的转折,可放在句首或句中。 to the contrary相反的(地),在句中作状语或定语。 E.g. On the contrary, those who let teenagers experience the consequences of their actions can do better. 相反,那些让青少年体验他们行为后果的人会做得更好 E.g. Show me some evidence to the contrary.给我看看有什么相反的证据吧。 E.g. I will expect to see you on Sunday unless I hear anything to the contrary. 我星期天等你,除非你说不来了。 12. in general总的来说;通常 E.g. In general, though, studying international customs can certainly help avoid difficulties in today's world of cultural crossroads! 但总的来说,在当今文化交融的世界,学习不同国家的习俗肯定能够帮助我们避免交往中的困难! E.g. In general, American food is mild tasting.一般而论,美国食物味道清淡。 知识拓展 (1)general knowledge常识 as a general rule一般而言;通常 (2)generally (speaking)总体而言;一般而言 (3)on the whole总的来说 in a word总之 in short简言之 E.g. As a general rule, you should avoid this kind of food.一般说来你应该避免这种食物。 E.g. Generally speaking, we enjoyed the trip.总的说来,我们这次旅行很愉快。 13. function (1)n.职责;功能;作用;职能 E.g. The function of a chairman is to lead and control meetings.主席的职责是主持会议。 E.g. The brain performs a very important function; it controls the nervous system of the body. (2)v.正常运行;发挥作用;运转 E.g. Despite the power cuts, the hospital continued to function normally.尽管供电中断,医院照常运转。 E.g. The sofa also functions as a bed.这沙发还可当床用。 14. ease (1)n.安逸;舒适 E.g. He didn't feel completely at ease in the strange surroundings.他在陌生的环境中感到不那么自在。 E.g. Take your ease, for the journey ahead will be long and arduous. 好好休息一下,前面的路程远而艰难。 E.g. They are expected to win the election with ease.预计他们在竞选中能够轻易获胜。 (2) vt.减轻(痛苦、忧虑) E.g. Walking helped to ease him of his pain.散步有助于解除他的疼痛。 知识拓展 (1)at ease舒适;快活;自由自在 take one's ease使某人放松一下 with ease轻易地;毫不费力地 (2)ease sb. of sth.减轻某人的痛苦、负担等 15. anger n.怒气;怒火 E.g. It was not a long time before his anger melted.不久他的怒气就消了。 E.g. Don't joke with a man in anger.别和动怒的人开玩笑。 E.g. “It's a lie!” he shouted in anger.“撒谎!”他怒吼道。 知识拓展 (1)in/with anger愤怒地;生气地 (2)anger vt.使发怒;激怒 E.g. Her cruel words angered him. 她那无情的话激怒了他。 16. hug (n.) & vi. & vt. 拥抱 E.g. Being respectful to people is subjective, based on each culture,but in general it is probably not a good idea to give a hug to a boss or teacher. 在每种文化背景下,尊重他人是主观的。但是通常拥抱老板或老师可能会不妥当。 E.g. They put their arms around each other and hugged.他们伸出双臂彼此拥抱。 E.g. She stood hugging herself against the cold.在寒冷中,她抱着胳膊,瑟缩站立。 E.g. Mary greeted the visitors with hugs and kisses.玛丽以拥抱和亲吻迎接来宾。 知识拓展 ①give sb. a hug= give a hug to sb.热情拥抱某人 ②embrace v. & n.拥抱 in an embrace拥抱 E.g. He gave her a hug when he saw her.他看到她就给了她一个拥抱。 E.g. Paul gave me a big hug.保罗热情地拥抱了我。 17. rank (n)等级,军衔 E.g. In almost every culture, it is not usually good to stand too close to someone of a higher rank. 几乎在每一种文化里,站得离一个地位更高的人太近通常都是不妥当的。 考点释义 n. [C] 等级;军衔u,排列;属于某等级 vt.评价,为……分等级 vi.排名,名列 E.g. You can see people of all ranks there.在那里你能看到各个阶层的人。 E.g. Does he rank among/with failures?他算作失败的那一类吗? E.g. Where do you rank him as a chess player?你把他评定为哪一级的象棋选手。 18.lose face丢脸 E.g. There are unhappy smiles, such as when someone “loses face” and smiles to hide it. 还有不愉快的微笑,比如当某人“丢了面子”就会用微笑来掩饰。 E.g. Jerry lost face when people found out he got low grades.人们发现杰里考分很低时,他觉得丢脸。 知识拓展 (1)face to face面对面地 make faces/a face做鬼脸 save one's face保全面子 in(the) face of面对 (2)be faced with...面对着…… E.g. They had an argument face to face.他们面对面地吵了一架。 E.g. In the face of the new evidence he had to admit he had been wrong.在新的证据面前,他只得认错。 E.g. Even though he was faced with so many difficulties, he would never give in. 尽管面对如此多的困难,他将永不屈服。 19.turn one's back to背对 E.g. In most places around the world, frowning and turning one's back to someone shows anger. 在世界上大多数地方,皱眉或者背对着某人都表示发怒。 E.g. He has turned his back to his past way of life.他脱离了过去的生活方式。 知识拓展 turn down拒绝;关小 turn out结果是;证明是 turn to向……求助;转向 turn up出现;到达;突然发生 turn over打翻;翻阅;反复思考 Please turn the radio down,_I'm trying to sleep. 请把收音机的音量调小,我想睡觉 20.in most cases 在大多数情况下;在大多数场合下 E.g. In most cases, it is necessary to have a healthy diet.在大多数情况下,健康饮食是必要的。 知识拓展 in any case 无论如何;总之 in case 万一;如果;以防 in case of 如果;以防 in that/this case 如果那/这样 in no case在任何情况下都不(置于句首时句子要采用部分倒装) E.g. In any case, you'll have to be at the station by 8:00.无论如何,你必须在八点前到达车站。 21.with的复合结构: (1)with+n./pron.+v.-ing(v.-ing表示宾语与宾语补足语之间为主动关系)。 (2)with+n./pron.+v.-ed(v.-ed表示宾语与宾语补足语之间为动宾关系)。 (3)with+n./pron.+to do(to do表示将来的动作)。 (4)with+n./pron.+adv./adj./prep.-phrase. E.g. With the windows open, he fell asleep.窗子开着,他睡着了。 E.g. With a lot of work to do, he couldn't go home.有许多工作要做,他不能回家。 例1.(2014福建高考考前联考)You should study the details of the policy before you sign it. A. in return B. in advance C. at ease D. on purpose 例2(2014浙江温州期中)Young children seem to master computer games ______. And playing computer games will always make them feel ______. A. easily, easily B. with ease, at ease C. easy, easy D.at ease, with ease 例3.(2014天津)_______the school, the village has a clinic, which was also built with government support. A. In reply to B. In addition to C. In charge of D. In place of 例4.(2014陕西)Studies show that people are more to suffer from back problems if they always sit before computer screens for long hours. A. possible B. likely C. probable D. sure 例5.(2014江西宜春月考)______part Bob played in the film was of a child’s father ,but it was not ___ major role. A. The ; a B. A; a C. The; the D. A; the 基础演练 单词拼写 1.He________(代表)our class making a speech at the meeting. 2.The boy is very________(好奇)and he is always asking questions. 3.When the fierce dog________(靠近)her, she hid herself behind the door. 4.How can you________(表达)your feeling when faced with such a problem? 5.The________(令人厌烦的)speech made her rather upset. 6. She used to s________ in my troubles as well as my joys. 7. There was an e________ of danger on her face. 8. I don't think that we should be seen traveling together-people might m________. 9. Mr. Green got up from behind his desk to g________ me. 10. Let me i________ myself: my name is Melody Johnson. 巩固提高 根据汉语提示,完成下列句子 1.________ ________, his speech was a success.总的来说,他的演讲很成功。 2.________my friends do ________know English.我的朋友并不是都懂英语。 3. She is very ________ ________give me a call.她很有可能给我打电话。 4. Women are ________ ________ ________in the company.在这家公司,女性占大多数。 5. They joined the army ________ ________ ________their country. 他们参军来保卫国家。 6. With ________ ________,the weather becomes cold.冬天临近,天气转冷。 7.________ ________ ________he didn't tell you.他没有告诉你,实在反常。 8. She ________ ________ ________the kindest mother in the world. 她把自己描绘成世界上最慈祥的母亲 9. Mother likes ________ ________ ________at the door. 妈妈喜欢在门口迎接她的客人们。 用短语的适当形式填空 put up; in defence; on the contrary; shake hands with; look around; reach out 1. They ______ posters all around the town advertising the circus. 2. He ________ his hand for the book on the shelf, but he was too short to reach it. 3. Don't try to ______ a woman unless she puts out her hand first. 4. She plays ________. 5. --I suppose your student doesn't understand you. --________, he understands me very well. 6. He ________ the room before he left, wishing to impress everything on his mind. 二、单项语法填空 1. We have been waiting for her all the afternoon, but she hasn't turned________ yet. 2. He always seems so confident, but ________reality he's sometimes extremely nervous during some exams. 3. The film is so moving that she usually watches it with her face ________ (bath) in tears. 4.--What made him so unhappy? --________ (lose) face. 5. In some countries in the world, people give a hug ________ each other or kiss each other ________ the cheek when they meet each other. 6. Don't do so much for me, and you make me feel that I'm not ________ease. 7. While at the party, the student turned his ________ to his elder brother whom he met by accident in order not to be noticed. 8. The door burst open and in rushed the crowd, shouting ________ anger. 9.Experts say adults need at least 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night to keep their body ________(function) well. 10.It can run across water for a ________(距离) of several meters, avoiding getting wet by rapidly hitting the water's surface with its feet. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、完形填空 A Leap(跳跃)to Honor Leaping on a narrow balance beam(平衡木)is not easy. But Lola Walter, a 13-year-old gymnast, is an expert at it. To perfect her skills, Lola 1 for four hours a day, five days a week. At the state championships in March, she finished seventh out of 16 girls. That’s especially impressive, 2 she is legally blind, born with a rare condition that causes her eyes to shift(移动)constantly. She often sees double and can’t 3 how far away things are. When she was little, her mom 4 that even though she couldn’t see 5 , she was fearless. So her mom signed her up for gymnastics when she was three. She loved the 6 right away and gymnastics became her favorite. Though learning gymnastics has been more 7 for her than for some of her teammates, she has never quit. She doesn’t let her 8 stop her from doing anything that she wants to. She likes the determination it takes to do the sport. Her biggest 9 is the balance beam. Because she has double vision, she often sees two beams. She must use her sense of touch to help her during her routine. Sometimes she even closes her eyes. “You have to 10 your mind that it’ll take you where you want to go. ”says Lola. To be a top-level gymnast, one must be brave. The beam is probably the most 11 for anyone because it’s four inches wide. At the state competition, Lola didn’t fall 12 the beam. In fact, she got an 8.1 out of 10—her highest score yet. Lola doesn’t want to be 13 differently from the other girls on her team. At competitions, the judges don’t know about her vision 14 .She doesn’t tell them, because she doesn’t think they need to know. Her mom is amazed by her 15 attitude. Lola never thinks about 16 . She is presently at level 7 while the highest is level 10 in gymnastics. Her 17 is to reach level 9.She says she wants to be a gymnastics coach to pass down what she’s learned to other kids 18 she grows up. Lola is 19 of all her hard work and success. She says it’s helped her overcome problems in her life outside gymnastics, too. Her 20 for others is “just believe in yourself”. 1. A. runs  B. teaches  C. trains  D. dances 2. A. since B. unless C. after D. though 3. A. tell B. guess C. assume D. predict 4. A. suspected B. remembered C. imagined D. noticed 5. A. deeply B. well C. ahead D. closely 6. A. task B. sport C. event D. show 7. A. boring B. enjoyable C. difficult D. satisfactory 8. A. talent B. quality C. nature D. condition 9. A. doubt B. advantage C. challenge D. progress 10. A. examine B. express C. open D. trust 11. A. fearful B. harmful C. unfair D. inconvenient 12. A. to B. on C. off D. against 13. A. greeted B. treated C. served D. paid 14. A. pains B. stresses C. injuries D. problems 15. A. positive B. friendly C. flexible D. cautious 16. A. defending B. quitting C. winning D. bargaining 17. A. standard B. range C. view D. goal 18. A. until B. as C. when D. before 19. A. proud B. tired C. ashamed D. confident 20. A. plan B. advice C. reward D. responsibility 二、作文 假设你是校图书馆馆长的学生助理李华,图书馆要进行网络系统升级,请在阅览室向在场的留学生口头通知相关事宜,并请他们转告其他留学生。 1.时间:2015年5月1日至5月10日。 2.在此期间,关闭阅览室、暂停电子阅览。 3.仅周二和周五可以借、还图书。 注意:1.词数不少于50。 2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Unit4 Body language 词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1. at ease 舒适;快活;自由自在 2. lose face 丢脸 3. turn one's back to... 背对;背弃 4.拥抱某人 give a hug to sb. 5.上下点头 nod the head up and down 6.尊敬某人 be respectable to sb. 7. be likely to 很可能……;有希望 8. in general 总的来说;通常 9.protect against 保卫……以免受 二、词义辨析 1. represent与stand for represent 用来表示“代表某人/某个团体/政府等”,“某种标志代表什么“,“某物(书、塑料等)表示的是什么”和“把某人/某物描绘成什么” stand for 往往用来表示“(字母、数字符号等)代表/象征什么” 2. close/closely close 动词 关闭;结束 形容词 亲密的;亲近的 副词 离……很近,相当于near表具体的概念,多用来修饰由介词引导的短语 名词 结束;终止 closely 副词 (具体含义)离……很近 副词 (抽象含义)亲密地;仔细地;严密地,多修饰动词和过去分词 3. defend/guard/protect defend:用在军事上,指防御、保卫、抵御或击退外来威胁或攻击;用于非军事意义时指保护、辩护。其宾语可具体可抽象。 guard:指守卫、监视或戒备潜在的危险。 protect:指设置障碍或掩护,以保护某人、某物免遭危害、损失等。常用于抵御风雨、寒冷、烈日、疾病或保护经济、法律权益等。 4. likely/possible/probable likely 指从外表、迹象上进行判断,有可能发生,既可以用于人也可用物作主语 It is likely that…或sb./sth. is likely to… possible 指客观上有可能但往往含有希望很小的意味。不能用人作主语 It is possible (for sb.)to do sth. It is possible that… probable 可能性比possible大表示“很可能、十有八九”也不能用人作主语 It is probable that...,不能用于It is probable (for sb.)to do sth. 5. replace/take the place of /in place of/in place/instead of replace 最普通用词,指任何形式的替代,尤指以新的替代旧的、老的和坏的等,指人指物均可。Electric lights have replaced candles. take the place of 动词词组,“替代(职务、工作等)”作“代替”解时,不可将the去掉或改换为one's。Most scientists agree that computers can’t completely take the place of humans. in place of 介词短语“代替”,通常后接名词或代词,可与instead of 互换,但instead of sb./sth.可省去介词of及其宾语,而in place of通常不能将其省略 People often use plastics in place of/instead of wood or metal. instead of 是介词短语,意思是“代替,而不是”,后接名词、代词宾格、或动名词。 You should take some exercise instead of staying indoors all day long. in place 意为“在适当的位置”。其反义词组为out of place(不在适当的位置;不合适) Carefully lay each slab in place. 6. at ease/with ease at ease舒适;自在(相当于relaxed) E.g. Only in my home do I feel at ease With ease容易地(相当于easily) E.g. He passed the exam with ease. 三、要点梳理 1. greet (vt.) (1)欢迎;致意;问好;打招呼 E.g. He greeted us by shouting a friendly “Hello!”遇见我们时,他友好地喊了声“哈罗”。 E.g. She greeted him with a kiss.她以一个深情的吻迎接他。 (2)受到……的对待 E.g. The speech was greeted by/with loud cheers.演讲受到了热烈的欢呼。 (3)(景象或声音等)映入眼帘,入耳 E.g. As we entered the room complete disorder greeted us.我们走进房间,只见一片混乱的景象。 知识拓展: greet sb. with...用……迎接……;用……向某人打招呼 greet sb./sth. with/by sth.(以某种方式)对……作出反应 (2)greeting(常用复数形式)问候;祝贺;贺词 E.g. They exchanged greetings and sat down to lunch.他们互相致意后便坐下吃午饭。 E.g. My mother sends her greetings to you all.我母亲向你们大家问好。 2. represent(vt.) (1)代表;象征 E.g. The competition attracted over 500 contestants representing 8 different countries. 这次比赛吸引了代表8个不同国家的500多名参赛者。 E.g. The red lines on the map represent railways.这张地图上的红线代表铁路。 (2)(用图画、戏剧、雕刻等)展示,描绘 E.g. The picture represents a hunting scene.这是一幅行猎图。 E.g. He represented himself as an expert.他声称自己是个专家。 (3)正式提出(意见、想法等) E.g. I'll represent to him the risks that he is running.我会向他说明他所冒的危险。 E.g. The lawyer represented to the court that the defendant was mentally unstable. 律师向法庭陈述被告精神不正常。 知识拓展: represent sb. as/to be...宣称某人是…… represent oneself as/to be...自称…… represent sth. to sb.向某人说明或传达某事 represent... as...把……描绘成…… E.g. He represented himself to be a friend of us, but now we know the truth. 他自称是我们的朋友,但现在我们知道真相了。 E.g. His fans represented him as a true hero. 他的粉丝把他描绘成真正的英雄。 3. curiously adv.好奇地 E.g. But curiously enough it was Katharine who refused this.可奇怪的是,凯瑟琳居然不同意。 巧学助记 curiosity(n.)好奇;好奇心 with curiosity好奇地 out of curiosity出于好奇 curiously (adv.)好奇地 curious(adj.)好奇的 be curious about 对……好奇 be curious to do极想做…… E.g. The children were curious to know what was happening over there. 孩子们好奇地想知道那边正在发生什么。 E.g. We were burning with curiosity over what was in the box.我们急切地想知道箱子里是什么东西。 4. closely adv. 紧密地;紧紧地 E.g. The first person to arrive was Tony Garcia from Colombia, closely followed by Julia Smith from Britain.第一个到达的是从哥伦比亚来的托尼·加西亚,紧随其后的是来自英国的朱莉娅·史密斯。 E.g. The prisoners were closely guarded by armed soldiers.囚犯们被武装士兵严密看守。 5. approach (1)(vi. /vt.) 走近,靠近,接近 E.g. As you approach the town the first building you see is the church. 接近那座城镇的时候,首先看到的就是教堂。 E.g. The time is approaching when we have to leave.我们要离开的时刻越来越近了。 (2)(n.) 靠近,接近,临近;通路,入口;方法,方式(常与介词to连用) E.g. All approaches to the town were blocked.通往这座城镇的所有道路都被封锁了。 E.g. He decided to adopt a different approach and teach the Bible through story-telling. 他决定采用一种不同的方法,通过讲故事来教授《圣经》。 知识拓展: (1)...be approaching……快到了 with... approaching随着……的临近 (2)the approach of...……即将到达 make approaches to sb.设法接近某人 approach to(做某事的)方法 E.g. These signs show that a crisis is approaching. 这些征兆表示危机即将来临。 E. g. Everyone has their own approach to dealing with them.每个人都有自己的方法来处理它们。 名师点拨 (1)approach(方法)常与介词to连用,即approach to (doing) sth. (2)记住以下“做某事的方法”表达。 ①the way to do/of (doing) sth. ②the means of (doing) sth. ③the method of(doing) sth. 6. defence (n.)防御;保卫 E.g. She stepped back appearing surprised and put up her hands, as if in defence. 她后退几步,看上去有些吃惊,并举起了手,好像是自卫。 E.g. She spoke in defence of her beliefs.她为其信仰辩护。 知识拓展 (1)in defence (of...)保卫(……) (2)defend sb./sth. from/against sb./sth.保护某人(某物)免受伤害 defend oneself against sth.为自己辩护 E.g. It is our duty to defend our country. 保卫我们的国家是我们的责任。 E.g. They have the ability to defend against dangerous actions in outer space. 他们具备在外层空间抵御危险行动的能力。 7. likely adj.可能的 E.g. Train fares are likely to remain unchanged.火车票价很可能会保持不变。 E.g. A team which is full of enthusiasm is more likely to win.情绪高涨的队更可能获胜。 E.g. It is likely that the thieves don't know how much it is worth.盗贼很可能不知道此物的价值。 知识拓展 be likely to do sth.可能发生某种情况 It's likely that...=sb. be likely to do...做某事是可能的 not likely不见得;不大可能 8. major (1)adj.主要的;重要的;大的 E.g. Shanghai is one of the major cities in China.上海是中国的主要城市之一。 (2)n. ①[C]主修课程;专业课 E.g. Her major is French.她的主修科目是法语。 ②[C]主修学生;主修生 E.g. She is a French major.她是法语专业的学生。 ③[C]少校 E.g. He's a major in the US army. 他是美国陆军少校。 (3) v. major in sth.主修 E.g. She majored in maths and physics (at university). 她(在大学)主修数学和物理。 知识拓展 (1)majority(n.)多数,大半 E.g. The majority of doctors agree that smoking is harmful to health.大多数医生认为吸烟危害健康。 (2)minor (adj.)较小的;次要的;轻微的 minority (n.) 少数;小部分 E.g. There may be some minor changes to the schedule.时间安排也许会有小小的变动。 9. dash v. 突然而急促的往前冲;急奔 E.g. The children dashed out immediately the bell rang.铃声刚响过,孩子们就冲了出去。 知识拓展 dash n. 猛冲;急奔 the 100-meter dash 百米赛跑 E.g. When the door opened, there was a mad dash for seats.门一开,人们便疯狂地朝座位奔去 10. reach one's hand out 伸出手 E.g. As they were introduced, George reached his hand out to the Japanese student. 当我为他们作介绍时,乔治把手伸向了这位日本学生。 reach 1)伸手;够得着 2)与……取得联系 3)提升到(某一水平、速度等)11. cut off切断,断绝 E.g. He cut off some branches from the tree.他从树上剪掉几根树枝。 E.g. They cut off the gas supply.他们停止了煤气供应。 4)(大或长等)足够达到 E.g. They were confident that they could reach their aim.他们有信心达到目标。 E.g. He can always be reached on the office telephone.可以通过办公室电话随时与他取得联系。 E.g. No agreement has been reached so far.到现在为止还没有达成协议。 E.g. They saw nothing but houses as far as the eye could reach. 他们极目远眺,除了房子外什么也看不到。 短语拓展 1)reach out one's hand for sth.某人伸手够某物 2)within one's reach某人够得到的地方 3)out of/beyond one's reach某人够不到的地方 11. on the contrary 与此相反;正相反 E.g. Ahmed Aziz, on the contrary, simply nodded at the girls. 相反,艾哈迈德·阿齐兹却只是朝女孩们点了点头。 短语拓展 on the contrary为介词短语,在句中作状语,表示相反的意见,是对上文内容的转折,可放在句首或句中。 to the contrary相反的(地),在句中作状语或定语。 E.g. On the contrary, those who let teenagers experience the consequences of their actions can do better. 相反,那些让青少年体验他们行为后果的人会做得更好 E.g. Show me some evidence to the contrary.给我看看有什么相反的证据吧。 E.g. I will expect to see you on Sunday unless I hear anything to the contrary. 我星期天等你,除非你说不来了。 12. in general总的来说;通常 E.g. In general, though, studying international customs can certainly help avoid difficulties in today's world of cultural crossroads! 但总的来说,在当今文化交融的世界,学习不同国家的习俗肯定能够帮助我们避免交往中的困难! E.g. In general, American food is mild tasting.一般而论,美国食物味道清淡。 知识拓展 (1)general knowledge常识 as a general rule一般而言;通常 (2)generally (speaking)总体而言;一般而言 (3)on the whole总的来说 in a word总之 in short简言之 E.g. As a general rule, you should avoid this kind of food.一般说来你应该避免这种食物。 E.g. Generally speaking, we enjoyed the trip.总的说来,我们这次旅行很愉快。 13. function (1)n.职责;功能;作用;职能 E.g. The function of a chairman is to lead and control meetings.主席的职责是主持会议。 E.g. The brain performs a very important function; it controls the nervous system of the body. (2)v.正常运行;发挥作用;运转 E.g. Despite the power cuts, the hospital continued to function normally.尽管供电中断,医院照常运转。 E.g. The sofa also functions as a bed.这沙发还可当床用。 14. ease (1)n.安逸;舒适 E.g. He didn't feel completely at ease in the strange surroundings.他在陌生的环境中感到不那么自在。 E.g. Take your ease, for the journey ahead will be long and arduous. 好好休息一下,前面的路程远而艰难。 E.g. They are expected to win the election with ease.预计他们在竞选中能够轻易获胜。 (2) vt.减轻(痛苦、忧虑) E.g. Walking helped to ease him of his pain.散步有助于解除他的疼痛。 知识拓展 (1)at ease舒适;快活;自由自在 take one's ease使某人放松一下 with ease轻易地;毫不费力地 (2)ease sb. of sth.减轻某人的痛苦、负担等 15. anger n.怒气;怒火 E.g. It was not a long time before his anger melted.不久他的怒气就消了。 E.g. Don't joke with a man in anger.别和动怒的人开玩笑。 E.g. “It's a lie!” he shouted in anger.“撒谎!”他怒吼道。 知识拓展 (1)in/with anger愤怒地;生气地 (2)anger vt.使发怒;激怒 E.g. Her cruel words angered him. 她那无情的话激怒了他。 16. hug (n.) & vi. & vt. 拥抱 E.g. Being respectful to people is subjective, based on each culture,but in general it is probably not a good idea to give a hug to a boss or teacher. 在每种文化背景下,尊重他人是主观的。但是通常拥抱老板或老师可能会不妥当。 E.g. They put their arms around each other and hugged.他们伸出双臂彼此拥抱。 E.g. She stood hugging herself against the cold.在寒冷中,她抱着胳膊,瑟缩站立。 E.g. Mary greeted the visitors with hugs and kisses.玛丽以拥抱和亲吻迎接来宾。 知识拓展 ①give sb. a hug= give a hug to sb.热情拥抱某人 ②embrace v. & n.拥抱 in an embrace拥抱 E.g. He gave her a hug when he saw her.他看到她就给了她一个拥抱。 E.g. Paul gave me a big hug.保罗热情地拥抱了我。 17. rank (n)等级,军衔 E.g. In almost every culture, it is not usually good to stand too close to someone of a higher rank. 几乎在每一种文化里,站得离一个地位更高的人太近通常都是不妥当的。 考点释义 n. [C] 等级;军衔u,排列;属于某等级 vt.评价,为……分等级 vi.排名,名列 E.g. You can see people of all ranks there.在那里你能看到各个阶层的人。 E.g. Does he rank among/with failures?他算作失败的那一类吗? E.g. Where do you rank him as a chess player?你把他评定为哪一级的象棋选手。 18.lose face丢脸 E.g. There are unhappy smiles, such as when someone “loses face” and smiles to hide it. 还有不愉快的微笑,比如当某人“丢了面子”就会用微笑来掩饰。 E.g. Jerry lost face when people found out he got low grades.人们发现杰里考分很低时,他觉得丢脸。 知识拓展 (1)face to face面对面地 make faces/a face做鬼脸 save one's face保全面子 in(the) face of面对 (2)be faced with...面对着…… E.g. They had an argument face to face.他们面对面地吵了一架。 E.g. In the face of the new evidence he had to admit he had been wrong.在新的证据面前,他只得认错。 E.g. Even though he was faced with so many difficulties, he would never give in. 尽管面对如此多的困难,他将永不屈服。 19.turn one's back to背对 E.g. In most places around the world, frowning and turning one's back to someone shows anger. 在世界上大多数地方,皱眉或者背对着某人都表示发怒。 E.g. He has turned his back to his past way of life.他脱离了过去的生活方式。 知识拓展 turn down拒绝;关小 turn out结果是;证明是 turn to向……求助;转向 turn up出现;到达;突然发生 turn over打翻;翻阅;反复思考 Please turn the radio down,_I'm trying to sleep. 请把收音机的音量调小,我想睡觉 20.in most cases 在大多数情况下;在大多数场合下 E.g. In most cases, it is necessary to have a healthy diet.在大多数情况下,健康饮食是必要的。 知识拓展 in any case 无论如何;总之 in case 万一;如果;以防 in case of 如果;以防 in that/this case 如果那/这样 in no case在任何情况下都不(置于句首时句子要采用部分倒装) E.g. In any case, you'll have to be at the station by 8:00.无论如何,你必须在八点前到达车站。 21.with的复合结构: (1)with+n./pron.+v.-ing(v.-ing表示宾语与宾语补足语之间为主动关系)。 (2)with+n./pron.+v.-ed(v.-ed表示宾语与宾语补足语之间为动宾关系)。 (3)with+n./pron.+to do(to do表示将来的动作)。 (4)with+n./pron.+adv./adj./prep.-phrase. E.g. With the windows open, he fell asleep.窗子开着,他睡着了。 E.g. With a lot of work to do, he couldn't go home.有许多工作要做,他不能回家。 例1.(2014福建高考考前联考)You should study the details of the policy before you sign it. A. in return B. in advance C. at ease D. on purpose 解析:根据句意“在你签字之前你应该预先研究这项政策的细节。” 考查介词短语辨析。in advance预先,提前;in return作为回报;at ease不拘束,放松;on purpose故意。根据句意可知B项正确。答案:B。 例2(2014浙江温州期中)Young children seem to master computer games ______. And playing computer games will always make them feel ______. A. easily, easily B. with ease, at ease C. easy, easy D.at ease, with ease 解析:根据句意“孩子们感觉掌握电脑很轻松,玩电脑游戏使他们感到放松。”考查词组:with ease是“容易地”=easily,at ease“轻松地” 答案:A。 例3.(2014天津)_______the school, the village has a clinic, which was also built with government support. A. In reply to B. In addition to C. In charge of D. In place of 解析:根据句意“除了这个学校外,这个村子有一个诊所,这个诊所也是有政府支持建造的。”in reply to作为回答;in addition to另外;in charge of 负责;in place of取代。 答案:B。 例4.(2014陕西)Studies show that people are more to suffer from back problems if they always sit before computer screens for long hours. A. possible B. likely C. probable D. sure 解析:根据句意“研究显示如果人们总是长时间坐在电脑前面,人们更容易患背部问题。”考查形容词用法。固定结构be likely to do sth.可能做某事;be sure to do sth.一定会做事情; 答案:B。 例5.(2014江西宜春月考)______part Bob played in the film was of a child’s father ,but it was not ___ major role. A. The ; a B. A; a C. The; the D. A; the 解析:根据句意“鲍勃在电影中所扮演的角色是一个孩子的父亲,但不是主要角色。”第一空是playa par短语的变式,a part提前作了先行词,受定语从句限制,为特指;第二空“一个主要角色”为泛指。 答案:A。 基础演练 单词拼写 1.He________(代表)our class making a speech at the meeting. 2.The boy is very________(好奇)and he is always asking questions. 3.When the fierce dog________(靠近)her, she hid herself behind the door. 4.How can you________(表达)your feeling when faced with such a problem? 5.The________(令人厌烦的)speech made her rather upset. 6. She used to s________ in my troubles as well as my joys. 7. There was an e________ of danger on her face. 8. I don't think that we should be seen traveling together-people might m________. 9. Mr. Green got up from behind his desk to g________ me. 10. Let me i________ myself: my name is Melody Johnson. Keys: 1. represented 2.curious 3.approached 4.express 5.boring 6. share 7.expression 8.misunderstand 9.greet 10.introduce 巩固提高 根据汉语提示,完成下列句子 1.________ ________, his speech was a success.总的来说,他的演讲很成功。 2.________my friends do ________know English.我的朋友并不是都懂英语。 3. She is very ________ ________give me a call.她很有可能给我打电话。 4. Women are ________ ________ ________in the company.在这家公司,女性占大多数。 5. They joined the army ________ ________ ________their country. 他们参军来保卫国家。 6. With ________ ________,the weather becomes cold.冬天临近,天气转冷。 7.________ ________ ________he didn't tell you.他没有告诉你,实在反常。 8. She ________ ________ ________the kindest mother in the world. 她把自己描绘成世界上最慈祥的母亲 9. Mother likes ________ ________ ________at the door. 妈妈喜欢在门口迎接她的客人们。 Keys: 1. In general 2. All; not 3. likely to 4. in the majority 5. in defence of 6. winter approaching 7. It's curious that 8. represents herself as 9.greeting her guests 用短语的适当形式填空 put up; in defence; on the contrary; shake hands with; look around; reach out 1. They ______ posters all around the town advertising the circus. 2. He ________ his hand for the book on the shelf, but he was too short to reach it. 3. Don't try to ______ a woman unless she puts out her hand first. 4. She plays ________. 5. --I suppose your student doesn't understand you. --________, he understands me very well. 6. He ________ the room before he left, wishing to impress everything on his mind. 二、单项语法填空 1. We have been waiting for her all the afternoon, but she hasn't turned________ yet. 2. He always seems so confident, but ________reality he's sometimes extremely nervous during some exams. 3. The film is so moving that she usually watches it with her face ________ (bath) in tears. 4.--What made him so unhappy? --________ (lose) face. 5. In some countries in the world, people give a hug ________ each other or kiss each other ________ the cheek when they meet each other. 6. Don't do so much for me, and you make me feel that I'm not ________ease. 7. While at the party, the student turned his ________ to his elder brother whom he met by accident in order not to be noticed. 8. The door burst open and in rushed the crowd, shouting ________ anger. 9.Experts say adults need at least 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night to keep their body ________(function) well. 10.It can run across water for a ________(距离) of several meters, avoiding getting wet by rapidly hitting the water's surface with its feet. Keys: 用短语的适当形式填空 1. put up 2.reached out 3.shake hands with 4. in defence 5.On the contrary 6.looked around 二、单项语法填空 1. up 2.in 3. bathed 4. Losing 5.to; on 6.at 7. back 8.with 9.functioning 10. distance _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、完形填空 A Leap(跳跃)to Honor Leaping on a narrow balance beam(平衡木)is not easy. But Lola Walter, a 13-year-old gymnast, is an expert at it. To perfect her skills, Lola 1 for four hours a day, five days a week. At the state championships in March, she finished seventh out of 16 girls. That’s especially impressive, 2 she is legally blind, born with a rare condition that causes her eyes to shift(移动)constantly. She often sees double and can’t 3 how far away things are. When she was little, her mom 4 that even though she couldn’t see 5 , she was fearless. So her mom signed her up for gymnastics when she was three. She loved the 6 right away and gymnastics became her favorite. Though learning gymnastics has been more 7 for her than for some of her teammates, she has never quit. She doesn’t let her 8 stop her from doing anything that she wants to. She likes the determination it takes to do the sport. Her biggest 9 is the balance beam. Because she has double vision, she often sees two beams. She must use her sense of touch to help her during her routine. Sometimes she even closes her eyes. “You have to 10 your mind that it’ll take you where you want to go. ”says Lola. To be a top-level gymnast, one must be brave. The beam is probably the most 11 for anyone because it’s four inches wide. At the state competition, Lola didn’t fall 12 the beam. In fact, she got an 8.1 out of 10—her highest score yet. Lola doesn’t want to be 13 differently from the other girls on her team. At competitions, the judges don’t know about her vision 14 .She doesn’t tell them, because she doesn’t think they need to know. Her mom is amazed by her 15 attitude. Lola never thinks about 16 . She is presently at level 7 while the highest is level 10 in gymnastics. Her 17 is to reach level 9.She says she wants to be a gymnastics coach to pass down what she’s learned to other kids 18 she grows up. Lola is 19 of all her hard work and success. She says it’s helped her overcome problems in her life outside gymnastics, too. Her 20 for others is “just believe in yourself”. 1. A. runs  B. teaches  C. trains  D. dances 2. A. since B. unless C. after D. though 3. A. tell B. guess C. assume D. predict 4. A. suspected B. remembered C. imagined D. noticed 5. A. deeply B. well C. ahead D. closely 6. A. task B. sport C. event D. show 7. A. boring B. enjoyable C. difficult D. satisfactory 8. A. talent B. quality C. nature D. condition 9. A. doubt B. advantage C. challenge D. progress 10. A. examine B. express C. open D. trust 11. A. fearful B. harmful C. unfair D. inconvenient 12. A. to B. on C. off D. against 13. A. greeted B. treated C. served D. paid 14. A. pains B. stresses C. injuries D. problems 15. A. positive B. friendly C. flexible D. cautious 16. A. defending B. quitting C. winning D. bargaining 17. A. standard B. range C. view D. goal 18. A. until B. as C. when D. before 19. A. proud B. tired C. ashamed D. confident 20. A. plan B. advice C. reward D. responsibility 二、作文 假设你是校图书馆馆长的学生助理李华,图书馆要进行网络系统升级,请在阅览室向在场的留学生口头通知相关事宜,并请他们转告其他留学生。 1.时间:2015年5月1日至5月10日。 2.在此期间,关闭阅览室、暂停电子阅览。 3.仅周二和周五可以借、还图书。 注意:1.词数不少于50。 2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Keys: 一、完形填空 1--5CAADB 6--10BCDCD 11--15ACBDA 16--20 BDCAB 二、作文 One possible version: Hello everybody! May I have your attention? The library will soon be carrying out an update of the Internet system. I would like everybody to know that between the dates of 1st May and 10th May, the reading room will be closed and the e-reading system will be temporarily stopped. You will only be able to take out and return books on Tuesdays and Fridays. Please pass on this message to those who are not here, today. Thank you. Unit4 Body language语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法----动词的-ing形式作定语和状语并能熟练运用相关语法知识解决相应类型的题。 一、动词的-ing形式由“动词原形+ing形式”构成,它既是现在分词形式,也是动名词形式。v-ing能在句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语、宾语补足语和状语,但不能单独作谓语。其时态和语态的变化为 时态 语态 及物动词(do) 不及物动词(go) 主动 被动 一般时 doing being done going 完成时 having done having been done having gone 二、动词-ing形式的作用 1.动词-ing形式作定语 E.g. The sleeping baby looks very beautiful. (前置定语)这位正在睡觉的婴儿看起来太漂亮了。 E.g. The man sitting in the car is waiting for his daughter. (后置定语)坐在车里的男子正在等他的女儿。 E.g. The law being carried out is to ban drunken driving.(后置定语,强调正在被执行的法律) 正在执行中的这则法律旨在禁止酒后驾驶。 名师点拨 (1)现在分词短语作定语时通常后置,而单个的分词作定语时可置于被修饰词的前面,也可置于被修饰词的后面。 (2)现在分词的完成时的主动及被动形式均不作后置定语。 2.动词-ing形式作状语。 (1)作时间状语。 E.g. Working in the office, the clerk heard an explosion from the street. 在办公室工作时,这位职员听到街上发出了爆炸声。 E.g. Having finished her homework, the girl was busy with the thing she likes. 完成了家庭作业,女孩就忙于做她喜欢做的事情。 名师点拨 动词-ing形式一般式常表示该动作与句子谓语动作同时发生,而动词-ing形式的完成式则表示该动作发生在谓语动作之前。 (2)作原因状语。 E.g. Lacking enough money, they had to give up the plan. 由于缺乏足够的资金,他们只好放弃了这项计划。 (3)作条件状语。 E.g. Getting the chance to study abroad, he will try his best to improve himself. 如果得到到国外学习的机会,他将尽力提升自己。 (4)作结果状语。 E.g. He failed to work out the last question in the math paper, making him lose the chance to enter his ideal university. 他没有能够做出数学试卷上的最后一道题,致使他失去了上理想大学的机会。 (5)作让步状语。 E.g. Working hard all the day, he still felt energetic.尽管努力工作了一整天,他仍然感到精力充沛。 (6)作伴随状语。 E.g. The girls sat together in front of the house, talking and laughing.女孩们一起坐在屋前,又说又笑。 (7)作方式状语。 E.g. They greeted each other bowing to each other.他们鞠躬彼此打招呼。 名师点拨 (1)动词-ing形式作状语时相当于与之对应的状语从句,并且可互相转换。 (2)动词-ing形式作伴随状语时,则可转化成并列谓语。 E.g. Knowing what to do next, he set out to do it at once. =When he knew what to do next, he set out to do it at once. 当明白下一步要做什么时,他立刻开始着手做起来。 E.g. The guide showed the visitors around the pictures explaining the background of each picture. =The guide showed the visitors around the pictures and explained the background of each picture. 导游领着游客参观这些图画,并解说每一幅画的背景。 三、难点突破 1.单个的动词-ing形式作定语置于被修饰词的前面时,注意下面的两种情况对比。 E.g. The old man needs a walking stick. =The old man needs a stick used for walking. (表示用途)老人需要一把用于行走的手杖。 E.g. There are many people on the top of the mountain now who are enjoying the rising sun. =There are many people on the top of the mountain now who are enjoying the sun which is rising. (强调动作)现在山顶上有很多人在欣赏正在升起的太阳。 2.独立主格。 现在分词作状语,有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑主语,这种结构称为独立主格结构,通常用来表示伴随的动作或情况,也可以表示时间、原因或条件等。 E.g. Weather permitting, we will go out for an outing.如果天气允许,我们会出去远足。 E.g. The paper having been finished, the student handed it in.做完试卷之后,这位学生把它交了上去。 3.评论性状语。 有些动词-ing形式作状语,在句中没有逻辑上的主语而独立存在,用来修饰主句,表明说话者的态度、观点等,被称为评论性状语或悬垂分词。常见的有generally/strictly/frankly speaking,judging from,considering,supposing,providing等。 E.g. Judging from what he has said,he is a doctor.根据他的话判断,他是位医生。 E.g. Considering that the old man is old, he needs looking after.考虑到老人老了,他需要被照顾 4.动词-ing形式作状语时,常将否定副词not置于分词前面。 E.g. Not having finished the work, they had to work extra hours.由于没有完成工作,他们只好加班。 5.状语从句转化为非谓语作状语时,若从句的主语与主句的主语一致,从句谓语含有be动词时,可保留从句的引导词。 E.g. When getting to the top of the mountain, they found the sun was rising. 当他们到达山顶时,发现太阳正在升起。 6.动词-ing形式与过去分词的区别 (1)语态不同:v.-ing形式表示主动概念,与相关的名词或代词之间构成一种“主谓关系”。而过去分词表示被动概念,与相关的名词或代词构成一种“动宾关系”。 (2)时间不同:v.-ing形式表示“正在进行的动作”;过去分词表示“已完成的动作”。 E.g. Seeing from the hill, you will see the beautiful city.在山上看,你会看到美丽的城市。 E.g. Seen from the hill, the beautiful lake is like a big mirror. 从山上看,那个美丽的湖就像一面大镜子。 【巧学助记】 分词短语记忆口诀 分词作状语,主语是问题;逗号前后两动作,共用一主语;主语找出后,再来判关系;主动用-ing,被动用-ed;having done表先后,千万要牢记 例1.(2014福建泉州期中)He waited at the gate of the hotel all the time, ______to run into his favorite pop singer. A. hoping B. to hope C. having hoped D. hoped 例 2.(2014大纲全国)Today there are more airplanes_______ more people than ever before in the skies. A. carry B. carrying C. carried D. to be carrying 例3.(2014福建)________the past year as an exchange student in Hong Kong, Linda appears more mature than those of her age. A. Spending B. Spent C. Having spent D. To spend 例4.(2014山东济宁期中)______money, his parents couldn’t send him to university. A. Lacked B. Lacking of C. Lacked in D. Lacking 例5.(2014辽宁锦州月考)Titanic 3D moved all audience to tears once again, ________ our attention to Cameron’s films and the definition of true love. A. turning B.to turn C. turned D. being turned 基础演练 句型转换(用非谓语动词结构变换句子) 1. The storm left and has caused a lot of damage to this area. The storm left, __________________________ this area. 2. Be careful when you cross the road. Be careful when________________. 3. The building that is being built now is our new school. The building ______________ is our new school. 4. Who is the man that is reading over there? Who is the man________________? 5. Because she did not know that the traffic accident happened to her husband, she was waiting for him to have supper. ______________that the traffic accident happened to her husband, she was waiting for him to have supper. 6. Because he is a student, he should study hard. ______________, he should study hard. 7. Even though the farmer works hard on the farm all the year round, he still can't become rich. ________________all the year round, the farmer still can't become rich. 8. The boy sat on the sofa and watched TV. The boy sat on the sofa, ____________. 巩固提高 用所给动词的适当形式填空 1. The man ________________ (visit) Japan is my uncle. 2. ____________ (see) no one at home, I decided to come again. 3.________ (hear) the good news, he jumped with joy. 4.________ (walk) in the street, I saw a friend of mine. 5.________________ (talk and smile), they went into the room. 6. The mother died, ________ (leave) a lot of money for her children. 7.________ (see) from the top of the hill, we can see our beautiful school. 8. Many people ________ (be) absent, they decided to put the meeting off. 9.________ (not have) heard from her son for a long time, the mother worried a great deal. 10.________________ (finish) his work, Henry went home. 一、单项语法填空 1. He sat on a chair under the shade of the tree, ________ (read) a novel. 2. The boys and girls are walking along the street, each________ (wear) a small yellow cap. 3. When I reached home, my husband was lying on the floor, ________ (entertain) the kids with toys. 4. Chinadaily.com.cn is the largest English site in China, ________ (provide) news, business information and learning materials. 5.China became the 143rd member of the WTO on December 11,2001, thus ________(realize) its 15-year wish to join the global trade body. 6. Do you know who is the patient ________ (operate) on now? 7.________ (complete) the project on time, the staff are having a party to have a celebration. 8.________ (fail) to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. 9.________ (come) from a mountain village, he couldn't afford a house in Shanghai. 10. ________ (spend) the past year as an exchange student in Hong Kong, Linda appears more mature than those of her age. 二、单项选择 1. _______with so much trouble, we failed to complete the task on time. A. Faced B. Face C. Facing D. To face 2. At present, he is a student at Zhejiang University, _______ for a degree in computer A. studies B. studying C. to have studied D. having studied 3.--How do you find the furniture I bought? --_______.But _______what you bought with the one we had, I don’t think it worth the money. A .Fascinating./ compared B. Fascinating/ comparing C. Fascinated/ to compare D. Fascinated / compared 4. To some people, “spiritual health” is a very abstract concept, _______ many unexplainable elements. A. contained B. having contained C. being contained D. containing 5. There are many tall old trees_______ in and around our school. A. stood B. to stand C. standing D. being standing _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1. My good performance in the job interview left me ______ about my future and about what I can do here. A. puzzled B. sensitive C. optimistic D. embarrassed 2. While waiting for the opportunity to get______, Henry did his best to perform his duty. A. promote B. promoted C. promoting D. to promote 3. There is a note pinned to the door______ when the shop will open again. A. saying B. says C. said D. having said 4. It’s standard practice for a company like this one______ a security officer. A. employed B. being employed C. to employ D. employs 5. Last night, there were millions of people ______ the opening ceremony live on TV. A. watch B. to watch C. watched D. watching 6. There are still many problems ______ before we are ready for a long stay on the Moon. A. solving B. solved C. being solved D. to be solved 7. The film star wears sunglasses. Therefore, he can go shopping without ______. A. recognizing B. being recognized C. having recognized D. having been recognized 8. ______ the past year as an exchange student in Hong Kong, Linda appears more mature than those of her age. A. Spending B. Spent C. Having spent D. To spend 9. For those with family members far away, the personal computer and the phone are important in staying______. A. connected B. connecting C.to connect D.to be connected 10. Children, when ______ by their parents, are allowed to enter the stadium. A. to be accompanied B. to accompany C. accompanying D. accompanied 11. ______ your own needs and styles of communication is as important as learning to convey your affection and emotions. A. Understanding B. To be understood C. Being understood D. Having understood 12. There is no greater pleasure than lying on my back in the middle of the grassland, ______ at the night sky. A. to stare B. staring C. stared D. having stared 13. ______ ourselves from the physical and mental tensions, we each need deep thought and inner quietness. A. Having freed B. Freed C. To free D. Freeing 14. His lecture______, a lively question-and-answer session followed. A. being given B. having given C. to be given D. having been given 15. When it comes to ______ in public, no one can match him . A. speak B. speaking C. being spoken D. be spoken 16. ______ nearly all our money, we couldn’t afford to stay at a hotel. A. Having spent B. To spent C. Spent D. To have spent 17. He is thought ______ foolishly .Now he has no one but himself to blame for losing the job . A. to act B.to have acted C. acting D. having acted 18. Toady there are more airplanes ______ more people than ever before in the skies. A. carry B. carrying C. carried D. to be carrying 19. It’s quite hot today. Do you feel like ______ for a swim? A. to go B. going C go D. having gone 20. ______ the difficult maths problem, I have consulted Professor Russell several times A. Working out B. Worked out C. To work out D. Work out 二、阅读理解、 A The baby monkey is much more developed at birth than the human baby. Almost from the moment it is born, the baby monkey can move around and hold tightly to its mother. During the first few days of its life the baby will approach and hold onto almost any large, warm, and soft object in its environment, particularly if that object also gives it milk. After a week or so, however, the baby monkey begins to avoid newcomers and focuses its attentions on “mother”—the real mother or the mother-substitute(母亲替代物). During the first two weeks of its life warmth is perhaps the most important psychological(心理的)thing that a monkey mother has to give to its baby. The Harlows, a couple who are both psychologists, discovered this fact by offering baby monkeys a choice of two types of mother-substitutes——one covered with cloth and one made of bare wire. If the two artificial mothers were both the same temperature, the little monkeys always preferred the cloth mother. However, if the wire model was heated, while the cloth model was cool, for the first two weeks after birth the baby monkeys picked the warm wire mother-substitutes as their favorites. Thereafter they switched and spent most of their time on the more comfortable cloth mother. Why is cloth preferable to bare wire? Something that the Harlows called contact(接触)comfort seems to be the answer, and a most powerful influence it is. Baby monkeys spend much of their time rubbing against their mothers’ skins, putting themselves in as close contact with the parent as they can. Whenever the young animal is frightened, disturbed, or annoyed, it typically rushes to its mother and rubs itself against her body. Wire doesn’t “rub” as well as does soft cloth. Prolonged(长时间的)“contact comfort”with a cloth mother appears to give the babies confidence and is much more rewarding to them than is either warmth or milk. According to the Harlows, the basic quality of a baby’s love for its mother is trust. If the baby is put into an unfamiliar playroom without its mother, the baby ignores the toys no matter how interesting they might be. It screams in terror and curls up into a furry little ball. If its cloth mother is now introduced into the playroom, the baby rushes to it and holds onto it for dear life. After a few minutes of contact comfort, it obviously begins to feel more secure. It then climbs down from the mother-substitute and begins to explore the toys, but often rushes back for a deep embrace(拥抱)as if to make sure that its mother is still there and that all is well. Bit by bit its fears of the new environment are gone and it spends more and more time playing with the toys and less time holding onto “its mother.” 1. Psychologically, what does the baby monkey desire most during the first two weeks of its life? A. Warmth B. Milk C. Contact D. Trust 2. After the first two weeks of their life, baby monkeys prefer the cloth mother to the wire mother because the former is________. A. larger in size B. closer to them C. less frightening and less disturbing D. more comfortable to rub against 3. What does the baby monkey probably gain from prolonged “contact comfort”? A. Attentio

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  • ID:4-6094447 人教版高中英语必修四辅导讲义:Unit3 A tasteof English humour词汇篇及语法篇(教师版及学生版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修3、4/必修4/Unit 3 A taste of English humour

    Unit3 A taste of English humour 词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1.up to now 直到现在 2.feel/be content with... 对……满足 3.badly off 穷的;缺少的 4.挑出;辨别出 pick out 5.切断;断绝 cut off 6.在……担任主角;主演 star in 二、词义辨析 1. content与contented content 满足的;满意的。作表语,一般不作前置牵制定语 contented 满足的;满意的。作后置定语 E.g. He was well content with the second place of the contest,so a contented smile appeared on his face.他对这次竞赛中获得第二名很满意,因此脸上露出了满意的微笑。 2. break into强行进入,破门而入;撬开(汽车等);突然开始(笑、哭) break away from摆脱;脱离,背叛(政党、国家等) break down出故障;失败;垮掉 break in强行闯入,打断 break out爆发;突然发生 break through突围;突破 break up粉碎;结束;散开;(学校)期终放假 break off断开;停顿;突然中止 E.g. The thief broke away from the police and ran into the woods.小偷摆脱了警察跑进了树林。 E.g. Don't break in while others are speaking.别人讲话时不要插话。 E.g. The car I was in broke down, so I had to walk home.我坐的车抛锚了,所以我不得不走路回家。 E.g. A big fire broke out in the town last night.昨天晚上镇里着了大火。 E.g. The meeting broke up without a result.会议没有得出结果就结束了。 E.g. Strong will can almost break through everything.顽强的意志几乎可以战胜一切。 3. persuade/convince persuade 着重利用督促、劝告来感动和影响听者,使其愿意相信某事或参与某种行为 E.g. I persuade him to quit smoking convince指用理论、证据等理智方面的因素使别人相信 4. as/with As (conj.)随着,常用来引导时间状语从句 With(prep.)随着,后接名词或复合宾语,不引导从句 E.g. He gave me so many facts that convinced me. 三、要点梳理 1. content (1)adj.满足的;满意的 ①We shouldn't be content with the achievements already gained. 我们决不能满足于已取得的成绩。 ②She is quite content to stay at home looking after her children. 她非常满足于待在家里照顾孩子。 (2)vt.使满足;使满意 ①Nothing contents her; She is always complaining. 任何事情都不令她满意,她总是在抱怨。 ②We should never content ourselves with the knowledge we have mastered only. 我们永远不要仅仅满足于我们所掌握的知识。 知识拓展 be content with…满足于…… 注意:在表示“非常满意”时,应用be well content(with),而不是very。 be content to do…乐于(愿意)做…… be content that…对……满足/满意 content oneself with…满足于…… to one’s heart’s content使某人心满意足的是;尽情地 2. astonish (vt.)使惊诧 E.g. His words astonished us all. 他的话使我们大家感到惊讶。 (1)what astonishes sb. is...令某人吃惊的是…… (2)astonishing adj.令人感到惊讶的 (3)astonished adj.对……感到吃惊的 be astonished to do.../that...某人惊讶于…… (4)astonishment n.惊异,惊讶 to one's astonishment令人吃惊的是(多用于插入语) in astonishment吃惊地look up抬头看;查阅;改善;好转 E.g.①It was an astonishing fact.它是一个令人惊异的事实。 ②She was astonished that he had survived.她对他能活下来感到惊讶。 ③I am astonished to meet you here.在这儿遇见你,我感到惊讶。 3. entertain (vt.&vi.)使欢乐,款待 E.g. He entertained us with music.他用音乐使我们快乐。 E.g. I entertained my friends at my own table with a simple meal.我在自己家里请朋友吃了一顿便饭。 (1)entertain sb. with sth.用……使某人娱乐 entertain sb. with/to sth.用……招待某人 (2)entertaining adj.愉快的;有趣的 (3)entertainer n.款待者;演艺者 entertainment (n.)娱乐;款待 语境串记entertain E.g. As entertainers, they entertained their guests with a performance, which made the entertainment quite entertaining.作为招待人员,他们为客人提供了娱乐表演,使得招待活动变得非常有趣 4. throughout prep.遍及;贯穿 E.g. sang songs throughout the trip.整个旅途中他们歌声不断。 E.g. his experience will be of value to them throughout their lives. E.g. The building is well built throughout. Adv.到处,始终;全部 E.g. he building is well built throughout.这栋楼房处处建造得良好。 详析throughout (1)介词throughout意为“遍及”时,相当于all over,后接表示地点的名词。 (2)介词throughout意为“贯穿”时,相当于all through,后接表示时间的名词。 (3)throughout用作副词时,意为“处处;始终”,通常用在句尾。 5. overcome vt.&vi.战胜;克服 E.g. I wonder whether Italy will overcome its opponent in the following game to be held tonight. 我想知道在今天晚上举行的比赛中意大利能否战胜对手。 E.g. We had a lot of difficulties to overcome.我们有很多困难要克服。 6. convince vt.使信服 E.g. Oscar convinced the manager to look in the record of advance ticket sales. 奥斯卡说服经理去查看先前的售票记录。 E.g. We were able to convince the students of the need for wide reading. 我们能让学生们认识到广泛阅读的必要性。 (1)convince sb. to do sth.说服某人做某事 convince sb. of sth.使某人相信某事 convince sb. that使某人相信 (2)be convinced of...确信……;相信…… be convinced that...确信…… E.g. The buyer was convinced of the salesman's honesty.买主深信店员的诚实。 7. direct vt. & vi. 导演;指示;指挥;指向(对准)adj. 直的;直接的;直率的 adv.径直地 E.g. Charlie Chaplin wrote,directed and produced the films he starred in. 查理·卓别林自编、自导、自制他主演的电影。 E.g. She has a direct way of speaking.她说话直爽。 E.g. We flew direct to Hong Kong.我们直飞香港 ① direct sb.to do sth.指导(示)某人做某事 direct sb. to a place给某人指明去某地的路 ②direction(n.)方向、方位、指导 in all directions(常用复数)指示;用法说明 in the direction of…向……方向 ③director n.导演 E.g.The road sign will direct you to the city.路标会给你指明去这个城市的路。 E.g. Gun firing, the birds flew in all directions.枪响了,鸟儿们飞向四面八方。 7. break into强行进入,破门而入;撬开(汽车等);突然开始(笑、哭) E.g. Why did you have to break into the same shop three times?为什么你非得三次闯入同一家商店? E.g. We had our car broken into last week.我们的车上周被撬了。 E.g. We had to break into the house as we had lost the key. 因为我们丢了钥匙,所以我们不得不破门而入。 8. up to now直到现在 E.g. Up to now nobody has claimed the suitcase.到现在还没人认领这个行李箱。 up to now用法揭秘 (1)up to now意为“直到现在”,常与现在完成时连用,可放于句首、句尾或句中。 (2)up to now的同义词组有up to present, so far, till now等 知识拓展 up to还有以下意思。 I can take up to four people in my car.(至多) Where to spend your holiday is up to you.(取决于) Even though he's not up to the work, he still wants to do it.(胜任) What are the children up to now?(忙于) 9. badly off穷的;缺少的 E.g. We aren't too badly off but we can't afford a house like that. 我们并不是一文不名,但我们负担不起那样的房子。 E.g. The refugees are badly off for blankets, and even worse off for food.难民需要毯子,更需要食物。 知识拓展 (1)be badly off for sth.某物短缺;……不够 be worse off更穷的 (2)be well off有钱;富裕;境况良好 be well off for sth.……充裕 be better off境况较好 E.g. If he had worked harder when young, he would be well off now. 如果他年轻时多努力一点,现在就能过得舒服些 名师点拨 be badly off for sth.同义于be short of/be lacking in。 badly off的比较级是worse off,意为“境况更差”。 well off的比较级是better off,意为“更富裕/有”。 10. pick out (1)精心挑选 E.g. Have you picked out the movie you want to see? 你选好你想看的电影了吗? (2)辨别出;认出来 E.g. He could easily pick out his old friend among the crowd though they hadn't seen each other for a long time. 尽管他们很长时间不见面了,但是他能轻易地在人群中辨认出他的老朋友。 pick up拾起;捡起;(无意中)学会;见到;收听到;搭载;使人恢复精神;(便宜地)买 E.g. I would have picked it up if I had noticed it.我如果看见的话,早就把它捡起来了。 11. cut off切断,断绝 ①He cut off some branches from the tree.他从树上剪掉几根树枝。 ②They cut off the gas supply.他们停止了煤气供应。 cut down砍倒;减少,缩减;改小或缩短(衣服) cut out切去,剪下;删去;中断 cut across 抄近路穿过 cut away切去,剪去,切成,剪成;迅速离开 cut in/into插嘴;插入 cut up切碎;使痛苦 We cut down our daily expenses.我们削减了我们的日常花费。 12. star in在……担任主角;主演 E.g. Who is starring in the film at the local cinema? 本地那家电影院上演的那部片子是谁主演的? 知识拓展 star as...担任……角色 star vt. 以……为主角;由……主演 n. (电影、体育等的) 明星;杰出人物 E.g. The actress is starring as Mother of the family in the play. E.g. The new play stars three of Britain's best actors.这部新戏由英国最出色的三位演员主演。 13. as多用于固定搭配中: as is often the case这是常有的事 as was expected正如所预料的那样 as often happens正如经常发生的那样 as is known to all众所周知 as has been said before如上所述 as is mentioned above正如上面所提到的 14. with的复合结构为: with+宾语+宾语补足语(adj./adv./介词短语/doing/done/to do) E.g. With a lot of work to do, he has to stay up to do it.由于有很多的工作要做,他只好熬夜。 E.g. He is busy preparing his paper with many books on the desk. 书桌上放着很多的书,他在忙着准备论文。 例1.(2014江西横峰适应考)Jessica is a very religious girl; She believes that she is always ____ supported by her god. A. spiritually B. typically C. historically D. officially 例2(2014安徽屯溪月考)Shall we ____ our discussion and have some tea or coffee, please? A. break off B. break down C. break into D. break out 例3.(2014山东烟台月考)I am surprised that a company with a good ____ would produce such poor quality goods. A. enjoyment B. appreciation C. entertainment D. reputation 例4.(2014江西)I don’t believe what you said, but if you can prove it, you may be able to ______me. A. convince B. inform C. guarantee D. refuse 例5.(2014福建)Scientists are convinced___ the positive effect of laughter ____ physical and mental health. A. of, at B. of, on C. on, at D. by, in 基础演练 1. I ________________ her in Australia.(astonish)我在澳大利亚见到她,很惊异。 2. Every summer they ________________ an outdoor party. (entertain) 每年夏天他们举行户外宴会来款待邻居。 3.________________________, we never went to bed hungry. (badly) 不管我们多么贫穷,我们从没有饿着肚子睡觉。 4. The company ________________. (throughout)这家公司的分店遍及全国。 5. She said she ________________. (failure)她说她是一个失败的经理。 6. He ________________ finally. (overcome)他最终克服了不良习惯。 7. She ________________________ for her daughter. (pick)她给女儿挑了一件粉红色的衣服。 8. They were then almost completely ______________. (cut)那时他们几乎完全与外界隔绝了。 9. He ____________________________. (direct adj.)他做事直截了当。 10. She had ________________________. (star)她主演了许多好电影。 巩固提高 单词适当形式填空 1. Be quiet! Do you hear someone ________ (shout) for something? 2. Sitting in the chair beside the window, I watched the leaves ________ (swing) in the wind. 3. I was greatly ________ (amaze) at how he worked out the ________ (puzzle) problem in a creative way. 4. It is said that the new school ________ (cost) 20 million yuan will soon be completed. 5. On hearing the ________ (disappoint) news that their favorite team had lost the match, they all became ________ (disappoint). 6. --Where's Joan? --I found her ________ (deliver) newspapers from door to door on the way home. 7. It seems that they provide us with an ________ (encourage) situation, but in fact we are ________(face) with a lot of difficult problems. 8. People seldom realize the voice needs looking after. Many people below the age of 65 are left ________ (sound) much older than they are. 9. With the car ________ (break) down halfway on the road, we had to wait for help coming. 10. Jane, ________ (struggle) for months to find a job as a travel agent, finally got one as a waitress. 单词适当形式填空 1. My friend knows where he can pick ________a good used car at a reasonable price. 2. up to now, the program________ (save) thousands of children who would otherwise have died. 3._______was expected, only five people turned up at the party, ______disappointed the hostess very much. 4. Two middle-aged passengers fell into the sea.________(fortunate),neither of them could swim. 5. He often listens to music in his spare time to entertain________. 6. Jack was ________ failure as a leader, but he achieved great success in writing. 7. The worker had a finger cut________ by the machine he was operating. 8. --Can you lend me some money? --I am ________(bad) off than you. You know I live from hand to mouth. 9.--Is he really content ________ the low pay? --Of course not. He wants to get some extra pay. 10. It's easy to pick________ the boy who will meet you at the airport because he is rather tall. 11. The film was really ________ (move). We were greatly ________ (move) while seeing it. 12. --Who were those people with the bananas? --A group ________(call) itself the League for Peace. 13. My brother saw the children ________(play) near my house when he went to work at 8:00. 14.--Is this the path ________ (lead) to the village? --Yes, it is. 15. What surprised the man most was his not________ (allow) to meet his daughter. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、短文改错 Before lunch Allen happened to see a man fished in a water hole about five metre outside a bar. Allen stopped curiously. All people passing over the man who was fishing regarded him like a foolish man. Therefore, Allen said kindly to fish-catcher, “Hello, will you please do me a favor and have a drink with me in the bar? The man gladly received his invitation. After buying the man several cups of soft drinks, Allen asked, “You are fishing there, right? May I know how much fish you have caught this morning? “You are the number 8,”said the man humorous. 二、七选五 Our heart is very important. __1__ Heart disease, also called cardiovascular disease, mainly affects older people and means that there are problems with the heart and blood vessels. This disease includes a variety of problems, including high blood pressure, hardening of the arteries, chest pain, heart attacks and strokes. What Is Heart Disease? __2__Through the body's blood vessels, the heart pumps blood to all of the body's cells. The blood carries oxygen, which the cells need. Cardiovascular disease is a group of problems that occur when the heart and blood vessels aren't working the way they should. How Do You Get Heart Disease? Heart disease isn't contagious (传染的)—you can't catch it like the way you get the flu or a cold. Instead, certain things increase a person's chances of getting cardiovascular disease.__3__ For some of these risk factors a person can't do anything about them, like being older and having other people in the family who have had the same problems. __4__ Many people do not realise they have cardiovascular disease until they have chest pain, a heart attack, or stroke. These kinds of problems often need immediate attention and the person may need to go to the emergency department of a hospital. Can Kids Get Heart Disease? Kids usually don't have any symptoms of heart and blood vessel problems. But by starting heart-healthy habits right now, kids can reduce the chance they will ever need to worry about cardiovascular disease. So what should you do? Don't smoke, for one. __5__Your heart and blood vessels will thank you later! A. How do we deal with Heart Disease? B. Doctors call these things risk factors. C. What Are the Signs of Heart Disease? D. The heart is the centre of the cardiovascular system. E. And be sure to eat healthy, exercise, and maintain a healthy weight. F. It's no wonder people worry when they hear someone has heart problems. G. If someone you know is getting one of these operations, you might feel worried. Unit3 A taste of English humour 词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1.up to now 直到现在 2.feel/be content with... 对……满足 3.badly off 穷的;缺少的 4.挑出;辨别出 pick out 5.切断;断绝 cut off 6.在……担任主角;主演 star in 二、词义辨析 1. content与contented content 满足的;满意的。作表语,一般不作前置牵制定语 contented 满足的;满意的。作后置定语 E.g. He was well content with the second place of the contest,so a contented smile appeared on his face.他对这次竞赛中获得第二名很满意,因此脸上露出了满意的微笑。 2. break into强行进入,破门而入;撬开(汽车等);突然开始(笑、哭) break away from摆脱;脱离,背叛(政党、国家等) break down出故障;失败;垮掉 break in强行闯入,打断 break out爆发;突然发生 break through突围;突破 break up粉碎;结束;散开;(学校)期终放假 break off断开;停顿;突然中止 E.g. The thief broke away from the police and ran into the woods.小偷摆脱了警察跑进了树林。 E.g. Don't break in while others are speaking.别人讲话时不要插话。 E.g. The car I was in broke down, so I had to walk home.我坐的车抛锚了,所以我不得不走路回家。 E.g. A big fire broke out in the town last night.昨天晚上镇里着了大火。 E.g. The meeting broke up without a result.会议没有得出结果就结束了。 E.g. Strong will can almost break through everything.顽强的意志几乎可以战胜一切。 3. persuade/convince persuade 着重利用督促、劝告来感动和影响听者,使其愿意相信某事或参与某种行为 E.g. I persuade him to quit smoking convince指用理论、证据等理智方面的因素使别人相信 4. as/with As (conj.)随着,常用来引导时间状语从句 With(prep.)随着,后接名词或复合宾语,不引导从句 E.g. He gave me so many facts that convinced me. 三、要点梳理 1. content (1)adj.满足的;满意的 ①We shouldn't be content with the achievements already gained. 我们决不能满足于已取得的成绩。 ②She is quite content to stay at home looking after her children. 她非常满足于待在家里照顾孩子。 (2)vt.使满足;使满意 ①Nothing contents her; She is always complaining. 任何事情都不令她满意,她总是在抱怨。 ②We should never content ourselves with the knowledge we have mastered only. 我们永远不要仅仅满足于我们所掌握的知识。 知识拓展 be content with…满足于…… 注意:在表示“非常满意”时,应用be well content(with),而不是very。 be content to do…乐于(愿意)做…… be content that…对……满足/满意 content oneself with…满足于…… to one’s heart’s content使某人心满意足的是;尽情地 2. astonish (vt.)使惊诧 E.g. His words astonished us all. 他的话使我们大家感到惊讶。 (1)what astonishes sb. is...令某人吃惊的是…… (2)astonishing adj.令人感到惊讶的 (3)astonished adj.对……感到吃惊的 be astonished to do.../that...某人惊讶于…… (4)astonishment n.惊异,惊讶 to one's astonishment令人吃惊的是(多用于插入语) in astonishment吃惊地look up抬头看;查阅;改善;好转 E.g.①It was an astonishing fact.它是一个令人惊异的事实。 ②She was astonished that he had survived.她对他能活下来感到惊讶。 ③I am astonished to meet you here.在这儿遇见你,我感到惊讶。 3. entertain (vt.&vi.)使欢乐,款待 E.g. He entertained us with music.他用音乐使我们快乐。 E.g. I entertained my friends at my own table with a simple meal.我在自己家里请朋友吃了一顿便饭。 (1)entertain sb. with sth.用……使某人娱乐 entertain sb. with/to sth.用……招待某人 (2)entertaining adj.愉快的;有趣的 (3)entertainer n.款待者;演艺者 entertainment (n.)娱乐;款待 语境串记entertain E.g. As entertainers, they entertained their guests with a performance, which made the entertainment quite entertaining.作为招待人员,他们为客人提供了娱乐表演,使得招待活动变得非常有趣 4. throughout prep.遍及;贯穿 E.g. sang songs throughout the trip.整个旅途中他们歌声不断。 E.g. his experience will be of value to them throughout their lives. E.g. The building is well built throughout. Adv.到处,始终;全部 E.g. he building is well built throughout.这栋楼房处处建造得良好。 详析throughout (1)介词throughout意为“遍及”时,相当于all over,后接表示地点的名词。 (2)介词throughout意为“贯穿”时,相当于all through,后接表示时间的名词。 (3)throughout用作副词时,意为“处处;始终”,通常用在句尾。 5. overcome vt.&vi.战胜;克服 E.g. I wonder whether Italy will overcome its opponent in the following game to be held tonight. 我想知道在今天晚上举行的比赛中意大利能否战胜对手。 E.g. We had a lot of difficulties to overcome.我们有很多困难要克服。 6. convince vt.使信服 E.g. Oscar convinced the manager to look in the record of advance ticket sales. 奥斯卡说服经理去查看先前的售票记录。 E.g. We were able to convince the students of the need for wide reading. 我们能让学生们认识到广泛阅读的必要性。 (1)convince sb. to do sth.说服某人做某事 convince sb. of sth.使某人相信某事 convince sb. that使某人相信 (2)be convinced of...确信……;相信…… be convinced that...确信…… E.g. The buyer was convinced of the salesman's honesty.买主深信店员的诚实。 7. direct vt. & vi. 导演;指示;指挥;指向(对准)adj. 直的;直接的;直率的 adv.径直地 E.g. Charlie Chaplin wrote,directed and produced the films he starred in. 查理·卓别林自编、自导、自制他主演的电影。 E.g. She has a direct way of speaking.她说话直爽。 E.g. We flew direct to Hong Kong.我们直飞香港 ① direct sb.to do sth.指导(示)某人做某事 direct sb. to a place给某人指明去某地的路 ②direction(n.)方向、方位、指导 in all directions(常用复数)指示;用法说明 in the direction of…向……方向 ③director n.导演 E.g.The road sign will direct you to the city.路标会给你指明去这个城市的路。 E.g. Gun firing, the birds flew in all directions.枪响了,鸟儿们飞向四面八方。 7. break into强行进入,破门而入;撬开(汽车等);突然开始(笑、哭) E.g. Why did you have to break into the same shop three times?为什么你非得三次闯入同一家商店? E.g. We had our car broken into last week.我们的车上周被撬了。 E.g. We had to break into the house as we had lost the key. 因为我们丢了钥匙,所以我们不得不破门而入。 8. up to now直到现在 E.g. Up to now nobody has claimed the suitcase.到现在还没人认领这个行李箱。 up to now用法揭秘 (1)up to now意为“直到现在”,常与现在完成时连用,可放于句首、句尾或句中。 (2)up to now的同义词组有up to present, so far, till now等 知识拓展 up to还有以下意思。 I can take up to four people in my car.(至多) Where to spend your holiday is up to you.(取决于) Even though he's not up to the work, he still wants to do it.(胜任) What are the children up to now?(忙于) 9. badly off穷的;缺少的 E.g. We aren't too badly off but we can't afford a house like that. 我们并不是一文不名,但我们负担不起那样的房子。 E.g. The refugees are badly off for blankets, and even worse off for food.难民需要毯子,更需要食物。 知识拓展 (1)be badly off for sth.某物短缺;……不够 be worse off更穷的 (2)be well off有钱;富裕;境况良好 be well off for sth.……充裕 be better off境况较好 E.g. If he had worked harder when young, he would be well off now. 如果他年轻时多努力一点,现在就能过得舒服些 名师点拨 be badly off for sth.同义于be short of/be lacking in。 badly off的比较级是worse off,意为“境况更差”。 well off的比较级是better off,意为“更富裕/有”。 10. pick out (1)精心挑选 E.g. Have you picked out the movie you want to see? 你选好你想看的电影了吗? (2)辨别出;认出来 E.g. He could easily pick out his old friend among the crowd though they hadn't seen each other for a long time. 尽管他们很长时间不见面了,但是他能轻易地在人群中辨认出他的老朋友。 pick up拾起;捡起;(无意中)学会;见到;收听到;搭载;使人恢复精神;(便宜地)买 E.g. I would have picked it up if I had noticed it.我如果看见的话,早就把它捡起来了。 11. cut off切断,断绝 ①He cut off some branches from the tree.他从树上剪掉几根树枝。 ②They cut off the gas supply.他们停止了煤气供应。 cut down砍倒;减少,缩减;改小或缩短(衣服) cut out切去,剪下;删去;中断 cut across 抄近路穿过 cut away切去,剪去,切成,剪成;迅速离开 cut in/into插嘴;插入 cut up切碎;使痛苦 We cut down our daily expenses.我们削减了我们的日常花费。 12. star in在……担任主角;主演 E.g. Who is starring in the film at the local cinema? 本地那家电影院上演的那部片子是谁主演的? 知识拓展 star as...担任……角色 star vt. 以……为主角;由……主演 n. (电影、体育等的) 明星;杰出人物 E.g. The actress is starring as Mother of the family in the play. E.g. The new play stars three of Britain's best actors.这部新戏由英国最出色的三位演员主演。 13. as多用于固定搭配中: as is often the case这是常有的事 as was expected正如所预料的那样 as often happens正如经常发生的那样 as is known to all众所周知 as has been said before如上所述 as is mentioned above正如上面所提到的 14. with的复合结构为: with+宾语+宾语补足语(adj./adv./介词短语/doing/done/to do) E.g. With a lot of work to do, he has to stay up to do it.由于有很多的工作要做,他只好熬夜。 E.g. He is busy preparing his paper with many books on the desk. 书桌上放着很多的书,他在忙着准备论文。 例1.(2014江西横峰适应考)Jessica is a very religious girl; She believes that she is always ____ supported by her god. A. spiritually B. typically C. historically D. officially 解析:根据句意“Jessica是一个非常虔诚的女孩。她相信上帝总是从精神上支持她。”spiritually精神上地;typically典型地;historically历史地;officially官方地,正式地。 答案:A。 例2(2014安徽屯溪月考)Shall we ____ our discussion and have some tea or coffee, please? A. break off B. break down C. break into D. break out 解析:根据句意“我们可以中断一下我们的讨论来点茶或咖啡吗?”break down出故障;break off 中断;break into闯入;break out爆发。 答案:A。 例3.(2014山东烟台月考)I am surprised that a company with a good ____ would produce such poor quality goods. A. enjoyment B. appreciation C. entertainment D. reputation 解析:根据句意“我感到吃惊——有着好声誉的一家公司会生产如此劣质的产品。”enjoyment 享受;appreciation欣赏;感激;entertainment 娱乐;款待reputation名誉;名声 答案:D。 例4.(2014江西)I don’t believe what you said, but if you can prove it, you may be able to ______me. A. convince B. inform C. guarantee D. refuse 解析:根据句意“我不相信你所说的,但是如果你能拿出证据,那你就能够使我相信。” inform 通知;guarantee 保证;refuse 拒绝 convince 使......相信 答案:A。 例5.(2014福建)Scientists are convinced___ the positive effect of laughter ____ physical and mental health. A. of, at B. of, on C. on, at D. by, in 解析:根据句意“科学家们对笑声对身心健康产生的影响深信不疑。”be convinced of为固定词组,意为对……信服 effect on sth.对……的影响为固定短语 基础演练 1. I ________________ her in Australia.(astonish)我在澳大利亚见到她,很惊异。 2. Every summer they ________________ an outdoor party. (entertain) 每年夏天他们举行户外宴会来款待邻居。 3.________________________, we never went to bed hungry. (badly) 不管我们多么贫穷,我们从没有饿着肚子睡觉。 4. The company ________________. (throughout)这家公司的分店遍及全国。 5. She said she ________________. (failure)她说她是一个失败的经理。 6. He ________________ finally. (overcome)他最终克服了不良习惯。 7. She ________________________ for her daughter. (pick)她给女儿挑了一件粉红色的衣服。 8. They were then almost completely ______________. (cut)那时他们几乎完全与外界隔绝了。 9. He ____________________________. (direct adj.)他做事直截了当。 10. She had ________________________. (star)她主演了许多好电影。 Keys: 1. was astonished to see 2. entertain the neighbors to 3. No matter how badly off we were 4. has branches throughout the country 5. was a failure as a manager 6. overcame his bad habit 7. picked out a pink dress 8. cut off from the outside world 9. has a direct way of doing things 10. starred in a lot of good films 巩固提高 单词适当形式填空 1. Be quiet! Do you hear someone ________ (shout) for something? 2. Sitting in the chair beside the window, I watched the leaves ________ (swing) in the wind. 3. I was greatly ________ (amaze) at how he worked out the ________ (puzzle) problem in a creative way. 4. It is said that the new school ________ (cost) 20 million yuan will soon be completed. 5. On hearing the ________ (disappoint) news that their favorite team had lost the match, they all became ________ (disappoint). 6. --Where's Joan? --I found her ________ (deliver) newspapers from door to door on the way home. 7. It seems that they provide us with an ________ (encourage) situation, but in fact we are ________(face) with a lot of difficult problems. 8. People seldom realize the voice needs looking after. Many people below the age of 65 are left ________ (sound) much older than they are. 9. With the car ________ (break) down halfway on the road, we had to wait for help coming. 10. Jane, ________ (struggle) for months to find a job as a travel agent, finally got one as a waitress. Keys: 1--5 shouting/swinging/amazed; puzzling/costing/disappointing; disappointed 6--10 delivering/encouraging; faced/sounding/breaking/ having struggled 单词适当形式填空 1. My friend knows where he can pick ________a good used car at a reasonable price. 2. up to now, the program________ (save) thousands of children who would otherwise have died. 3._______was expected, only five people turned up at the party, ______disappointed the hostess very much. 4. Two middle-aged passengers fell into the sea.________(fortunate),neither of them could swim. 5. He often listens to music in his spare time to entertain________. 6. Jack was ________ failure as a leader, but he achieved great success in writing. 7. The worker had a finger cut________ by the machine he was operating. 8. --Can you lend me some money? --I am ________(bad) off than you. You know I live from hand to mouth. 9.--Is he really content ________ the low pay? --Of course not. He wants to get some extra pay. 10. It's easy to pick________ the boy who will meet you at the airport because he is rather tall. 11. The film was really ________ (move). We were greatly ________ (move) while seeing it. 12. --Who were those people with the bananas? --A group ________(call) itself the League for Peace. 13. My brother saw the children ________(play) near my house when he went to work at 8:00. 14.--Is this the path ________ (lead) to the village? --Yes, it is. 15. What surprised the man most was his not________ (allow) to meet his daughter. Keys: 1--5 up/has saved/As; which/Unfortunately/ himself 6--10 a/off/worse/with/ out 11--15 moving; moved/ calling/ playing/ leading/ being allowed _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、短文改错 Before lunch Allen happened to see a man fished in a water hole about five metre outside a bar. Allen stopped curiously. All people passing over the man who was fishing regarded him like a foolish man. Therefore, Allen said kindly to fish-catcher, “Hello, will you please do me a favor and have a drink with me in the bar? The man gladly received his invitation. After buying the man several cups of soft drinks, Allen asked, “You are fishing there, right? May I know how much fish you have caught this morning? “You are the number 8,”said the man humorous. 二、七选五 Our heart is very important. __1__ Heart disease, also called cardiovascular disease, mainly affects older people and means that there are problems with the heart and blood vessels. This disease includes a variety of problems, including high blood pressure, hardening of the arteries, chest pain, heart attacks and strokes. What Is Heart Disease? __2__Through the body's blood vessels, the heart pumps blood to all of the body's cells. The blood carries oxygen, which the cells need. Cardiovascular disease is a group of problems that occur when the heart and blood vessels aren't working the way they should. How Do You Get Heart Disease? Heart disease isn't contagious (传染的)—you can't catch it like the way you get the flu or a cold. Instead, certain things increase a person's chances of getting cardiovascular disease.__3__ For some of these risk factors a person can't do anything about them, like being older and having other people in the family who have had the same problems. __4__ Many people do not realise they have cardiovascular disease until they have chest pain, a heart attack, or stroke. These kinds of problems often need immediate attention and the person may need to go to the emergency department of a hospital. Can Kids Get Heart Disease? Kids usually don't have any symptoms of heart and blood vessel problems. But by starting heart-healthy habits right now, kids can reduce the chance they will ever need to worry about cardiovascular disease. So what should you do? Don't smoke, for one. __5__Your heart and blood vessels will thank you later! A. How do we deal with Heart Disease? B. Doctors call these things risk factors. C. What Are the Signs of Heart Disease? D. The heart is the centre of the cardiovascular system. E. And be sure to eat healthy, exercise, and maintain a healthy weight. F. It's no wonder people worry when they hear someone has heart problems. G. If someone you know is getting one of these operations, you might feel worried. Keys: 短文改错 1. fished-fishing 2. metre-metres 3. over-by 4. like-as 5. Therefore-However 6.to后加the 7. received-accepted 8. are-were 9. much-many 10. humorous-humorously 二、七选五 1--5FDBCE Unit3 A taste of English humour语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法----动词的-ing形式作表语,定语,宾语补足语并能熟练运用相关语法知识解决相应类型的题。 一、动词的-ing形式由“动词原形+ing形式”构成,它既是现在分词形式,也是动名词形式。v-ing能在句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语、宾语补足语和状语,但不能单独作谓语。其时态和语态的变化为 时态 语态 主动 被动 一般时 doing being done 完成时 having done having been done 二、(1)动词-ing分为动名词和现在分词两类。 (2)动名词兼有动词和名词的特征,可在句中充当主语、宾语、表语和定语。 (3)现在分词兼有动词、形容词和副词的特征,可在句中充当定语、表语、补语和状语。 三、动词-ing作表语 1.作表语的动词-ing所体现的是名词的特性,用于对主语的内容进行解释说明,可表示抽象或习惯上的动作,且主语和表语可以换位。 E.g. Her job is cleaning the building.她的工作是打扫楼房。 2.作表语的现在分词是形容词性的,表示主语的性质或特征,这时通常看作形容词,且主语与表语不可换位。 E.g. Though the job is boring,he has to do it to make a living.尽管这份工作无趣,为了谋生他也只好做。 四、v.?ing形式作定语 1.动词-ing作定语表示名词的属性或事物的用途时,一般只能作前置定语。 E.g. Now he is waiting for you in the waiting room. (表示用途)现在他在候诊室里等着你。 2.动词-ing兼有动词、形容词和副词的特征时,可以作前置定语(具有动词、形容词的特征),也可 以作后置定语(兼有动词、形容词和副词的特征),表示正在进行的动作或某种状态,单个动词-ing作定语时,常放在所修饰的名词之前;动词-ing短语作定语时,常放在所修饰的名词之后,相当于一个定语从句。 E.g. The girl standing there (=The girl who is standing there) is my classmate. 站在那里的女孩是我的同学。 五、动词-ing作补语 1.动词-ing作宾语补足语常放在宾语后面,表示一个正在进行的主动性的动作,强调一个过程或一 种状态。 2.当主句转换为被动结构时,原来作宾语补足语的动词-ing形式便转换为主语补足语。 E.g. The boss kept the workers working the whole night. (宾语补足语)那老板让工人整夜地工作。 E.g. The workers were kept working the whole night. (主语补足语) 1)位于感官动词后(see,hear,feel,smell,watch,find,notice等)。 E.g. I felt somebody patting me on the shoulder.我感到有人拍我的肩膀。 2)位于使役动词后(have,make,let,get,keep,set,catch等)。 E.g. He got the clock going again.他让钟表又走了起来。 3)用于with复合结构中。 E.g. With the light burning, he felt asleep.灯亮着,他睡着了。 六、难点突破 1.作表语的动词-ing形式,许多是由能够表示人们某种感情或情绪的动词变化而来的,用来修饰 物,常见的有:moving,interesting,encouraging,exciting,inspiring,boring,surprising,puzzling, amusing,astonishing,此类形容词意为:令人……的。 E.g. The problem is puzzling, which easily makes people puzzled. 这个问题是令人迷惑的,很容易让人迷惑不解。 2.see,hear,feel,watch等动词之后用动词-ing和动词不定式作宾语补足语的区别。 (1)动词-ing作宾语补足语时,表示动作正在进行;而动词不定式作宾语补足语时,表示(或强调动作从开始到结束的全过程。 E.g. When we passed the classroom, we saw a student playing the piano. (动作在进行) 当我们经过教室时,我们看见一个学生在弹钢琴。 E.g. We watched our teacher make an experiment during yesterday's class. (动作全过程) 在昨天的课上,我们观看老师做了一个实验。 (2)若用短暂性动词的某个形式作宾语补足语,其不定式短语表示一个动作,而其-ing则表示反 复动作。 E.g. We heard the door slam. (一次动作) 我们听见门“砰”的一声关上了。 E.g. We heard the door slamming. (反复动作) 我们听见了“砰砰砰”的关门声 例1.(2014江西吉安段考)A few days after the interview, I received a letter _____ me admission to the university. A. having offered B. offered C. to be offered D. offering 例 2. The program was so fascinating that the children kept their eyes _____on the screen. A.to fix B. to be fixed C. fixed D. fixing 例3. (2014四川) The manager was satisfied to see many new products ______ after great effort. A. having developed B. to develop C. developed D. develop 例4.(2014北京)There are still many problems ______ before we are ready for a long stay on the Moon. A. solving B. solved C. being solved D.to be solved 例5. Volunteering gives you a chance lives, including your own. A. change B. changing C. changed D. to change 基础演练 完成句子 1.This is a ____________________(口头协议). 2.He can't put up with _____________(老板对他的虐待). 3.No one ____________(满足于) what he has. 4.It will ____________(吓你一跳) to hear what I paid for this ring. 5.He fell in the water, _________(逗得孩子们乐不可支). 6.He is ____________________(不是个成功的艺术家),but a success as an art teacher. 6. _____________ (injure) in the leg made it impossible for him to walk his way home. 7.I was late, but ____________(幸运地) the meeting hadn't started. 8.He can't speak ________________(满满一嘴食物). 9.He looked ____________(直接地) at me. 10.He ________________(挑选了一条领带) to wear with his suit. 巩固提高 用动词的适当形式填空 1. As you know, seeing is ________ (believe). 2.________ (take) exercise does great good to your health. 3. We saw the manager ________ (pick) up the telephone and make a call. 4. Look at the ________ (fly) bird. It's nice! 5. I want to buy a ________ (wash) machine for my mother. 6. To do that would be ________ (cut) the foot to fit the shoe. 7. We were all very ________ (surprise) at the news. I found it very ________ (surprise). 8. He gave us an ________ (inspire) speech. We were all ________ (inspire). 完成句子 1. I'm ________________; I don't mind what I wear. (particular) 我对衣服不是很挑剔;我不介意穿什么。 2. I ________________recently. (occasion)最近我经常遇见她。 3. He ________________ without anyone noticing. (slide) 在没有任何人注意的情况下,他溜进了一个房间。 4. He told some jokes ________________. (amuse) 他说了一些笑话来逗乐那个在哭闹的孩子。 5. When the party ended, the whole room _________. (leave) 当宴会结束时,整个房间都乱七八糟。 6. She __________________ about what she had heard. (whisper) 她悄悄地给我说了她听到的一些事。 7. They ________________ by bursting into laughter.(react) 对他说的笑话,他们回应以大笑。 8. ________________ that everyone could understand it. (explanation) 他的解释很清楚,每个人都能够理解。 9. He _______________ that he couldn't drive home. (drunk) 他醉得厉害,不能开车回家。 10. We ________________ yesterday. (do) 我们本应该昨天购物的。 单项选择 1. Last night, there were millions of people the opening ceremony live on TV. A. watch B.to watch C. watched D. watching 2. the course very difficult, she decided to move to a lower level. A. Find B. Finding C. To find D. Found 3. We've had a good start, but next, more work needs ____ to achieve the final success. A. being done B. do C. to be done D. to do 4. Toady there are more airplanes _____ more people than ever before in the skies. A. carry B. carrying C. carried D. to be carrying 5. When we saw the road with snow, we decided to spend the holiday at home. A. block B. to block C. blocking D. blocked _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1.(2014福建卷) the past year as an exchange student in Hong Kong, Linda appears more mature than those of her age. A. Spending B. Spent C. Having spent D. To spend 2.(2014福建卷)For those with family members far away, the personal computer and the phone are important in staying________. A. connected B. connecting C. to connect D. to be connected 3.(2014湖南卷)____your own needs and styles of communication is as important as learning to convey your affection and emotions. A. Understanding B. To be understood C. Being understood D. Having understood 4.(2014湖南卷)There is no greater pleasure than lying on my back in the middle of the grassland, _____at the night sky. A. to stare B. staring C. stared D. having stared 5.(2014湖南卷) ourselves from the physical and mental tensions,we each need deep thought and inner quietness. A. Having freed B. Freed C. To free D. Freeing 6.(2014江苏卷)His lecture____, a lively question-and-answer session followed. A. being given B. having given C. to be given D. having been given 7.(2014江西卷) ___nearly all our money , we couldn’t afford to stay at a hotel . A. Having spent B. To spent C. Spent D. To have spent 8.(2014江西卷)He is thought ___foolishly .Now he has no one but himself to blame for losing the job . A. to act B. to have acted C. acting D. having acted 9. A ship loaded with expensive goods was reported ________ into the sea with its oil ________ . A. to sink; given out B. to have sunk ; run out C. having sunk ; used up D. to have sunk ; run out of 10.(2014山东卷)There is a note pinned to the door______ when the shop will open again. A. saying B. says C. said D. having said 11.(2014山东卷)It’s standard practice for a company like this one______ a security officer. A. employed B. being employed C. to employ D. employs 12.(2014陕西卷)12. It’s quite hot today. Do you feel like _________ for a swim? A. to go B. going C go D. having gone 13. ________ the difficult maths problem, I have consulted Professor Russell several times. A. Working out B. Worked out C. To work out D. Work out 14. The specialist at the meeting will give us a lecture next week . A. referred B. referred to C. referring D. referring to 15. While waiting for the opportunity to get , Henry did his best to perform his duty. A. promote B. promoted C. promoting D. to promote 二、假设你是李华。你们学校上周六组织高一年级的学生看望了当地一家孤儿院(orphanage)的小朋友。作为校报的小记者,你在此次志愿活动结束后,要对此次活动进行报道。请你根据以下提示写一则简短的故事,描述一下你们这次活动的具体内容,并谈谈你们的亲身感受。(词数120个左右) 1.为小朋友们带去了流行读物、各种学习用品和玩具。 2.跟小朋友们一起做游戏,还表演了精彩的节目。 3.离开之前我们和他们合影留念,并留下了联系方式以便我们能随时联系。 感受:1.那天,我们每个人都玩得很开心。 2.我们给了孩子们关爱和帮助;作为报答,他们给了我们他们的微笑和爱。 3.这些志愿活动给我们留下了深刻的印象。 ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Unit3 A taste of English humour语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法----动词的-ing形式作表语,定语,宾语补足语并能熟练运用相关语法知识解决相应类型的题。 一、动词的-ing形式由“动词原形+ing形式”构成,它既是现在分词形式,也是动名词形式。v-ing能在句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语、宾语补足语和状语,但不能单独作谓语。其时态和语态的变化为 时态 语态 主动 被动 一般时 doing being done 完成时 having done having been done 二、(1)动词-ing分为动名词和现在分词两类。 (2)动名词兼有动词和名词的特征,可在句中充当主语、宾语、表语和定语。 (3)现在分词兼有动词、形容词和副词的特征,可在句中充当定语、表语、补语和状语。 三、动词-ing作表语 1.作表语的动词-ing所体现的是名词的特性,用于对主语的内容进行解释说明,可表示抽象或习惯上的动作,且主语和表语可以换位。 E.g. Her job is cleaning the building.她的工作是打扫楼房。 2.作表语的现在分词是形容词性的,表示主语的性质或特征,这时通常看作形容词,且主语与表语不可换位。 E.g. Though the job is boring,he has to do it to make a living.尽管这份工作无趣,为了谋生他也只好做。 四、v.?ing形式作定语 1.动词-ing作定语表示名词的属性或事物的用途时,一般只能作前置定语。 E.g. Now he is waiting for you in the waiting room. (表示用途)现在他在候诊室里等着你。 2.动词-ing兼有动词、形容词和副词的特征时,可以作前置定语(具有动词、形容词的特征),也可 以作后置定语(兼有动词、形容词和副词的特征),表示正在进行的动作或某种状态,单个动词-ing作定语时,常放在所修饰的名词之前;动词-ing短语作定语时,常放在所修饰的名词之后,相当于一个定语从句。 E.g. The girl standing there (=The girl who is standing there) is my classmate. 站在那里的女孩是我的同学。 五、动词-ing作补语 1.动词-ing作宾语补足语常放在宾语后面,表示一个正在进行的主动性的动作,强调一个过程或一 种状态。 2.当主句转换为被动结构时,原来作宾语补足语的动词-ing形式便转换为主语补足语。 E.g. The boss kept the workers working the whole night. (宾语补足语)那老板让工人整夜地工作。 E.g. The workers were kept working the whole night. (主语补足语) 1)位于感官动词后(see,hear,feel,smell,watch,find,notice等)。 E.g. I felt somebody patting me on the shoulder.我感到有人拍我的肩膀。 2)位于使役动词后(have,make,let,get,keep,set,catch等)。 E.g. He got the clock going again.他让钟表又走了起来。 3)用于with复合结构中。 E.g. With the light burning, he felt asleep.灯亮着,他睡着了。 六、难点突破 1.作表语的动词-ing形式,许多是由能够表示人们某种感情或情绪的动词变化而来的,用来修饰 物,常见的有:moving,interesting,encouraging,exciting,inspiring,boring,surprising,puzzling, amusing,astonishing,此类形容词意为:令人……的。 E.g. The problem is puzzling, which easily makes people puzzled. 这个问题是令人迷惑的,很容易让人迷惑不解。 2.see,hear,feel,watch等动词之后用动词-ing和动词不定式作宾语补足语的区别。 (1)动词-ing作宾语补足语时,表示动作正在进行;而动词不定式作宾语补足语时,表示(或强调动作从开始到结束的全过程。 E.g. When we passed the classroom, we saw a student playing the piano. (动作在进行) 当我们经过教室时,我们看见一个学生在弹钢琴。 E.g. We watched our teacher make an experiment during yesterday's class. (动作全过程) 在昨天的课上,我们观看老师做了一个实验。 (2)若用短暂性动词的某个形式作宾语补足语,其不定式短语表示一个动作,而其-ing则表示反 复动作。 E.g. We heard the door slam. (一次动作) 我们听见门“砰”的一声关上了。 E.g. We heard the door slamming. (反复动作) 我们听见了“砰砰砰”的关门声 例1.(2014江西吉安段考)A few days after the interview, I received a letter _____ me admission to the university. A. having offered B. offered C. to be offered D. offering 解析:根据句意“面试后几天,我收到了一封允许我进入大学的信。” 本题考查非谓语动词作定语,a letter与offer为逻辑上的主动关系,故用现在分词作定语 答案:A。 例 2. The program was so fascinating that the children kept their eyes _____on the screen. A.to fix B. to be fixed C. fixed D. fixing 解析:这个节目如此迷人,已至于孩子们把目光都集中在屏幕上。此处为“keep+名词+过去分词”结构,eye与动词 fix为被动关系,用过去分词作宾语补足语 答案:C。 例3. (2014四川) The manager was satisfied to see many new products ______ after great effort. A. having developed B. to develop C. developed D. develop 解析:根据句意“在做出巨大努力之后,看到很多新产品被研发出来,经理很满意。” 此题考查的是非谓语动词作感官动词see的宾语补足语,develop与宾语products间为被动关系,故使用过去分词。 答案:C。 例4.(2014北京)There are still many problems ______ before we are ready for a long stay on the Moon. A. solving B. solved C. being solved D.to be solved 解析:本题考查非谓语动词,考查方式为非谓语动词形式选择。根据题干信息,非谓语动词在这里做定语,限定“要去解决的问题”。根据非谓语动词做定语的规则,现在分词表示主动和正在发生,过去分词表示被动或完成,而不定式表示将要发生。 答案:D。 例5. Volunteering gives you a chance lives, including your own. A. change B. changing C. changed D. to change 解析:根据句意“该题句意为,志愿活动给予你改变生活的机会,包括改变你自己的生活。” 此处chance意为机会,用法为sb get/have/be given a chance to do sth意为有机会干某事。 答案:D。 基础演练 完成句子 1.This is a ____________________(口头协议). 2.He can't put up with _____________(老板对他的虐待). 3.No one ____________(满足于) what he has. 4.It will ____________(吓你一跳) to hear what I paid for this ring. 5.He fell in the water, _________(逗得孩子们乐不可支). 6.He is ____________________(不是个成功的艺术家),but a success as an art teacher. 6. _____________ (injure) in the leg made it impossible for him to walk his way home. 7.I was late, but ____________(幸运地) the meeting hadn't started. 8.He can't speak ________________(满满一嘴食物). 9.He looked ____________(直接地) at me. 10.He ________________(挑选了一条领带) to wear with his suit. Keys: 1. verbal agreement 2. his boss's cruelty to him 3. is content with 4. astonish you 5. much to the entertainment of the children 6. a failure as an artist 7. fortunately 8. with a mouthful of food 9. directly 10. picked out a tie 巩固提高 用动词的适当形式填空 1. As you know, seeing is ________ (believe). 2.________ (take) exercise does great good to your health. 3. We saw the manager ________ (pick) up the telephone and make a call. 4. Look at the ________ (fly) bird. It's nice! 5. I want to buy a ________ (wash) machine for my mother. 6. To do that would be ________ (cut) the foot to fit the shoe. 7. We were all very ________ (surprise) at the news. I found it very ________ (surprise). 8. He gave us an ________ (inspire) speech. We were all ________ (inspire). Keys: 1. believing 2. Taking 3. pick 4. flying 5. washing 6. to cut 7. surprised; surprising 8. inspiring; inspired 完成句子 1. I'm ________________; I don't mind what I wear. (particular) 我对衣服不是很挑剔;我不介意穿什么。 2. I ________________recently. (occasion)最近我经常遇见她。 3. He ________________ without anyone noticing. (slide) 在没有任何人注意的情况下,他溜进了一个房间。 4. He told some jokes ________________. (amuse) 他说了一些笑话来逗乐那个在哭闹的孩子。 5. When the party ended, the whole room _________. (leave) 当宴会结束时,整个房间都乱七八糟。 6. She __________________ about what she had heard. (whisper) 她悄悄地给我说了她听到的一些事。 7. They ________________ by bursting into laughter.(react) 对他说的笑话,他们回应以大笑。 8. ________________ that everyone could understand it. (explanation) 他的解释很清楚,每个人都能够理解。 9. He _______________ that he couldn't drive home. (drunk) 他醉得厉害,不能开车回家。 10. We ________________ yesterday. (do) 我们本应该昨天购物的。 1. not particular about my clothes 2. have met her on occasion 3. slid into a room 4. to amuse the crying child 5. was left in a mess 6. whispered something to me 7. reacted to his joke 8. His explanation was so clear 9. was so drunk 10. should have done some shopping 单项选择 1. Last night, there were millions of people the opening ceremony live on TV. A. watch B.to watch C. watched D. watching 2. the course very difficult, she decided to move to a lower level. A. Find B. Finding C. To find D. Found 3. We've had a good start, but next, more work needs ____ to achieve the final success. A. being done B. do C. to be done D. to do 4. Toady there are more airplanes _____ more people than ever before in the skies. A. carry B. carrying C. carried D. to be carrying 5. When we saw the road with snow, we decided to spend the holiday at home. A. block B. to block C. blocking D. blocked Keys: 1-5DBCBD _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1.(2014福建卷) the past year as an exchange student in Hong Kong, Linda appears more mature than those of her age. A. Spending B. Spent C. Having spent D. To spend 2.(2014福建卷)For those with family members far away, the personal computer and the phone are important in staying________. A. connected B. connecting C. to connect D. to be connected 3.(2014湖南卷)____your own needs and styles of communication is as important as learning to convey your affection and emotions. A. Understanding B. To be understood C. Being understood D. Having understood 4.(2014湖南卷)There is no greater pleasure than lying on my back in the middle of the grassland, _____at the night sky. A. to stare B. staring C. stared D. having stared 5.(2014湖南卷) ourselves from the physical and mental tensions,we each need deep thought and inner quietness. A. Having freed B. Freed C. To free D. Freeing 6.(2014江苏卷)His lecture____, a lively question-and-answer session followed. A. being given B. having given C. to be given D. having been given 7.(2014江西卷) ___nearly all our money , we couldn’t afford to stay at a hotel . A. Having spent B. To spent C. Spent D. To have spent 8.(2014江西卷)He is thought ___foolishly .Now he has no one but himself to blame for losing the job . A. to act B. to have acted C. acting D. having acted 9. A ship loaded with expensive goods was reported ________ into the sea with its oil ________ . A. to sink; given out B. to have sunk ; run out C. having sunk ; used up D. to have sunk ; run out of 10.(2014山东卷)There is a note pinned to the door______ when the shop will open again. A. saying B. says C. said D. having said 11.(2014山东卷)It’s standard practice for a company like this one______ a security officer. A. employed B. being employed C. to employ D. employs 12.(2014陕西卷)12. It’s quite hot today. Do you feel like _________ for a swim? A. to go B. going C go D. having gone 13. ________ the difficult maths problem, I have consulted Professor Russell several times. A. Working out B. Worked out C. To work out D. Work out 14. The specialist at the meeting will give us a lecture next week . A. referred B. referred to C. referring D. referring to 15. While waiting for the opportunity to get , Henry did his best to perform his duty. A. promote B. promoted C. promoting D. to promote 二、假设你是李华。你们学校上周六组织高一年级的学生看望了当地一家孤儿院(orphanage)的小朋友。作为校报的小记者,你在此次志愿活动结束后,要对此次活动进行报道。请你根据以下提示写一则简短的故事,描述一下你们这次活动的具体内容,并谈谈你们的亲身感受。(词数120个左右) 1.为小朋友们带去了流行读物、各种学习用品和玩具。 2.跟小朋友们一起做游戏,还表演了精彩的节目。 3.离开之前我们和他们合影留念,并留下了联系方式以便我们能随时联系。 感受:1.那天,我们每个人都玩得很开心。 2.我们给了孩子们关爱和帮助;作为报答,他们给了我们他们的微笑和爱。 3.这些志愿活动给我们留下了深刻的印象。 ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Keys: 单项选择 1-5.CAABC 6-10. DABDA 11-15.CBCBB 作文 参考范文: Last Saturday, our school organized all of the senior 1 students to visit the children at a local orphanage. We took many books that are popular with children, as well as many kinds of school supplies and toys, to the children. They were delighted to receive these gifts. We played some games together and gave wonderful performances as well. Before leaving the orphanage we took photos with them and gave them our contact details so we could keep in touch with one another at any time.

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  • ID:4-6094446 人教版高中英语必修四辅导讲义:Unit2 Working the land词汇篇及语法篇(教师版及学生版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修3、4/必修4/Unit 2 Working the land

    Unit2 Working the land词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 重点短语 1. thanks to 由于,因为,幸亏 owing to   因为,由于(可作表语和状语) because of 因为(强调因果关系) as a result of 由于(强调某一事件造成的后果) due to 因为,由于 2. rid …of…   使……摆脱,除去 get/be rid of…  摆脱……;除去…… rid oneself of… 摆脱;从……中解脱 break away from… 摆脱…… 3. be satisfied with   对……感到满意 4. would rather   宁肯,宁愿 (后跟动词原形,其否定形式为would rather not do sth.) 5. build up 逐渐增强;建立,开发 set up    建立 put up 举起;张贴;搭建 take up 拿起;从事;占据(空间等) 6. lead to   导致,造成(后果);通向…… 7. focus on   集中;把……集中在…… 8. keep… free from/of 使……免受(影响、伤害等);使……不含(有害物) 二、同义辨析 1. expand/stretch/extend expand指向四面八方的扩大、扩张 E.g. I owned a bookshop and desired to expand the business. stretch指由短变长的伸展 E.g. This sweater has stretched. extend强调向某一方向的延长 E.g. His influence extends beyond the TV viewing audience. 2. thanks to/ owing to/ due to/ because of/ as a result of thanks to 由于,幸亏(常用于书面语,多表示正面情况,有时也表示反面情况) E.g. Thanks to your help, we finished the task in time. owing to 由于(作状语,既能指积极的原因,也可指消极的原因) E.g. Owing to careless driving, he had an accident. due to 由于,应归于(常用来作表语,也可用作状语) E.g. His failure was due to carelessness. because of 着重指某种原因(在句中通常作状语) E.g. Many families break up because of a lack of money. as a result of 由于…… E.g. She died as a result of her injuries. 三、要点梳理 1. If so句式 if so如果这样 if not如果不是这样 if any如果有的话或即使有的话 if ever如果曾经有过或即使有过的话 if possible如果可能的话 if necessary.如果必要的话 2. struggle (vi.)& (n.) struggle with/against与……斗争 struggle for努力争取……;为……而斗争 struggle to one’s fee挣扎着站起来t struggle to do sth.努力做某事 3. hunger(n.)饥饿;欲望;渴望&(v.)(使)饥饿;渴望 be hungry for…渴望得到…… go hungry吃不饱;挨饿 hunger to do sth.渴望做某事 hunger for/after sth.渴望做某事 4. expand (vt.&vi.)使变大;伸展 expand… into…把……扩展/发展成…… 5. rid… of …使……摆脱/除去…… be/get rid of…摆脱 rid oneself of…从……解脱 rob sb. of sth.抢劫某人某物 warn sb. of sth.警告某人某事 remind sb. of sth.提醒某人某事 inform sb. of sth.通知某人某事 cure sb. of sth.医好某人的病 6. be satisfied with对……满意 to one’s satisfaction使某人满意的是 be satisfied of 使相信某事 be satisfied that确信…… satisfying(adj.)令人满意的 satisfaction(n.)满意;满足 satisfactory(adj.)令人满意的 7. would rather宁愿;宁可 would rather(not) do sth.宁愿(不)做某事 would rather have done sth.宁愿做过某事 would do sth. rather than do sth.= would rather do sth. than do宁愿做某事(而)不愿做某事/与其做某事倒不如做某事 would rather+从句(句子需用虚拟语气) 8. Therefore(adv.)因此;所以;因而 用在句首,其后要有逗号 E.g. Therefore, we must learn English well. 用在两个分句之间,即一个句子的一部分表示原因因而另一部分表示结果时,一般其前要用分号; 若第二个分句前是逗号或无符号,则要注意前加and E.g. I had a headache; therefore I could not go to your party. I was ill, and therefore could not go therefore. 9. equip (vt.&vi.)配备;装备 equip…with…用……装备…… equip sb./ sth. for使某人/某事具有…… be equipped with装备;配备 be fully /poorly equipped 装备齐全/简陋 equipment(n.)设备;装备 a piece of equipment一件设备 office equipment办公室设备 10. die from死于…… die of/from死于…… die away逐渐消失 die down逐渐转弱 die off相继死去 die out灭绝,消失 die for为……牺牲 11. in need of in( great)need of (非常)需要(后常跟名词) in need 需要 in memory of为了纪念…… in praise of为了表扬…… in case of如果,即使 in favor of赞成 in honor of为纪念/庆祝…… in face of面对 12. confuse (vt.)使迷惑;使为难 confuse A with/and B把A与B混淆 be confused about sth.对……感到困惑 be/get confused by sth.被……搞糊涂 regret (vt.)遗憾;惋惜&(n.)遗憾;懊悔 regret doing sth.后悔做了某事 regret to say/inform that…遗憾地说/告知…… regret that从句 遗憾…… with great/deep regret很遗憾 to one’s regret=to the regret of sb.让某人感到遗憾的是 regrettable(adj.)令人遗憾的;可惜的 regretful(adj.)遗憾的;后悔的 13. build up逐渐增加;建立;开发 build up to sth.为……做准备 build oneself up增强体质 build up a fame建立名声 build up one’s health/body增进健康 build up(=form steadily)意为“逐步建立;逐步形成”,如build up one’s strength(增强体力)。 build 还指“建造;建筑”,如build a house(建房子) 14. lead to导致;造成(后果);通向 lead sb.to a place引导某人去某个地方 lead up to导致;渐渐引到(某个话题) lead a …life过……的生活 lead sb. by the nose完全支配某人 15. focus on集中(注意力、精力等)于 focus one’s attention/mind on集中精力于…… focus …on… 将……聚集于…… be focused on 集中精力/注意力(=concentrate on) come into focus (问题)显著突出 focus one's attention on 集中注意力于 bring …into focus 聚焦于 16. reduce (vt.)减少;缩减 reduce…by…把……减少了…… reduce…to…把……减少到……;将……概括成…… be reduced to陷入某种境地 17. keep…free from/of使……免受(影响、伤害等);使……不舍(有害物) 18. be free from/of不受……伤害 for free/free of charge免费 free sb./oneself/sth. from/of sth.解除;去除 freely(adv.)自由地 freedom(n.)自由 19. comment (n.) 评论;议论 (v.)表达意见;作出评论 make/have comments on/upon srh.评论某事 no comment无可奉告 comment on/upon对……发表评论 20. circulate (adj.) 值得做的,值得的(vt.& vi.)循环,流通;流传 circulation(n.) 流通,循环 circulate rumor 散布谣言 circulate secret 传播秘密 circulate rapidly 很快传开 circulate slowly 流通滞缓 circulate widely 广泛流传 例1.(2014甘肃河西一联)I would rather_______ to work after my graduation, but my father would rather I________ abroad for further education. A. go; had gone B. go; went C. went; went D. went; will go 例 2. (2014浙江宁波期始)At times the balance in nature is _______, resulting in a number of possibly unforeseen effects. A. troubled B. confused C. disturbed D. puzzled 例3.(2014福建清流段考)People all over the world _______ for peace. leave B. hunger C. come D. work 例4.(2014福建)The climate here is quite pleasant, the temperature rarely,______ ,reaching 30。C in summer. A. if not B. if ever C. if any D. if so 例5. (2014安徽) It’s our hope that we will play a greater role in the market place and,______ ,supply more jobs. A. however B. anywhere C. therefore D. otherwise 基础演练 用括号内单词的正确形式填空 1. Some fish are very ________ (production);they lay thousands of eggs. 2. During the school holidays the children enjoyed their ________ (free). 3. Prices have risen steadily during the past several ________ (decade). 4. Have you ever ________ (grow) any plants? 5. Now using chemical ________ (fertile) has become very common in farming. 6. The man has a strong________ (hungry) for success. 7. Both parties were highly________ (satisfy) with the results of the talks. 8. The children talked so loudly at the dinner table that I had to struggle to________(hear). 9. They have all the ________ (equip) and advice you will need. 10. I feel upset and ________ (disturb) by my own shopping habits. 巩固提高 短语填空 thanks to, be equipped with, in the hope of, be satisfied with, lead to, get rid of, three times, struggle with, have a hunger for, expand on 1. I think you'd better ____________ your bad habits. 2. As a young man, I ____________the present job. 3. ________ your help,much trouble was saved. 4. Laziness resulted in his failure. While hard work ________ his brother's success. 5. Thomas Edison ____________knowledge when he was young. 6. I ____________the problem for hours before I saw daylight. 7. Could you____________ that point, please. 8. This room is ____________as big as that one. 9. Every classroom ____________air conditioning. 10. I called early ____________catching her before she went to work. 一、在句中空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词) 或括号内单词的正确形式 1.Some necessary equipment as well as food and clothes ________(be) sent to the disaster?hit area since the floods occurred. 2. It is sleeping late in the morning that leads to ________ (be) late for work. 3. My mother doesn't want to find a job and would rather ________ (stay) at home and be a housewife. 4. Thanks ________the teacher's help, he has made great progress in English study. 5. --What has made him upset recently? -- ________ (leave) alone to face the troublesome case. 6. This is a ________ (confuse) problem, which can be seen from her ________ (confuse) look. 7. They are working hard to keep sorghum and peanuts ________ (freely) from being destroyed by pests and chemicals. 8.--Since you didn't agree with him, why didn't you raise objections at the meeting? --Well, now I regret not ________ (do) that. 9. She is always working hard as she is never ________ (satisfy) with what she's got. 二、短语填空 build up, reduce to, to one's regret, make no comment on/about, focus…on, confuse…with, keep…free from, lead to 10. Don't ________Austria ________Australia. 11. The poor woman ____________begging. 12. The police chief ____________the attack. 13. He ________all his attention________ finding a solution to the problem. 14.Actually, you can________ your health by running every morning. 15. I hope you will________ yourself________ tobacco and alcohol. 16.________, he had wasted too much time. 17. It's said that it was his carelessness that________ the bus accident. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、阅读理解 At a certain time in our lives we consider every place as the possible site(地点) for a house. I have thus searched the country within a dozen miles of where I live. In imagination I have bought all the farms, one after another, and I knew their prices. The nearest thing that I came to actual ownership was when I bought the Hollowell place. But before the owner completed the sale with me, his wife changed her mind and wished to keep it, and he offered me additional dollars to return the farm to him. However, I let him keep the additional dollars and sold him the farm for just what I gave for it. The real attractions of the Hollowell farm to me were its position, being about two miles from the village, half a mile from the nearest neighbor, bounded(相邻) on one side by the river, and separated from the highway by a wide field. The poor condition of the house and fences showed that it hadn't been used for some time. I remembered from my earliest trip up the river that the house used to be hidden behind a forest area, and I was in a hurry to buy it before the owner finished getting out some rocks, cutting down the apple trees, and clearing away some young trees which had grown up in the fields. I wanted to buy it before he made any more of his improvements. But it turned out as I have said. I was not really troubled by the loss. I had always had a garden, but I don't think I was ready for a large farm. I believe that as long as possible it is better to live free and uncommitted(自由的). It makes but little difference whether you own a farm or not. 1. What do we know about the author? A. He wanted to buy the oldest farm near where he lived. B. He made a study of many farms before buying. C. He made money by buying and selling farms. D. He had the money to buy the best farm in the country. 2. Why did the author want to buy the farm in a hurry? A. He was afraid the owner might change his mind. B. He hoped to enlarge the forest on the farm. C. He wanted to keep the farm as it was. D. He was eager to become a farm owner. 3. The underlined words “the loss” in the last paragraph refer to “________”. A. the money the author lost in buying the farm B. the sale of the garden in the Hollowell place C. the removal of the trees around the house D. the failure to possess the Hollowell place 4. According to the author, what is important in life? A. To own a farm. B. To satisfy his needs. C. To be free from worries. D. To live in the countryside. 二、完形填空 A friend of mine met with an accident driving in darkness. His legs were so hurt that he couldn't move. What was the __1__was that he found himself unable to ask for help—his mobile phone went out of __2__as a result of the exhausted battery. Nothing could be done but to __3__in cold wilderness. It was eight hours later that the day broke, and then __4__ of the rescue. It is almost__5__that he could stand the horror in the darkness for so long. Even more surprising was his__6__, “First of all, I __7__ my physical conditions and found myself not in mortal danger. As there was no__8__to call for help, I leaned back in my seat trying my best to stop the wound from__9__. In this way I dozed off(打瞌睡).” His story put an end to my regret for the__10__of an exploration adventure that happened last year. A group of young men __11__to explore a mountain cave and got lost.__12__ to find a way out in the dark cave, they were frightened and ran anxiously(焦虑地) without a sense of __13__. Finally they died in fear and exhaustion. According to the __14__people that found them, the place where they got lost was only about 10 metres away from the __15__of the cave. If they stayed on the spot when they lost their way and tried to__16__ themselves, they would probably sense a faint light glimmering(发出微弱的闪光) not far away. Don't you think you can compare it with __17__itself? When you meet with __18__ in life and work, you are lost in darkness. Sometimes it's unclear yet and you needn't put up struggle __19__. It seems to be a negative attitude, __20__a person who can afford to do so must have foresight(先见之明) as well as great courage in the first place. 1. A. hopeful B. worst C. more D. best 2. A. call B. way C. control D. work 3. A. cry B. lie C. wait D. sleep 4. A. delay B. success C. team D. arrival 5. A. untrue B. unimaginable C. true D. useless 6. A. plan B. decision C. explanation D. excuse 7. A. checked B. looked C. worked D. lived 8. A. energy B. way C. tools D. strength 9. A. killing B. spreading C. hurting D. bleeding 10. A. success B. failure C. disappointment D. sadness 11. A. had B. managed C. tried D. meant 12. A. Willing B. Unable C. Determined D. Deciding 13. A. hearing B. sight C. feeling D. direction 14. A. rescue B. village C. local D. brave 15. A. end B. top C. opening D. side 16. A. save B. help C. stop D. calm 17. A. adventure B. work C. life D. mankind 18. A. difficulty B. happiness C. sadness D. excitement 19. A.at last B.at once C.at times D.at an end 20. A. and B.so C. but D. while Unit2 Working the land词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 重点短语 1. thanks to 由于,因为,幸亏 owing to   因为,由于(可作表语和状语) because of 因为(强调因果关系) as a result of 由于(强调某一事件造成的后果) due to 因为,由于 2. rid …of…   使……摆脱,除去 get/be rid of…  摆脱……;除去…… rid oneself of… 摆脱;从……中解脱 break away from… 摆脱…… 3. be satisfied with   对……感到满意 4. would rather   宁肯,宁愿 (后跟动词原形,其否定形式为would rather not do sth.) 5. build up 逐渐增强;建立,开发 set up    建立 put up 举起;张贴;搭建 take up 拿起;从事;占据(空间等) 6. lead to   导致,造成(后果);通向…… 7. focus on   集中;把……集中在…… 8. keep… free from/of 使……免受(影响、伤害等);使……不含(有害物) 二、同义辨析 1. expand/stretch/extend expand指向四面八方的扩大、扩张 E.g. I owned a bookshop and desired to expand the business. stretch指由短变长的伸展 E.g. This sweater has stretched. extend强调向某一方向的延长 E.g. His influence extends beyond the TV viewing audience. 2. thanks to/ owing to/ due to/ because of/ as a result of thanks to 由于,幸亏(常用于书面语,多表示正面情况,有时也表示反面情况) E.g. Thanks to your help, we finished the task in time. owing to 由于(作状语,既能指积极的原因,也可指消极的原因) E.g. Owing to careless driving, he had an accident. due to 由于,应归于(常用来作表语,也可用作状语) E.g. His failure was due to carelessness. because of 着重指某种原因(在句中通常作状语) E.g. Many families break up because of a lack of money. as a result of 由于…… E.g. She died as a result of her injuries. 三、要点梳理 1. If so句式 if so如果这样 if not如果不是这样 if any如果有的话或即使有的话 if ever如果曾经有过或即使有过的话 if possible如果可能的话 if necessary.如果必要的话 2. struggle (vi.)& (n.) struggle with/against与……斗争 struggle for努力争取……;为……而斗争 struggle to one’s fee挣扎着站起来t struggle to do sth.努力做某事 3. hunger(n.)饥饿;欲望;渴望&(v.)(使)饥饿;渴望 be hungry for…渴望得到…… go hungry吃不饱;挨饿 hunger to do sth.渴望做某事 hunger for/after sth.渴望做某事 4. expand (vt.&vi.)使变大;伸展 expand… into…把……扩展/发展成…… 5. rid… of …使……摆脱/除去…… be /get rid of…摆脱 rid oneself of…从……解脱 rob sb. of sth.抢劫某人某物 warn sb. of sth.警告某人某事 remind sb. of sth.提醒某人某事 inform sb. of sth.通知某人某事 cure sb. of sth.医好某人的病 6. be satisfied with对……满意 to one’s satisfaction使某人满意的是 be satisfied of 使相信某事 be satisfied that确信…… satisfying(adj.)令人满意的 satisfaction(n.)满意;满足 satisfactory(adj.)令人满意的 7. would rather宁愿;宁可 would rather(not) do sth.宁愿(不)做某事 would rather have done sth.宁愿做过某事 would do sth. rather than do sth.= would rather do sth. than do宁愿做某事(而)不愿做某事/与其做某事倒不如做某事 would rather+从句(句子需用虚拟语气) 8. Therefore (adv.)因此;所以;因而 用在句首,其后要有逗号 E.g. Therefore, we must learn English well. 用在两个分句之间,即一个句子的一部分表示原因因而另一部分表示结果时,一般其前要用分号; 若第二个分句前是逗号或无符号,则要注意前加and E.g. I had a headache; therefore I could not go to your party. I was ill, and therefore could not go therefore. 9. equip (vt.&vi.)配备;装备 equip…with…用……装备…… equip sb./ sth. for使某人/某事具有…… be equipped with装备;配备 be fully /poorly equipped 装备齐全/简陋 equipment(n.)设备;装备 a piece of equipment一件设备 office equipment办公室设备 10. die from死于…… die of/from死于…… die away逐渐消失 die down逐渐转弱 die off相继死去 die out灭绝,消失 die for为……牺牲 11. in need of in( great)need of (非常)需要(后常跟名词) in need 需要 in memory of为了纪念…… in praise of为了表扬…… in case of如果,即使 in favor of赞成 in honor of为纪念/庆祝…… in face of面对 12. confuse (vt.)使迷惑;使为难 confuse A with/and B把A与B混淆 be confused about sth.对……感到困惑 be/get confused by sth.被……搞糊涂 regret (vt.)遗憾;惋惜&(n.)遗憾;懊悔 regret doing sth.后悔做了某事 regret to say/inform that…遗憾地说/告知…… regret that从句 遗憾…… with great/deep regret很遗憾 to one’s regret=to the regret of sb.让某人感到遗憾的是 regrettable(adj.)令人遗憾的;可惜的 regretful(adj.)遗憾的;后悔的 13. build up逐渐增加;建立;开发 build up to sth.为……做准备 build oneself up增强体质 build up a fame建立名声 build up one’s health/body增进健康 build up(=form steadily)意为“逐步建立;逐步形成”,如build up one’s strength(增强体力)。 build 还指“建造;建筑”,如build a house(建房子) 14. lead to导致;造成(后果);通向 lead sb.to a place引导某人去某个地方 lead up to导致;渐渐引到(某个话题) lead a …life过……的生活 lead sb. by the nose完全支配某人 15. focus on集中(注意力、精力等)于 focus one’s attention/mind on集中精力于…… focus …on… 将……聚集于…… be focused on 集中精力/注意力(=concentrate on) come into focus (问题)显著突出 focus one's attention on 集中注意力于 bring …into focus 聚焦于 16. reduce (vt.)减少;缩减 reduce…by…把……减少了…… reduce…to…把……减少到……;将……概括成…… be reduced to陷入某种境地 17. keep…free from/of使……免受(影响、伤害等);使……不舍(有害物) 18. be free from/of不受……伤害 for free/free of charge免费 free sb./oneself/sth. from/of sth.解除;去除 freely(adv.)自由地 freedom(n.)自由 19. comment (n.) 评论;议论 (v.)表达意见;作出评论 make/have comments on/upon srh.评论某事 no comment无可奉告 comment on/upon对……发表评论 20. circulate (adj.) 值得做的,值得的(vt.& vi.)循环,流通;流传 circulation(n.) 流通,循环 circulate rumor 散布谣言 circulate secret 传播秘密 circulate rapidly 很快传开 circulate slowly 流通滞缓 circulate widely 广泛流传 例1.(2014甘肃河西一联)I would rather_______ to work after my graduation, but my father would rather I________ abroad for further education. A. go; had gone B. go; went C. went; went D. went; will go 解析:根据句意“我宁愿毕业后去工作,但是我父亲宁愿我出国深造”第一空为固定结构would rather do sth.“宁愿做某事”;第二空为would rather+从句,句子用虚拟语气,表示对将来的情况虚拟用一般过去时。 答案:B。 例2.(2014浙江宁波期始)At times the balance in nature is _______, resulting in a number of possibly unforeseen effects. A. troubled B. confused C. disturbed D. puzzled 解析:根据句意“有时候自然平衡是混乱的,结果造成了大量可能不可预料的影响”根据语境可知 答案:B。 例3.(2014福建清流段考)People all over the world _______ for peace. leave B. hunger C. come D. work 解析:根据句意“全世界的人们都渴望和平。”hunger for sth.“渴望做某事”符合题意 答案:B。 例4.(2014福建)The climate here is quite pleasant, the temperature rarely,______ ,reaching 30。C in summer. A. if not B. if ever C. if any D. if so 解析:根据句意“这里的气候很宜人,夏天的气温极少达到30摄氏度。”本题考查状语从句的省略。当从句中的主语是it,谓语动词又含有系动词be时,可把it和系动词be一起省略。if ever与rarely连用,意为“极少” 答案:B。 例5.(2014安徽) It’s our hope that we will play a greater role in the market place and,______ ,supply more jobs. A. however B. anywhere C. therefore D. otherwise 解析:根据句意“我们希望我们能在市场上发挥更大的作用,这样就能提供更多的工作岗位”考查副词辨析。A.然而;B.在任何地方C.因此,所以D.否则,要不然,根据句意可知前后是逻辑上的因果关系 答案:C。 基础演练 用括号内单词的正确形式填空 1. Some fish are very ________(production);they lay thousands of eggs. 2. During the school holidays the children enjoyed their ________ (free). 3. Prices have risen steadily during the past several ________ (decade). 4. Have you ever ________ (grow) any plants? 5. Now using chemical ________ (fertile) has become very common in farming. 6. The man has a strong________ (hungry) for success. 7. Both parties were highly________ (satisfy) with the results of the talks. 8. The children talked so loudly at the dinner table that I had to struggle to________(hear). 9. They have all the ________ (equip) and advice you will need. 10. I feel upset and ________ (disturb) by my own shopping habits. Keys: 1.productive  2.freedom  3.decades  4.grown  5.fertilizers  6.hunger  7.satisfied  8.be heard  9.equipment  10.disturbed 巩固提高 短语填空 thanks to, be equipped with, in the hope of, be satisfied with, lead to, get rid of, three times, struggle with, have a hunger for, expand on 1. I think you'd better ____________ your bad habits. 2. As a young man, I ____________the present job. 3. ________ your help,much trouble was saved. 4. Laziness resulted in his failure. While hard work ________ his brother's success. 5. Thomas Edison ____________knowledge when he was young. 6. I ____________the problem for hours before I saw daylight. 7. Could you____________ that point, please. 8. This room is ____________as big as that one. 9. Every classroom ____________air conditioning. 10. I called early ____________catching her before she went to work. Keys: 1.get rid of  2.am satisfied with  3.Thanks to  4.led to  5.had a hunger for  6.had struggled with  7.expand on  8.three times  9.is equipped with  10.in the hope of 一、在句中空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词) 或括号内单词的正确形式 1.Some necessary equipment as well as food and clothes ________(be) sent to the disaster?hit area since the floods occurred. 2. It is sleeping late in the morning that leads to ________ (be) late for work. 3. My mother doesn't want to find a job and would rather ________ (stay) at home and be a housewife. 4. Thanks ________the teacher's help, he has made great progress in English study. 5. --What has made him upset recently? -- ________ (leave) alone to face the troublesome case. 6. This is a ________ (confuse) problem, which can be seen from her ________ (confuse) look. 7. They are working hard to keep sorghum and peanuts ________ (freely) from being destroyed by pests and chemicals. 8.--Since you didn't agree with him, why didn't you raise objections at the meeting? --Well, now I regret not ________ (do) that. 9. She is always working hard as she is never ________ (satisfy) with what she's got. 二、短语填空 build up, reduce to, to one's regret, make no comment on/about, focus…on, confuse…with, keep…free from, lead to 10. Don't ________Austria ________Australia. 11. The poor woman ____________begging. 12. The police chief ____________the attack. 13. He ________all his attention________ finding a solution to the problem. 14. Actually, you can________ your health by running every morning. 15. I hope you will________ yourself________ tobacco and alcohol. 16.________, he had wasted too much time. 17. It's said that it was his carelessness that________ the bus accident. Keys: 1.has been  2.being  3.stay  4.to  5.Being left  6.confusing;confused  7.free  8.doing  9.satisfied 10.confuse;with  11.is reduced to  12.made no comment on/about  13.focused;on  14.build up 15.keep;free from  16.To his regret  17.led to _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、阅读理解 At a certain time in our lives we consider every place as the possible site(地点) for a house. I have thus searched the country within a dozen miles of where I live. In imagination I have bought all the farms, one after another, and I knew their prices. The nearest thing that I came to actual ownership was when I bought the Hollowell place. But before the owner completed the sale with me, his wife changed her mind and wished to keep it, and he offered me additional dollars to return the farm to him. However, I let him keep the additional dollars and sold him the farm for just what I gave for it. The real attractions of the Hollowell farm to me were its position, being about two miles from the village, half a mile from the nearest neighbor, bounded(相邻) on one side by the river, and separated from the highway by a wide field. The poor condition of the house and fences showed that it hadn't been used for some time. I remembered from my earliest trip up the river that the house used to be hidden behind a forest area, and I was in a hurry to buy it before the owner finished getting out some rocks, cutting down the apple trees, and clearing away some young trees which had grown up in the fields. I wanted to buy it before he made any more of his improvements. But it turned out as I have said. I was not really troubled by the loss. I had always had a garden, but I don't think I was ready for a large farm. I believe that as long as possible it is better to live free and uncommitted(自由的). It makes but little difference whether you own a farm or not. 1. What do we know about the author? A. He wanted to buy the oldest farm near where he lived. B. He made a study of many farms before buying. C. He made money by buying and selling farms. D. He had the money to buy the best farm in the country. 2. Why did the author want to buy the farm in a hurry? A. He was afraid the owner might change his mind. B. He hoped to enlarge the forest on the farm. C. He wanted to keep the farm as it was. D. He was eager to become a farm owner. 3. The underlined words “the loss” in the last paragraph refer to “________”. A. the money the author lost in buying the farm B. the sale of the garden in the Hollowell place C. the removal of the trees around the house D. the failure to possess the Hollowell place 4. According to the author, what is important in life? A. To own a farm. B. To satisfy his needs. C. To be free from worries. D. To live in the countryside. 二、完形填空 A friend of mine met with an accident driving in darkness. His legs were so hurt that he couldn't move. What was the __1__was that he found himself unable to ask for help—his mobile phone went out of __2__as a result of the exhausted battery. Nothing could be done but to __3__in cold wilderness. It was eight hours later that the day broke, and then __4__ of the rescue. It is almost__5__that he could stand the horror in the darkness for so long. Even more surprising was his__6__, “First of all, I __7__ my physical conditions and found myself not in mortal danger. As there was no__8__to call for help, I leaned back in my seat trying my best to stop the wound from__9__. In this way I dozed off(打瞌睡).” His story put an end to my regret for the__10__of an exploration adventure that happened last year. A group of young men __11__to explore a mountain cave and got lost.__12__ to find a way out in the dark cave, they were frightened and ran anxiously(焦虑地) without a sense of __13__. Finally they died in fear and exhaustion. According to the __14__people that found them, the place where they got lost was only about 10 metres away from the __15__of the cave. If they stayed on the spot when they lost their way and tried to__16__ themselves, they would probably sense a faint light glimmering(发出微弱的闪光) not far away. Don't you think you can compare it with __17__itself? When you meet with __18__ in life and work, you are lost in darkness. Sometimes it's unclear yet and you needn't put up struggle __19__. It seems to be a negative attitude, __20__a person who can afford to do so must have foresight(先见之明) as well as great courage in the first place. 1. A. hopeful B. worst C. more D. best 2. A. call B. way C. control D. work 3. A. cry B. lie C. wait D. sleep 4. A. delay B. success C. team D. arrival 5. A. untrue B. unimaginable C. true D. useless 6. A. plan B. decision C. explanation D. excuse 7. A. checked B. looked C. worked D. lived 8. A. energy B. way C. tools D. strength 9. A. killing B. spreading C. hurting D. bleeding 10. A. success B. failure C. disappointment D. sadness 11. A. had B. managed C. tried D. meant 12. A. Willing B. Unable C. Determined D. Deciding 13. A. hearing B. sight C. feeling D. direction 14. A. rescue B. village C. local D. brave 15. A. end B. top C. opening D. side 16. A. save B. help C. stop D. calm 17. A. adventure B. work C. life D. mankind 18. A. difficulty B. happiness C. sadness D. excitement 19. A.at last B.at once C.at times D.at an end 20. A. and B.so C. but D. while Keys: 一、阅读理解1--4 BCDC 二、完形填空1--5 BDCDB 6--10CABDB 11--15CBDAC 16--20DCABC Unit2 Working the land语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法----动词的-ing形式作主语和宾语并能熟练运用相关语法知识解决相应类型的题。 一、动词的-ing形式由“动词原形+ing形式”构成,它既是现在分词形式,也是动名词形式。v-ing能在句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语、宾语补足语和状语,但不能单独作谓语。其时态和语态的变化为 时态 语态 主动 被动 一般时 doing being done 完成时 having done having been done 二、动词v-ing形式作主语 v-ing形式作主语时,通常表示一般的或抽象的多次行为。 1.v?ing形式直接作主语。 E.g. Smoking is harmful to your health. 吸烟有害健康。 E.g. Being fit helps you to stay focused on your lessons.保持健康有助于你集中精力学习。 2.有时为了避免句子主语过于冗长,通常用it代替v.-ing作形式主语。 E.g. It's no use advising him.劝他没用。 E.g. It's useless taking this kind of medicine吃这种药没用。 It’s fun being an actor.当个演员是有趣的。 三、v.?ing形式作宾语 1.能接v.-ing形式作宾语的动词有advise,avoid,appreciate,consider,delay,deny,dislike,enjoy, escape,finish,forget,keep,imagine,stop,mind,miss,mention,practise,begin,start,like,hate,remember,regret,require,resist,suggest等。 E.g. The master keeps thinking about it.主人不停地想这件事。 E.g. The tiger missed just being struck.老虎差点儿被打着。 [趣味提示]Mrs. P Black missed a bag. P·布莱克夫人丢了一个袋子。 该句话中每个字母代表了一个动词或短语,这些动词要求后面跟动名词作宾语。这些动词分别是: M=mind, r=risk, s=succeed in, P=practice B=be busy, l=look forward to, a=admit C=can't help, k=keep (on), m=miss I=insist on, s=suggest, s=stop, e=enjoy, d=delay, a=avoid, b=be worth, a=advise, g=give up 2.有些动词既可跟v.?ing形式作宾语,也可以跟不定式作宾语,但在语义上却有很大的差别。 go on to do sth.接着又做另一件事 go on doing sth.继续做同一件事 remember to do sth.记得要去做某事 remember doing sth.记得曾做过某事 try to do sth.努力做某事 try doing sth.尝试做某事 regret to do sth.对将要做的事表示遗憾 regret doing sth.对做过的事表示后悔 mean to do sth.打算/想做某事 mean doing sth.意味着做某事 3.v.?ing形式作介词的宾语。 E.g. After taking careful aim, he let the arrow fly. 仔细瞄准好了后,他把箭射了出去。 We are looking forward to seeing you again.我们盼望再次见到你。 He insisted on doing it in his own way.他坚持用他自己的方式来做这件事。 例1.(2014北京)The film star wears sunglasses. Therefore, he can go shopping without ______. A. recognizing B. being recognized C. having recognized D. having been recognized 例 2.(2014湖南)____ your own needs and styles of communication is as important as learning to convey your affection and emotions. A. Understanding B. To be understood C. Being understood D. Having understood 例3. (2014江苏沐阳期末) To avoid on how to use the word, you’d better refer to a dictionary. A. to get confused B. getting confused C.to get confusing D. getting confusing 例4.(2014天津渤海月考)They considered ______ a computer, which was considered ______ a great help in their work. A. to buy, to be B. buying, being C. to buy, being D. buying, to be 例5. (2014天津渤海月考)When Peter speaks in public, he always has trouble the right things to say. thinking of B.to think of C. thought of D. think of 基础演练 用所给词的适当形式填空 1.--Does Shelly like shopping? --Well, she would rather spend time ________ (read) at home than ________ (wander) in the street. 2. I must remember ___________ (remind) John that the garden needs ______________________ (water). 3.--What made Rodger so upset? --_______ (lose) three tickets for the football match. 4.--Robert is indeed a wise man. --Oh, yes. How often I have regretted __________ (not take) his advice! 5. -- Can I smoke here? --Sorry. We don't allow ________ (smoke) here. 6. _____________ (injure) in the leg made it impossible for him to walk his way home. 7. You cannot imagine a child _____________ (treat) so cruelly. 8. He suddenly had the feeling of _____________ (follow). But when he looked around, there was nobody. 9. He tried his best to avoid ________ (make) the same mistake. 10. We are looking forward to your ________ (come) soon. 巩固提高 根据汉语提示完成句子 1.________________________________(照顾婴儿) is a troublesome job. 2. ________________(他没来) made everyone present very disappointed. 3. You will find it _____________________ (做……没有用) it in this way. 4. Cherry ____________________________________(正忙于为……做准备) the coming exam. 5. He admitted __________________________(已经告诉了他母亲) the bad news. 1. Sunday, the students are at home. A. Being B. To be C. It is D. It being 2. The boy lay on his back, his teeth and his glaring eyes . A. set; looked B. set; looking C. setting; looked D. setting; looking 3. All the thing , his proposal is of greater value than yours. A. considered B. considering C.to consider D. consider 4. ______who she was, she said she was Mr. Johnson’s friend. A. Asking B. Asked C. To be asked D. When asking 5. He hurried to the station, ______the 9:30 train had already left. A.to find B. found C. only to find D. only finding 6.Which do you enjoy ___your weekends, fishing or watching TV? A. spending B.to spend C. being spent D. spend 7.______all my letters, I had a drink and went out. A. Finished B. Having finished C. Finishing D. To finish 8.She had no money ___a birthday present for her children. A.to buy with B. buying C. bought D. with which to buy 9.From the dates___on the gold coin, it is confirmed that it was made five hundred years ago. A. marking B. marked C.to be marked D. having been marked 10. time and labor, cartoonists generally draw the hands of their characters with only 3 fingers and a thumb. A. To save B. Saved C. Saving D. Having saved 11. O’Neal works hard. He is often seen ___heavily before his teammates start. A. sweated B.to be sweated C. sweating D. being sweated 12.I can hardly imagine Peter___across the Atlantic Ocean in 15 days. A. sail B.to sail C. sailing D.to have sailed 13. Such the case, I couldn’t help but him. A. being; support B. is; to support C. has been; supporting D. be; supported 14. Does the way you thought of the water clean make any sense? A. making B.to make C. how to make D. having made 15. In order not to be disturbed, I spent three hours in my study. A. locking B. locked C.to lock D. being locked _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1. --I’m sorry, I’m late. --_______, we have a few minutes left. A. You don’t sorry B. Not sorry C. Never mind D. You shouldn’t sorry. 2. It is well known that Thomas Edison _______ the electric lamp. A. invented B. discovered C. found D. developed 3. Sugar is not an important element in bread, but flour is _______. A. unique B. essential C. natural D. adequate 4. He is very good at carpentering, though _______. A. he was very young B. very young C. he very young D. is very young 5. I will answer the teacher’s question when _______. A. I ask B. I will be asked C. asked D. I shall be asked 6. Fruit juice can be harmful _______ children’s teeth. A. for B. toward C. with D. to 7. My chest _____ when I take a deep breath, doctor. A. hurts B. wounds C. harms D. injure 8. The foreign teacher Mr. Halt has a strange way of writing. Here’s a notice for him, but no clear_____ of what he has written can be made at all. A. explanation B. meaning C. sense D. idea 9. The fellow felt rather ____ as he was the only person that wore sportswear at the party. A. in place B. out of place C. by the way D. in the way 10. ______ on the snake led to his own death. A. The farmer’s taking pity B. The farmer taking C. The farmer took D. The farmer to take 11. Not until all the fish die in the river ____ how serious the pollution was. A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized C. the villagers realized D. didn’t the villagers realize 12. With the development of our country, more and more students ____ to university. A. admit to B. admitted to C. are admitted D. are admitted to 13. --- Brad was Jane’s brother! --- _____ he reminded me so much of Jane! A. No doubt B. Above all C. No wonder D. Of course 14. The flowers _____ sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D to be smelt 15. New York, _____ last year, is a nice old city. A. that I visited B. which I visited C. where I visited D. in which I visited 二、阅读理解、 I spent the first eight years of my education in a small. However, in the ninth grade I moved to a huge public high school. I went from a class of 30 kids to a class of almost 100! I was shy and did not have much experience of socializing. I felt invisible there. They had a tradition in this class. On your birthday everyone would sing “Happy Birthday to You” and then members of the opposite sex would line up and give you a hug. My birthday was early in the school year, and since I didn’t know anyone to tell I figured that no one would notice. Little did I know that the teacher had looked at the school records and knew about my birthday. On my birthday I suddenly found myself at the center of everyone’s attention. Before I knew what was happening, everyone was singing to me and I had a bunch of girls waiting to give me a hug! I was completely confused. My heart was racing! It wasn’t until the fourth or fifth hug that I realized what I was saying “Happy Birthday” in a shy voice during each embrace. I tried to stop, but my brain I was so busy that I couldn’t control my mouth. Each girl gave me a wish, and I gave her the same in return. Later, whenever we greeted each other with a hug we would say. “Happy Birthday”. 1. By saying “I felt invisible there”, the writer meant that he was not ______. A. independent B. important C. noticed D. excited 2. What can we infer from the last paragraph? A. The writer was still being laughed at by his classmates. B. The writer had completely become a part of the class. C. Wishing his classmates a happy birthday had become a habit of the writer. D. The writer didn’t mind people playing jokes on him. 3. Where is the passage probably taken from? A. A piece of news B. A story book C. An advertisement D. A research book Unit2 Working the land语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法----动词的-ing形式作主语和宾语并能熟练运用相关语法知识解决相应类型的题。 一、动词的-ing形式由“动词原形+ing形式”构成,它既是现在分词形式,也是动名词形式。v-ing能在句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语、宾语补足语和状语,但不能单独作谓语。其时态和语态的变化为 时态 语态 主动 被动 一般时 doing being done 完成时 having done having been done 二、动词v-ing形式作主语 v-ing形式作主语时,通常表示一般的或抽象的多次行为。 1.v?ing形式直接作主语。 E.g. Smoking is harmful to your health. 吸烟有害健康。 E.g. Being fit helps you to stay focused on your lessons.保持健康有助于你集中精力学习。 2.有时为了避免句子主语过于冗长,通常用it代替v.-ing作形式主语。 E.g. It's no use advising him.劝他没用。 E.g. It's useless taking this kind of medicine吃这种药没用。 It’s fun being an actor.当个演员是有趣的。 三、v.?ing形式作宾语 1.能接v.-ing形式作宾语的动词有advise,avoid,appreciate,consider,delay,deny,dislike,enjoy, escape,finish,forget,keep,imagine,stop,mind,miss,mention,practise,begin,start,like,hate,remember,regret,require,resist,suggest等。 E.g. The master keeps thinking about it.主人不停地想这件事。 E.g. The tiger missed just being struck.老虎差点儿被打着。 [趣味提示]Mrs. P Black missed a bag. P·布莱克夫人丢了一个袋子。 该句话中每个字母代表了一个动词或短语,这些动词要求后面跟动名词作宾语。这些动词分别是: M=mind, r=risk, s=succeed in, P=practice B=be busy, l=look forward to, a=admit C=can't help, k=keep (on), m=miss I=insist on, s=suggest, s=stop, e=enjoy, d=delay, a=avoid, b=be worth, a=advise, g=give up 2.有些动词既可跟v.?ing形式作宾语,也可以跟不定式作宾语,但在语义上却有很大的差别。 go on to do sth.接着又做另一件事 go on doing sth.继续做同一件事 remember to do sth.记得要去做某事 remember doing sth.记得曾做过某事 try to do sth.努力做某事 try doing sth.尝试做某事 regret to do sth.对将要做的事表示遗憾 regret doing sth.对做过的事表示后悔 mean to do sth.打算/想做某事 mean doing sth.意味着做某事 3.v.?ing形式作介词的宾语。 E.g. After taking careful aim, he let the arrow fly. 仔细瞄准好了后,他把箭射了出去。 We are looking forward to seeing you again.我们盼望再次见到你。 He insisted on doing it in his own way.他坚持用他自己的方式来做这件事。 例1.(2014北京)The film star wears sunglasses. Therefore, he can go shopping without ______. A. recognizing B. being recognized C. having recognized D. having been recognized 解析:根据句意“那位电影明星戴上墨镜,所以,他去买东西不会被认出来。”根据题中的介词without 判断,本题考查非谓语动词作宾语,故此后应该使用动词的动名词形式,由于他是被人认出的,所 以应该用动名词的被动式。 答案:B。 例 2.(2014湖南)____ your own needs and styles of communication is as important as learning to convey your affection and emotions. A. Understanding B. To be understood C. Being understood D. Having understood 解析:根据句意“理解你自身的需要及交际风格,同学会表达你的感情和情绪是一样重要”不定式 (短语)或动名词(短语)均可作主语,区别在于不定式常表示将来,是特指;而动名词表示一般 情况,是泛指。而本句指的是普遍现象,属泛指,故用动名词较好。 答案:A。 例3. (2014江苏沐阳期末) To avoid on how to use the word, you’d better refer to a dictionary. A. to get confused B. getting confused C.to get confusing D. getting confusing 解析:根据句意“为了避免对使用单词的困惑,你最好参考字典。”本题考查动名词做宾语和形容词。avoid后面接动名词做宾语,排除AC项,confused一般修饰人,confusing一般修饰物。 答案:B。 例4.(2014天津渤海月考)They considered ______ a computer, which was considered ______ a great help in their work. A. to buy, to be B. buying, being C. to buy, being D. buying, to be 解析:根据句意“他们考虑买计算机,计算机被认为在他们的工作中有很大的帮助。”consider doing意思为“考虑”;consider sth./sb. to be...意思为“把某人或某事看作……”。 答案:D。 例5. (2014天津渤海月考)When Peter speaks in public, he always has trouble the right things to say. thinking of B.to think of C. thought of D. think of 解析:根据句意“当彼得在公共场所讲话时,他总是找不到适当的话说。”本题考查固定搭配,have trouble/difficulty/problems (in)doing sth.做…有困难,in可以省略。 答案:A。 基础演练 用所给词的适当形式填空 1.--Does Shelly like shopping? --Well, she would rather spend time ________ (read) at home than ________ (wander) in the street. 2. I must remember ___________ (remind) John that the garden needs ______________________ (water). 3.--What made Rodger so upset? --_______ (lose) three tickets for the football match. 4.--Robert is indeed a wise man. --Oh, yes. How often I have regretted __________ (not take) his advice! 5. -- Can I smoke here? --Sorry. We don't allow ________ (smoke) here. 6. _____________ (injure) in the leg made it impossible for him to walk his way home. 7. You cannot imagine a child _____________ (treat) so cruelly. 8. He suddenly had the feeling of _____________ (follow). But when he looked around, there was nobody. 9. He tried his best to avoid ________ (make) the same mistake. 10. We are looking forward to your ________ (come) soon. Keys: 1--5 reading; wander/to remind; watering或to be watered / Losing/ not taking/ smoking 6--10 Being injured/ being treated/ being followed/ making/ coming 巩固提高 根据汉语提示完成句子 1.________________________________(照顾婴儿) is a troublesome job. 2. ________________(他没来) made everyone present very disappointed. 3. You will find it _____________________ (做……没有用) it in this way. 4. Cherry ____________________________________(正忙于为……做准备) the coming exam. 5. He admitted __________________________(已经告诉了他母亲) the bad news. Keys: Taking care of/ Looking after babies His not coming no use/useless doing is busy (in) preparing/getting ready for having told his mother 1. Sunday, the students are at home. A. Being B. To be C. It is D. It being 2. The boy lay on his back, his teeth and his glaring eyes . A. set; looked B. set; looking C. setting; looked D. setting; looking 3. All the thing , his proposal is of greater value than yours. A. considered B. considering C.to consider D. consider 4. ______who she was, she said she was Mr. Johnson’s friend. A. Asking B. Asked C. To be asked D. When asking 5. He hurried to the station, ______the 9:30 train had already left. A.to find B. found C. only to find D. only finding 6.Which do you enjoy ___your weekends, fishing or watching TV? A. spending B.to spend C. being spent D. spend 7.______all my letters, I had a drink and went out. A. Finished B. Having finished C. Finishing D. To finish 8.She had no money ___a birthday present for her children. A.to buy with B. buying C. bought D. with which to buy 9.From the dates___on the gold coin, it is confirmed that it was made five hundred years ago. A. marking B. marked C.to be marked D. having been marked 10. time and labor, cartoonists generally draw the hands of their characters with only 3 fingers and a thumb. A. To save B. Saved C. Saving D. Having saved 11. O’Neal works hard. He is often seen ___heavily before his teammates start. A. sweated B.to be sweated C. sweating D. being sweated 12.I can hardly imagine Peter___across the Atlantic Ocean in 15 days. A. sail B.to sail C. sailing D.to have sailed 13. Such the case, I couldn’t help but him. A. being; support B. is; to support C. has been; supporting D. be; supported 14. Does the way you thought of the water clean make any sense? A. making B.to make C. how to make D. having made 15. In order not to be disturbed, I spent three hours in my study. A. locking B. locked C.to lock D. being locked Keys: 1--5.DBABC 6--10.BBDBA 11.--15CCABB _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1. --I’m sorry, I’m late. --_______, we have a few minutes left. A. You don’t sorry B. Not sorry C. Never mind D. You shouldn’t sorry. 2. It is well known that Thomas Edison _______ the electric lamp. A. invented B. discovered C. found D. developed 3. Sugar is not an important element in bread, but flour is _______. A. unique B. essential C. natural D. adequate 4. He is very good at carpentering, though _______. A. he was very young B. very young C. he very young D. is very young 5. I will answer the teacher’s question when _______. A. I ask B. I will be asked C. asked D. I shall be asked 6. Fruit juice can be harmful _______ children’s teeth. A. for B. toward C. with D. to 7. My chest _____ when I take a deep breath, doctor. A. hurts B. wounds C. harms D. injure 8. The foreign teacher Mr. Halt has a strange way of writing. Here’s a notice for him, but no clear_____ of what he has written can be made at all. A. explanation B. meaning C. sense D. idea 9. The fellow felt rather ____ as he was the only person that wore sportswear at the party. A. in place B. out of place C. by the way D. in the way 10. ______ on the snake led to his own death. A. The farmer’s taking pity B. The farmer taking C. The farmer took D. The farmer to take 11. Not until all the fish die in the river ____ how serious the pollution was. A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized C. the villagers realized D. didn’t the villagers realize 12. With the development of our country, more and more students ____ to university. A. admit to B. admitted to C. are admitted D. are admitted to 13. --- Brad was Jane’s brother! --- _____ he reminded me so much of Jane! A. No doubt B. Above all C. No wonder D. Of course 14. The flowers _____ sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D to be smelt 15. New York, _____ last year, is a nice old city. A. that I visited B. which I visited C. where I visited D. in which I visited 二、阅读理解、 I spent the first eight years of my education in a small. However, in the ninth grade I moved to a huge public high school. I went from a class of 30 kids to a class of almost 100! I was shy and did not have much experience of socializing. I felt invisible there. They had a tradition in this class. On your birthday everyone would sing “Happy Birthday to You” and then members of the opposite sex would line up and give you a hug. My birthday was early in the school year, and since I didn’t know anyone to tell I figured that no one would notice. Little did I know that the teacher had looked at the school records and knew about my birthday. On my birthday I suddenly found myself at the center of everyone’s attention. Before I knew what was happening, everyone was singing to me and I had a bunch of girls waiting to give me a hug! I was completely confused. My heart was racing! It wasn’t until the fourth or fifth hug that I realized what I was saying “Happy Birthday” in a shy voice during each embrace. I tried to stop, but my brain I was so busy that I couldn’t control my mouth. Each girl gave me a wish, and I gave her the same in return. Later, whenever we greeted each other with a hug we would say. “Happy Birthday”. 1. By saying “I felt invisible there”, the writer meant that he was not ______. A. independent B. important C. noticed D. excited 2. What can we infer from the last paragraph? A. The writer was still being laughed at by his classmates. B. The writer had completely become a part of the class. C. Wishing his classmates a happy birthday had become a habit of the writer. D. The writer didn’t mind people playing jokes on him. 3. Where is the passage probably taken from? A. A piece of news B. A story book C. An advertisement D. A research book Keys: 一、单项选择、 1-5.CABBC 6-10. DACBA 10-15.ACCBB 1--3 CBB

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  • ID:4-6094443 人教版高中英语必修四辅导讲义:Unit1 Women of achievement词汇篇及语法篇(教师版及学生版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修3、4/必修4/Unit 1 Women of achievement

    Unit1 Women of achievement词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1.蔑视;看不起 look down upon 2.查阅;参考;谈到;涉及 refer to 3.离开;启程;出发 move off 4.过着……的生活 lead a …life 5.碰巧;凑巧 by chance 6.继续;坚持 carry on 7.(偶然)遇见;碰见 come across 8.(想法、问题等)涌上心头 crowd in 二、词义辨析 1. battle/war/fight: battle侧重指战争中的一次较全面、时间较长的战斗,也指陆军或海军在某一特定地区进行的战斗或个人之间的争斗 E.g. The two armies battled all night. war战争的总称,一般指包括多个战役的大规模战争 E.g. Their courage brought the people through the war. fight最普通用词,含义广,指战斗、斗争或打斗 E.g. After a fierce fight, the enemy yielded to us. 2. look forward to期望;期待;盼望(其中to为介词) 短语扩展 look through习惯于 look on…as…把……看作…… look up to尊敬 look up抬头看;查阅;改善;好转 look back(on sth.)回忆;回顾 look around环顾;四下查看 look into调查 look on 旁观 look ahead超前看;展望未来 look out 当心 3. worthwhile/worth/worthy (1)从句法功能上看 worth 通常只用作表语,不用于名词前作定语;worthy 和 worthwhile 可用作表语和定语。  E.g. It isn’t worth the trouble. 不值得费那个事。  He is a worthy gentleman. 他是位值得尊敬的绅士。  His behavior is worthy of great praise. 他的行为值得高度赞扬。  They achieved a very worthwhile result. 他们取得了很有价值的成果。  We had a long wait, but it was worthwhile because we got the tickets. 我们等了很久,但还算值得,因为我们把票买到了。 (2)从所使用的修饰语来看  worth 习惯上不用 very 修饰(要表示类似意思可用 well),而 worthy 和 worthwhile 则可以用 副词very修饰。 E.g. That is very worthy of our attention. 那件事很值得我们注意。  Nursing is a very worthwhile career. 护理工作是很值得干的职业。  但习惯上不说:The work is very worth doing. (very 应改为 well) (3)从搭配习惯来看  有关 be worth 的搭配习惯  a)be worth后可直接跟名词、代词或动名词。  E.g. The picture is worth $ 500. 这幅画值 500 美元。  The clock is hardly worth repairing. 这台钟简直不值得修理。  What is worth doing is worth doing well. 值得干的事就得干好。  注意:其后可接动名词,不能接不定式,且接动名词时,总是用主动形式表示被动意义。  b)在现代英语中,在be worth前使用形式主语it被认为是合习惯的。 E.g. It isn’t worth repairing the car. 这辆汽车不值得修了。  Is it worth visiting the city? 这个城市值得去看吗?  但是,若不用形式主语it而直接用动名词作主语,则是错误的。  E.g. Repairing the car is worth.(误)  c)在be worth doing 结构中,除非句首用了形式主语it,否则句子主语总应是其动名词的逻辑宾语; 若其中的动词不及物,应考虑加上适当的介词。  E.g. Nothing he said was worth listening to. 他说的话没有一句值得听。 She’s not worth getting angry with. 犯不上跟她生气。  有关 be worthy 的搭配习惯  a)be worthy 后不能直接跟名词、代词或动名词,若要接,应借助介词 of。  E.g. Their efforts are worthy of your support. 他们的努力应得到你的支持。  Her behavior is worthy of praise. 她的行为是值得赞扬的。 b)与be worth后只接动名词不接不定式不同,be worthy后不接动名词,而接不定式(若该不定式要 表示被动意义,则应用被动形式)。  E.g. He is worthy to receive such honor. 他应该得到这种荣誉。  This suggestion is worthy to be considered. 这个建议值得考虑。 c)若要在be worthy后接动名词,与后接名词时的情形一样,应借助介词of,且该动名词若要表示 被动意义,要用被动形式。  E.g. He is worthy of filling [=to fill] the post. 这个职位他当之无愧。  This suggestion is worthy of being considered [=to be considered]. 这个建议值得考虑。  有关 be worthwhile 的搭配习惯 a) be worthwhile 后接动名词或不定式均可。  E.g. It is worthwhile buying the dictionary. 这本词典值得买。(其中的 worthwhile 也可换成 worth)  It is worthwhile to discuss the plan again. 这个计划值得再讨论一次。(其中的 worthwhile 不能换 worth,因为其后接用了不定式)  b)有时可将worthwhile分开写,此时也可在其中加上one’s。 E.g. I’d think it worthwhile to go. 我认为值得去。  Do you think it’s worthwhile quarrelling with me? 你认为与我吵值得吗?  Would you like to do some gardening for me? I’ll make it worth your while. 你愿意在我的花园里干些活吗? 我不会亏待你的。  It is worth your while visiting [to visit] the museum. 这个博物馆值得你去看看。 c)按传统语法,It is worth (one’s) while to do sth. [doing sth.] 结构必须用it作形式主语,其中的不定式或动名词做句子的真正主语。 (4)一句多译  在很多情况下,同一个意思可用几种不同的形式表达。 如:那个地方值得一去。  正:The place is worth a visit.  正:The place is worthy of a visit.  正:The place is worth visiting.  正:It is worth visiting the place.  正:The place is worthy of being visited.  正:The place is worthy to be visited.  正:It is worthwhile visiting the place.  正:It is worthwhile to visit the place. 三、要点梳理 1. achievement (cn.)成就;功绩 (un.)完成,实现 a sense of achievement成就感 a sense of direction方向感 achieve one’s goal达到目标 achieve one’s success获得成功 2. campaign (n.)运动;战役 (vi.)作战;参加运动 launch/start a campaign against…发动一场反对……的运动 campaign for/ against…参加争取/反对……的运动 campaign to do sth.为了做某事而进行运动 3. behave(v.)举动;(举止或行为)表现 behave well/badly to/towards sb.对待某人好/不好 behave oneself守规矩;表现得体 behavior[U]举止;行为;态度[U,C](人、动物等的)表现方式,活动方式 well-behaved (adj.)表现好的 badly-behaved (adj.)表现差的 4. move off向前移动(以腾出空间) move in迁入新居 move on变换(工作、话题等);前进 move away搬走 remove去除;移开 5. observe (vt.)观察;观测;遵守observation(n.) observe sb.do sth.观察到某人做了某事 observe sb. doing sth.观察到某人正在做某事 observe +that从句发现…… observe (vt.) 1)观察;观测:I felt he was observing everything I did. 2)遵守、奉行:We should the rules and regulations. 3)庆祝;祝贺;欢度:Some students are going to observe Christmas Day with their foreign teachers. 6.“only+状语(从句)”位于句首,句子/主句要部分倒装 only置于句首一般分为下列三种情况: 1)“only+副词”位于句首时,句子要倒装:Only then did she realize her mistake. 2)“only+介词短语”位于句首时,句子要倒装: E.g. Only by studying hard will you make progress I your study 3)“only+状语(从句)”位于句首,主句要倒装,从句不倒装 E.g. Only when I reached the top of mountain did I feel a great sense of achievement. 7. respect (n)敬意;细节;方面(v.)尊敬;尊重;遵守 respect sb. for (doing) sth. have /show respect to关于;就……而言 self-respect(n)自尊 respectable(adj.)值得尊敬的 respectful(adj.)表示敬意的;尊敬的 respectfully(adv.)恭敬地 respective(adj.)各自的,分别的 8. argue讨论;争论;辩论 argue with sb.(about/over/on sth.)(就某事)与某人争论 argue for/against sth.据理赞成/反对某事 argue that…主张……;认为…… argue sb. into doing sth.说服某人做某事 argue sb. out of doing sth.说服某人不做某事 9. crowd(n)人群;观众(vt.)挤满;使拥挤 E.g. Thousands of people crowed the narrow streets. crowd into one’s mind涌入某人的脑海 crowd in(on sb.)(想法、问题等)涌上心头;涌入脑海 crowd in/into(sth.)大批涌入(狭小的空间) be crowded with挤满……;充满着…… 10. support (n.)&(vt.)支持;拥护 support oneself自主谋生 come to one’s support支持某人 in support of为了支持……为了拥护…… 11. refer to 查阅;参考;谈到;涉及 refer to…as称……为 refer to/consult a dictionary=look up sth. in the dictionary(为……)查字典 refer to sb./sth.描述;涉及 reference(n.)参考 12. by chance碰巧;凑巧 by chance /accident碰巧;凑巧 by design/on purpose有益地;故意地 13. come across(偶然)碰见;遇见;发现 come about发生 come up 长出地面;(太阳)升起;发生;被提及;被讨论 come up with提出;想出 14. It seems/seemed that…看来……;好像…… 该句型可转换为:Sb. / Sth. seems/seemed+不定式。其他含seem的相关句型常用的还有: It seems +adj./n.看起来好像…… It seems as if/as though…看起来好像…… There seems(to be)…看起来像…… 15. intend (vt.)计划;打算 intend to do/doing sth.打算做某事 intend sb.to do sth.打算让某人做某事 be intended to do为了做…… be intended for专门为……而设计的;专供……使用的 had intended to do sth./intended to have done sth.本打算做某事(但没有做) 16. consideration(u.)体谅;体贴;关心;考虑 take…into consideration考虑到……;体谅…… be under consideration在考虑中;在审议中 in consideration of考虑到;鉴于 consider(v.)仔细考虑 considerate考虑周到的 considerable(adj.)相当多(或大、重要等)的 17. deliver(vt.)生(小孩儿);接生;递送;发表(演说等) deliver…to…把……交给/传递给…… deliver a baby助产;接生 be delivered of a baby分娩;生孩子 deliver a speech发表演说 18. carry on继续;坚持 carry out实行;执行;进行;履行(诺言、义务等) carry off获得(奖品、荣誉等);赢得 carry on with/doing sth.继续做某事 carry away 带走;冲走 例1.(2014河南六市联考)A(n)_______of achievement clearly has an influence on children’s early education. A. idea B. sense C. need D. mind 例 2.(2014天津蓟县模拟)Though plastic bags really brought convenience to us, they also _______ many problems for the environment. A. led to B. referred to C. contributed to D. appealed to 例3.(2014安徽)Terry, please _______your cellphone when Grandma is talking to you. A. look up from B. look into C. look back on D. look through 例4. (2014陕西西安一模)The door burst open and ______, shouting with anger.. A. rushed in a crowd B. in rushing a crowd C. in rushed a crowd D. in a crowd did rush 例5.(2014福建)It is widely acknowledged that students should be _______. A. supported B. matched C. evaluated D. controlled 基础演练 1. By working hard, he has _________(实现) his goal. 2. He won a prize for good __________(行为) a t school. 3. He is the president of a large international ___________(组织). 4. He is a much loved and highly __________(尊敬)teacher. 5. These measures are strongly __________ (支持) by environmental groups. 6. The man they _________ to(提到的) just now is Mr. White. 7. I have an __________(争论) with her on this topic. 8. I’m honored to __________ (做演讲) a speech here. 9. I have been dreaming of becoming a doctor since my ____________(童年) 10. The book is ___________(供……使用) for children. 巩固提高 1.(2014湖北)Is this your necklace, Marry? I _______ it when I was cleaning the bathroom this morning. A. went for B. looked after C. dealt with D. came across 2.(2014江西南昌月考) I don’t think the chair can take your weight; it’s _______children. A. traded with B. referred to C. connected to D. intended for 3. For the big house, the price is fairly cheap, but you’ve got to take into _________ the money you’ll spend on home improvement. A. consideration B. thoughtfulness C. responsibility D. measures 4.(2014天津)The recent financial crisis_______ into consideration, the Japanese boss ______ back on the number of workers working for him. A. taking; cuts B. was taken; cut C. taken; cut D.to take; cutting 5.(2014湖南十三校联考)I used to quarrel a lot with my parents, but now we ________fine. A. look out B. stay up C. carry on D. get along 1. --How soon will the candidates get their university admissions? --It may take three weeks for all the applications to be ________. A. withdrawn B. delivered C. edited D. processed 2.--Chinese former Premier Wen Jiabao________an important speech in the climate change conference in Copenhagen A. stated B. issued C. delivered D. addressed 3. The meal was over, and the managers went back to the meeting room to_____ their discussion. A. put away B. take down C. look over D. carry on 4. He was in the very act of starting the engine when the power source was______. A. carried on B. cut off C. picked out D. come across 5. I guess we’ve already talked about this before but I’ll ask you again just _______. A. by nature B. in return C. in case D. by chance 6. The host picked several people from the audience _______ and invited them to the stage to have a dialogue. A. at random B. by chance C. in turn D. on occasion 7. The sun rose, as it always _______, in a clear sky. A. is B. does C. likes D. seems 8. Being the First Lady and a mother of two, Mrs. Obama has launched her______ against childhood obesity in the US, hoping to encourage people to live healthier lives. A. campaign B. war C. fight D. battle 9. Proud of his African _______, he often writes in his poetry about the beautiful shores of Africa, the land of his ancestors. A. achievements B. discoveries C. accents D. roots 10. My parents often inspire me,“________ till you make it." A. Fight B. Fighting C. To tight D. Fought 11. The Red-cross Societies________$1,000,000 for the refugees who lost their houses in the tsunami. A. supported B. kept C. rose D. raised 12. Having a large family to ________, he took up two part-time jobs in his spare time. A. measure B. deliver C. respect D. support 13. --My son is learning English. What dictionary shall I buy for him? --What about this one? It is __________ for beginners. A. intended B. operated C. offered D. delivered 14. The word “unbelievable” based on Chinese, which has become a big hit online very quickly, _______a message that Chinese can also serve as an addition to English vocabulary. A. delivers B. simplifies C. declares D. clarifies 15. _______seems to be a strong competition for students to enter a key university. A. It B. There C. What D. That _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1. ______ good, this kind of fruit sells very well in our city. A. Taste B. Being tasted C. Tasting D. Having been tasted 2. The ______ look on his face suggested that he ______ that he would fail in the Math test. A. surprising; wouldn’t expect B. surprising; hadn’t expected C. surprised; hadn’t expected D. surprised; shouldn’t expect 3. I think he must have seen me at the meeting last night, ______? A. didn’t he B. don’t I C. do I D. mustn’t he 4. The Changjiang River has been polluted badly and is not good _______. A. to swim it B. to be swum in C. to swim in it D.to swim in 5. Thomas _____ in inventing many electrical machines A. was successful B. succeed C. was success D. successes 6. I would love ______ to the party that evening, but I had an unexpected visitor. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone 7. It is well known to all that water, ______ enough, can change into ice quickly. A. if cooling B. though to be cooled C. when cooled D. when is cooled 8. Mr.Wang ______ the person referred to at the meeting be put in prison. A. said B. wished C. agreed D. suggested 9. Is this school ______you studied in three years ago? A. where B. that C. the one D. which 10. _____ hardly made Mike pay any attention to _____ his mistakes. A. Scolding; correcting B. Being scolded; correct C. Being scolded; correcting D. Having been scolded; correct 11. Hardly ______ on the bus ______ the bus drove off. A. did he get; than B. had he got; when C. did he get; when D. had he got; than 12. --Which sport is the most popular in the US? --It’s hard to say. It largely ______ what you mean by “popular”? A. belongs to B. comes about C. depends on D. determines on 13. I _____ when it began to rain. A. was about to going out B. was in the point of going out C. was on the point of going out D. both A and C 14.You never imagine what trouble I have had ______ your house. It took me nearly 2 hours. A. to find B. finding C. found D. for finding 15.______ in her novel that she didn’t hear what I was saying. A. So absorbed had Nancy B. So absorbed Nancy was C. So absorbed was Nancy D. So absorbed Nancy had 二、完型选择 In 1990 a report was published about1 the earth might be like 20 years from then on. The report was a result of a three-year study. According to the report, the picture of the earth in the year 2010 is not a 2 one. The world will be more 3 because the population will continue to grow. The population could be4 6,300 million, almost 2,500 million more than in 1985.More people would move into cities,5 cities in developing countries. Such cities as Cairo and Jakarta probably would6have 15 million by then. Food production will7, but not enough to feed all the people. Farmers will grow 90% more food than they did in 1985, 8most of the increase would be in countries that9produce enough food for their people.10increase is expected in South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Poor farming ways are11large areas of crop land, changing farms into deserts. More farmland is12as cities become larger and more houses are built.13will get worse as industrial countries burn more coal and oil.Many of the world’s forests could disappear as more and more trees 14.Energy will continue to be a serious problem. The experts say their picture of the earth for the year 201015.They only pictured the situation that16today. By changing the situation, by17 the problems, the picture can be changed. There is18time for nations of the world to 19a plan of action. But they warned that 20too long to make decisions would greatly reduce the chances of success. 1. A. that B. whether C. how D. what 2. A. pleased B. pleasant C. safe D. clean 3. A. dangerous B. brilliant C. crowded D. awful 4. A. no more than B. as many as C. as much as D. as large as 5. A. especially B. specially C. deliberately D. apparently 6. A. none B. each C. all D. neither 7. A. insist B. reduce C. increase D. continue 8. A.so B. but C. or D. however 9. A. already B. hardly C. partly D. never 10. A. Much B. More C. Heavy D. Little 11. A. destroying B. protecting C. disturbing D. interrupting 12. A. saved B. lost C. discovered D. used 13.A.Air pollution B. Water pollution C. Some diseases D. All farmland 14. A.is cut across B.is cut up C. are cut down D. are cut off 15. A. must be true B. will come true C. can’t be true D. may be wrong 16. A. happens B. develops C. exists D. appears 17. A. settling B. working out C. answering D. dealing 18. A. much B. still C. less D. fewer 19. A. work about B. work at C. work out D. work for 20.A. working B. suggesting C. spending D. waiting Unit1 Women of achievement词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1.蔑视;看不起 look down upon 2.查阅;参考;谈到;涉及 refer to 3.离开;启程;出发 move off 4.过着……的生活 lead a …life 5.碰巧;凑巧 by chance 6.继续;坚持 carry on 7.(偶然)遇见;碰见 come across 8.(想法、问题等)涌上心头 crowd in 二、词义辨析 1. battle/war/fight: battle侧重指战争中的一次较全面、时间较长的战斗,也指陆军或海军在某一特定地区进行的战斗或个人之间的争斗 E.g. The two armies battled all night. war战争的总称,一般指包括多个战役的大规模战争 E.g. Their courage brought the people through the war. fight最普通用词,含义广,指战斗、斗争或打斗 E.g. After a fierce fight, the enemy yielded to us. 2. look forward to期望;期待;盼望(其中to为介词) 短语扩展 look through习惯于 look on…as…把……看作…… look up to尊敬 look up抬头看;查阅;改善;好转 look back(on sth.)回忆;回顾 look around环顾;四下查看 look into调查 look on 旁观 look ahead超前看;展望未来 look out 当心 3. worthwhile/worth/worthy (1)从句法功能上看 worth 通常只用作表语,不用于名词前作定语;worthy 和 worthwhile 可用作表语和定语。  E.g. It isn’t worth the trouble. 不值得费那个事。  He is a worthy gentleman. 他是位值得尊敬的绅士。  His behavior is worthy of great praise. 他的行为值得高度赞扬。  They achieved a very worthwhile result. 他们取得了很有价值的成果。  We had a long wait, but it was worthwhile because we got the tickets. 我们等了很久,但还算值得,因为我们把票买到了。 (2)从所使用的修饰语来看  worth 习惯上不用 very 修饰(要表示类似意思可用 well),而 worthy 和 worthwhile 则可以用 副词very修饰。 E.g. That is very worthy of our attention. 那件事很值得我们注意。  Nursing is a very worthwhile career. 护理工作是很值得干的职业。  但习惯上不说:The work is very worth doing. (very 应改为 well) (3)从搭配习惯来看  有关 be worth 的搭配习惯  a)be worth后可直接跟名词、代词或动名词。  E.g. The picture is worth $ 500. 这幅画值 500 美元。  The clock is hardly worth repairing. 这台钟简直不值得修理。  What is worth doing is worth doing well. 值得干的事就得干好。  注意:其后可接动名词,不能接不定式,且接动名词时,总是用主动形式表示被动意义。  b)在现代英语中,在be worth前使用形式主语it被认为是合习惯的。 E.g. It isn’t worth repairing the car. 这辆汽车不值得修了。  Is it worth visiting the city? 这个城市值得去看吗?  但是,若不用形式主语it而直接用动名词作主语,则是错误的。  E.g. Repairing the car is worth.(误)  c)在be worth doing 结构中,除非句首用了形式主语it,否则句子主语总应是其动名词的逻辑宾语; 若其中的动词不及物,应考虑加上适当的介词。  E.g. Nothing he said was worth listening to. 他说的话没有一句值得听。 She’s not worth getting angry with. 犯不上跟她生气。  有关 be worthy 的搭配习惯  a)be worthy 后不能直接跟名词、代词或动名词,若要接,应借助介词 of。  E.g. Their efforts are worthy of your support. 他们的努力应得到你的支持。  Her behavior is worthy of praise. 她的行为是值得赞扬的。 b)与be worth后只接动名词不接不定式不同,be worthy后不接动名词,而接不定式(若该不定式要 表示被动意义,则应用被动形式)。  E.g. He is worthy to receive such honor. 他应该得到这种荣誉。  This suggestion is worthy to be considered. 这个建议值得考虑。 c)若要在be worthy后接动名词,与后接名词时的情形一样,应借助介词of,且该动名词若要表示 被动意义,要用被动形式。  E.g. He is worthy of filling [=to fill] the post. 这个职位他当之无愧。  This suggestion is worthy of being considered [=to be considered]. 这个建议值得考虑。  有关 be worthwhile 的搭配习惯 a) be worthwhile 后接动名词或不定式均可。  E.g. It is worthwhile buying the dictionary. 这本词典值得买。(其中的 worthwhile 也可换成 worth)  It is worthwhile to discuss the plan again. 这个计划值得再讨论一次。(其中的 worthwhile 不能换 worth,因为其后接用了不定式)  b)有时可将worthwhile分开写,此时也可在其中加上one’s。 E.g. I’d think it worthwhile to go. 我认为值得去。  Do you think it’s worthwhile quarrelling with me? 你认为与我吵值得吗?  Would you like to do some gardening for me? I’ll make it worth your while. 你愿意在我的花园里干些活吗? 我不会亏待你的。  It is worth your while visiting [to visit] the museum. 这个博物馆值得你去看看。 c)按传统语法,It is worth (one’s) while to do sth. [doing sth.] 结构必须用it作形式主语,其中的不定式或动名词做句子的真正主语。 (4)一句多译  在很多情况下,同一个意思可用几种不同的形式表达。 如:那个地方值得一去。  正:The place is worth a visit.  正:The place is worthy of a visit.  正:The place is worth visiting.  正:It is worth visiting the place.  正:The place is worthy of being visited.  正:The place is worthy to be visited.  正:It is worthwhile visiting the place.  正:It is worthwhile to visit the place. 三、要点梳理 1. achievement (cn.)成就;功绩 (un.)完成,实现 a sense of achievement成就感 a sense of direction方向感 achieve one’s goal达到目标 achieve one’s success获得成功 2. campaign (n.)运动;战役 (vi.)作战;参加运动 launch/start a campaign against…发动一场反对……的运动 campaign for/ against…参加争取/反对……的运动 campaign to do sth.为了做某事而进行运动 3. behave(v.)举动;(举止或行为)表现 behave well/badly to/towards sb.对待某人好/不好 behave oneself守规矩;表现得体 behavior[U]举止;行为;态度[U,C](人、动物等的)表现方式,活动方式 well-behaved (adj.)表现好的 badly-behaved (adj.)表现差的 4. move off向前移动(以腾出空间) move in迁入新居 move on变换(工作、话题等);前进 move away搬走 remove去除;移开 5. observe (vt.)观察;观测;遵守observation(n.) observe sb.do sth.观察到某人做了某事 observe sb. doing sth.观察到某人正在做某事 observe +that从句发现…… observe (vt.) 1)观察;观测:I felt he was observing everything I did. 2)遵守、奉行:We should the rules and regulations. 3)庆祝;祝贺;欢度:Some students are going to observe Christmas Day with their foreign teachers. 6.“only+状语(从句)”位于句首,句子/主句要部分倒装 only置于句首一般分为下列三种情况: 1)“only+副词”位于句首时,句子要倒装:Only then did she realize her mistake. 2)“only+介词短语”位于句首时,句子要倒装: E.g. Only by studying hard will you make progress I your study 3)“only+状语(从句)”位于句首,主句要倒装,从句不倒装 E.g. Only when I reached the top of mountain did I feel a great sense of achievement. 7. respect (n)敬意;细节;方面(v.)尊敬;尊重;遵守 respect sb. for (doing) sth. have /show respect to关于;就……而言 self-respect(n)自尊 respectable(adj.)值得尊敬的 respectful(adj.)表示敬意的;尊敬的 respectfully(adv.)恭敬地 respective(adj.)各自的,分别的 8. argue讨论;争论;辩论 argue with sb.(about/over/on sth.)(就某事)与某人争论 argue for/against sth.据理赞成/反对某事 argue that…主张……;认为…… argue sb. into doing sth.说服某人做某事 argue sb. out of doing sth.说服某人不做某事 9. crowd(n)人群;观众(vt.)挤满;使拥挤 E.g. Thousands of people crowed the narrow streets. crowd into one’s mind涌入某人的脑海 crowd in(on sb.)(想法、问题等)涌上心头;涌入脑海 crowd in/into(sth.)大批涌入(狭小的空间) be crowded with挤满……;充满着…… 10. support (n.)&(vt.)支持;拥护 support oneself自主谋生 come to one’s support支持某人 in support of为了支持……为了拥护…… 11. refer to 查阅;参考;谈到;涉及 refer to…as称……为 refer to/consult a dictionary=look up sth. in the dictionary(为……)查字典 refer to sb./sth.描述;涉及 reference(n.)参考 12. by chance碰巧;凑巧 by chance /accident碰巧;凑巧 by design/on purpose有益地;故意地 13. come across(偶然)碰见;遇见;发现 come about发生 come up 长出地面;(太阳)升起;发生;被提及;被讨论 come up with提出;想出 14. It seems/seemed that…看来……;好像…… 该句型可转换为:Sb. / Sth. seems/seemed+不定式。其他含seem的相关句型常用的还有: It seems +adj./n.看起来好像…… It seems as if/as though…看起来好像…… There seems(to be)…看起来像…… 15. intend (vt.)计划;打算 intend to do/doing sth.打算做某事 intend sb.to do sth.打算让某人做某事 be intended to do为了做…… be intended for专门为……而设计的;专供……使用的 had intended to do sth./intended to have done sth.本打算做某事(但没有做) 16. consideration(u.)体谅;体贴;关心;考虑 take…into consideration考虑到……;体谅…… be under consideration在考虑中;在审议中 in consideration of考虑到;鉴于 consider(v.)仔细考虑 considerate考虑周到的 considerable(adj.)相当多(或大、重要等)的 17. deliver(vt.)生(小孩儿);接生;递送;发表(演说等) deliver…to…把……交给/传递给…… deliver a baby助产;接生 be delivered of a baby分娩;生孩子 deliver a speech发表演说 18. carry on继续;坚持 carry out实行;执行;进行;履行(诺言、义务等) carry off获得(奖品、荣誉等);赢得 carry on with/doing sth.继续做某事 carry away 带走;冲走 例1.(2014河南六市联考)A(n)_______of achievement clearly has an influence on children’s early education. A. idea B. sense C. need D. mind 解析:根据句意“成就感显然对孩子早期的教育有影响”idea主意;sense感觉;need需要;mind心思,想法。a sense of achievement“成就感” 答案:B。 例 2.(2014天津蓟县模拟)Though plastic bags really brought convenience to us, they also _______ many problems for the environment. A. led to B. referred to C. contributed to D. appealed to 解析:根据句意“尽管塑料袋真的给我们带来了便利,但是对环境而言它们也引发了许多问题。” led to导致;引起;refer to参考;contribute to对……有贡献;appealed to吸引;根据语境,“引起” 符合句意。 答案:A。 例3.(2014安徽)Terry, please _______your cellphone when Grandma is talking to you. A. look up from B. look into C. look back on D. look through 解析:根据句意“Terry,当奶奶和你说话的时候,请将头从手机上抬起来。” look up from“从……抬起头”look into“调查”;look back on“回顾”;look through“浏览” 答案:A。 例4. (2014陕西西安一模)The door burst open and ______, shouting with anger.. A. rushed in a crowd B. in rushing a crowd C. in rushed a crowd D. in a crowd did rush 解析:根据句意“门突然打开,一群人愤怒地喊着冲了进来。”表示位置的副词置于句首,构成句子全部倒装,a crowd意思为“一群人”。 答案:C。 例5.(2014福建)It is widely acknowledged that students should be _______. A. supported B. matched C. evaluated D. controlled 解析:根据句意“普遍认为应该从综合素质方面评价学生。”supported“支持”;matched “相配”;evaluated“评估”;controlled“控制”。 答案:C。 基础演练 1. By working hard, he has _________(实现) his goal. 2. He won a prize for good __________(行为) a t school. 3. He is the president of a large international ___________(组织). 4. He is a much loved and highly __________(尊敬)teacher. 5. These measures are strongly __________ (支持) by environmental groups. 6. The man they _________ to(提到的) just now is Mr. White. 7. I have an __________(争论) with her on this topic. 8. I’m honored to __________ (做演讲) a speech here. 9. I have been dreaming of becoming a doctor since my ____________(童年) 10. The book is ___________(供……使用) for children. Keys: 1. achieved 2.behavior(u)r 3.organization 4.respected 5.supported 6. referred 7.argument 8.deliver 9. childhood 10.intended 巩固提高 1.(2014湖北)Is this your necklace, Marry? I _______ it when I was cleaning the bathroom this morning. A. went for B. looked after C. dealt with D. came across 2.(2014江西南昌月考) I don’t think the chair can take your weight; it’s _______children. A. traded with B. referred to C. connected to D. intended for 3. For the big house, the price is fairly cheap, but you’ve got to take into _________ the money you’ll spend on home improvement. A. consideration B. thoughtfulness C. responsibility D. measures 4.(2014天津)The recent financial crisis_______ into consideration, the Japanese boss ______ back on the number of workers working for him. A. taking; cuts B. was taken; cut C. taken; cut D.to take; cutting 5.(2014湖南十三校联考)I used to quarrel a lot with my parents, but now we ________fine. A. look out B. stay up C. carry on D. get along Keys: 1-5:DDACD 1. --How soon will the candidates get their university admissions? --It may take three weeks for all the applications to be ________. A. withdrawn B. delivered C. edited D. processed 2.--Chinese former Premier Wen Jiabao________an important speech in the climate change conference in Copenhagen A. stated B. issued C. delivered D. addressed 3. The meal was over, and the managers went back to the meeting room to_____ their discussion. A. put away B. take down C. look over D. carry on 4. He was in the very act of starting the engine when the power source was______. A. carried on B. cut off C. picked out D. come across 5. I guess we’ve already talked about this before but I’ll ask you again just _______. A. by nature B. in return C. in case D. by chance 6. The host picked several people from the audience _______ and invited them to the stage to have a dialogue. A. at random B. by chance C. in turn D. on occasion 7. The sun rose, as it always _______, in a clear sky. A. is B. does C. likes D. seems 8. Being the First Lady and a mother of two, Mrs. Obama has launched her______ against childhood obesity in the US, hoping to encourage people to live healthier lives. A. campaign B. war C. fight D. battle 9. Proud of his African _______, he often writes in his poetry about the beautiful shores of Africa, the land of his ancestors. A. achievements B. discoveries C. accents D. roots 10. My parents often inspire me,“________ till you make it." A. Fight B. Fighting C. To tight D. Fought 11. The Red-cross Societies________$1,000,000 for the refugees who lost their houses in the tsunami. A. supported B. kept C. rose D. raised 12. Having a large family to ________, he took up two part-time jobs in his spare time. A. measure B. deliver C. respect D. support 13. --My son is learning English. What dictionary shall I buy for him? --What about this one? It is __________ for beginners. A. intended B. operated C. offered D. delivered 14. The word “unbelievable” based on Chinese, which has become a big hit online very quickly, _______a message that Chinese can also serve as an addition to English vocabulary. A. delivers B. simplifies C. declares D. clarifies 15. _______seems to be a strong competition for students to enter a key university. A. It B. There C. What D. That Keys: 1-5 DCDBC 6-10 ABADA 11-15DDAAB _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1. ______ good, this kind of fruit sells very well in our city. A. Taste B. Being tasted C. Tasting D. Having been tasted 2. The ______ look on his face suggested that he ______ that he would fail in the Math test. A. surprising; wouldn’t expect B. surprising; hadn’t expected C. surprised; hadn’t expected D. surprised; shouldn’t expect 3. I think he must have seen me at the meeting last night, ______? A. didn’t he B. don’t I C. do I D. mustn’t he 4. The Changjiang River has been polluted badly and is not good _______. A. to swim it B. to be swum in C. to swim in it D.to swim in 5. Thomas _____ in inventing many electrical machines A. was successful B. succeed C. was success D. successes 6. I would love ______ to the party that evening, but I had an unexpected visitor. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone 7. It is well known to all that water, ______ enough, can change into ice quickly. A. if cooling B. though to be cooled C. when cooled D. when is cooled 8. Mr.Wang ______ the person referred to at the meeting be put in prison. A. said B. wished C. agreed D. suggested 9. Is this school ______you studied in three years ago? A. where B. that C. the one D. which 10. _____ hardly made Mike pay any attention to _____ his mistakes. A. Scolding; correcting B. Being scolded; correct C. Being scolded; correcting D. Having been scolded; correct 11. Hardly ______ on the bus ______ the bus drove off. A. did he get; than B. had he got; when C. did he get; when D. had he got; than 12. --Which sport is the most popular in the US? --It’s hard to say. It largely ______ what you mean by “popular”? A. belongs to B. comes about C. depends on D. determines on 13. I _____ when it began to rain. A. was about to going out B. was in the point of going out C. was on the point of going out D. both A and C 14.You never imagine what trouble I have had ______ your house. It took me nearly 2 hours. A. to find B. finding C. found D. for finding 15.______ in her novel that she didn’t hear what I was saying. A. So absorbed had Nancy B. So absorbed Nancy was C. So absorbed was Nancy D. So absorbed Nancy had 二、完型选择 In 1990 a report was published about1 the earth might be like 20 years from then on. The report was a result of a three-year study. According to the report, the picture of the earth in the year 2010 is not a 2 one. The world will be more 3 because the population will continue to grow. The population could be4 6,300 million, almost 2,500 million more than in 1985.More people would move into cities,5 cities in developing countries. Such cities as Cairo and Jakarta probably would6have 15 million by then. Food production will7, but not enough to feed all the people. Farmers will grow 90% more food than they did in 1985, 8most of the increase would be in countries that9produce enough food for their people.10increase is expected in South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Poor farming ways are11large areas of crop land, changing farms into deserts. More farmland is12as cities become larger and more houses are built.13will get worse as industrial countries burn more coal and oil.Many of the world’s forests could disappear as more and more trees 14.Energy will continue to be a serious problem. The experts say their picture of the earth for the year 201015.They only pictured the situation that16today. By changing the situation, by17 the problems, the picture can be changed. There is18time for nations of the world to 19a plan of action. But they warned that 20too long to make decisions would greatly reduce the chances of success. 1. A. that B. whether C. how D. what 2. A. pleased B. pleasant C. safe D. clean 3. A. dangerous B. brilliant C. crowded D. awful 4. A. no more than B. as many as C. as much as D. as large as 5. A. especially B. specially C. deliberately D. apparently 6. A. none B. each C. all D. neither 7. A. insist B. reduce C. increase D. continue 8. A.so B. but C. or D. however 9. A. already B. hardly C. partly D. never 10. A. Much B. More C. Heavy D. Little 11. A. destroying B. protecting C. disturbing D. interrupting 12. A. saved B. lost C. discovered D. used 13.A.Air pollution B. Water pollution C. Some diseases D. All farmland 14. A.is cut across B.is cut up C. are cut down D. are cut off 15. A. must be true B. will come true C. can’t be true D. may be wrong 16. A. happens B. develops C. exists D. appears 17. A. settling B. working out C. answering D. dealing 18. A. much B. still C. less D. fewer 19. A. work about B. work at C. work out D. work for 20.A. working B. suggesting C. spending D. waiting Keys: 一、单项选择1--5 CCADA 6--10 BCDCC 11—15BCCBC 二、完型选择 1--5 DBCDA 6--10 BCBAD 11--15 ABACD 16--20CABCD Unit1 Women of achievement语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法----主谓一致并能熟练运用相关语法知识解决相应类型的题。 主谓一致是指主语和谓语要保持人称和数的一致,英语中的主谓一致主要遵循三个原则:语法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近一致原则。这三个原则常常发生矛盾,但当发生冲突时,意义一致原则为优先考虑的原则。 语法一致原则 单数 He is talking with his brother. 复数 The boys are playing football. 就近 一致 原则 由or/either...or.../ neither...nor.../not only...but (also)... 等连接 与最近的主语 在单复数上保 持一致 ①Either I or they are responsible for the result of the matter. ②Neither I nor he is in favour of her marriage. 由there,here引 起的主语不止一个时 和最邻近的主 语保持一致 There is a pen,a knife and several books on the desk. 意 义 一 致 原 则 clothing,furniture,traffic,jewellery,baggage, equipment,luggage等不可数名词 单 数 Clothing is badly needed in this flooded area. 以s结尾的表示学科、国家、机构、书籍、报刊等 名称的词 Politics is often a topic for discussion. 表示时间、重量、距离、价格、金钱、体积等复 数名词表达一个整体概念 Forty miles was covered in a single night. 由every,any,some,no和one,thing,body等 构成的不定代词 Is everybody here today? 动词ing形式、动词不定式和名词性从句 ①Persuading him to join us seems really hard. ②Whatever was left was taken away. 意 义 一 致 原 则 由连词and连接的并列成分指的是同一概念, 兼具身份或匹配出现 单数 ①War and peace is a constant theme in history. ②The singer and dancer is to attend our evening party. no/each/every/many a+单数名词+and(+ no/each/every/many a)+单数名词 Many a teacher and (many a) student has seen the film. one/everyone/each/either/the number+of/the variety of+复数名词 The number of students from the north is small. 意 义 一 致 原 则 由and连接两个并列成分表不同概念 复数 Steam and ice are different forms of water. 一些常用复数或只有复数形式的名词如arms, stairs,goods等。 The goods are sold out. 以s结尾的专有名词如山脉、运动会、群岛等。 The Olympic Games are held once every four years. a number of+名词 A number of students are from China. 特 别 提 醒 由两部分构成的表示物体的名词,如trousers,pants, jeans,compasses(圆规),glasses,shorts等作主语时, 谓语动词常用复数形式。但如果这类名词前用了 a pair of或two/three...pairs of来修饰,谓语动词在数上 要与pair保持一致。 例句 ①Your glasses are very nice. ②This pair of glasses is mine. ③Here are some new pairs of shoes. “名词+with,along with,together with,as well as, rather than,as much as,but,except等+名词”结构 作主语时,谓语动词的单复数形式要与第一个名词保持一致。 ①Tom as well as two of his friends was invited to the party. ② Dr.Smith, together with his wife, is to arrive on the evening flight. a quantity of后既可接复数名词,亦可接不可数名词。 如果a quantity of接不可数名词,则谓语动词用单数 形式;如果接复数名词,则谓语动词通常要采用复数 形式(※偶尔谓语动词用单数,属非规范用法,宜慎 用)。quantities of后接复数名词、不可数名词,后面 的谓语动词都用复数形式。 There is a small quantity of water left in the bottle. A large quantity of books are on sale now. ③Great quantities of fish were caught that day. 若用and连接两个动名词、不定式短语或主语从句, 表示两个不同的概念则谓语动词用复数形式。若表示 同一概念,则谓语动词用单数形式 Riding on the elephants and rowing the boats were the children's favorite games. ①What he says and does do not agree. ②What he says and does does not concern me. what和whatever引导主语从句时谓语动词的单复数根 据从句所表达的意义上的数确定 例1.The family ________fans of Jay Chow, whose songs all sound familiar to them A. were B. was C. are D.is 例 2.East of the mountain _______ two towns, ________ my hometown. A. lie; one of which is B. lies; where lies C. lies; one of which is D. lie; one of them is 例3.All we need _______ a small piece of land where we can plant various kinds of fruit trees throughout the growing seasons of the year. A. are B. was C. is D. were 例4. This term our class will have a picnic, but when and where ______yet. A. aren’t decided B. isn’t decided C. haven’t been decided D. hasn’t been decided 例5. --Did you go to the show last night? --Yeah. Every boy and girl in the area______ invited. A. were B. have been C. has been D. was 基础演练 1. All but one________ here just now. A. is B. was C. has been D. were 2. Not only I but also Jane and Mary ________tired of having one examination after another. A. is B. are C. am D. be 3. A library will five thousand books ________to the nation as a gift. A. is offered B. has offered C. are offered D. have offered 4. When and where to build the new factory ________ yet. A. is not decided B. are not decided C. has not decided D. have not decided 5. The trousers________ to me. A. belong B. belongs C. is belonged D. are belonged 6. The bread and butter ________on the table. A. is B. are C. were D. puts 7. His family ________always quarreling among ________. A. is; itself B. are; themselves C. is; themselves D. are; itself 8. Some folk ________never ________with the present situation. A. is; satisfying B. are; satisfied C. are; satisfying D. are; itself 9. There ________some fish ________in the boat. A. is; lying B. are; laying C. is; laid D. are; lying 10. All possible means________. A. has been tried B. have been tried C. is to be tried D. are trying 巩固提高 1. South of the village ________a large works. A. is B. are C. stand D. is built 2. The first two problems are very difficult, ________easy. A. and the rest is B. yet the rest are C. has been sold D. but the rest are 3. Every picture except these two ________. A. has sold B. have sold C. has been sold D. have been sold 4. It is I who ________the dictionary to you. A. has lent B. have lent C. is going to lend D. are going to lend 5. Mr. Green along with his children, ________ to American. A. go B. has gone C. are going D. have been gone 6. Pen and ink ________by the ball-pen. A. has replaced B. have replaced C. has been replace D. have been replaced 7. Either you or I ________able to attend the lecture. A. is B. am C. has been D. are to be 8. The wounded ________after. A. is well looked B. has been well looked C. are good looked D. have been well looked 9. Neither Mary nor her brother ________the concert. A. is going to B. are going to C. is allowed into D. are allowed to 10. One third of the population here ________ workers. A. is B. are C. has D. be 用括号内所给词的适当形式填空 1. (2015江西师大附中期中)A teacher of English and class teacher________(tell) us something about volunteer workers now. 2. (2015山东威海期中)When and where this took place________(be) still unknown. 3. (2015长沙二模)Every means________(try),but none proved successful. 4. (2015江苏苏锡常镇四市调研一)Weibo as well as WeChat________(serve) as a media platform for people to share their thoughts instantly without limits of place or time. 5. (2015河南开封第一次摸底)--Hey! Here is a message on my cellphone, telling me that I have won the first prize of a weekend for two in Paris. --Delete it! It's a trick. Many a person________ (cheat) by such tricks. 6. (2015太原测评)One survey shows that large quantities of water________(be)wasted every year in China,and that one third is available to be saved. 7. (2015甘肃兰州、张掖联合诊断)Hank as well as the other children who have no parents________(take) good care of in the center. 8. (2015河北邯郸调研)What the teacher of the science class does and says________(be) of great importance to the students at college. 9. (2015太原五中第一学期测试)Children are not recommended to see such films as________(be) bad for their mental development. 10. (2015·东营模拟)The young ________(eat) up almost everything;one and a half bananas ________(be) left on the table. 11. (2015郑州模拟)The writer and teacher Smith ________(go) through millions of ups and downs since he moved to Sydney. 12. (2015郑州模拟)There ________(be) a table,four chairs,three bikes in the courtyard,in the middle of which ________ two tall trees with great shade. 13. (2015东营模拟)The secretary and headmaster of the school ________(attend) the meeting. 14. (2015江苏盐城3月二模)--Can you get me some of the novels? --By all means. All but one of them ________ (publish) in our company. 15. (2015安徽名校联考Ⅰ)--Jeremy rather than his friends ________(blame) for the accident. --Absolutely. He shouldn't have driven after being drunk. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1. I as well as they ________help you. A. are ready to B. is ready for C. am ready for D. are ready for 2. A great number of students ________swimming. A. is fond of B. are fond of C. will be fond of D. were fond of 3. Not his father, but his brothers ________in Wuhan. A. has been B. have come C. lives D. live 4. Whether she’s coming or not ________ too much. A. matter B. doesn’t matter C. don’t matter D. matters about 5. I wish she ________ here to share in my joy now. A. is B. were C. had been D. can come 6. -- Would you like some more oranges? -- No, thanks, I think there ________enough for me. A. is B. are C. had been D. has been 7. The price of the two bikes ________low. A. is B. are C. has D. have 8. The works of Lu Xun, of course, ________worth studying. A. is B. are C. has D. have 9. Anybody who ________anything can see that this elephant is like a snake. A. knew B. knows C. know D. has known 10. How to get those books ________to us. A. is unknown B. are unknowns C. has unknown D. have unknown 11. The murderer has run away. The police ________him. A. is running after B. is looking for C. are running after D. is searching 12. The number of the college students ________every year. A. rises B. rise C. raise D. are raised 13. I think he is the only one of those who ________for the position. A. fit B. fits C. are fit D. is fit 14. She is one of the ________writers who ________stories for children. A. woman; write B. women; write C. woman; writes D. women; writes 15. There ________a group of children ________loudly outside the room. A. was; talking B. were; to talk C. was; to talk D. were; were talking 16. The professor and writer ________to give us a report. A. is B. is about going C. are going D. have come 17. My maths ________all right. what ________me most is English. A. are; worried B. seem; is worrying C. is; worries D. seems; worry 18. None of them ________a good dancer. A. is B. are C. become D. were 19. ________ have an English-Chinese dictionary. A. Each of us B. No one of us C. Every one of us D. We each 20. Nobody but Mary and I ________in the room at the time. A. am B. was C. were D. had been 二、作文 你的英国朋友Chris目前在北京学习汉语,他对中国传统文化非常感兴趣。本周五下午你校将要举办一个文化讲座,请你根据以下信息提示给他写一封电子邮件,邀请他来参加。 1.农业大学张教授讲解中国茶文化的历史和传播; 2.讲座后有交流和品茶活动; 3.你将陪同Chris并帮其翻译讲解。 注意:词数不少于50;2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;3.开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。 Hi Chris, Yours, Joe 三、阅读理解 Not all bodies of water are so evidently alive as the Atlantic Ocean, an S-shaped body of water covering 33 million square miles. The Atlantic has, in a sense, replaced the Mediterranean as the inland sea of Western civilization. Unlike real inland seas, which seem strangely still, the Atlantic is rich in oceanic liveliness. It is perhaps not surprising that its vitality has been much written about by ancient poets. “Storm at Sea”, a short poem written around 700, is generally regarded as one of mankind’s earliest artistic representations of the Atlantic. When the wind is from the west All the waves that cannot rest To the east must thunder on Where the bright tree of the sun Is rooted in the ocean’s breast. As the poem suggests, the Atlantic is never dead and dull. It is an ocean that moves, impressively and endlessly. It makes all kinds of noise—it is forever thundering, boiling, crashing, and whistling. It is easy to imagine the Atlantic trying to draw breath—perhaps not so noticeably out in mid-ocean, but where it meets land, its waters bathing up and down a sandy beach. It mimics(模仿)nearly perfectly the steady breathing of a living creature. It is filled with symbiotic existences, too; unimaginable quantities of creatures, little and large alike, mix within its depths in a kind of oceanic harmony, giving to the waters a feeling of heartbeat, a kind of sub-ocean vitality. And it has a psychology. It has personalities: sometimes peaceful and pleasant, on rare occasions rough and wild; always it is strong and striking. 1. Unlike real inland seas, the Atlantic Ocean is . A. always energetic B. lacking in liveliness C. shaped like a square D. favored by ancient poets 2. What is the purpose of using the poem “Storm at Sea” in the passage? A. To describe the movement of the waves. B. To show the strength of the storm. C. To represent the power of the ocean. D. To prove the vastness of the sea. 3. What does the underlined word “symbiotic” mean? A. Living together.      B. Growing fast. C. Moving harmoniously. D. Breathing peacefully. 4. In the last paragraph, the Atlantic is compared to . A. a beautiful and poetic place B. a flesh and blood person C. a wonderful world D. a lovely animal Unit1 Women of achievement语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法----主谓一致并能熟练运用相关语法知识解决相应类型的题。 主谓一致是指主语和谓语要保持人称和数的一致,英语中的主谓一致主要遵循三个原则:语法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近一致原则。这三个原则常常发生矛盾,但当发生冲突时,意义一致原则为优先考虑的原则。 语法一致原则 单数 He is talking with his brother. 复数 The boys are playing football. 就近 一致 原则 由or/either...or.../ neither...nor.../not only...but (also)... 等连接 与最近的主语 在单复数上保 持一致 ①Either I or they are responsible for the result of the matter. ②Neither I nor he is in favour of her marriage. 由there,here引 起的主语不止一个时 和最邻近的主 语保持一致 There is a pen,a knife and several books on the desk. 意 义 一 致 原 则 clothing,furniture,traffic,jewellery,baggage, equipment,luggage等不可数名词 单 数 Clothing is badly needed in this flooded area. 以s结尾的表示学科、国家、机构、书籍、报刊等 名称的词 Politics is often a topic for discussion. 表示时间、重量、距离、价格、金钱、体积等复 数名词表达一个整体概念 Forty miles was covered in a single night. 由every,any,some,no和one,thing,body等 构成的不定代词 Is everybody here today? 动词ing形式、动词不定式和名词性从句 ①Persuading him to join us seems really hard. ②Whatever was left was taken away. 意 义 一 致 原 则 由连词and连接的并列成分指的是同一概念, 兼具身份或匹配出现 单数 ①War and peace is a constant theme in history. ②The singer and dancer is to attend our evening party. no/each/every/many a+单数名词+and(+ no/each/every/many a)+单数名词 Many a teacher and (many a) student has seen the film. one/everyone/each/either/the number+of/the variety of+复数名词 The number of students from the north is small. 意 义 一 致 原 则 由and连接两个并列成分表不同概念 复数 Steam and ice are different forms of water. 一些常用复数或只有复数形式的名词如arms, stairs,goods等。 The goods are sold out. 以s结尾的专有名词如山脉、运动会、群岛等。 The Olympic Games are held once every four years. a number of+名词 A number of students are from China. 特 别 提 醒 由两部分构成的表示物体的名词,如trousers,pants, jeans,compasses(圆规),glasses,shorts等作主语时, 谓语动词常用复数形式。但如果这类名词前用了 a pair of或two/three...pairs of来修饰,谓语动词在数上 要与pair保持一致。 例句 ①Your glasses are very nice. ②This pair of glasses is mine. ③Here are some new pairs of shoes. “名词+with,along with,together with,as well as, rather than,as much as,but,except等+名词”结构 作主语时,谓语动词的单复数形式要与第一个名词保持一致。 ①Tom as well as two of his friends was invited to the party. ② Dr.Smith, together with his wife, is to arrive on the evening flight. a quantity of后既可接复数名词,亦可接不可数名词。 如果a quantity of接不可数名词,则谓语动词用单数 形式;如果接复数名词,则谓语动词通常要采用复数 形式(※偶尔谓语动词用单数,属非规范用法,宜慎 用)。quantities of后接复数名词、不可数名词,后面 的谓语动词都用复数形式。 There is a small quantity of water left in the bottle. A large quantity of books are on sale now. ③Great quantities of fish were caught that day. 若用and连接两个动名词、不定式短语或主语从句, 表示两个不同的概念则谓语动词用复数形式。若表示 同一概念,则谓语动词用单数形式 Riding on the elephants and rowing the boats were the children's favorite games. ①What he says and does do not agree. ②What he says and does does not concern me. what和whatever引导主语从句时谓语动词的单复数根 据从句所表达的意义上的数确定 例1.The family ________fans of Jay Chow, whose songs all sound familiar to them A. were B. was C. are D.is 解析:根据句意“全家人都是周杰伦的粉丝,周杰伦的所有的歌曲对他们来说是熟悉的” family此 次强调个体,意思为“家庭成员”故推知用复数谓语动词,如果指一个整体,用单数谓语动词。 答案:C。 例 2.East of the mountain _______ two towns, ________ my hometown. A. lie; one of which is B. lies; where lies C. lies; one of which is D. lie; one of them is 解析:根据句意“那座山的东边坐落着两个城镇,其中之一是我的故乡”第一空处为倒装句;第二空处是非限制性定语从句。 答案:A。 例3.All we need _______ a small piece of land where we can plant various kinds of fruit trees throughout the growing seasons of the year. A. are B. was C. is D. were 解析:根据句意“我们所需要的就是一小片土地,我们可以在一年中的生长季节里在那儿种植各种果树”根据题干可知all指代的是a small piece of land所以谓语动词要用单数形式,整句话的语境为一般现在时 答案:C。 例4. This term our class will have a picnic, but when and where ______yet. A. aren’t decided B. isn’t decided C. haven’t been decided D. hasn’t been decided 解析:根据句意“本学期,我们班要去野餐,但什么时候和去哪里还没有决定。”when and where 此处表示同意一件事情紧密相连的两个方面,谓语动词应该用单数;根据yet,应用现在完成时。 答案:D。 例5. --Did you go to the show last night? --Yeah. Every boy and girl in the area______ invited. A. were B. have been C. has been D. was 解析:根据句意“—昨天晚上你去看展出了吗?—这个地方的每个男孩和女孩都被邀请了”主语是every boy and girl,表示单数概念,故谓语动词用单数,且询问昨晚的情况,有明确的过去时间,所以应选择was 答案:D。 基础演练 1. All but one________ here just now. A. is B. was C. has been D. were 2. Not only I but also Jane and Mary ________tired of having one examination after another. A. is B. are C. am D. be 3. A library will five thousand books ________to the nation as a gift. A. is offered B. has offered C. are offered D. have offered 4. When and where to build the new factory ________ yet. A. is not decided B. are not decided C. has not decided D. have not decided 5. The trousers________ to me. A. belong B. belongs C. is belonged D. are belonged 6. The bread and butter ________on the table. A. is B. are C. were D. puts 7. His family ________always quarreling among ________. A. is; itself B. are; themselves C. is; themselves D. are; itself 8. Some folk ________never ________with the present situation. A. is; satisfying B. are; satisfied C. are; satisfying D. are; itself 9. There ________some fish ________in the boat. A. is; lying B. are; laying C. is; laid D. are; lying 10. All possible means________. A. has been tried B. have been tried C. is to be tried D. are trying Keys: 1--5 DBAAA 6--10 ABBDB 巩固提高 1. South of the village ________a large works. A. is B. are C. stand D. is built 2. The first two problems are very difficult, ________easy. A. and the rest is B. yet the rest are C. has been sold D. but the rest are 3. Every picture except these two ________. A. has sold B. have sold C. has been sold D. have been sold 4. It is I who ________the dictionary to you. A. has lent B. have lent C. is going to lend D. are going to lend 5. Mr. Green along with his children, ________ to American. A. go B. has gone C. are going D. have been gone 6. Pen and ink ________by the ball-pen. A. has replaced B. have replaced C. has been replace D. have been replaced 7. Either you or I ________able to attend the lecture. A. is B. am C. has been D. are to be 8. The wounded ________after. A. is well looked B. has been well looked C. are good looked D. have been well looked 9. Neither Mary nor her brother ________the concert. A. is going to B. are going to C. is allowed into D. are allowed to 10. One third of the population here ________ workers. A. is B. are C. has D. be Keys: 1--5 ADCBB 6--10 CBDAB 用括号内所给词的适当形式填空 1. (2015江西师大附中期中)A teacher of English and class teacher________(tell) us something about volunteer workers now. 2. (2015山东威海期中)When and where this took place________(be) still unknown. 3. (2015长沙二模)Every means________(try),but none proved successful. 4. (2015江苏苏锡常镇四市调研一)Weibo as well as WeChat________(serve) as a media platform for people to share their thoughts instantly without limits of place or time. 5. (2015河南开封第一次摸底)--Hey! Here is a message on my cellphone, telling me that I have won the first prize of a weekend for two in Paris. --Delete it! It's a trick. Many a person________ (cheat) by such tricks. 6. (2015太原测评)One survey shows that large quantities of water________(be)wasted every year in China,and that one third is available to be saved. 7. (2015甘肃兰州、张掖联合诊断)Hank as well as the other children who have no parents________(take) good care of in the center. 8. (2015河北邯郸调研)What the teacher of the science class does and says________(be) of great importance to the students at college. 9. (2015太原五中第一学期测试)Children are not recommended to see such films as________(be) bad for their mental development. 10. (2015东营模拟)The young ________(eat) up almost everything;one and a half bananas ________(be) left on the table. 11. (2015郑州模拟)The writer and teacher Smith ________(go) through millions of ups and downs since he moved to Sydney. 12. (2015郑州模拟)There ________(be) a table,four chairs,three bikes in the courtyard,in the middle of which ________ two tall trees with great shade. 13. (2015东营模拟)The secretary and headmaster of the school ________(attend) the meeting. 14. (2015江苏盐城3月二模)--Can you get me some of the novels? --By all means. All but one of them ________ (publish) in our company. 15. (2015安徽名校联考Ⅰ)--Jeremy rather than his friends ________(blame) for the accident. --Absolutely. He shouldn't have driven after being drunk. Keys: 1. is telling 2. is  3. has been tried  4. serves  5. has been cheated  6. are 7. is taken  8. is  9. are  10. have eaten; has been  11. has gone  12. is; are  13. is to attend  14. were published 15. is to blame _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1. I as well as they ________help you. A. are ready to B. is ready for C. am ready for D. are ready for 2. A great number of students ________swimming. A. is fond of B. are fond of C. will be fond of D. were fond of 3. Not his father, but his brothers ________in Wuhan. A. has been B. have come C. lives D. live 4. Whether she’s coming or not ________ too much. A. matter B. doesn’t matte

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  • ID:4-6094426 人教版高中英语必修三辅导讲义:Unit5 Canada—“The True North”词汇篇及语法篇(学生版+教师版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修3、4/必修3/Unit 5 Canada – “The True North”

    Unit5 Canada—“The True North”语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法---名词性从句中的同位语从句。 一、同位语从句:在复合句中充当同位语的名词性从句称为同位语从句。同位语从句一般跟在某些名词后面,用以解释和说明前面的名词的内容。后面常接同位语从句的名词有news,idea,fact,promise,hope,message,doubt ,belief ,thought, certainty ,truth ,question, reason, reply, possibility,suggestion。 二、同位语从句在句中的位置 1. 一般情况下同位语从句跟在某些名词(如news,idea,fact,promise,hope,message等)的后 面,用以说明该名词所表达的具体内容。   E.g. The news that our women volleyball team had won the championship encouraged us all greatly. 我们女排赢得冠军的消息大大地鼓舞了我们所有人。 E.g. I've come from Mr. Wang with a message that he won't be able to see you this afternoon. 我从王先生那边得知一个消息,他说他今天下午不能来看你了。 2. 有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后,而被别的词语隔开,在语法上叫做间隔式同 位语从句。 E.g. The thought came to her that maybe she had left the door open when she left home. 她突然想起可能在她离开家时没把门关上。 E.g. The story goes that he failed in the College Entrance Examinations again. 据说他高考又落榜了。 三、同位语从句前名词的数   同位语从句前的名词通常用单数形式,并且往往带有限定词(word除外)加以修饰。 E.g. Where did you get the idea that I could not come? 你在哪儿听说我不能来? E.g. Give me your promise that you will come to our party this evening. 答应我,你今天晚上要来参加我们的晚会。 E.g. Word came that China launched its first manned spaceship on Oct 15,2003. 消息传来,中国于2003年10月15日首次成功发射了载人飞船。 四、同位语从句连接词的选用 引导同位语从句的词有连词that,whether、连接代词who, which, what和连接副词where, when, why, how等 1.由that, whether引导的同位语从句。此时的引导词只起引导作用,不在从句中作任何成分 E.g. We heard the news that our team had won. 我们听到消息说我们队赢了。 E.g. They were worried over the fact that you were sick. 他们为你生病发愁。 E.g. The news that we are having a holiday tomorrow is not true. 明天放假的消息不实。 E.g. I’ve come to the conclusion that it was unwise to do that. 我得出结论这样做是不明智的。 E.g. He referred to Copernicus’ statement that the earth moves round the sun. 他提到了哥白尼关于地球绕太阳转的说法。 E.g. There is some doubt whether he will come. 他是否会来还不一定。 E.g. The question whether it is right or wrong depends on the result. 这个是对还是错要看结果。 E.g. We are not investigating the question whether he is trustworthy. 我们不是在调查他是否可以信任的问题。 【注意1】若被同位语从句修饰的名词是下列名词时,同位语从句要用虚拟语气即“should+do”,should常常省略常常可省略。这些词有:advice,announcement,argument,belief,claim,conclusion,decision,evidence,explanation,fact,feeling,hope,idea,impression,information,knowledge,message,news,opinion,order,probability,promise,proposal,remark,reply,report,saying,statement,suggestion,thought,treat,warning,wish,word等。 E.g. They were faced with the demand that this tax be abolished. 他们面对废除这个税的要求。 E.g. They expressed the wish that she accept the award. 他们表示希望她接受这笔奖金。 E.g. The suggestion that the new rule be adopted came from the chairman. 采纳新规则的建议是主席提出的。 E.g. The resolution that women be allowed to join the society was carried. 允许妇女参加这个协会的决议通过了。 【注意2】引导同位语从句的连词that通常不省略,但在非正式文体中也可以省去。 E.g. He grabbed his suitcase and gave the impression he was boarding the Tokyo plane. 他拿起了手提箱,给人的印象是他要登上飞往东京的飞机了。 【注意3】表达“是否”的概念时,要用whether 而不用if引导同位语从句。   E.g. I have no idea whether you are interested in working for her. 我不知道你是否有兴趣为她工作。 E.g. We haven't yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation. 我们还没有决定到什么地方去度暑假。 【注意4】在名词doubt“怀疑”后的同位语从句用whether连接;在no doubt“不怀疑”之后的同位语从句用that连接。   E.g. We have some doubt whether they can complete the task on time. 我们怀疑他们是否能准时完成任务。   E.g. There is no doubt that Zhang Wei will keep his promise. 我们相信张卫会守信的。 2.由连接代词who, which, what和连接副词where, when, why, how等引导的同位语从句。此时的引导词在从句中作相应的成分。 E.g. I have no idea when he will come back. 我不知道他什么时候回来。 E.g. It is a question how he did it. 那是一个他如何做的问题。 E.g. He had no idea why she left. 他不知道她为什么离开。 E.g. You have no idea how worried I was! 你不知道我多着急! E.g. Have you any idea what time it starts? 你知道什么时候开始吗? E.g. I have no idea which one I should choose.我不知道该选哪一个。 五、同位语从句和定语从句的三点区别: 同位语从句和定语从句很相似,但还是有区别的,区别主要在以下三方面: 从词类上区别 同位语从句前面的名词只能是idea/ fact/news/ hope /belief/ suggestion/ proposal/ word /thought/doubt/truth/possibility/promise/order等有一定内涵的名词;而定语从句的先行词可以是名词、代词、主句的一部分或是整个主句。 E.g. The possibility that the majority of the labor force will work at home is often discussed.人们经常讨论大多数劳动力将会在家里工作的可能性。(同位语从句) E.g. We are not looking into the question whether he is worth trusting. 我们正在调查的问题不是他是否值得信赖的问题。(同位语从句) E.g. Word came that he had been abroad. 据说他已经出国了。(同位语从句) E.g. Our team has won the game, which made us very happy. 我们的队赢了,这让我们很高兴。 (定语从句) E.g. The doctor whom you are looking for is in the room. 你找的那位医生在房间里面。(定语从句) E.g. His mother did all she could to help him with his study. 他妈妈尽她的最大努力帮助他的学习。 (定语从句,代词all作先行词) 2. 从性质上区别   定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位语从句是从句对前面抽象名词的进一步的说明和解释,属于名词性从句的范畴。 E.g. The news that our team has won the game was true.我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的。 (同位语从句,补充说明news到底是一个什么消息) E.g. The news that he told me yesterday was true.昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的。 (定语从句,news在从句中作told的宾语) E.g. I made a promise that if anyone set me free I would make him very rich. 我许诺如果谁让我自由,我就让他非常富有。(同位语从句,补充说明promise到底是一个什么诺言) E.g. The mother made a promise that pleased all her children. 妈妈做出了一个令她的孩子们高兴的许诺。(定语从句,promise在从句中作pleased的主语) 3. 从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别 有些引导词如how, whether, what可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句。 E.g. That question whether we need it has not been considered. 我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑。(同位语从句) E.g. I have no idea what has happened to him. 我不知道他发生了什么事。(同位语从句)   引导词that引导定语从句时,在从句中一般作主语或宾语(指物时还可以用which代替),并且作宾语时常常省略 that在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充当任何成分,并且不能省略,也不能用which来代替。 E.g. The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday. 我们应派几个人去帮别的几个小组的命令昨天收到了(同位语从句,是对order的具体解释,that虽不作成分,但不能省略) E.g. The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other groups. 我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别的几个小组?(定语从句,是名词order的修饰语,that在从句中作received的宾语,可以省略) 用中文举个例子 1.我不相信他是小偷的事实(同位) “事实”同“他是小偷”是同一件事情 2.我不相信他告诉我的事实 “事实”同“他告诉我”不是同一件事 1. The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief______ you are better than anyone else on the sports field. A. how B. that C. which D. whether 2. (2014浙江绍兴一中期中))Even if there is no scientific proof ______second-hand smoking causes cancer, there is no reason why nonsmokers should be forced to take this risk. A. which B. that C. when D. where 3. (2014四川成都摸底)Don’t worry! There is still a great chance ______we can make up for the lost time. A. which B. that C. where D. when 4.( 2014四川石室中学期中)There are some warnings in some countries ______over exploitation of underground water has caused the decline of wetland and the increase of desertification.   ______ myself more—it was a perfect day. A. which B. where C. what D. that 5. ( 2014吉林长春期中)There is solid evidence______ watching 3D movies can have side effects on the viewers. A. what B. that C. which D. how 基础演练 1. _______ makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services. A. What B. Who C. Whatever D. Whoever 2. ---It’s thirty years since we last met. ---But I still remember the story, believe it or not, _______ we got lost on a rainy night. A. which B. that C. what D. when 3. See the flags on top of the building? That was _______ we did this morning. A. when B. which C. where D. What 4. ---Could you do me a favor? ---It depends on _______ it is. A. which B. whichever C. what D. whatever 5. Doris' success lies in the fact _______ she is co-operative and eager to learn from others. A. which B. that C. when D. why 6. Mary wrote an article on _______ the team had failed to win the game. A. why B. what C. who D. that 7. Do you have any idea _______ is actually going on in the classroom? A. that B. what C. as D. which 8. ---Why does she always ask you for help? ---There is no one else _______, is there? A. who to turn to B. she can turn to C. for whom to turn D. for her to turn 9. Elephants have their own way to tell the shape of an object and _______ it is rough or smooth. A. / B. whether C. how D. what 10. Danny left word with my secretary _______ he would call again in the afternoon. A. who B. that C. as D. which 巩固提高 1. Mum is coming. What present _______ for your birthday? A. you expect she has got B. you expect has she got C. do you expect she has got D. do you expect has she got 2. The way he did it was different ________ we were used to. A. in which B. in what C. from what D. from which 3. Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer _______ it was 20 years ago, _______ it was so poorly equipped. A. what; when B. that; which C. what; which D. which; that 4. Some researchers believe that there is no doubt ________ a cure for AIDS will be found. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 5. We haven’t settled the question of _______ it is necessary for him to study abroad. A. if B. where C. whether D. that 6. A warm thought suddenly came to me _______I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday. A. if B. when C. that D. which 7. There is much chance _______ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race. A. that B. which C. until D. if 8. Please remind me _______ he said he was going. I may be in time to see him off. A. where B. when C. how D. what 9. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us. _______we gave some bells and glasses. A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which 10. With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased _______ he was a man of action. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 1. _______ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships. A. No matter what B. No matter which C. Whatever D. Whichever 2. I just wonder _______ that makes him so excited. A. why it does B. what he does C. how it is D. what it is 3. _______ is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger, more prosperous economy. A. As B. That C. This D. It 4. Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class _______ he had to meet his uncle at the airport. A. why B. that C. where D. because 5. The shopkeeper did not want to sell for _______ he thought was not enough. A. where B. how C. what D. which 6. He noticed that the straight part of the dance was different in the afternoon from _______ it had been in the morning. A. that B. where C. what D. which 7. I’d like to work with _______ is honest and easy to get on with. A. who B. whoever C. whomever D. no matter who 8. When you are reading, make a note of _______ you think is of great importance. A. which B. that C. what D. when 9. ---Can we get everything ready by the weekend? ---It all depends on _______ we can get Mr. Green’s cooperation. A. that B. what C. whether D. if 10. It is the third time ___late this month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived 11. It was in 1969___the American astronaut succeeded in landing on the moon. A. that B. which C. in which D. when 12. Is it in that factory _____”Red Flag” cars are made? A. in which B. where C. that D. which 13. Is the lab ___the foreigners visited yesterday? A. that B. where C. in which D. the one 14. What especially impressed us was the way ____our teacher studied foreign language. A / B which C by which D what 15. Mr. Green is an Australian, ________ I know from his accent. A. who B. whom C. which D. that _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 阅读 C Four Simple Keys to Transform Your Life The Power of Choice. Every one of us makes countless choices every day. Every choice we make has an impact on our lives. Even insignificant choices can affect what we experience and how we feel. When hunger strikes, we can reach for a healthy, nutritious snack, or we can choose the sugar high of junk food. The more important the decision, the greater its effect. For instance, how do I act towards that person who treated me badly? Do I generally choose to be passive, or do I actively set clear intentions and create what I want in my life? Every choice we make, however big or small, affects us in some way. How Do You Make Choices? If you are interested in living a richer, fuller life, there is a foundation upon which you can base all of your decisions which can make life better not only for you, but also for those around you. This foundation is to choose based on what's best for all. Imagine a world where every parent, spouse(配偶), friend, teacher, businessperson, and politician truly did their best to choose what's best for all involved in every decision they made We would certainly live in a more caring, supportive world. It's the Intention." But how do I know what is really best?" you might ask. The answer is simple. It doesn't matter. What matters is not the choice you make, but rather the intention behind your choice. What matters is that whatever decision you make, you are clear in your intention of choosing based on what's best for all. If it later turns out that you made what appears to have been a bad choice, there's no need for guilt. Knowing that you did your best to choose with a sincere desire for what's best for all, your conscience stays clear and open. This then allows you to more easily learn from your mistakes, and to live with a clear heart and mind. What's Best for Me, Too! Choosing what's best does not mean you have to always sacrifice yourself for others. An overly(过度的) exhausted mother can lose her temper easily. Some time off for this mother might seem selfish, yet in the long run, it can help her to be a better mother to her children. So as we move through each day of our lives, let us remember to include ourselves as we do our best to choose what's best for all. 1. Which of the following is FALSE? A. Whenever hunger strikes, we will reach for a junk snack. B. Every choice, however big or small, has an influence on us. C. Even small choices affect how we feel. D. We make choices every day. 2. How should we make choices? A .To be interested in a richer, fuller life. B. To make life better for ourselves. C. To imagine a world where everyone did their best. D. To choose based on what's best for all. 3. Why does the author say, "What matters is not the choice you make, but rather the intention behind your choice"? A. Because the choice you make is not important. B. Because you may have made a bad choice. C. Because this allows you to stay clear and improve. D. Because there is no need for guilt. 4. How to choose what is best for us? A. We need to devote all our life to others. B. We need to put away some time for ourselves. C. We need to sacrifice ourselves for others. D. We need to be selfless every minute. D In October on the east coast of Australia migrating(迁徙)humpback whales(座头鲸)pass very close to the shore. With the help of Max Egan, we went to film them near Byron Bay. It was extremely exciting to spot the little puffs(水柱)of spray on the horizon. When migrating, the whales can be traveling at speeds of about 12km/h and can dive under anywhere between five and forty minutes, but with many years of experience Max usually guided our boat to exactly the right place to provide us with amazing sighting. As the whales break the surface like submarines(潜水艇), the water spills off their broad dark backs and huge tails. Then, with a powerful down stroke, they dive back into the depths of the sea, leaving just a smooth glassy patch of water or “footprint” on the surface to show where they had been. One day we had traveled up and down the shore and far out to the sea in search of whales, but the horizon was deserted. There was no report of whales in the area so we decided to test out Max's new, highly sensitive hydrophone(水中听音器)and the result was astonishing. As soon as the hydrophone was in the water, we found ourselves listening to the most beautiful voices. What may have seemed like a vast empty ocean was filled with the singing of whales. It is the males which sing, as they migrate between feeding and breeding(养育)grounds. No one knows for sure what the purpose of these songs is, whether they are love songs to the females or warnings to other males to stay away. It was thought that each population of humpbacks had its own song which remained regular but recent findings suggest that the whales appreciate a memorable tune(曲调)and quickly adopt any new songs they hear. 5. Which finding about whales is beyond the writer's expectation? A. The little puffs. B. The songs of whales. C. The traveling speed of whales. D. The depth of the whale's dive. 6. What do we know about Max? A. He likes whales very much. B. He is a brave scientist on whales. C. He is an experienced man in finding whales. D. He is an expert in making hydrophones. 7. The writer's main purpose of looking for whales is______. A. carrying out research on whales B. studying the beautiful songs of whales C. making films about whales D. hunting whales for research 二、书面表达  目前,学校存在少数学生考试作弊现象。某英文杂志社拟对此现象 向中学生征文 ,标题是“My Opinion on Cheating in Examinations”。请根据下列提示用英语写一篇征文稿。内容要点如下: 主要原因:1.考试太多、偏难;2. 不用功、懒惰;3.取悦父母。 个人看法:1.作弊不对,违反校规;2.要诚实;努力学习。3.其他看法。 注意:1.短文必须包括所有内容要点,可适当发挥; 2.短文标题与开头已为你写好,不计入总词数; 3.词数:100左右。 参考词汇:作弊cheat (v.) My Opinion on Cheating in Examinations It is known to us all that some students cheat in examinations at school. 三、七选五 How to Turn Your Child into a Lifelong Bookworm Literacy is one of the most important skills we will ever develop over our lifetimes. Most small children love books, looking at the pictures and hearing the story, but as they get older they often move away from books. 1 Join the library Libraries have changed a lot in recent years. 2 Take your child regularly and encourage them to take out books on whatever subject interests them. Not just novels Many parents think that reading counts if the child is reading a work of fiction or a novel. 3 Non-fiction books are particularly attractive to boys. Kids especially love the sorts of books which allow them to make a decision between various paths and choose their own endings. Set an example If your child never sees you reading, they aren’t going to pick up a book either. 4 Having plenty of books around the house makes reading more accessible and the normal thing to do when bored. If you struggle with reading and literacy, do something about it by going back to college or attending a special adult literacy course. Make their own books If your child dislikes reading, think about encouraging them to start writing their own stories and novels. Buy them a special notebook. Allow them to write whatever captures their imagination, and don’t worry too much about messy handwriting or poor spelling. 5 A. So how do you keep your kids interested in books? B.As long as a child is reading, it doesn’t matter what they are reading. C. Libraries will have a great range of books for children. D. There are newspapers printed especially for children. E. Reading and writing are often thought of as two separate issues. F. The idea is to cause an interest in books, reading and fiction, and the rest will develop over time. G.Next time pick up a newspaper or a book and encourage your child to sit with you and read too. Unit5 Canada—“The True North”语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法---名词性从句中的同位语从句。 一、同位语从句:在复合句中充当同位语的名词性从句称为同位语从句。同位语从句一般跟在某些名词后面,用以解释和说明前面的名词的内容。后面常接同位语从句的名词有news,idea,fact,promise,hope,message,doubt ,belief ,thought, certainty ,truth ,question, reason, reply, possibility,suggestion。 二、同位语从句在句中的位置 1. 一般情况下同位语从句跟在某些名词(如news,idea,fact,promise,hope,message等)的后 面,用以说明该名词所表达的具体内容。   E.g. The news that our women volleyball team had won the championship encouraged us all greatly. 我们女排赢得冠军的消息大大地鼓舞了我们所有人。 E.g. I've come from Mr. Wang with a message that he won't be able to see you this afternoon. 我从王先生那边得知一个消息,他说他今天下午不能来看你了。 2. 有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后,而被别的词语隔开,在语法上叫做间隔式同 位语从句。 E.g. The thought came to her that maybe she had left the door open when she left home. 她突然想起可能在她离开家时没把门关上。 E.g. The story goes that he failed in the College Entrance Examinations again. 据说他高考又落榜了。 三、同位语从句前名词的数   同位语从句前的名词通常用单数形式,并且往往带有限定词(word除外)加以修饰。 E.g. Where did you get the idea that I could not come? 你在哪儿听说我不能来? E.g. Give me your promise that you will come to our party this evening. 答应我,你今天晚上要来参加我们的晚会。 E.g. Word came that China launched its first manned spaceship on Oct 15,2003. 消息传来,中国于2003年10月15日首次成功发射了载人飞船。 四、同位语从句连接词的选用 引导同位语从句的词有连词that,whether、连接代词who, which, what和连接副词where, when, why, how等 1.由that, whether引导的同位语从句。此时的引导词只起引导作用,不在从句中作任何成分 E.g. We heard the news that our team had won. 我们听到消息说我们队赢了。 E.g. They were worried over the fact that you were sick. 他们为你生病发愁。 E.g. The news that we are having a holiday tomorrow is not true. 明天放假的消息不实。 E.g. I’ve come to the conclusion that it was unwise to do that. 我得出结论这样做是不明智的。 E.g. He referred to Copernicus’ statement that the earth moves round the sun. 他提到了哥白尼关于地球绕太阳转的说法。 E.g. There is some doubt whether he will come. 他是否会来还不一定。 E.g. The question whether it is right or wrong depends on the result. 这个是对还是错要看结果。 E.g. We are not investigating the question whether he is trustworthy. 我们不是在调查他是否可以信任的问题。 【注意1】若被同位语从句修饰的名词是下列名词时,同位语从句要用虚拟语气即“should+do”,should常常省略常常可省略。这些词有:advice,announcement,argument,belief,claim,conclusion,decision,evidence,explanation,fact,feeling,hope,idea,impression,information,knowledge,message,news,opinion,order,probability,promise,proposal,remark,reply,report,saying,statement,suggestion,thought,treat,warning,wish,word等。 E.g. They were faced with the demand that this tax be abolished. 他们面对废除这个税的要求。 E.g. They expressed the wish that she accept the award. 他们表示希望她接受这笔奖金。 E.g. The suggestion that the new rule be adopted came from the chairman. 采纳新规则的建议是主席提出的。 E.g. The resolution that women be allowed to join the society was carried. 允许妇女参加这个协会的决议通过了。 【注意2】引导同位语从句的连词that通常不省略,但在非正式文体中也可以省去。 E.g. He grabbed his suitcase and gave the impression he was boarding the Tokyo plane. 他拿起了手提箱,给人的印象是他要登上飞往东京的飞机了。 【注意3】表达“是否”的概念时,要用whether 而不用if引导同位语从句。   E.g. I have no idea whether you are interested in working for her. 我不知道你是否有兴趣为她工作。 E.g. We haven't yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation. 我们还没有决定到什么地方去度暑假。 【注意4】在名词doubt“怀疑”后的同位语从句用whether连接;在no doubt“不怀疑”之后的同位语从句用that连接。   E.g. We have some doubt whether they can complete the task on time. 我们怀疑他们是否能准时完成任务。   E.g. There is no doubt that Zhang Wei will keep his promise. 我们相信张卫会守信的。 2.由连接代词who, which, what和连接副词where, when, why, how等引导的同位语从句。此时的引导词在从句中作相应的成分。 E.g. I have no idea when he will come back. 我不知道他什么时候回来。 E.g. It is a question how he did it. 那是一个他如何做的问题。 E.g. He had no idea why she left. 他不知道她为什么离开。 E.g. You have no idea how worried I was! 你不知道我多着急! E.g. Have you any idea what time it starts? 你知道什么时候开始吗? E.g. I have no idea which one I should choose.我不知道该选哪一个。 五、同位语从句和定语从句的三点区别: 同位语从句和定语从句很相似,但还是有区别的,区别主要在以下三方面: 从词类上区别 同位语从句前面的名词只能是idea/ fact/news/ hope /belief/ suggestion/ proposal/ word /thought/doubt/truth/possibility/promise/order等有一定内涵的名词;而定语从句的先行词可以是名词、代词、主句的一部分或是整个主句。 E.g. The possibility that the majority of the labor force will work at home is often discussed.人们经常讨论大多数劳动力将会在家里工作的可能性。(同位语从句) E.g. We are not looking into the question whether he is worth trusting. 我们正在调查的问题不是他是否值得信赖的问题。(同位语从句) E.g. Word came that he had been abroad. 据说他已经出国了。(同位语从句) E.g. Our team has won the game, which made us very happy. 我们的队赢了,这让我们很高兴。 (定语从句) E.g. The doctor whom you are looking for is in the room. 你找的那位医生在房间里面。(定语从句) E.g. His mother did all she could to help him with his study. 他妈妈尽她的最大努力帮助他的学习。 (定语从句,代词all作先行词) 2. 从性质上区别   定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位语从句是从句对前面抽象名词的进一步的说明和解释,属于名词性从句的范畴。 E.g. The news that our team has won the game was true.我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的。 (同位语从句,补充说明news到底是一个什么消息) E.g. The news that he told me yesterday was true.昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的。 (定语从句,news在从句中作told的宾语) E.g. I made a promise that if anyone set me free I would make him very rich. 我许诺如果谁让我自由,我就让他非常富有。(同位语从句,补充说明promise到底是一个什么诺言) E.g. The mother made a promise that pleased all her children. 妈妈做出了一个令她的孩子们高兴的许诺。(定语从句,promise在从句中作pleased的主语) 3. 从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别 有些引导词如how, whether, what可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句。 E.g. That question whether we need it has not been considered. 我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑。(同位语从句) E.g. I have no idea what has happened to him. 我不知道他发生了什么事。(同位语从句)   引导词that引导定语从句时,在从句中一般作主语或宾语(指物时还可以用which代替),并且作宾语时常常省略 that在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充当任何成分,并且不能省略,也不能用which来代替。 E.g. The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday. 我们应派几个人去帮别的几个小组的命令昨天收到了(同位语从句,是对order的具体解释,that虽不作成分,但不能省略) E.g. The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other groups. 我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别的几个小组?(定语从句,是名词order的修饰语,that在从句中作received的宾语,可以省略) 用中文举个例子 1.我不相信他是小偷的事实(同位) “事实”同“他是小偷”是同一件事情 2.我不相信他告诉我的事实 “事实”同“他告诉我”不是同一件事 1. The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief______ you are better than anyone else on the sports field. A. how B. that C. which D. whether 解析:根据句意“唯一能在最高级别(体育竞赛中)胜出的方法就是完全相信在运动场上你比其他任何人都优秀。”本题空格处引导的句子作belief的同位语,故用that。 答案:B。 2. (2014浙江绍兴一中期中))Even if there is no scientific proof ______second-hand smoking causes cancer, there is no reason why nonsmokers should be forced to take this risk. A. which B. that C. when D. where 解析:根据句意“即使没有科学证据表明吸二手烟会致癌,也没有理由让不吸烟的人们被迫去冒这种危险”此处proof 后是同位语从句,说明proof的内容,而同位语从句意思完整,不缺少成分,所以用that引导。 答案:B。 3. (2014四川成都摸底)Don’t worry! There is still a great chance ______we can make up for the lost time. A. which B. that C. where D. when 解析:根据句意“不要担心!还有我们弥补失去时间的极好机会。”结合语境可知“we can make up for the lost time”为同位语从句,引导词在句子中不承担句子成分,只起连接作用。 答案:B。 4.( 2014四川石室中学期中)There are some warnings in some countries ______over exploitation of underground water has caused the decline of wetland and the increase of desertification.   ______ myself more—it was a perfect day. A. which B. where C. what D. that 解析:根据句意“在一些国家有一些警告,过分开采地下水已经导致湿地的减少和沙漠化的增加。”这里横线后面是同位语从句,说明warnings的内容,因为同位语从句的成分和意思都是完整的,用that连接,that不担当任何成分,只起到连接的作用,但是也不能省略。 答案:D。 5. ( 2014吉林长春期中)There is solid evidence______ watching 3D movies can have side effects on the viewers. A. what B. that C. which D. how 解析:根据句意“有确凿的证据表面,看3D电影对观众可能有不良的影响。”evidence后为同位语从句,表示evidence的具体内容,因为从句中不缺少句子成分,所以由that引导,答案:D。 基础演练 1. _______ makes this shop different is that it offers more personal services. A. What B. Who C. Whatever D. Whoever 2. ---It’s thirty years since we last met. ---But I still remember the story, believe it or not, _______ we got lost on a rainy night. A. which B. that C. what D. when 3. See the flags on top of the building? That was _______ we did this morning. A. when B. which C. where D. What 4. ---Could you do me a favor? ---It depends on _______ it is. A. which B. whichever C. what D. whatever 5. Doris' success lies in the fact _______ she is co-operative and eager to learn from others. A. which B. that C. when D. why 6. Mary wrote an article on _______ the team had failed to win the game. A. why B. what C. who D. that 7. Do you have any idea _______ is actually going on in the classroom? A. that B. what C. as D. which 8. ---Why does she always ask you for help? ---There is no one else _______, is there? A. who to turn to B. she can turn to C. for whom to turn D. for her to turn 9. Elephants have their own way to tell the shape of an object and _______ it is rough or smooth. A. / B. whether C. how D. what 10. Danny left word with my secretary _______ he would call again in the afternoon. A. who B. that C. as D. which Keys: 1---5 ABDC B 6---10ABBB B 巩固提高 1. Mum is coming. What present _______ for your birthday? A. you expect she has got B. you expect has she got C. do you expect she has got D. do you expect has she got 2. The way he did it was different ________ we were used to. A. in which B. in what C. from what D. from which 3. Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer _______ it was 20 years ago, _______ it was so poorly equipped. A. what; when B. that; which C. what; which D. which; that 4. Some researchers believe that there is no doubt ________ a cure for AIDS will be found. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 5. We haven’t settled the question of _______ it is necessary for him to study abroad. A. if B. where C. whether D. that 6. A warm thought suddenly came to me _______I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday. A. if B. when C. that D. which 7. There is much chance _______ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race. A. that B. which C. until D. if 8. Please remind me _______ he said he was going. I may be in time to see him off. A. where B. when C. how D. what 9. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us. _______we gave some bells and glasses. A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which 10. With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased _______ he was a man of action. A. which B. that C. what D. whether Keys: 1---5 CCABC 6---10 CABBB 1. _______ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships. A. No matter what B. No matter which C. Whatever D. Whichever 2. I just wonder _______ that makes him so excited. A. why it does B. what he does C. how it is D. what it is 3. _______ is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger, more prosperous economy. A. As B. That C. This D. It 4. Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class _______ he had to meet his uncle at the airport. A. why B. that C. where D. because 5. The shopkeeper did not want to sell for _______ he thought was not enough. A. where B. how C. what D. which 6. He noticed that the straight part of the dance was different in the afternoon from _______ it had been in the morning. A. that B. where C. what D. which 7. I’d like to work with _______ is honest and easy to get on with. A. who B. whoever C. whomever D. no matter who 8. When you are reading, make a note of _______ you think is of great importance. A. which B. that C. what D. when 9. ---Can we get everything ready by the weekend? ---It all depends on _______ we can get Mr. Green’s cooperation. A. that B. what C. whether D. if 10. It is the third time ___late this month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived 11. It was in 1969___the American astronaut succeeded in landing on the moon. A. that B. which C. in which D. when 12. Is it in that factory _____”Red Flag” cars are made? A. in which B. where C. that D. which 13. Is the lab ___the foreigners visited yesterday? A. that B. where C. in which D. the one 14. What especially impressed us was the way ____our teacher studied foreign language. A / B which C by which D what 15. Mr. Green is an Australian, ________ I know from his accent. A. who B. whom C. which D. that Keys: 1---5 DDDBC 6---10 CBCCC 11---15ACDAC _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 阅读 C Four Simple Keys to Transform Your Life The Power of Choice. Every one of us makes countless choices every day. Every choice we make has an impact on our lives. Even insignificant choices can affect what we experience and how we feel. When hunger strikes, we can reach for a healthy, nutritious snack, or we can choose the sugar high of junk food. The more important the decision, the greater its effect. For instance, how do I act towards that person who treated me badly? Do I generally choose to be passive, or do I actively set clear intentions and create what I want in my life? Every choice we make, however big or small, affects us in some way. How Do You Make Choices? If you are interested in living a richer, fuller life, there is a foundation upon which you can base all of your decisions which can make life better not only for you, but also for those around you. This foundation is to choose based on what's best for all. Imagine a world where every parent, spouse(配偶), friend, teacher, businessperson, and politician truly did their best to choose what's best for all involved in every decision they made We would certainly live in a more caring, supportive world. It's the Intention." But how do I know what is really best?" you might ask. The answer is simple. It doesn't matter. What matters is not the choice you make, but rather the intention behind your choice. What matters is that whatever decision you make, you are clear in your intention of choosing based on what's best for all. If it later turns out that you made what appears to have been a bad choice, there's no need for guilt. Knowing that you did your best to choose with a sincere desire for what's best for all, your conscience stays clear and open. This then allows you to more easily learn from your mistakes, and to live with a clear heart and mind. What's Best for Me, Too! Choosing what's best does not mean you have to always sacrifice yourself for others. An overly(过度的) exhausted mother can lose her temper easily. Some time off for this mother might seem selfish, yet in the long run, it can help her to be a better mother to her children. So as we move through each day of our lives, let us remember to include ourselves as we do our best to choose what's best for all. 1. Which of the following is FALSE? A. Whenever hunger strikes, we will reach for a junk snack. B. Every choice, however big or small, has an influence on us. C. Even small choices affect how we feel. D. We make choices every day. 2. How should we make choices? A .To be interested in a richer, fuller life. B. To make life better for ourselves. C. To imagine a world where everyone did their best. D. To choose based on what's best for all. 3. Why does the author say, "What matters is not the choice you make, but rather the intention behind your choice"? A. Because the choice you make is not important. B. Because you may have made a bad choice. C. Because this allows you to stay clear and improve. D. Because there is no need for guilt. 4. How to choose what is best for us? A. We need to devote all our life to others. B. We need to put away some time for ourselves. C. We need to sacrifice ourselves for others. D. We need to be selfless every minute. D In October on the east coast of Australia migrating(迁徙)humpback whales(座头鲸)pass very close to the shore. With the help of Max Egan, we went to film them near Byron Bay. It was extremely exciting to spot the little puffs(水柱)of spray on the horizon. When migrating, the whales can be traveling at speeds of about 12km/h and can dive under anywhere between five and forty minutes, but with many years of experience Max usually guided our boat to exactly the right place to provide us with amazing sighting. As the whales break the surface like submarines(潜水艇), the water spills off their broad dark backs and huge tails. Then, with a powerful down stroke, they dive back into the depths of the sea, leaving just a smooth glassy patch of water or “footprint” on the surface to show where they had been. One day we had traveled up and down the shore and far out to the sea in search of whales, but the horizon was deserted. There was no report of whales in the area so we decided to test out Max's new, highly sensitive hydrophone(水中听音器)and the result was astonishing. As soon as the hydrophone was in the water, we found ourselves listening to the most beautiful voices. What may have seemed like a vast empty ocean was filled with the singing of whales. It is the males which sing, as they migrate between feeding and breeding(养育)grounds. No one knows for sure what the purpose of these songs is, whether they are love songs to the females or warnings to other males to stay away. It was thought that each population of humpbacks had its own song which remained regular but recent findings suggest that the whales appreciate a memorable tune(曲调)and quickly adopt any new songs they hear. 5. Which finding about whales is beyond the writer's expectation? A. The little puffs. B. The songs of whales. C. The traveling speed of whales. D. The depth of the whale's dive. 6. What do we know about Max? A. He likes whales very much. B. He is a brave scientist on whales. C. He is an experienced man in finding whales. D. He is an expert in making hydrophones. 7. The writer's main purpose of looking for whales is______. A. carrying out research on whales B. studying the beautiful songs of whales C. making films about whales D. hunting whales for research 二、书面表达  目前,学校存在少数学生考试作弊现象。某英文杂志社拟对此现象 向中学生征文 ,标题是“My Opinion on Cheating in Examinations”。请根据下列提示用英语写一篇征文稿。内容要点如下: 主要原因:1.考试太多、偏难;2. 不用功、懒惰;3.取悦父母。 个人看法:1.作弊不对,违反校规;2.要诚实;努力学习。3.其他看法。 注意:1.短文必须包括所有内容要点,可适当发挥; 2.短文标题与开头已为你写好,不计入总词数; 3.词数:100左右。 参考词汇:作弊cheat (v.) My Opinion on Cheating in Examinations It is known to us all that some students cheat in examinations at school. 三、七选五 How to Turn Your Child into a Lifelong Bookworm Literacy is one of the most important skills we will ever develop over our lifetimes. Most small children love books, looking at the pictures and hearing the story, but as they get older they often move away from books. 1 Join the library Libraries have changed a lot in recent years. 2 Take your child regularly and encourage them to take out books on whatever subject interests them. Not just novels Many parents think that reading counts if the child is reading a work of fiction or a novel. 3 Non-fiction books are particularly attractive to boys. Kids especially love the sorts of books which allow them to make a decision between various paths and choose their own endings. Set an example If your child never sees you reading, they aren’t going to pick up a book either. 4 Having plenty of books around the house makes reading more accessible and the normal thing to do when bored. If you struggle with reading and literacy, do something about it by going back to college or attending a special adult literacy course. Make their own books If your child dislikes reading, think about encouraging them to start writing their own stories and novels. Buy them a special notebook. Allow them to write whatever captures their imagination, and don’t worry too much about messy handwriting or poor spelling. 5 A. So how do you keep your kids interested in books? B.As long as a child is reading, it doesn’t matter what they are reading. C. Libraries will have a great range of books for children. D. There are newspapers printed especially for children. E. Reading and writing are often thought of as two separate issues. F. The idea is to cause an interest in books, reading and fiction, and the rest will develop over time. G.Next time pick up a newspaper or a book and encourage your child to sit with you and read too. Keys: 阅读理解 1---7 ADCBB CC 二、书面表达  My Opinion on Cheating in Examinations It is known to us all that some students cheat in examinations at school. As students, we often take examinations at school, but sometimes we have too many examinations which are too difficult for us. On the other hand, some of us are lazy and don't work hard at our lessons. So when taking examinations, some students sometimes cheat in order to get better results to please their parents and teachers. In my opinion, it is wrong to cheat in examinations because it breaks the rules of schools. We students should be honest and try to get good results by studying hard instead of cheating in examinations. What's more, we should improve our study methods and get well prepared for examinations. 三、七选五ACBGF Unit5Canada—“The True North”词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 重点短语 1.rather than 与其;不愿;而不是 2. manage to do设法做成 3. have a gift for对……有天赋 4. all the way 一直 5. as far as 远到;直到 6. go through穿过;检查;经历 7. settle down定居;平静;专心于 8. catch sight of看见;瞥见 9. in the distance在远处 10. at dawn在黎明;在拂晓 11.go downtown去商业区 二、词义辨析 1. aboard(prep.)&(adv.)在船(飞机、车等)上,上船(飞机、车等) board(n.)木板;委员会;伙食 (vt.)上船(车、飞机等);搭伙,寄宿 abroad(adv.)在国外 broad(adj.)宽阔的,广泛的 2. surroundings指自然环境,从周围事物这一客体着眼。注意:常用复数 environment可指自然环境,也可指精神环境,均从环境对人的感受、道德以及观念的影响着眼 circumstance指某事或动作发生时的“情况” 3. scene指展现在眼前的风景、景色、景象或人为的环境,不限于自然风景,也常指(戏剧、电影、小说等的)场景、布景 scenery指一个地方的整体自然景观,也可指舞台的布景,为不可数名词 view系常用词,指从远处或高处看到的风景 三、要点梳理 1. until/till 直到…为止 until常与否定句连用, not…until 直到……才 not until…在句首, 主句用倒装 用于强调句It is not until… that… 2.would rather do…than do宁可……而不…… not.. but rather不是……而是 would rather do…宁愿做…… would rather+从句,从句用虚拟语气,一般过去时表示现在或将来的愿望,过去完成时表示过去的愿望 prefer to do rather than do宁愿做……,而不愿做…… 3. scenery(n.)风景;景色;[戏]舞台布景 为不可数名词,为不可数名词,通常指户外一个地区整个的自然“景色”,而不是个别的局部的风景,它也指“舞台(全堂的)布景”。 4. surround(vt. )包围;围绕 surrounding(adj.)周围的(仅用于名词前) surroundings(n.)环境;周围的事物 surround oneself with sb.喜欢结交某类人 be surrounded by/with被……包围/环绕 5. measure(v.)测量;衡量;判定(n.)计量制;计量单位;措施 measure sb./sth.by sth.用……来衡量 take measures /steps/action to do sth.采取措施做某事 make sth.to one’s own measure照某人的尺寸做某物 a made-to-measure suit一套定做的服装 6. aboard (prep.)&(adv.)在(船、飞机、火车或公共汽车等)上;上(船、飞机、火车等) All board!(口)请上船(车、飞机等)! go aboard上船(车、飞机等) on board在(船、车或飞机)上 7. settle down定居;安静下来;专心于 settled(adj.)稳定的;舒适自在的;习惯的 settlement(n.)协议;殖民 settler(n.)移民;殖民者 set down to do sth.开始认真做某事 settle on sth.决定/同意某事 settle a quarrel /an argument解决争吵/争论 settle into sth.(使)适应(新的家、工作、环境);(迁入新居、更换工作后)安顿下来 8. manage(v.)完成;应付(困难局面);明智地使用(金钱、时间、信息等);管理,负责(公司、组织等) 设法做成某事,努力完成某事 manage to do sth.设法做成某事,努力完成某事 manage without在没有下应付过去 manage it完成这件事 9. catch sight of看见;瞥见 lose one’s sight失明 lose sight of再也看不见 come into sight 进入视野 out of sight, out of mind眼不见,心不烦 at first sight乍一看 10.within(prep.)在……之内 within easy reach of离……很近 within… meters/kilometers of someplace离某地……米/公里范围内 within limits有一定限制;在某种程度上 11.confirm(vt.)证实;证明;批准(职位、协议等) confirm that…证实,证明…… It has been confirmed that…已经确认…… be confirmed as…被批准担任…… 12.distance(n.)距离;远方 distant(adj.)遥远的 in the distance在远处 within walking/ driving distance 走路/开车去就可以 at a distance of 5 meters相隔5米远 keep sb.at a distance不与某人太亲近 13. over(prep.)在……期间;在……的上方(但未触及);覆盖在……上面;遍及;穿越 (adv.)穿过;结束 all over 到处,各处,遍及 over dinner吃饭期间 14. as far as远至;直到;达到……程度 as far as the eye can see在肉眼看得见的范围的 as far as sb.is concerned就某人而言 as far as sth.is concerned就某事而论 as far asI know据我所知 as far asI can see在我看来 as far as I can remember据我所能记得的 as far as it goes在一定程度上 so far, so good到目前为止,一切还算顺利 15. impress(v.)使印象深刻;使铭记 impression(n.)印象 impressive(adj.)给人印象深刻的;引人注目的 be impressed by给……留下印象 be impressed with被……打动 impress sth.on/upon sb.使意识到(重要性或严重性) impress sb.with sth.以……打动 What impresses sb.most is that给某人印象最深刻的是…… have/leave/makea big/deep/strong impression on sb.给某人留下巨大的/深刻的/强大的印象 1.(2014河南中原名校摸底)To fully understand the writer, we must read not only between the lines, but also_______ the lines to know what is implied in the article. A. beyond B. within C. among D. beside 2.(2014浙江)People won’t pay attention to you when they still have a lot of ideas of their own crying______ expression. A. from B. over C. with D. for 3.(2014浙江)Facing up to your problems______ running away from them is the best approach to working things out. A. more than B. rather than C. along with D. or rather 4.(2014福建)As a grassroots singer, she reads everything she can ______concerning music, and takes every opportunity to improve herself. A. catch sight of B. get hold of C. take charge of D. make mention of 5.(2014江苏)The lecture______, a lively question-and-answer session followed. A. being given B. having given C. to be given D. having been given 基础演练 根据汉语或首字母提示用本部分所学的单词填空 1. I prefer the peaceful country life to the busy u______ life. 2. He is famous for m______ Chinese traditional music with Western forms. 3.Many people want to have a g _______ for making money. 4. I went out and wandered______(向东) 5.This problem is ______(稍稍)difficult, but I can work it out easily. 6.The two governments have settled their dispute over their common______(边界). 7.The essay isn’t even remotely relevant to the ______(话题). 8.We are going to spend a weekend on the African_____(大陆). 9.The ______(大臣)has indicated that he may resign next year. 10.It’s about time we got together for a______(交谈). 巩固提高 根据汉语提示完成句子 1. She is a career woman________(而不是)a housewife. 2. He can speak five languages fluently. He does ________(对……有天赋) 3. He was very worried and found it hard to________(平静下来). 4. I ________(看见) him in the crowed. 5. He_________(设法)finish his work on time. 6.We should ________(采取措施)to preserve the environment from pollution. 一、用所给词的适当形式填空 1. Canada is a ______(mix) of many cultures and races. 2. The students will be______ (quiz) on Chapter 6 tomorrow. 3. Though we left home very late, we managed _______ (catch) the last bus. 4. This book is _______(slight) better than that one, but not much. 5. He was busy writing a letter rather than _______(read) the newspaper. 6. We should take effective_______ (measure) to reduce crime in the area. 7. Most parents like to bring up their children in healthy_______ (surround) 8. All the factors _______ (consider),the planned trip will have to be called off. 9. You get a surprising gift for _______ (see) through people’s minds. 10. We’d rather he_______ (pay) us the money tomorrow. 二、句型转换 1. They made up their minds to go towards the north. They made up their minds to go_______. 2. Rather than ride to the downtown, they preferred to go there on foot. They_______ _______ go there on foot _______ ride to the downtown. 3. Vancouver which is surrounded by mountains on the north and the Pacific Ocean on the west is the most beautiful city in Canada. Vancouver_______ _______mountains on the north and the Pacific Ocean on the west is the most beautiful city in Canada. 4. I saw her for a moment but then I lost sight of her. I saw her for a moment but then she was______________ _______. 5. As there were no buses, we had to go home on foot. _______ _______ no buses, we had to go home on foot. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 单项选择 1. --- Alice, would you like_________ a movie with us tonight? --- Sorry, but I don’t fancy ________ out today. A. seeing, going B. to see, going C. to see, to go D. seeing, to go Steven 2. Spielberg, _____ mother was a musical teacher, was born in 1964 in a small town in America. A. whose B. who C. that D. whom 3.I think the writer _______ wrote the book is very creative. A. which B. who C. when D. where 4.I’ve never read a better book than this one. ___________, it is the best one that I have ever read. A. Since then B. In other words C. At times D. In some ways 5.--- Mary, what are you up this weekend? --- Not sure. Tom just suggested that we _______ camping if it is sunny. A. won’t go B. wouldn’t go C. should go D. not go 6.I was born _______ 22 October 1983. My little brother was born ____ 1987. A. in; in B. on; in C. in; on D. on; on 7. The teacher spoke slowly ________ the students might take notes. A. while B. since C. even though D. so that 8. They talked for about an hour of things and persons ________ they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. who D. whom 9. I used to live near the People’s Park ________is the center of town. A. which B. where C. in which D. what 10.They looked very excited ________they had won the football game. A. even though B. even if C. though D. as if 二、完形填空 Today we spent the morning going through our personal belongings. We were looking for items to 1 for free, at a local park. Not just any items but things people really needed. We came up with blankets, soaps, food, and clothing. Our 2was not to find things we no longer wanted, but things we use every day that would be 3 to others. We made up4 with the things we believed would be useful and added some small toys.5 the boxes a simple letter was placed. It6: “Please take these7 and know that your life is important. Times are8but these days will pass. We9what we have, believing that it will matter. Use the food to nurture(养护) your body; use the10to stay warm. Be sure to know that the human spirit can overcome anything. Do not 11 your head down for having a need to stay warm. Someday please do the same when you can. How you do it, where and when, your 12will tell you.” This 13act was simply because it was the right thing to do. We have often seen homeless people at the park where we left the belongings. I noticed that my 14 had put her favorite green coat into one of the boxes. I 15if she was sure about it and she simply replied that it had a hood (兜帽). She 16 the coat but knew the hood could 17 someone from the rain. Who knows where these gifts of 18 will go? We never go back and see what happens. It’s 19. The right things will find the right people and that is all that 20. 1. A. give away B. bring in C. deal with D. put up 2. A. order B. aim C. method D. responsibility 3. A. peaceful B. powerful C. useful D. harmful 4. A. bags B. chairs C. cars D. boxes 5. A. Beside B. Above C. Under D. Inside 6. A. wrote B. read C. noticed D. indicated 7. A. products B. clothes C. items D. foods 8. A. difficult B. short C. great D. precious 9. A. sell B. share C. store D. hide 10. A. blankets B. soaps C. toys D. stoves 11. A. turn B. hit C. hold D. look 12. A. parents B. friends C. position D. heart 13. A. kind B. secret C. hopeful D. suitable 14. A. mother B. wife C. daughter D. sister 15. A. rang B. doubted C. asked D. blamed 16. A. kept B. folded C. made D. liked 17. A. protect B. promote C. find D. stop 18. A. reflection B. passion C. honesty D. sympathy 19. A. impossible B. selfish C. unimportant D. dishonest 20. A. obeys B. ends C. admits D. counts Unit5Canada—“The True North”词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 重点短语 1.rather than 与其;不愿;而不是 2. manage to do设法做成 3. have a gift for对……有天赋 4. all the way 一直 5. as far as 远到;直到 6. go through穿过;检查;经历 7. settle down定居;平静;专心于 8. catch sight of看见;瞥见 9. in the distance在远处 10. at dawn在黎明;在拂晓 11.go downtown去商业区 二、词义辨析 1. aboard(prep.)&(adv.)在船(飞机、车等)上,上船(飞机、车等) board(n.)木板;委员会;伙食 (vt.)上船(车、飞机等);搭伙,寄宿 abroad(adv.)在国外 broad(adj.)宽阔的,广泛的 2. surroundings指自然环境,从周围事物这一客体着眼。注意:常用复数 environment可指自然环境,也可指精神环境,均从环境对人的感受、道德以及观念的影响着眼 circumstance指某事或动作发生时的“情况” 3. scene指展现在眼前的风景、景色、景象或人为的环境,不限于自然风景,也常指(戏剧、电影、小说等的)场景、布景 scenery指一个地方的整体自然景观,也可指舞台的布景,为不可数名词 view系常用词,指从远处或高处看到的风景 三、要点梳理 1. until/till 直到…为止 until常与否定句连用, not…until 直到……才 not until…在句首, 主句用倒装 用于强调句It is not until… that… 2.would rather do…than do宁可……而不…… not.. but rather不是……而是 would rather do…宁愿做…… would rather+从句,从句用虚拟语气,一般过去时表示现在或将来的愿望,过去完成时表示过去的愿望 prefer to do rather than do宁愿做……,而不愿做…… 3. scenery(n.)风景;景色;[戏]舞台布景 为不可数名词,为不可数名词,通常指户外一个地区整个的自然“景色”,而不是个别的局部的风景,它也指“舞台(全堂的)布景”。 4. surround(vt. )包围;围绕 surrounding(adj.)周围的(仅用于名词前) surroundings(n.)环境;周围的事物 surround oneself with sb.喜欢结交某类人 be surrounded by/with被……包围/环绕 5. measure(v.)测量;衡量;判定(n.)计量制;计量单位;措施 measure sb./sth.by sth.用……来衡量 take measures /steps/action to do sth.采取措施做某事 make sth.to one’s own measure照某人的尺寸做某物 a made-to-measure suit一套定做的服装 6. aboard (prep.)&(adv.)在(船、飞机、火车或公共汽车等)上;上(船、飞机、火车等) All board!(口)请上船(车、飞机等)! go aboard上船(车、飞机等) on board在(船、车或飞机)上 7. settle down定居;安静下来;专心于 settled(adj.)稳定的;舒适自在的;习惯的 settlement(n.)协议;殖民 settler(n.)移民;殖民者 set down to do sth.开始认真做某事 settle on sth.决定/同意某事 settle a quarrel /an argument解决争吵/争论 settle into sth.(使)适应(新的家、工作、环境);(迁入新居、更换工作后)安顿下来 8. manage(v.)完成;应付(困难局面);明智地使用(金钱、时间、信息等);管理,负责(公司、组织等) 设法做成某事,努力完成某事 manage to do sth.设法做成某事,努力完成某事 manage without在没有下应付过去 manage it完成这件事 9. catch sight of看见;瞥见 lose one’s sight失明 lose sight of再也看不见 come into sight 进入视野 out of sight, out of mind眼不见,心不烦 at first sight乍一看 10.within(prep.)在……之内 within easy reach of离……很近 within… meters/kilometers of someplace离某地……米/公里范围内 within limits有一定限制;在某种程度上 11.confirm(vt.)证实;证明;批准(职位、协议等) confirm that…证实,证明…… It has been confirmed that…已经确认…… be confirmed as…被批准担任…… 12.distance(n.)距离;远方 distant(adj.)遥远的 in the distance在远处 within walking/ driving distance 走路/开车去就可以 at a distance of 5 meters相隔5米远 keep sb.at a distance不与某人太亲近 13. over(prep.)在……期间;在……的上方(但未触及);覆盖在……上面;遍及;穿越 (adv.)穿过;结束 all over 到处,各处,遍及 over dinner吃饭期间 14. as far as远至;直到;达到……程度 as far as the eye can see在肉眼看得见的范围的 as far as sb.is concerned就某人而言 as far as sth.is concerned就某事而论 as far asI know据我所知 as far asI can see在我看来 as far as I can remember据我所能记得的 as far as it goes在一定程度上 so far, so good到目前为止,一切还算顺利 15. impress(v.)使印象深刻;使铭记 impression(n.)印象 impressive(adj.)给人印象深刻的;引人注目的 be impressed by给……留下印象 be impressed with被……打动 impress sth.on/upon sb.使意识到(重要性或严重性) impress sb.with sth.以……打动 What impresses sb.most is that给某人印象最深刻的是…… have/leave/makea big/deep/strong impression on sb.给某人留下巨大的/深刻的/强大的印象 1.(2014河南中原名校摸底)To fully understand the writer, we must read not only between the lines, but also_______ the lines to know what is implied in the article. A. beyond B. within C. among D. beside 解析:根据句意“为了充分了解作者(的意思),我们不仅必须读字里行间的内容,我们还要理解文章所暗含的意思。”beyond超出(某事物)范围,超越;within 在……之内;beside在……旁边;among在……中间。这里beyond the lines意为:弦外之音。 答案:A。 2.(2014浙江)People won’t pay attention to you when they still have a lot of ideas of their own crying______ expression. A. from B. over C. with D. for 解析:根据句意“当人们仍有许多自己的观点急于想要表达的时候,他们是不会注意你的。” cry for急于想要。根据句意可知答案。 答案:D。 3.(2014浙江)Facing up to your problems______ running away from the

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  • ID:4-6094424 人教版高中英语必修三辅导讲义:Unit4 Astronomy:the science of the stars词汇篇及语法篇(学生版+教师版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修3、4/必修3/Unit 4 Astronomy: the science of the stars

    Unit4 Astronomy:the science of the stars词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 重点短语 1.in time 及时;终于 2. lay eggs下蛋 3. give birth to 产生;分娩 4. in one’s turn 轮到某人;接着 5. prevent... from 阻止;制止 6. block out 挡住(光线) 7. cheer up 感到高兴,感到振奋 8. now that 既然;因为 9. break out 突发;爆发 10. watch out密切注视,当心 词义辨析 1. collide属正式用词,常与不及物动词,可与with搭配,其名词为collision crash属普通用词,可作名词、及物动词和不及物动词,作不及物动词时常与介词into搭配 2. break out指灾难性的事件,如战争、火灾、疾病等的爆发 happen强调事件发生的偶然性 come about常指不受控制的事情的发生,相当于。常用句型:How does/did it come about…? ·····是怎样发生的? 3.lie, lie , lay 的区别如下: 动词形式 第三人称单数 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 中文释义 lie lies lied lied lying 撒谎;谎话 lie lies lay lain lying 躺;位于 lay lays laid laid laying 放置;下蛋 三、要点梳理 1. in time及时;终于;迟早;最后 on time准时;按时 in no time 立即;马上 at a time依次;每次;逐一 at one time曾经;一度 at no time从不 at the same time同时 in time for刚好赶上 2.atmosphere(n.)大气层;空气;气氛 atmosphere作为“大气层、大气”讲时常与定冠词the搭配;作“气氛、氛围”讲时常与不定冠词搭配;作先行词时,其后的定语从句如果缺少状语,引导词用where,如果缺少宾语或主语用that或which。 3. harmful (adj.)有害的 harmless (adj.)无害的 harm (n.)伤害,损害 ssful(adj.) be harmful to=do harm to对······有害 do more harm than good弊大于利 There is no harm in doing sth. =It does no harm to do sth.不妨做某事;做某事没坏处 mean no harm无恶意 4. vt.+it+adj./n.+(for sb./sth.) to do sth. 在这个句型中,形容词或名词作宾语补足语,it是形式宾语,真正的宾语是后面的不定式短语,也可以是动名词短语或that从句。可用于该句型的动词通常有make,think,consider, find ,feel, judge等 E.g. I don’t think it worthwhile going to such a place.到这样一个地方去,我看是不值得的。 5. multiply (v.)乘以;乘;迅速增加;(使)繁殖 multi-为一前缀形式,意为“多个,许多”常构成名词和形容词 multicultural (adj.)多元文化的 multimedia (adj.)多媒体的;使用媒体的(n.)多媒体 multinational (adj.)跨国的;涉及多国的 multiparty (adj.)多党派的 6. exist (vi.)存在;生存 existence (n.)存在,生存 existon 靠······生存,生活 in existence现存;现有 come into existence出现;开始存在 7. thus (adv.)这样;以此方式;因此;从而 “thus+分词短语”常置于句末作结果状语,翻译时常用“因而”、“所以”、“于是”、“便”等词语。这种分词短语的逻辑主语不是句子的主语,通常是前面的整个句子,因而它的作用相当于一个非限制性定语从句。 E.g. Some new machines were installed in our factory, thus resulting in an increase in production. 我们的工厂安装了一些新机器,因而增加了产量。 8. in one’s turn轮到某人;接着 in turn依次,轮流;相应地;转而 take turns in doing /to do sth.轮流做某事 on the turn即将变化 give sb. a turn使大吃一惊 the turn of the century世纪之交 E.g. When it was in my turn, I was too excited to speak.当轮到我时,我激动得都说不出话来了。 9. prevent/stop sb. (from) doing sth. 阻止某人做某事(在主动句中from可以省略,被动句中不可省略) keep sb. from doing sth.(from不可省略) protect …from 保护·····免遭 10. puzzle(vt.)&(vi.)(使)迷惑;(使)为难;(n.)难题;谜 puzzle over/over sth.苦苦思索,仔细琢磨 be puzzled about /as to对·····感到迷惑 a puzzled look/expression迷惑的表情 a crossword puzzle纵横字谜 puzzled (adj.)(感到)迷惑不解的,常用来修饰人 puzzling (adj.)令人迷惑不解的,常用来修饰事物 11.crash(vi.)&(vt.)碰撞;坠落 air crash飞机失事 crash into撞在·····上 12. block out挡住;遮住(光线或声音);忘掉;抹去(不愉快的事情) block in画(某物)的草图 block off封锁,封闭(道路) block up塞住,封住(孔,洞) block one’s way挡住某人的去路 13.pull(n.)&(vt.)拉(力);拖;牵引力 pull back撤退 pull ahead抢先;领先 pull in(车)进站停靠 pull out驶离车站 pull over把(车)开到路边 pull up使车停止,停下 pull down 拆毁,拆掉(建筑物) pull through(使)恢复健康 14. cheer up感到高兴;感到振奋 cheerful (adj.)快乐的,高兴的 cheers(用于祝酒)干杯 cheer sb. on为某人加油;鼓劲 give a cheer欢呼起来 15. 倍数表达法 倍数表达方式:“A +be+倍数+as+形容词或副词的原级+as +B”表示“A是B的多少倍” “A +be+倍数+as+形容词或副词的比较级+than +B”表示“A比B大多少倍” “A +be+倍数+the size/height/length/width,etc.+of +B”,表示“A是B的大小/高度/长度/宽度等多少倍” 16.now that既然常见的表示原因的连词: in that因为,原因是 seeing that由于,因为 17. break out(战争、火灾、疾病等)突发;爆发 break away (from)脱离;突然挣脱 break through突围,突破;克服 break sth. up拆开;打散;结束(关系等) break in强行进入 break into强行闯入;突然开始 break off断开;中断 break down出故障;垮掉 18. watch out for当心;提防;密切注意 watch out=look out当心,小心 watch out for=look out for当心、提防 Watch it! 小心!留神! watch over sb./sth.照管某物/照顾某人 keep watch守护,监视 on watch值班 watch the clock盯着钟表 watch the time注意时间 watch the world go by闲看人来人往 19. depend on sb =rely on / count on sb./believe in sb./trust (in) sb. 信任/依赖某人 It (all) depends 看情况而定 20. 与get相关的短语: get along 相处融洽, 进展等 get down to 开始认真对待, 考虑 get on 上车 get through 到达; 通过; 办完, get to 到达 1.(2014河北衡水中学调研)The hotel is always full of people because it offers a lovely relaxed______ and personal service. A. appearance B. adventure C. amount D. atmosphere 2.(2014山西康杰中学月考)Nobody was clear about how exactly he had managed to______such a large amount of money in such a short time. A. increase B. accumulate C. multiply D. commit 3.(2014安徽)My good performance in the job interview left me ________ about my future and about what I can do here. A. puzzled B. sensitive C. optimistic D. embarrassed 4.(2014江苏无锡月考)Mr. Brown’s condition looks very serious and it is doubtful if he will________. A. pull back B. pull up C. pull through D. pull out 5.(2014安徽)---I get at least half an hour of exercise almost every day. ---Oh great! ______. A. Good luck B. Cheer up C. Same to you D. Keep it up 基础演练 根据汉语提示或首字母提示用本部分所学的单词填空 1. Ais the scientific study of the sun, the moon, the stars and so on. 2.The project cost us more than one ____(十亿)dollars. 3. The a at home was rather tense. 4.His________(根本的)mistake was to rely too much on other people. 5.O________ is a gas that is present in air and water. 6.Man-made ________ (卫星)are used for sending and receiving messages. 7.Anything that is dropped falls towards the centre of the earth because of the pull of ________ (重力). 8. Global warming and ________(气候)change problems are perhaps the two greatest threats to our planet. 9.She was unbelievably ________(温和的)with him during his illness. 10. A rare virus just attacked my computer s_____, so it has broken down. 11. The ______ (puzzle) look on her face suggested she didn’t understand what I had said. 12. Not a few ________ (violence) scenes had been cut from the film before it came to show.. 13. Smoking can be ________ (harm) to your health. 14. Five ________ (multiply)by four equals twenty. 15. The naughty boy________ (lie) to me that the hen had______ (lay) three eggs the day before. 巩固提高 选择适当的单词填空 1.Buddhism is one of the world’s________ and one of its famous ________buildings in China is the Potala Palace in Tibet.(religions;religious) 2.This girl looked very much_________her mother.However,________the girl of her age, she dreamed of becoming a physicist. (unlike; like) 3. Some dinosaurs were very large but__________. Young dinosaurs were treated very ________until they become adults. (gently; gentle) 4. I didn’t know his ________until today. He can’t ________on the money he is earning and has to beg from door to door.(exist; existence) 5. Her ________look on her face suggested she didn’t understand the ________problem.(puzzling; puzzled) 一、用所给词的适当形式填空 1. Scientists have many theories about how the universe first came into _______ (exist) 2. His advice prevented me from_______ (make) a serious mistake. 3. There wereseveral _______ (theory) about the way in which the first started. 4. I felt _______ (physical) sick before the exam. 5. Beautiful music came________ (float) out of the window. 二、用所给短语补全句子 cheer up, give birth to, break out, in turn, block out, now that, depend on, watch out for, prevent…from ,in time 1. If you keep on learning English, you’ll be able to speak it quite fluently________. 2. The expected storm ________us ________climbing the mountain. 3. The good news of our football team winning the game _________everybody. 4. _________everyone agrees to my plan,let’s start tomorrow. 5. Whether our experiment will be successful _______whether we are patient enough. 6. Mrs. White _________a healthy baby at her late thirties. 7. The staff were asked _________fake bank credit cards. 8. It was almost midnight when the fire _________in the neighborhood. 9. He asked each of us _________to describe how alcohol had affected our lives. 10. A heavy curtain was put up to _______ the night. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、语法填空 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(不多于3个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 First, reading books 1 (be) fun. You can always keep yourself 2 (interest) and it can help you have an enjoyable time if you like reading. This is especially useful when the weather is bad. It is a(n) 3 (relax) hobby too. Next, you can read a book anywhere: in a car, on a plane, in bed—even in the bath. 4 you need is a book! Reading is a convenient hobby as it is easy to stop and start again. Another good reason for reading books is 5 it is useful. If you read as a hobby you 6 (get) better and better at it. This means that you will read faster and become 7 (good) at understanding what you read. As your reading improves, you will probably find your schoolwork becomes much easier. Many school subjects depend 8 good reading and, as you read you learn more and more. Good readers are most likely to be good 9 (write), too. They are usually good at 10 (spell) as well, and have more things to write about. Reading books is really a wonderful hobby. 二、短文改错(共10处) My father was the biology professor. When I was young, he was used to take me to the biology lab, there I saw mice, cats and other animals. My father also influenced me through nature walks. He often took me on a walk in the backyard. We would catch frogs, snakes and bird. He seemed know everything about wildlife. Eighteen years later, think about my father and his influence on my life, I feel very luckily. I am grateful that I got the chance to learn from her. He helps me develop my interest in all that was alive and sometimes dead around me. 三、阅读理解 Dear Humane Society, I was watching the news last night and saw the report about the rescue(营救 ) of a group of puppies that had been abandoned(遗弃) near the freeway. Being an animal lover, I was shocked by their owner’s behavior. But I was excited to hear that you were holding a letter writing contest to place the puppies for adoption(收养) to good homes. I asked my parents to let me apply to adopt one of those puppies. Fortunately, my parents also love animals and gave me permission. Any one of these puppies would be welcome in my home. This puppy would have a friendly “brother” with our own dog, Harry. We have a big backyard with lots of room for them to run and play and a doggy door for them to come in when they need shelter. Our new family member would benefit from regular trips to the vet for care and to groomer(美容师) to keep up a fashionable appearance. Since I would be the main care giver, I want you to know that I am a very responsible person with lots of experience taking care of pets. I would make sure of following through with their daily care, including everything from feeding to walking. Out of all of the things I can provide for this puppy, the most important gift is LOVE. This little guy or girl would be a member of a family full of love. This love is not only for little members, but it goes on forever. I hope you will consider all the reasons why we should be able to adopt one of these puppies. Our home would be a paradise for this puppy after its miserable(痛苦的) start in life and would be blessed by its new member. Hopefully yours, Micah Plum 1. Last night Micah Plum had the news that ___________. A. he won the letter writing contest B. his parents found some lost puppies C. some abandoned puppies needed adopting D. some abandoned puppies found their home 2. Micah wrote the second paragraph mainly to show_________. A. Harry is also an abandoned puppy B. Harry lives a happy life in his house C. his parents allowed him to adopt a puppy D. the puppy would be taken good care of in his house 3. According to the letter, what will Micah do for the puppy? A. Walk it. B. Groom it. C. Buy it a “brother”. D. Fix a doggy door. 4. The underlined word “paradise” in the last paragraph refuses to “the place without_________”. A. love B. hope C. help D. unhappiness 5. This text is a letter of _______. A. thanks B. request C. support D. introduction Unit4 Astronomy:the science of the stars词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 重点短语 1.in time 及时;终于 2. lay eggs下蛋 3. give birth to 产生;分娩 4. in one’s turn 轮到某人;接着 5. prevent... from 阻止;制止 6. block out 挡住(光线) 7. cheer up 感到高兴,感到振奋 8. now that 既然;因为 9. break out 突发;爆发 10. watch out密切注视,当心 词义辨析 1. collide属正式用词,常与不及物动词,可与with搭配,其名词为collision crash属普通用词,可作名词、及物动词和不及物动词,作不及物动词时常与介词into搭配 2. break out指灾难性的事件,如战争、火灾、疾病等的爆发 happen强调事件发生的偶然性 come about常指不受控制的事情的发生,相当于。常用句型:How does/did it come about…? ·····是怎样发生的? 3.lie, lie , lay 的区别如下: 动词形式 第三人称单数 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 中文释义 lie lies lied lied lying 撒谎;谎话 lie lies lay lain lying 躺;位于 lay lays laid laid laying 放置;下蛋 三、要点梳理 1. in time及时;终于;迟早;最后 on time准时;按时 in no time 立即;马上 at a time依次;每次;逐一 at one time曾经;一度 at no time从不 at the same time同时 in time for刚好赶上 2.atmosphere(n.)大气层;空气;气氛 atmosphere作为“大气层、大气”讲时常与定冠词the搭配;作“气氛、氛围”讲时常与不定冠词搭配;作先行词时,其后的定语从句如果缺少状语,引导词用where,如果缺少宾语或主语用that或which。 3. harmful (adj.)有害的 harmless (adj.)无害的 harm (n.)伤害,损害 ssful(adj.) be harmful to=do harm to对······有害 do more harm than good弊大于利 There is no harm in doing sth. =It does no harm to do sth.不妨做某事;做某事没坏处 mean no harm无恶意 4. vt.+it+adj./n.+(for sb./sth.) to do sth. 在这个句型中,形容词或名词作宾语补足语,it是形式宾语,真正的宾语是后面的不定式短语,也可以是动名词短语或that从句。可用于该句型的动词通常有make,think,consider, find ,feel, judge等 E.g. I don’t think it worthwhile going to such a place.到这样一个地方去,我看是不值得的。 5. multiply (v.)乘以;乘;迅速增加;(使)繁殖 multi-为一前缀形式,意为“多个,许多”常构成名词和形容词 multicultural (adj.)多元文化的 multimedia (adj.)多媒体的;使用媒体的(n.)多媒体 multinational (adj.)跨国的;涉及多国的 multiparty (adj.)多党派的 6. exist (vi.)存在;生存 existence (n.)存在,生存 existon 靠······生存,生活 in existence现存;现有 come into existence出现;开始存在 7. thus (adv.)这样;以此方式;因此;从而 “thus+分词短语”常置于句末作结果状语,翻译时常用“因而”、“所以”、“于是”、“便”等词语。这种分词短语的逻辑主语不是句子的主语,通常是前面的整个句子,因而它的作用相当于一个非限制性定语从句。 E.g. Some new machines were installed in our factory, thus resulting in an increase in production. 我们的工厂安装了一些新机器,因而增加了产量。 8. in one’s turn轮到某人;接着 in turn依次,轮流;相应地;转而 take turns in doing /to do sth.轮流做某事 on the turn即将变化 give sb. a turn使大吃一惊 the turn of the century世纪之交 E.g. When it was in my turn, I was too excited to speak.当轮到我时,我激动得都说不出话来了。 9. prevent/stop sb. (from) doing sth. 阻止某人做某事(在主动句中from可以省略,被动句中不可省略) keep sb. from doing sth.(from不可省略) protect …from 保护·····免遭 10. puzzle(vt.)&(vi.)(使)迷惑;(使)为难;(n.)难题;谜 puzzle over/over sth.苦苦思索,仔细琢磨 be puzzled about /as to对·····感到迷惑 a puzzled look/expression迷惑的表情 a crossword puzzle纵横字谜 puzzled (adj.)(感到)迷惑不解的,常用来修饰人 puzzling (adj.)令人迷惑不解的,常用来修饰事物 11.crash(vi.)&(vt.)碰撞;坠落 air crash飞机失事 crash into撞在·····上 12. block out挡住;遮住(光线或声音);忘掉;抹去(不愉快的事情) block in画(某物)的草图 block off封锁,封闭(道路) block up塞住,封住(孔,洞) block one’s way挡住某人的去路 13.pull(n.)&(vt.)拉(力);拖;牵引力 pull back撤退 pull ahead抢先;领先 pull in(车)进站停靠 pull out驶离车站 pull over把(车)开到路边 pull up使车停止,停下 pull down 拆毁,拆掉(建筑物) pull through(使)恢复健康 14. cheer up感到高兴;感到振奋 cheerful (adj.)快乐的,高兴的 cheers(用于祝酒)干杯 cheer sb. on为某人加油;鼓劲 give a cheer欢呼起来 15. 倍数表达法 倍数表达方式:“A +be+倍数+as+形容词或副词的原级+as +B”表示“A是B的多少倍” “A +be+倍数+as+形容词或副词的比较级+than +B”表示“A比B大多少倍” “A +be+倍数+the size/height/length/width,etc.+of +B”,表示“A是B的大小/高度/长度/宽度等多少倍” 16.now that既然常见的表示原因的连词: in that因为,原因是 seeing that由于,因为 17. break out(战争、火灾、疾病等)突发;爆发 break away (from)脱离;突然挣脱 break through突围,突破;克服 break sth. up拆开;打散;结束(关系等) break in强行进入 break into强行闯入;突然开始 break off断开;中断 break down出故障;垮掉 18. watch out for当心;提防;密切注意 watch out=look out当心,小心 watch out for=look out for当心、提防 Watch it! 小心!留神! watch over sb./sth.照管某物/照顾某人 keep watch守护,监视 on watch值班 watch the clock盯着钟表 watch the time注意时间 watch the world go by闲看人来人往 19. depend on sb =rely on / count on sb./believe in sb./trust (in) sb. 信任/依赖某人 It (all) depends 看情况而定 20. 与get相关的短语: get along 相处融洽, 进展等 get down to 开始认真对待, 考虑 get on 上车 get through 到达; 通过; 办完, get to 到达 1.(2014河北衡水中学调研)The hotel is always full of people because it offers a lovely relaxed______ and personal service. A. appearance B. adventure C. amount D. atmosphere 解析:根据句意“该酒店总是住满了人,因为它提供了一种美好轻松的气氛以及个性化的服务。”appearance外表;adventure冒险;amount数量;atmosphere气氛,氛围;根据句意可知atmosphere符合句意。 答案:D。 2.(2014山西康杰中学月考)Nobody was clear about how exactly he had managed to______such a large amount of money in such a short time. A. increase B. accumulate C. multiply D. commit 解析:根据句意“没有人清楚他到底是怎样在这么短的时间内攒这么多钱的。”increase增加;accumulate积攒;multiply乘;commit犯罪;根据句意可知accumulate符合句意。 答案:B。 3.(2014安徽)My good performance in the job interview left me ________ about my future and about what I can do here. A. puzzled B. sensitive C. optimistic D. embarrassed 解析:根据句意“我在求职面试中的优异表现让我对我的未来和在这里可以做的工作感到乐观。”puzzled困惑的;sensitive敏感的;optimistic数量;optimistic乐观的;embarrassed困窘的,局促不安的;根据句意可知optimistic 符合句意。 答案:C。 4.(2014江苏无锡月考)Mr. Brown’s condition looks very serious and it is doubtful if he will________. A. pull back B. pull up C. pull through D. pull out 解析:根据句意“布朗先生的病情看起来非常严重,他是否会恢复值得怀疑。”pull back撤退;pull up使车停止;pull through使恢复健康;pull out驶离车站; 根据句意可知pull through符合句意。 答案:B。 5.(2014安徽)---I get at least half an hour of exercise almost every day. ---Oh great! ______. A. Good luck B. Cheer up C. Same to you D. Keep it up 解析:根据句意“——我几乎每天至少锻炼半小时。——哦,太棒了!坚持下去。”Good luck 祝你好运;Cheer up振奋起来;Same to you你也一样;Keep it up 坚持下去;根据句意可知Keep it up符合句意。 答案:D。 基础演练 根据汉语提示或首字母提示用本部分所学的单词填空 1. Ais the scientific study of the sun, the moon, the stars and so on. 2.The project cost us more than one ____(十亿)dollars. 3. The a at home was rather tense. 4.His________(根本的)mistake was to rely too much on other people. 5.O________ is a gas that is present in air and water. 6.Man-made ________ (卫星)are used for sending and receiving messages. 7.Anything that is dropped falls towards the centre of the earth because of the pull of ________ (重力). 8. Global warming and ________(气候)change problems are perhaps the two greatest threats to our planet. 9.She was unbelievably ________(温和的)with him during his illness. 10. A rare virus just attacked my computer s_____, so it has broken down. 11. The ______ (puzzle) look on her face suggested she didn’t understand what I had said. 12. Not a few ________ (violence) scenes had been cut from the film before it came to show.. 13. Smoking can be ________ (harm) to your health. 14. Five ________ (multiply)by four equals twenty. 15. The naughty boy________ (lie) to me that the hen had______ (lay) three eggs the day before. Keys: 1. Astronomy 2. billion 3.atmosphere 4. fundamental 5. Oxygen 6. satellites 7. gravity 8. climate 9. gentle 10. system 11.puzzled 12.violent 13.harmful 14.multiplied 15.lied;laid 巩固提高 选择适当的单词填空 1.Buddhism is one of the world’s________ and one of its famous ________buildings in China is the Potala Palace in Tibet.(religions;religious) 2.This girl looked very much_________her mother.However,________the girl of her age, she dreamed of becoming a physicist. (unlike; like) 3. Some dinosaurs were very large but__________. Young dinosaurs were treated very ________until they become adults. (gently; gentle) 4. I didn’t know his ________until today. He can’t ________on the money he is earning and has to beg from door to door.(exist; existence) 5. Her ________look on her face suggested she didn’t understand the ________problem.(puzzling; puzzled) Keys: 1. religions;religious 2.like; unlike 3.gentle; gently 4.existence; exist; 5.puzzled;puzzling 一、用所给词的适当形式填空 1. Scientists have many theories about how the universe first came into _______ (exist) 2. His advice prevented me from_______ (make) a serious mistake. 3. There wereseveral _______ (theory) about the way in which the first started. 4. I felt _______ (physical) sick before the exam. 5. Beautiful music came________ (float) out of the window. 二、用所给短语补全句子 cheer up, give birth to, break out, in turn, block out, now that, depend on, watch out for, prevent…from ,in time 1. If you keep on learning English, you’ll be able to speak it quite fluently________. 2. The expected storm ________us ________climbing the mountain. 3. The good news of our football team winning the game _________everybody. 4. _________everyone agrees to my plan,let’s start tomorrow. 5. Whether our experiment will be successful _______whether we are patient enough. 6. Mrs. White _________a healthy baby at her late thirties. 7. The staff were asked _________fake bank credit cards. 8. It was almost midnight when the fire _________in the neighborhood. 9. He asked each of us _________to describe how alcohol had affected our lives. 10. A heavy curtain was put up to _______ the night. Keys: 一、用所给词的适当形式填空 1. existence 2.making 3.theories 4. physically 5.floating 二、用所给短语补全句子 1. in time 2. prevented; from 3. cheered up 4. Now that 5. depends on 6. gave birth to 7. to watch out for 8. broke out 9. in turn 10. block out _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、语法填空 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(不多于3个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 First, reading books 1 (be) fun. You can always keep yourself 2 (interest) and it can help you have an enjoyable time if you like reading. This is especially useful when the weather is bad. It is a(n) 3 (relax) hobby too. Next, you can read a book anywhere: in a car, on a plane, in bed—even in the bath. 4 you need is a book! Reading is a convenient hobby as it is easy to stop and start again. Another good reason for reading books is 5 it is useful. If you read as a hobby you 6 (get) better and better at it. This means that you will read faster and become 7 (good) at understanding what you read. As your reading improves, you will probably find your schoolwork becomes much easier. Many school subjects depend 8 good reading and, as you read you learn more and more. Good readers are most likely to be good 9 (write), too. They are usually good at 10 (spell) as well, and have more things to write about. Reading books is really a wonderful hobby. 二、短文改错(共10处) My father was the biology professor. When I was young, he was used to take me to the biology lab, there I saw mice, cats and other animals. My father also influenced me through nature walks. He often took me on a walk in the backyard. We would catch frogs, snakes and bird. He seemed know everything about wildlife. Eighteen years later, think about my father and his influence on my life, I feel very luckily. I am grateful that I got the chance to learn from her. He helps me develop my interest in all that was alive and sometimes dead around me. 三、阅读理解 Dear Humane Society, I was watching the news last night and saw the report about the rescue(营救 ) of a group of puppies that had been abandoned(遗弃) near the freeway. Being an animal lover, I was shocked by their owner’s behavior. But I was excited to hear that you were holding a letter writing contest to place the puppies for adoption(收养) to good homes. I asked my parents to let me apply to adopt one of those puppies. Fortunately, my parents also love animals and gave me permission. Any one of these puppies would be welcome in my home. This puppy would have a friendly “brother” with our own dog, Harry. We have a big backyard with lots of room for them to run and play and a doggy door for them to come in when they need shelter. Our new family member would benefit from regular trips to the vet for care and to groomer(美容师) to keep up a fashionable appearance. Since I would be the main care giver, I want you to know that I am a very responsible person with lots of experience taking care of pets. I would make sure of following through with their daily care, including everything from feeding to walking. Out of all of the things I can provide for this puppy, the most important gift is LOVE. This little guy or girl would be a member of a family full of love. This love is not only for little members, but it goes on forever. I hope you will consider all the reasons why we should be able to adopt one of these puppies. Our home would be a paradise for this puppy after its miserable(痛苦的) start in life and would be blessed by its new member. Hopefully yours, Micah Plum 1. Last night Micah Plum had the news that ___________. A. he won the letter writing contest B. his parents found some lost puppies C. some abandoned puppies needed adopting D. some abandoned puppies found their home 2. Micah wrote the second paragraph mainly to show_________. A. Harry is also an abandoned puppy B. Harry lives a happy life in his house C. his parents allowed him to adopt a puppy D. the puppy would be taken good care of in his house 3. According to the letter, what will Micah do for the puppy? A. Walk it. B. Groom it. C. Buy it a “brother”. D. Fix a doggy door. 4. The underlined word “paradise” in the last paragraph refuses to “the place without_________”. A. love B. hope C. help D. unhappiness 5. This text is a letter of _______. A. thanks B. request C. support D. introduction Keys: 一、语法填空 1.is2.interested3.relaxing 4. What5.that 6.will get 7.better8. on9.writers 10.spelling 二、短文改错 1.the--a 2. was used去掉“was” 3. there--where 4. on--for 5. bird--birds 6. seemed 后加“to” 7. think--thinking 8. luckily--lucky 9. her--him 10.helps—helped 三、阅读理解 1---5 CDADB Unit4Astronomy: the science of the stars 语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法---名词性从句中的主语从句 一、主语从句的引导词 主语从句通常由连词that和whether、连接代词或连接副词以及关系代词型what引导。 1.that引导 That he is still alive is a wonder.他还活着,真是奇迹。 That we shall be late is certain.我们要晚了,这是确定无疑的。 That he should have ignored the working class was natural. 他忽视工人阶级是很自然的。 That she is still alive is a consolation. 她还活着是使人感到宽慰的。 That she became an artist may have been due to her father’s influence. 她成为画家可能是受她父亲的影响。 That you are coming to London is the best news I have heard this long time.你将来伦敦是好久以来我听到的最好消息。 That she was chosen made a tremendous stir in her village. 她被挑选上,在她村子里引起很大轰动。 2.whether引导 Whether it will do us harm remains to be seen. 是否对我们有害还要看一看。 Whether they would support us was a problem. 他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。 3. 连接代词引导 Whoever is top from wins the game when two matched players meet.两强相争勇者胜。 Whichever (of you) comes in first will receive a prize. 无论(你们)谁先到都可以得奖。 Whichever you want is yours. 你要哪个哪个就是你的。 4. 连接副词引导 When we arrive doesn’t matter.什么时候到没有关系。 How it was done was a mystery. 这是怎样做的是一个谜。 How this happened is not clear to anyone.这件事怎样发生的,谁也不清楚。 How many people we are to invite is still a question. 邀请多少人还是一个问题。 Where I spend my summer is no business of yours. 我在哪里过暑假不关你的事。 5. 关系代词型what引导 What we need is money. 我们需要的是钱。 What I want to know is this. 我想知道的就是这一点。 What’s done is done. 事已成定局。 What he says is not important. 他说的话并不重要。 What I am telling you is mere impressions. 我和你说的都不过是一些印象而已。 What make the river more beautiful are the lotus plants growing in the water. 为河水增色的是水里的荷花。 What you need is a good-sized canvas bag.你需要的是一个比较大的帆布袋。 What I am afraid of is their taking him to Portugal. 我担心的是他们把他带到葡萄牙去。 What struck me was that they have all suffered a lot.给我很深印象的是他们都受过很多苦。 二、主语从句与形式主语it 有时为了考虑句子平衡,通常在主语从句处使用形式主语it,而将真正的主语从句移至句末。这分三种情况: (1)对于以连词that引导的主语从句,通常用形式主语代主语从句: It’s a pity that he didn’t come.很遗憾他没来。 It is important that he should know about this. 他必须知道此事。 It’s vital that we be present. 我们出席是至关重要的。 It was intended that you be the candidate. 大家的意图是让你当候选人。 It is important that this mission not fail. 这项使命不失败至关重要。 It is essential that a meeting be convened this week. 本周开一次会非常重要。 It is appropriate that this tax be abolished. 废除这个税是恰当的。 It’s unfair that so many people should lose their jobs. 竟有这么多人失业这是不公平的。 It’s amazing that she should have said nothing about it.她竟未谈及此事令人惊讶。 It’s unthinkable that they should deny my request. 他们竟然拒绝我的请求,这是不可思议的。 That they should refuse to sign the petition required great courage. 他们拒绝在请愿书上签字这是需要很大勇气的。 (2) 对于以连接代词(副词)引导的主语从句,可以使用形式主语代主语从句,也可直接在句首使用主语从句: Whether they would support us was a problem. 他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。 It was a problem whether they would support us. 他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。 It remains to be seen whether it will do us harm or good. 它对我们是利是害,还得看看再说。 (3)对关系代词型what引导的主语从句,通常直接将主语从句放在句首。如: What we need is money. 我们需要的是钱。 What I want to know is this. 我想知道的就是这一点。 有时也可将助用形式主语。如: It is clear enough what he meant. 他是什么意思很清楚。 (4)如果句子是疑问句,则必须用带形式主语it的结构: Is it true that he is the girl’s father? 他是那女孩的父亲,是真的吗? How is it that you are late again? 你怎么又迟到了? 三、连词that的省略问题 引导主语从句的连词that 有时可省,有时不能省,其原则是:若that引导的主语从句直接位于句首,则that不能省略;若that引导的主语从句位于句末,而在句首使用了形式主语it,则that可以省略: That you didn’t go to the talk was a pity. 很遗憾你没去听报告。(that不可省) It was a pity (that) you didn’t go to the talk. 很遗憾你没去听报告。(that可省) 1.(2014上海期末)______ golf was first played in Scotland in the 15th century is generally agreed. A. Whether B.Why C. That D. What 2. (2014全国大纲)Exactly______ the potato was introduced into Europe is uncertain, but it was probably around 1565. A. whether B.why C. when D. how 3.(2014天津)I think_____ impresses me about his painting is the colors he uses. A. what B. that C. which D. who 4.(2014北京)Some people believe ______has happened before or is happening now will repeat itself in the future. A.whateverB.wheneverC.whereverD. however 5.(2014吉林)There is solid evidence______ watching 3D movies can have side effects on the viewers. A. what B. that C. which D. how 基础演练 1.________ caused the accident is still a complete mystery. A. What B. That C. How D. Where 2. I just wonder ________ that makes him so excited. A. why it does B. what he does C. how it is D. what it is 3. Water,which seems so simple and common,is ________ makes life possible. A. what B. that C. which D. how 4. I’d like to work with ________ is honest and easy to get on with. A. who B. whoever C. whomever D.no matter who 5. When you are reading,make a note of ________ you think is of great importance. A. which B. that C. what D. when 6. Mr. Smith asked the boy a question________ he could go to the concert with him. A. whether B. that C. what D. if 7. A warm thought suddenly came to me ________ I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday. A. if B. when C. that D. which 8. There is much chance ________ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race. A. that B. which C. until D. if 9.When asked ________ they needed most,the kids said they wanted to feel important and loved. A. what B. why C. whom D. which 10.The reason ________ he didn’t come is ________ he was ill. A.why;that B.that;why C.why; because D.why;what 巩固提高 1.With his work completed,the businessman stepped back to his seat,feeling pleased ________ he was a man of action. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 2. Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class ________ he had to meet his uncle at the airport. A. why B. that C. where D. because 3. The shopkeeper did not want to sell for ________ he thought was not enough. A. where B. how C. what D. which 4.He noticed that the straight part of the dance was different in the afternoon from ________ it had been in the morning. A. that B. where C. what D. which 5.—Can we get everything ready by the weekend? —It all depends on ________ we can get Mr. Green’s cooperation. A. that B. what C. whether D. if 6.________ wants to stay in a hotel has to pay their own way. A. Anyone B. The one C. Whoever D. Who 7. The boss refused to sell the car for ________ he thought was not satisfactory. A. that B. which C. how D. what 8. It makes little difference to me ________we go or stay. A. whether B. where C. that D. how 9.—The two people speak different languages and cannot communicate with each other well. —Oh,I see. That’s ________ misunderstanding occurs. A. when B. what C. that D. why 10. Before the sales start, I make a list of ________ my kids will need for the coming season. A. why B. what C. how D. which 1.____fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural differences from one aspect. A What B That C This D Which 2.___we can’t get seems better than _____we have. A What, what B What, that C That, that D That , what 3.some people regard as a drawback is seen as a plus by many others. A. Whether B. What C. That D. How 4. It is uncertain side effect the medicine will bring about, although about two thousand patients have taken it. A. that B. what C. how D. whether 5. When changing lanes, a driver should use his turning signal to let other drivers know. A. he is entering which lane B. which lane he is entering C. is he entering which lane D. which lane is he entering 6. It is generally considered unwise to give a child _____he or she wants. A however B whatever C whichever D whenever 7. Before the sales start, I make a list of ______ my kids will need for the coming season. A. why B. what C. how D. which 8. — Have you finished the book? —No, I’ve read up to_________ the children discover the secret cave. A. which B. what C. that D. where 9. The shocking news made me realize ________ terrible problems we would face. A. what B. how C. that D. why 10. I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. —That’s_______I don’t agree .You should have a more active life. A. where B. how C. when D. what 11. Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, David Copperfield, was __ it was rather closely modeled on his own life. A. what B. that C. why D. whether 12. One reason for her preference for city life is she can have easy access to places like shops and restaurants. A. that B. how C. what D. why 13. When the news came _____ the war broke out, he decided to serve in the army. A. since B. which C. that D. Because 14. There is clear evidence _____ the most difficult feeling of all to interpret is bodily pain. A. what B. if C. how D. that 15. It never occurred to humans until the mid-1990s _______ some animals can be cloned. A. where B. that C. when D. what _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 完型填空 A little boy invited his mother to attend his school’s first teacher-parent meeting. To the little boy’s 1 ,she said she would go. This 2 be the first time that his classmates and teacher 3 his mother and he felt 4 of her appearance. Although she was a beautiful woman, there was a severe scar(疤痕)that5 nearly the entire right side of her face. The boy never wanted to 6 why or how she got the scar. At the meeting, the people were 7 by the kindness and natural beauty of his mother 8 the scar, but the little boy was still embarrassed(尴尬)and 9 himself from everyone. He did, however, get within 10 of a conversation between his mother and his teacher. The teacher asked 11 ,“How did you get the scar on your face?” The mother replied,“ 12 my son was a baby, he was in a room that caught fire. Everyone was 13 afraid to go in because the fire was14 , so I went in. As I was running toward his bed, I saw a long piece of wood coming down and I placed myself over him trying to protect him. I was knocked 15but fortunately, a fireman came in and saved both of us.” She 16 the burned side of her face. “This scar will be 17 ,but to this day, I have never18 what I did.” At this point, the little boy came out running toward his mother with tears in his eyes. He held her in his arms and felt a great 19 of the sacrifice(牺牲)that his mother had made for him. He held her hand 20 for the rest of the day. 1.A.enjoyment B. disappointment C. surprise D. excitement 2.A. would B. could C. should D. must 3.A.noticed B. greeted C. accepted D. met 4.A. sick B. ashamed C. afraid D. tired 5. A. included B. passed C. covered D. shaded 6. A. talk about B. think about C. care about D. hear about 7. A. impressed B. surprised C. excited D. comforted 8. A. in sight of B. by means of C. by way of D. in spite of 9. A. hid B. protected C. separated D. escaped 10. A. understanding B. reminding C. hearing D. learning 11. A. carefully B. seriously C. nervously D. anxiously 12. A. As B. When C. Since D. If 13. A. so B. much C. quite D. too 14. A. out of control B. under control C. in control D. over control 15. A. helpless B. hopeless C. senseless D. useless 16. A. pointed B. showed C. wiped D. touched 17. A. ugly B. lasting C. serious D. frightening 18. A. forgot B. recognized C. considered D. regretted 19. A. honor B. sense C. happiness D. pride 20. A. quietly B. slightly C. tightly D. suddenly 二、阅读理解 Healthy Habits, Healthy Body Feel tired lately? Has a doctor said he can’t find anything wrong with you? Perhaps he sent you to a hospital, but all the advanced equipment there shows that there is nothing wrong with you. Then, consider this: you might be in a state of subhealth(亚健康). Subhealth, also called the third state or gray state, is explained as a borderline state between health and disease. According to the investigation(调查) by the National Health Organization, over 45 percent of subhealthypeople are middle-aged or elderly. The percentage is even higher among people who work in management positions as well as students around exam-weeks. Symptoms(征兆)include a lack of energy, depression(压抑), slow reactions, insomnia (失眠), agitation, and poor memory. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, sweating and aching in the waist and legs. The key to preventing and recovering from subhealth, according to some medical experts, is to form good living habits, alternate (轮流的)work and rest, exercise regularly, and take part in open air activities. As for meals, people are advised to eat less salt and sugar. They should also eat more fresh vegetables, fruits, fish because they are rich in nutritional elements — vitamins and trace elements that are important to the body. Nutrition(营养) experts point out that it is not good to eat too much at one meal because it may cause unhealthy changes in the digestive tract(消化系统). They also say that a balanced diet is very helpful in avoiding subhealth. 1. According to this passage, which of the following is right? A. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should stay home and keep silent. B. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should go to see a doctor and buy some medicine. C. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should have yourself examined in foreign countries. D. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should find out the reasons and relax yourself. 2. It may be easy for middle-aged people to be in a state of subhealth because _______. A. they have used up their energy B. they have lost their living hopes C. they have more pressure in life and work D. they begin to get older 3. The key to preventing you from falling into a state of subhealth is that you should _______. A. work hard B. sleep more C. form good living habits D. take more medicine 4. As for food, experts suggest that _______. A. we should never eat meat B. we should have a variety of food C. we should eat less than usual D. we should have meals without salt to sugar 5. According to nutrition experts’ points,why is it not good to eat too much at one meal?. A. Because it will cause fat problems. B. Because it may cause unhealthy changes in the digestive tract . C. Because you will be choked. D. Because it will cause insomnia Unit4Astronomy: the science of the stars 语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法---名词性从句中的主语从句 一、主语从句的引导词 主语从句通常由连词that和whether、连接代词或连接副词以及关系代词型what引导。 1.that引导 That he is still alive is a wonder.他还活着,真是奇迹。 That we shall be late is certain.我们要晚了,这是确定无疑的。 That he should have ignored the working class was natural. 他忽视工人阶级是很自然的。 That she is still alive is a consolation. 她还活着是使人感到宽慰的。 That she became an artist may have been due to her father’s influence. 她成为画家可能是受她父亲的影响。 That you are coming to London is the best news I have heard this long time.你将来伦敦是好久以来我听到的最好消息。 That she was chosen made a tremendous stir in her village. 她被挑选上,在她村子里引起很大轰动。 2.whether引导 Whether it will do us harm remains to be seen. 是否对我们有害还要看一看。 Whether they would support us was a problem. 他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。 3. 连接代词引导 Whoever is top from wins the game when two matched players meet.两强相争勇者胜。 Whichever (of you) comes in first will receive a prize. 无论(你们)谁先到都可以得奖。 Whichever you want is yours. 你要哪个哪个就是你的。 4. 连接副词引导 When we arrive doesn’t matter.什么时候到没有关系。 How it was done was a mystery. 这是怎样做的是一个谜。 How this happened is not clear to anyone.这件事怎样发生的,谁也不清楚。 How many people we are to invite is still a question. 邀请多少人还是一个问题。 Where I spend my summer is no business of yours. 我在哪里过暑假不关你的事。 5. 关系代词型what引导 What we need is money. 我们需要的是钱。 What I want to know is this. 我想知道的就是这一点。 What’s done is done. 事已成定局。 What he says is not important. 他说的话并不重要。 What I am telling you is mere impressions. 我和你说的都不过是一些印象而已。 What make the river more beautiful are the lotus plants growing in the water. 为河水增色的是水里的荷花。 What you need is a good-sized canvas bag.你需要的是一个比较大的帆布袋。 What I am afraid of is their taking him to Portugal. 我担心的是他们把他带到葡萄牙去。 What struck me was that they have all suffered a lot.给我很深印象的是他们都受过很多苦。 二、主语从句与形式主语it 有时为了考虑句子平衡,通常在主语从句处使用形式主语it,而将真正的主语从句移至句末。这分三种情况: (1)对于以连词that引导的主语从句,通常用形式主语代主语从句: It’s a pity that he didn’t come.很遗憾他没来。 It is important that he should know about this. 他必须知道此事。 It’s vital that we be present. 我们出席是至关重要的。 It was intended that you be the candidate. 大家的意图是让你当候选人。 It is important that this mission not fail. 这项使命不失败至关重要。 It is essential that a meeting be convened this week. 本周开一次会非常重要。 It is appropriate that this tax be abolished. 废除这个税是恰当的。 It’s unfair that so many people should lose their jobs. 竟有这么多人失业这是不公平的。 It’s amazing that she should have said nothing about it.她竟未谈及此事令人惊讶。 It’s unthinkable that they should deny my request. 他们竟然拒绝我的请求,这是不可思议的。 That they should refuse to sign the petition required great courage. 他们拒绝在请愿书上签字这是需要很大勇气的。 (2)对于以连接代词(副词)引导的主语从句,可以使用形式主语代主语从句,也可直接在句首使用主语从句: Whether they would support us was a problem. 他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。 It was a problem whether they would support us. 他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。 It remains to be seen whether it will do us harm or good. 它对我们是利是害,还得看看再说。 (3)对关系代词型what引导的主语从句,通常直接将主语从句放在句首。如: What we need is money. 我们需要的是钱。 What I want to know is this. 我想知道的就是这一点。 有时也可将助用形式主语。如: It is clear enough what he meant. 他是什么意思很清楚。 (4)如果句子是疑问句,则必须用带形式主语it的结构: Is it true that he is the girl’s father? 他是那女孩的父亲,是真的吗? How is it that you are late again? 你怎么又迟到了? 三、连词that的省略问题 引导主语从句的连词that 有时可省,有时不能省,其原则是:若that引导的主语从句直接位于句首,则that不能省略;若that引导的主语从句位于句末,而在句首使用了形式主语it,则that可以省略: That you didn’t go to the talk was a pity. 很遗憾你没去听报告。(that不可省) It was a pity (that) you didn’t go to the talk. 很遗憾你没去听报告。(that可省) 1.(2014上海期末)______ golf was first played in Scotland in the 15th century is generally agreed. A. Whether B.Why C. That D. What 解析:根据句意“普遍认为高尔夫球最初是于15世纪在苏格兰进行比赛的。”本题考查主语从句,主语从句中不缺少任何成分,再根据句意可知答案。 答案:C。 2. (2014全国大纲)Exactly______ the potato was introduced into Europe is uncertain, but it was probably around 1565. A. whether B.why C. when D. how 解析:根据句意“土豆被引进到欧洲的确切时间不能确定,但很可能在1565年左右”此处为主语从句的引导词,从around 1565判断,这里指时间。 答案:C。 3.(2014天津)I think_____ impresses me about his painting is the colors he uses. A. what B. that C. which D. who 解析:根据句意“我认为他的画像使我印象深刻的是他对色彩的使用。”在主语从句中,所缺的词作主语且表示“物”,没有选择范围,所以用what引导。 答案:A。 4.(2014北京)Some people believe ______has happened before or is happening now will repeat itself in the future. A.whateverB.wheneverC.whereverD. however 解析:根据句意“一些人认为以前发生过的任何事情或是现在正在发生的任何事情都会在将来重复出现的。”“______has happened before or is happening now.”作believe后的宾语从句的主语,该主语从句中缺少主语,故用whatever(任何……的事情)来引导主语从句 答案:A。 5.(2014吉林)There is solid evidence______ watching 3D movies can have side effects on the viewers. A. what B. that C. which D. how 解析:根据句意“有确凿的证据表面,看3D电影对观众可能有不良的影响。”evidence后为同位语从句,表示evidence的具体内容,因为从句中不缺少句子成分,所以由that引导,答案:D。 基础演练 1.________ caused the accident is still a complete mystery. A. What B. That C. How D. Where 2. I just wonder ________ that makes him so excited. A. why it does B. what he does C. how it is D. what it is 3. Water,which seems so simple and common,is ________ makes life possible. A. what B. that C. which D. how 4. I’d like to work with ________ is honest and easy to get on with. A. who B. whoever C. whomever D. no matter who 5. When you are reading,make a note of ________ you think is of great importance. A. which B. that C. what D. when 6. Mr. Smith asked the boy a question________ he could go to the concert with him. A. whether B. that C. what D. if 7. A warm thought suddenly came to me ________ I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday. A. if B. when C. that D. which 8. There is much chance ________ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race. A. that B. which C. until D. if 9.When asked ________ they needed most,the kids said they wanted to feel important and loved. A. what B. why C. whom D. which 10.The reason ________ he didn’t come is ________ he was ill. A. why; that B. that;why C. why; because D. why; what Keys: 1---ADABC 6---10ACAAA 巩固提高 1.With his work completed,the businessman stepped back to his seat,feeling pleased ________ he was a man of action. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 2. Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class ________ he had to meet his uncle at the airport. A. why B. that C. where D. because 3. The shopkeeper did not want to sell for ________ he thought was not enough. A. where B. how C. what D. which 4.He noticed that the straight part of the dance was different in the afternoon from ________ it had been in the morning. A. that B. where C. what D. which 5.—Can we get everything ready by the weekend? —It all depends on ________ we can get Mr. Green’s cooperation. A. that B. what C. whether D. if 6.________ wants to stay in a hotel has to pay their own way. A. Anyone B. The one C. Whoever D. Who 7. The boss refused to sell the car for ________ he thought was not satisfactory. A. that B. which C. how D. what 8. It makes little difference to me ________we go or stay. A. whether B. where C. that D. how 9.—The two people speak different languages and cannot communicate with each other well. —Oh,I see. That’s ________ misunderstanding occurs. A. when B. what C. that D. why 10. Before the sales start, I make a list of ________ my kids will need for the coming season. A. why B. what C. how D. which Keys: 1---5 BBCCC6---10 CDADB 1.____fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural differences from one aspect. A What B That C This D Which 2.___we can’t get seems better than _____we have. A What, what B What, that C That, that D That , what 3.some people regard as a drawback is seen as a plus by many others. A. Whether B. What C. That D. How 4. It is uncertain side effect the medicine will bring about, although about two thousand patients have taken it. A. that B. what C. how D. whether 5. When changing lanes, a driver should use his turning signal to let other drivers know. A. he is entering which lane B. which lane he is entering C. is he entering which lane D. which lane is he entering 6. It is generally considered unwise to give a child _____he or she wants. A however B whatever C whichever D whenever 7. Before the sales start, I make a list of ______ my kids will need for the coming season. A. why B. what C. how D. which 8. — Have you finished the book? —No, I’ve read up to_________ the children discover the secret cave. A. which B. what C. that D. where 9. The shocking news made me realize ________ terrible problems we would face. A. what B. how C. that D. why 10. I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. —That’s_______I don’t agree .You should have a more active life. A. where B. how C. when D. what 11. Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, David Copperfield, was __ it was rather closely modeled on his own life. A. what B. that C. why D. whether 12. One reason for her preference for city life is she can have easy access to places like shops and restaurants. A. that B. how C. what D. why 13. When the news came _____ the war broke out, he decided to serve in the army. A. since B. which C. that D. Because 14. There is clear evidence _____ the most difficult feeling of all to interpret is bodily pain. A. what B. if C. how D. that 15. It never occurred to humans until the mid-1990s _______ some animals can be cloned. A. where B. that C. when D. what Keys: 1---5 BABBB6---10BBDAA 11---15 BACDB _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 完型填空 A little boy invited his mother to attend his school’s first teacher-parent meeting. To the little boy’s 1 ,she said she would go. This 2 be the first time that his classmates and teacher 3 his mother and he felt 4 of her appearance. Although she was a beautiful woman, there was a severe scar(疤痕)that5 nearly the entire right side of her face. The boy never wanted to 6 why or how she got the scar. At the meeting, the people were 7 by the kindness and natural beauty of his mother 8 the scar, but the little boy was still embarrassed(尴尬)and 9 himself from everyone. He did, however, get within 10 of a conversation between his mother and his teacher. The teacher asked 11 ,“How did you get the scar on your face?” The mother replied,“ 12 my son was a baby, he was in a room that caught fire. Everyone was 13 afraid to go in because the fire was14 , so I went in. As I was running toward his bed, I saw a long piece of wood coming down and I placed myself over him trying to protect him. I was knocked 15but fortunately, a fireman came in and saved both of us.” She 16 the burned side of her face. “This scar will be 17 ,but to this day, I have never18 what I did.” At this point, the little boy came out running toward his mother with tears in his eyes. He held her in his arms and felt a great 19 of the sacrifice(牺牲)that his mother had made for him. He held her hand 20 for the rest of the day. 1.A.enjoyment B. disappointment C. surprise D. excitement 2.A. would B. could C. should D. must 3.A.noticed B. greeted C. accepted D. met 4.A. sick B. ashamed C. afraid D. tired 5. A. included B. passed C. covered D. shaded 6. A. talk about B. think about C. care about D. hear about 7. A. impressed B. surprised C. excited D. comforted 8. A. in sight of B. by means of C. by way of D. in spite of 9. A. hid B. protected C. separated D. escaped 10. A. understanding B. reminding C. hearing D. learning 11. A. carefully B. seriously C. nervously D. anxiously 12. A. As B. When C. Since D. If 13. A. so B. much C. quite D. too 14. A. out of control B. under control C. in control D. over control 15. A. helpless B. hopeless C. senseless D. useless 16. A. pointed B. showed C. wiped D. touched 17. A. ugly B. lasting C. serious D. frightening 18. A. forgot B. recognized C. considered D. regretted 19. A. honor B. sense C. happiness D. pride 20. A. quietly B. slightly C. tightly D. suddenly 二、阅读理解 Healthy Habits, Healthy Body Feel tired lately? Has a doctor said he can’t find anything wrong with you? Perhaps he sent you to a hospital, but all the advanced equipment there shows that there is nothing wrong with you. Then, consider this: you might be in a state of subhealth(亚健康). Subhealth, also called the third state or gray state, is explained as a borderline state between health and disease. According to the investigation(调查) by the National Health Organization, over 45 percent of subhealthypeople are middle-aged or elderly. The percentage is even higher among people who work in management positions as well as students around exam-weeks. Symptoms(征兆)include a lack of energy, depression(压抑), slow reactions, insomnia (失眠), agitation, and poor memory. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, sweating and aching in the waist and legs. The key to preventing and recovering from subhealth, according to some medical experts, is to form good living habits, alternate (轮流的)work and rest, exercise regularly, and take part in open air activities. As for meals, people are advised to eat less salt and sugar. They should also eat more fresh vegetables, fruits, fish because they are rich in nutritional elements — vitamins and trace elements that are important to the body. Nutrition(营养) experts point out that it is not good to eat too much at one meal because it may cause unhealthy changes in the digestive tract(消化系统). They also say that a balanced diet is very helpful in avoiding subhealth. 1. According to this passage, which of the following is right? A. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should stay home and keep silent. B. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should go to see a doctor and buy some medicine. C. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should have yourself examined in foreign countries. D. When you are in a state of subhealth, you should find out the reasons and relax yourself. 2. It may be easy for middle-aged people to be in a state of subhealth because _______. A. they have used up their energy B. they have lost their living hopes C. they have more pressure in life and work D. they begin to get older 3. The key to preventing you from falling into a state of subhealth is that you should _______. A. work hard B. sleep more C. form good living habits D. take more medicine 4. As for food, experts suggest that _______. A. we should never eat meat B. we should have a variety of food C. we should eat less than usual D. we should have meals without salt to sugar 5. According to nutrition experts’ points,why is it not good to eat too much at one meal?. A. Because it will cause fat problems. B. Because it may cause unhealthy changes in the digestive tract . C. Because you will be choked. D. Because it will cause insomnia Keys: 一、完形填空1---5BADBC 6---10AADAC 11---15ABDAC 16---20DBDBC 二、阅读理解1---5DCCBB 

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  • ID:4-6094407 人教版高中英语必修三辅导讲义:Unit3 The Million Pound Bank Note词汇篇及语法篇(学生版+教师版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修3、4/必修3/Unit 3 The Million Pound Bank Note

    Unit3 The Million Pound Bank Note词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 重点短语 1. bring up 抚养;养育;提出(讨论等);呕吐 2. go ahead 前进;(用于祈使句)可以;往下说 3. by accident偶然;无意中;不小心 4. stare at 盯着看;凝视 5. account for 导致;做出解释 6. on the contrary 与此相反;恰恰相反 7. take a chance 冒险 8. in rags衣衫褴褛 9. as for/to关于;至于 10. make a bet打赌 11.a large amount of 许多;大量(修饰不可数名词) 二、词义辨析 1. fault和weakness fault指个人行为上的过失或性格方面的缺点、毛病等 weakness指弱点或不足之处,是常用词,很少具有特殊的词义色彩。 2. bring up抚养,教育,培养;提出(讨论等);呕吐 He was brought up in Hannibal, Missouri, along the Mississippi River. 他在密西西比河畔的密苏里州的汉尼拔长大。 bring about 引起;导致;造成 bring down 降低,减少 bring in 盈利;赚钱 bring out生产;出版;使显现 bring forward将提前;提出讨论 bring back恢复;使回忆起;带回来 3. scenery/scene/view/sight/look ①scenery 是总称,指大范围的自然风光“景色”,“风景”。 ②scene指展现在眼前的情景, 大多包括景物中的人及活动, 可译为 “情景”,“景色”,“场面”,“(戏剧)一场”。 ③view是指人以一定的角度(或从远处或从高处等)所看到的景色,还有“观点”,“看法”的意思。 ④sight 是眼睛所看到的景象, 可以指美丽的风景,也可以指悲惨的景象, 用其复数sights表示名胜古迹, 人文景观等. look :“朝……看”;所产生的印象,或用于人时指“神态”或“样子” 4. by accident 偶然=by chance 偶然,无意中 反义词组:on purpose 故意地 by contrast对比之下 by mistake错误地 by choice出于自己的选择 by force强行 by law根据法律 5. order表示“点菜”、“订货” book表示订票、订房间、预订饭馆中的座位,与reserve用法类似。 6.a large amount of许多;大量(修饰不可数名词) 表示“许多、大量”的其他短语: many (of the ) many a(谓语动词用单数) a great(good)many(of the) a big(large/great)number of 只用于修饰不可数名词的短语: much(of the) a great (good)deal of a great (good)amount of(谓语动词用单数) large amounts of(谓语动词用复数) 既可修饰可数名词复数,也可修饰不可数名词的短语: a lot of/lots of plenty of a quantity of(谓语动词用单数) quantities of(谓语动词用复数) 三、要点梳理 1. scene (n.)(戏剧)一场;场景;场面;景色;(事故或罪行等的)发生地点;现场 the scene of the accident/attack/crime事故/袭击/犯罪的现场 be on the scene到现场 behind the scenes在后台,在幕后 set the scene为······做好准备 2. permit (v.)允许;准许;许可 (n.)许可证;通行证;执照 permit doing sth.允许做某事 permit sb. to do sth.允许某人做某事 permit sb. sth.允许某人某事 weather permitting如果天气允许的话 a work/parking permit工作/停车许可证 apply for/issue a permit申请/签发许可证 3. find oneself + 介词短语/分词“发现自己不知不觉处于某种状态……” 他发现自己躺在医院里。 He found himself lying in hospital. 他发现自己被锁在房间里。 He found himself locked in the room. find sb./sth. done“发现……被……”在这个结构中,过去分词作宾语补足语,宾语和过去分词之间存在逻辑上的被动关系。常接过去分词作宾语补足语的动词有:feel, hear, see, watch, make, have, get, keep, leave, find等。 4. fault(n.)过错;缺点;故障 It is one’s fault that………是某人的错 at fault有过错 for all sb.’s faults尽管某人有缺点 find fault with…挑剔 5. spot (vt.)发现;认出;辨认出 (n.)斑点;污点;地点; on the spot在现场;在原地;当场 a camping/holiday野营/度假的地方 the exact/very spot(某事发生的)准确地点 a white dress with red spots白底红点的服装 6. account (v.)认为;说明;总计有 (n.) 说明;理由;计算;账目;报道; account for解释;说明;是……的原因 take… into account=take account of考虑到,顾及 give sb.an account of给某人描述 keep an account of记录,记载 on account of 因为 on no account绝对不(置于句首时句子要倒装) 7. seek (sought, sought) (v.)寻找,探索(多用于书面语);设法,企图 seek to do sth.试图做某事,设法做某事=try to do sth.设法做某事 seek for寻找;寻求 seek after追求 seek one’s fortune外出寻求发财的机会;闯世界 seek one’s advice征求某人的意见 seek one’s help请求某人的帮助 8. patience(n.)耐性;忍耐 patient(adj.)有耐心的;容忍的;(n.)病人 impatient (adj.)不耐烦的 impatience(n.)不耐烦 have little/no patience with sb.对某人几乎没有/没有耐心 with patience耐心地 lose patience (with sb.)(对某人)失去耐心 be patient with sb. 对某人有耐心 9. on the contrary与此相反;恰恰相反 to the contrary相反的(常作定语) contrary to sth. 与……相反 quite the contrary恰恰相反;正相反 10. if you will…如果你愿意……(will或would用于if条件状语从句中,表示愿意、肯、不表示“来”) if you wish如果你愿意 if you like你要是愿意的话 if you must如果你非要 11. order (n.)点的菜(饭);订货;顺序;命令 (vt.)命令;订购(货物) take one’s order记下某人所点的菜 place an order for sth.订购某物 in running order状况良好;运转正常 out of order出故障;不整齐 in order of按……的顺序 in the right/wrong order按正确/错误的顺序 in order that为了;以便 12. chance(n.)机会;可能性 take a chance=take chances冒险 by chance偶然、碰巧=by accident by any chance也许,可能 give sb. a chance给某人一次机会 grab the chance/jump at the chance抓住机会 miss a chance错过机会 no chance不可能 have a chance (of)有(……的)希望 the chances are that… 有可能…… as chance would have it 碰巧;凑巧 13. manner (n.)礼貌(常用复数);举止;规矩;习俗;方式 in a …manner 以……方式 have good/bad/no manners 有/没有礼貌 have no manners没有礼貌 It’s good/bad manners to do sth.做某事是有/没有礼貌的 mind your manners注意礼貌 table manners餐桌礼仪 all manner of sb./sth.各种各样的人(或事) in the manner of sb./sth.以某人(物)的典型风格 14. pay (vt.) &(vi.)付款;付钱给(某人);付报酬 pay sb. money for sth.付给某人钱买某物 pay sb. money to do sth.付给某人钱做某事 pay sb. for sth.支付给某人费用 pay for sth.支付费用 pay a bill付账单 pay by card/in cash刷卡付款/用现金付款 pay back偿还(借款);报复 pay off取得成功;还清(贷款,债务等);付清工资后解雇 15. whenever(conj.)无论何时;在任何……的时候;每当 or whenever或别的什么时候 or wherever或其他任何地方 or whatever诸如此类;等等 or whoever随便谁 16. as for关于;至于=as to as regards 关于,至于 in/with regard to至于,关于 with respect to关于,就……而言 in terms of在……方面,就……而言 17. bow (vi.) &(n.)鞠躬;弯腰 bow to sb.给某人鞠躬 bow to sth.向……让步,屈服于 bow one’s head低头,俯首 bow before在……前鞠躬 18. regret (v.) & (n.)后悔;遗憾 regret doing/having done懊悔做了某事 regret to do遗憾将要做某事(还没做) express regret at对……表示遗憾 with (great/deep)regret遗憾地 have no regrets不后悔,没有遗憾 to one’s regret非常遗憾 1.(2014江苏)Tom always goes jogging in the morning and he usually does push-ups too to stay _____. A. in place B. in order C. in shape D. in fashion 2.(2014天津六校联考) Large amounts of money _______ spent on the bridge, which ________ to be completed the next month. A. were; was expected B. was; was expected C. was; expected D. were; expected 3. (2014四川) The manager was satisfied to see many new products ______ after great effort. A. having developed B. to develop C. developed D. develop 4.(2014福建福州期中) The robber was______ by the police when boarding the plane for Paris. A. frightened B. persuaded C. spotted D. informed 5. (2014山东) ---Is Anne coming tomorrow? ---______ .If she were to come, she would have called me. A. Go ahead B. Certainly C. That’s right D. I don’t think so. 基础演练 一、品句填词 1. I’m afraid he is not fit for the job, for it’s one calling for ________(耐心). 2. The prisoners were ________(允许)two hours’ exercise a day. 3. Can you get me some writing paper and________(信封)when you are in the post office? 4. Have you succeeded in ________(寻找)the answers to the questions? 5. There are many ________(错误)in the book. 6. The house has an underground ________(通道). 7. There was a funny ________(场景)when the pig ran into the store. 8. She________(尖叫) when he saw the dead body. 9. She was last found ________(漫游)aimlessly up and down the road. 10. The beggar was dressed in ________(破布). 二、翻译句子 1.日出是一个美丽的景象。 2.这都是我的错。 3.事实上,我是偶然来到英国的。 4.我在人群中认出了她。 5.他把大量的钱用在了种树上。 6.是这艘船把你带到了英格兰。 ______________________________________________________ _ 7.事实是我靠做义工来顶替船费,这就是我为什么衣冠不整的原因了。 ______________________________________________________________ _ 8.你介意仅等几分钟吗? ________________________________________________________ 9.你知道他正在找谁的孩子吗?(宾语从句) _______________________________________________________ 10.你认为他发生了什么事?(插入语?) ________________________________________________________ 巩固提高 1. — Would you permit me ________here? —Sorry,we don't permit ________here in the lab. A. smoking; smoking B.to smoke; to smoke C. smoking; to smoke D. to smoke; smoking 2. He was so angry that he ________at her, saying nothing. A. stared B. watched C. found D. saw 3 .Recent pressure at work may ________his abnormal behavior. A. push for B. exchange for C. account for D. head for 4. —Our holiday cost a lot of money. —Did it? Well,that doesn't matter________ you enjoyed yourselves. A.as long as B. unless C.as soon as D. though 5. Passengers are permitted ________only one piece of hand luggage onto the plane. A.to carry B. carrying C.to be carried D. being carried 1. When the man was trying to break into the bank, he was caught by the police__________. A. in a spot B. on the spot C. off the spot D. to the spot 2. His illness__________ his absence. A. explained B. because of C. accounted for D. is responsible for 3. She__________ herself in the mirror. A. looked at B. stared at C. glanced at D. glared at 4. ---Would you mind if I turned off the light? ---____________. A. Ye s, go ahead B. No, please don’t C. Go ahead, please D. Certainly, do as you please 5. Her mother would not permit her__________ back late. A. to come B. come C. coming D. came 6. His parents died when he was five, so he was __________by his uncle. A. brought on B. brought down C. brought up D. brought in 7. I hadn’t seen him for 10 years but I__________ him at first sight. A. realized B. spotted C. watched D. observed 8. You didn’t bother me, __________, I like your company. A. on the contrary B. in other words C. for one thing D. on the other hand 9. ---How did you find your missing key? ---__________. A. I found it in my drawer B. Quite by accident C. It was well kept by the monitor D. I had no idea where it was 10. _________, they didn’t do well in helping each other with their study. A. To honest B. Honest C. To be honest D. To be honestly 11. It was all my ______ that my son had made such a silly but serious _______. A. fault; error B. mistake; fault C. shortcoming; mistake D. fault; mistake 12.Totally ______ accident, the businessman picked up a _______ antique(古董)in the flea market(跳蚤市场) A by; true B. in; indeed C. with; actual D. by; genuine 13. His lack of professional knowledge _______for the failure of the experiment. A. accounted B. explained C. counted D. contributed 14. Nobody could have ever imagined that the poor man ___ ___ be a millionaire. A. in rag; could B. in rags; should C. wearing poorly; should be D. dressed poorly; might 15. Since there was no way out, the robber decided to _______on his luck to see if he could run away. A. make a chance B. take chance C. take a chance D. try a chance _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、完形填空 A Different View At age 14, 15 and 16, the way we looked was the most important thing in the world to us. My friends and I wanted nothing less than perfection. In high school, we joined the gymnastics team, and our 1 because even more important to us. We had no fat, only muscle. On the weekends, we would go to the beach, 2 of our flat stomachs. One summer day, all my friends were at my house 3 . At one point, I was running back to the pool. I 4 on a bee, and while it was dying under my foot, it stung (蛰) me. I instantly started to feel 5 . That night, I began to run a high fever and my leg and foot were red, hot and swollen. I couldn’t walk. I could barely 6 . When my foot started to go numb, everyone became more 7 . My foot was not getting enough blood. I had to go to the 8 , and my leg hurt as if it were badly broken. I couldn’t move. All I could do was think about how soft my middle was becoming. That 9 me more than any concern over my leg. That would all 10 when I heard the doctors mention possibly cutting off my foot. It was still not getting the 11 supply it needed. The doctors would have to speed up their treatment. Never before did I have such great 12 for my foot. And walking seemed like a 13 from the gods. Less and less would I want to hear my friends talk about 14 and who was wearing what. More and more I expected visits from other kids in the hospital, who were quickly becoming my friends. One girl came to visit me 15 . Every time she came, she brought flowers. She was recovering from cancer and felt she should come back and 16 the other patients. She still had no hair, and she was swollen from medications she had been taking. I would not have given this girl a second 17 before. I now loved every inch of her and looked forward to her 18 . Finally, I was improving and soon I went home. My leg was still swollen, 19 I was walking, and I had my foot! When I would go back to the hospital, I often saw my friend. She was still visiting people and 20 good cheer. I thought if even there was an angel on this earth, it had to be her. 1. A. grades B. brains C. bodies D. clothes 2. A. ashamed B. proud C. sure D. tired 3. A. dancing B. chatting C. jogging D. swimming 4. A. stepped B. focused C. held D. took 5. A. upset B. fearful C. sick D. anxious 6. A. jump B. run C. stand D. rest 7. A. concerned B. relieved C. surprised D. interested 8. A. beach B. hospital C. gym D. school 9. A. blamed B. impressed C. shocked D. troubled 10. A. change B. bother C. help D. happen 11. A. nutrition B. blood C. time D. air 12. A. observation B. devotion C. appreciation D. evaluation 13. A. gift B. hand C. promise D. treat 14.A. homework B. appointment C. movies D. gymnastics 15. A. suddenly B. regularly C. eventually D. recently 16. A. advise B. encourage C. serve D. instruct 17. A. choice B. thought C. glance D. chance 18. A. words B. ideas C. flowers D. visits 19. A. but B. then C. so D. for 20. A. enjoying B. gaining C. discovering D. spreading 二、七选五 House Sitting In many countries of the world people do what is called house sitting. It means that if owners of the house are going away, they want someone to come into their home and look after the house and maybe pets while they are away. In Australia, many people travel. After people retire, they might buy a van and travel all over the country. 1 So if someone wants to travel or go away for some reason, they might want someone in their home to care for it and keep the gardens tidy. House sitters might have to care for pets. Also, quite a few people have swimming pools in their back yard and they need cleaning. 2 I feel it is a great way of seeing the country, because you go and stay in a new city, get to meet new people, and have time to go sightseeing in a new area. 3 There are websites where you find the advertisements by people who want to travel, and by replying to the advertisement, you can make arrangements to go and look after their home. There are some requirements to be a house sitter. You must be a trusted person, so that the home owner knows you will not steal anything. You must be able to go when the house owner wants you to go, so you need lots of free time. 4 You need to be good with pets, able to care for cats and dogs, or other pets they may have. Some house sitting jobs are just for a few days or a couple of weeks while the house owner have a short holiday. Sometimes it is for much longer. We have had one house sit for six months, while the home owner travelled to Europe. 5 Then you can travel to many different countries and stay there. One of the important things to get are references from the home owners where you have stayed. A reference is a written letter to say that you are trustworthy and have looked after their home well. You can show these letters to prospective house sitting jobs and they know you will do a good job. A. I have done house sitting many times. B. Thousands of people do this all the time. C. It is also possible to do house sitting in other countries. D. Generally you have many opportunities to get a house sitting job. E. You must take a little care over what your description says about you. F. This is an international house sitting service for all city and country areas. G. You must have a good car, so you can travel to different parts of the country. Unit3 The Million Pound Bank Note词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 重点短语 1. bring up 抚养;养育;提出(讨论等);呕吐 2. go ahead 前进;(用于祈使句)可以;往下说 3. by accident偶然;无意中;不小心 4. stare at 盯着看;凝视 5. account for 导致;做出解释 6. on the contrary 与此相反;恰恰相反 7. take a chance 冒险 8. in rags衣衫褴褛 9. as for/to关于;至于 10. make a bet打赌 11.a large amount of 许多;大量(修饰不可数名词) 二、词义辨析 1. fault和weakness fault指个人行为上的过失或性格方面的缺点、毛病等 weakness指弱点或不足之处,是常用词,很少具有特殊的词义色彩。 2. bring up抚养,教育,培养;提出(讨论等);呕吐 He was brought up in Hannibal, Missouri, along the Mississippi River. 他在密西西比河畔的密苏里州的汉尼拔长大。 bring about 引起;导致;造成 bring down 降低,减少 bring in 盈利;赚钱 bring out生产;出版;使显现 bring forward将提前;提出讨论 bring back恢复;使回忆起;带回来 3. scenery/scene/view/sight/look ①scenery 是总称,指大范围的自然风光“景色”,“风景”。 ②scene指展现在眼前的情景, 大多包括景物中的人及活动, 可译为 “情景”,“景色”,“场面”,“(戏剧)一场”。 ③view是指人以一定的角度(或从远处或从高处等)所看到的景色,还有“观点”,“看法”的意思。 ④sight 是眼睛所看到的景象, 可以指美丽的风景,也可以指悲惨的景象, 用其复数sights表示名胜古迹, 人文景观等. look :“朝……看”;所产生的印象,或用于人时指“神态”或“样子” 4. by accident 偶然=by chance 偶然,无意中 反义词组:on purpose 故意地 by contrast对比之下 by mistake错误地 by choice出于自己的选择 by force强行 by law根据法律 5. order表示“点菜”、“订货” book表示订票、订房间、预订饭馆中的座位,与reserve用法类似。 6.a large amount of许多;大量(修饰不可数名词) 表示“许多、大量”的其他短语: many (of the ) many a(谓语动词用单数) a great(good)many(of the) a big(large/great)number of 只用于修饰不可数名词的短语: much(of the) a great (good)deal of a great (good)amount of(谓语动词用单数) large amounts of(谓语动词用复数) 既可修饰可数名词复数,也可修饰不可数名词的短语: a lot of/lots of plenty of a quantity of(谓语动词用单数) quantities of(谓语动词用复数) 三、要点梳理 1. scene (n.)(戏剧)一场;场景;场面;景色;(事故或罪行等的)发生地点;现场 the scene of the accident/attack/crime事故/袭击/犯罪的现场 be on the scene到现场 behind the scenes在后台,在幕后 set the scene为······做好准备 2. permit (v.)允许;准许;许可 (n.)许可证;通行证;执照 permit doing sth.允许做某事 permit sb. to do sth.允许某人做某事 permit sb. sth.允许某人某事 weather permitting如果天气允许的话 a work/parking permit工作/停车许可证 apply for/issue a permit申请/签发许可证 3. find oneself + 介词短语/分词“发现自己不知不觉处于某种状态……” 他发现自己躺在医院里。 He found himself lying in hospital. 他发现自己被锁在房间里。 He found himself locked in the room. find sb./sth. done“发现……被……”在这个结构中,过去分词作宾语补足语,宾语和过去分词之间存在逻辑上的被动关系。常接过去分词作宾语补足语的动词有:feel, hear, see, watch, make, have, get, keep, leave, find等。 4. fault(n.)过错;缺点;故障 It is one’s fault that………是某人的错 at fault有过错 for all sb.’s faults尽管某人有缺点 find fault with…挑剔 5. spot (vt.)发现;认出;辨认出 (n.)斑点;污点;地点; on the spot在现场;在原地;当场 a camping/holiday野营/度假的地方 the exact/very spot(某事发生的)准确地点 a white dress with red spots白底红点的服装 6. account (v.)认为;说明;总计有 (n.) 说明;理由;计算;账目;报道; account for解释;说明;是……的原因 take… into account=take account of考虑到,顾及 give sb.an account of给某人描述 keep an account of记录,记载 on account of 因为 on no account绝对不(置于句首时句子要倒装) 7. seek (sought, sought) (v.)寻找,探索(多用于书面语);设法,企图 seek to do sth.试图做某事,设法做某事=try to do sth.设法做某事 seek for寻找;寻求 seek after追求 seek one’s fortune外出寻求发财的机会;闯世界 seek one’s advice征求某人的意见 seek one’s help请求某人的帮助 8. patience(n.)耐性;忍耐 patient(adj.)有耐心的;容忍的;(n.)病人 impatient (adj.)不耐烦的 impatience(n.)不耐烦 have little/no patience with sb.对某人几乎没有/没有耐心 with patience耐心地 lose patience (with sb.)(对某人)失去耐心 be patient with sb. 对某人有耐心 9. on the contrary与此相反;恰恰相反 to the contrary相反的(常作定语) contrary to sth. 与……相反 quite the contrary恰恰相反;正相反 10. if you will…如果你愿意……(will或would用于if条件状语从句中,表示愿意、肯、不表示“来”) if you wish如果你愿意 if you like你要是愿意的话 if you must如果你非要 11. order (n.)点的菜(饭);订货;顺序;命令 (vt.)命令;订购(货物) take one’s order记下某人所点的菜 place an order for sth.订购某物 in running order状况良好;运转正常 out of order出故障;不整齐 in order of按……的顺序 in the right/wrong order按正确/错误的顺序 in order that为了;以便 12. chance(n.)机会;可能性 take a chance=take chances冒险 by chance偶然、碰巧=by accident by any chance也许,可能 give sb. a chance给某人一次机会 grab the chance/jump at the chance抓住机会 miss a chance错过机会 no chance不可能 have a chance (of)有(……的)希望 the chances are that… 有可能…… as chance would have it 碰巧;凑巧 13. manner (n.)礼貌(常用复数);举止;规矩;习俗;方式 in a …manner 以……方式 have good/bad/no manners 有/没有礼貌 have no manners没有礼貌 It’s good/bad manners to do sth.做某事是有/没有礼貌的 mind your manners注意礼貌 table manners餐桌礼仪 all manner of sb./sth.各种各样的人(或事) in the manner of sb./sth.以某人(物)的典型风格 14. pay (vt.) &(vi.)付款;付钱给(某人);付报酬 pay sb. money for sth.付给某人钱买某物 pay sb. money to do sth.付给某人钱做某事 pay sb. for sth.支付给某人费用 pay for sth.支付费用 pay a bill付账单 pay by card/in cash刷卡付款/用现金付款 pay back偿还(借款);报复 pay off取得成功;还清(贷款,债务等);付清工资后解雇 15. whenever(conj.)无论何时;在任何……的时候;每当 or whenever或别的什么时候 or wherever或其他任何地方 or whatever诸如此类;等等 or whoever随便谁 16. as for关于;至于=as to as regards 关于,至于 in/with regard to至于,关于 with respect to关于,就……而言 in terms of在……方面,就……而言 17. bow (vi.) &(n.)鞠躬;弯腰 bow to sb.给某人鞠躬 bow to sth.向……让步,屈服于 bow one’s head低头,俯首 bow before在……前鞠躬 18. regret (v.) & (n.)后悔;遗憾 regret doing/having done懊悔做了某事 regret to do遗憾将要做某事(还没做) express regret at对……表示遗憾 with (great/deep)regret遗憾地 have no regrets不后悔,没有遗憾 to one’s regret非常遗憾 1.(2014江苏)Tom always goes jogging in the morning and he usually does push-ups too to stay _____. A. in place B. in order C. in shape D. in fashion 解析:根据句意“汤姆早上总是慢跑,他通常也做俯卧撑来保持良好身体。”in place在适当的位置;in order按顺序;in shape处于良好状态;健康;in fashion流行,时兴。 答案:C。 2.(2014天津六校联考) Large amounts of money _______ spent on the bridge, which ________ to be completed the next month. A. were; was expected B. was; was expected C. was; expected D. were; expected 解析:根据句意“大笔的钱被花在建桥上,这座桥预期在下个月竣工。”amounts of +不可数名词+复数谓语动词,故排除B、C,bridge与expect之间为被动关系,故用被动语态。be expected to do被期望或要求。 答案:A。 3. (2014四川) The manager was satisfied to see many new products ______ after great effort. A. having developed B. to develop C. developed D. develop 解析:根据句意“在做出巨大努力之后,看到很多新产品被研发出来,经理很满意。”此题考查的是非谓语动词作感官动词see的宾语补足语,develop与宾语products间为被动关系,故使用过去分词。 答案:C。 4.(2014福建福州期中) The robber was______ by the police when boarding the plane for Paris. A. frightened B. persuaded C. spotted D. informed 解析:根据句意“当那个抢劫犯登记去巴黎时被警察发现了”;根据句意,spot发现;frighten使惊吓;persuade说服;inform通知。 答案:C。 5. (2014山东) ---Is Anne coming tomorrow? ---______ .If she were to come, she would have called me. A. Go ahead B. Certainly C. That’s right D. I don’t think so. 解析:根据句意“---安妮明天来吗?---我认为不会。如果她要来,她就给我打电话了。”Go ahead去吧;Certainly 当然;That’s right 那是对的;I don’t think so我认为不会。” 答案:D。 基础演练 一、品句填词 1. I’m afraid he is not fit for the job, for it’s one calling for ________(耐心). 2. The prisoners were ________(允许)two hours’ exercise a day. 3. Can you get me some writing paper and________(信封)when you are in the post office? 4. Have you succeeded in ________(寻找)the answers to the questions? 5. There are many ________(错误)in the book. 6. The house has an underground ________(通道). 7. There was a funny ________(场景)when the pig ran into the store. 8. She________(尖叫) when he saw the dead body. 9. She was last found ________(漫游)aimlessly up and down the road. 10. The beggar was dressed in ________(破布). 二、翻译句子 1.日出是一个美丽的景象。 2.这都是我的错。 3.事实上,我是偶然来到英国的。 4.我在人群中认出了她。 5.他把大量的钱用在了种树上。 6.是这艘船把你带到了英格兰。 ______________________________________________________ _ 7.事实是我靠做义工来顶替船费,这就是我为什么衣冠不整的原因了。 ______________________________________________________________ _ 8.你介意仅等几分钟吗? ________________________________________________________ 9.你知道他正在找谁的孩子吗?(宾语从句) _______________________________________________________ 10.你认为他发生了什么事?(插入语?) ________________________________________________________ Keys: 一、品句填词 1---5 patience; permitted; envelopes; seeking; faults 6---10 passage; scene; screamed; wandering; rags 翻译句子 1. Sunrise is a beautiful scene. 2. It was all my fault. 3. As a matter of fact, I landed in England by accident. 4. I spotted her in the crowd. 5. He spent a large amount of money in planting trees. 6. And it was the ship that brought you to England. 7. The fact is that I earned my passage by working as an unpaid hand, which accounts for my appearance. 8. Would you mind waiting for just a few minutes? 9. Do you know whose child he is seeking for? 10. What do you think has happened to him? 巩固提高 1. — Would you permit me ________here? —Sorry,we don't permit ________here in the lab. A. smoking; smoking B.to smoke; to smoke C. smoking; to smoke D. to smoke; smoking 2. He was so angry that he ________at her, saying nothing. A. stared B. watched C. found D. saw 3 .Recent pressure at work may ________his abnormal behavior. A. push for B. exchange for C. account for D. head for 4. —Our holiday cost a lot of money. —Did it? Well,that doesn't matter________ you enjoyed yourselves. A.as long as B. unless C.as soon as D. though 5. Passengers are permitted ________only one piece of hand luggage onto the plane. A.to carry B. carrying C.to be carried D. being carried Keys: 1---5 DACAA 1. When the man was trying to break into the bank, he was caught by the police__________. A. in a spot B. on the spot C. off the spot D. to the spot 2. His illness__________ his absence. A. explained B. because of C. accounted for D. is responsible for 3. She__________ herself in the mirror. A. looked at B. stared at C. glanced at D. glared at 4. ---Would you mind if I turned off the light? ---____________. A. Ye s, go ahead B. No, please don’t C. Go ahead, please D. Certainly, do as you please 5. Her mother would not permit her__________ back late. A. to come B. come C. coming D. came 6. His parents died when he was five, so he was __________by his uncle. A. brought on B. brought down C. brought up D. brought in 7. I hadn’t seen him for 10 years but I__________ him at first sight. A. realized B. spotted C. watched D. observed 8. You didn’t bother me, __________, I like your company. A. on the contrary B. in other words C. for one thing D. on the other hand 9. ---How did you find your missing key? ---__________. A. I found it in my drawer B. Quite by accident C. It was well kept by the monitor D. I had no idea where it was 10. _________, they didn’t do well in helping each other with their study. A. To honest B. Honest C. To be honest D. To be honestly 11. It was all my ______ that my son had made such a silly but serious _______. A. fault; error B. mistake; fault C. shortcoming; mistake D. fault; mistake 12.Totally ______ accident, the businessman picked up a _______ antique(古董)in the flea market(跳蚤市场) A by; true B. in; indeed C. with; actual D. by; genuine 13. His lack of professional knowledge _______for the failure of the experiment. A. accounted B. explained C. counted D. contributed 14. Nobody could have ever imagined that the poor man ___ ___ be a millionaire. A. in rag; could B. in rags; should C. wearing poorly; should be D. dressed poorly; might 15. Since there was no way out, the robber decided to _______on his luck to see if he could run away. A. make a chance B. take chance C. take a chance D. try a chance Keys: 1---5 BCBBA 6---10 CBABC 11-15 DDABC _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、完形填空 A Different View At age 14, 15 and 16, the way we looked was the most important thing in the world to us. My friends and I wanted nothing less than perfection. In high school, we joined the gymnastics team, and our 1 because even more important to us. We had no fat, only muscle. On the weekends, we would go to the beach, 2 of our flat stomachs. One summer day, all my friends were at my house 3 . At one point, I was running back to the pool. I 4 on a bee, and while it was dying under my foot, it stung (蛰) me. I instantly started to feel 5 . That night, I began to run a high fever and my leg and foot were red, hot and swollen. I couldn’t walk. I could barely 6 . When my foot started to go numb, everyone became more 7 . My foot was not getting enough blood. I had to go to the 8 , and my leg hurt as if it were badly broken. I couldn’t move. All I could do was think about how soft my middle was becoming. That 9 me more than any concern over my leg. That would all 10 when I heard the doctors mention possibly cutting off my foot. It was still not getting the 11 supply it needed. The doctors would have to speed up their treatment. Never before did I have such great 12 for my foot. And walking seemed like a 13 from the gods. Less and less would I want to hear my friends talk about 14 and who was wearing what. More and more I expected visits from other kids in the hospital, who were quickly becoming my friends. One girl came to visit me 15 . Every time she came, she brought flowers. She was recovering from cancer and felt she should come back and 16 the other patients. She still had no hair, and she was swollen from medications she had been taking. I would not have given this girl a second 17 before. I now loved every inch of her and looked forward to her 18 . Finally, I was improving and soon I went home. My leg was still swollen, 19 I was walking, and I had my foot! When I would go back to the hospital, I often saw my friend. She was still visiting people and 20 good cheer. I thought if even there was an angel on this earth, it had to be her. 1. A. grades B. brains C. bodies D. clothes 2. A. ashamed B. proud C. sure D. tired 3. A. dancing B. chatting C. jogging D. swimming 4. A. stepped B. focused C. held D. took 5. A. upset B. fearful C. sick D. anxious 6. A. jump B. run C. stand D. rest 7. A. concerned B. relieved C. surprised D. interested 8. A. beach B. hospital C. gym D. school 9. A. blamed B. impressed C. shocked D. troubled 10. A. change B. bother C. help D. happen 11. A. nutrition B. blood C. time D. air 12. A. observation B. devotion C. appreciation D. evaluation 13. A. gift B. hand C. promise D. treat 14.A. homework B. appointment C. movies D. gymnastics 15. A. suddenly B. regularly C. eventually D. recently 16. A. advise B. encourage C. serve D. instruct 17. A. choice B. thought C. glance D. chance 18. A. words B. ideas C. flowers D. visits 19. A. but B. then C. so D. for 20. A. enjoying B. gaining C. discovering D. spreading 二、七选五 House Sitting In many countries of the world people do what is called house sitting. It means that if owners of the house are going away, they want someone to come into their home and look after the house and maybe pets while they are away. In Australia, many people travel. After people retire, they might buy a van and travel all over the country. 1 So if someone wants to travel or go away for some reason, they might want someone in their home to care for it and keep the gardens tidy. House sitters might have to care for pets. Also, quite a few people have swimming pools in their back yard and they need cleaning. 2 I feel it is a great way of seeing the country, because you go and stay in a new city, get to meet new people, and have time to go sightseeing in a new area. 3 There are websites where you find the advertisements by people who want to travel, and by replying to the advertisement, you can make arrangements to go and look after their home. There are some requirements to be a house sitter. You must be a trusted person, so that the home owner knows you will not steal anything. You must be able to go when the house owner wants you to go, so you need lots of free time. 4 You need to be good with pets, able to care for cats and dogs, or other pets they may have. Some house sitting jobs are just for a few days or a couple of weeks while the house owner have a short holiday. Sometimes it is for much longer. We have had one house sit for six months, while the home owner travelled to Europe. 5 Then you can travel to many different countries and stay there. One of the important things to get are references from the home owners where you have stayed. A reference is a written letter to say that you are trustworthy and have looked after their home well. You can show these letters to prospective house sitting jobs and they know you will do a good job. A. I have done house sitting many times. B. Thousands of people do this all the time. C. It is also possible to do house sitting in other countries. D. Generally you have many opportunities to get a house sitting job. E. You must take a little care over what your description says about you. F. This is an international house sitting service for all city and country areas. G. You must have a good car, so you can travel to different parts of the country. Keys: 完形填空 1---5 CBDAC 6---10 CABDA 11---15 BCADB 16---20 BCDAD 七选五 1---5 BADGC Unit3 The Million Pound Bank Note语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握本单元重点语法----宾语从句和表语从句,并能熟练应用宾语从句和表语从句的相关语法解决相应的语法练习 一、宾语从句 宾语从句:在复合句中起宾语的作用,可以放在动词和介词之后。宾语从句应用陈述句语序。 1.由连接词that引导宾语从句时,that在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的文体中常被省去,但如从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。 E.g. He has told me that he will go to Shanghai tomorrow. E.g. We must never think (that) we are good in everything while others are good in nothing. 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不好。 注意:在demand, order,suggest, decide,insist,desire,request,command等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾语从句常用“(should)+ 动词原形”。例如: E.g. I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。 E.g. The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 司令员命令部队马上出发。 2.用who, whom,which, whose,what,when, where, why,how,whoever, whatever,whichever等关联词引导的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句,应注意句子语序要用陈述语序。 E.g. I want to know what he has told you. 我想知道他告诉了你什么。 E.g. She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。 E.g. She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持。 3.用whether或if引导的宾语从句,其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒,仍保持陈述句语序。此外,whether与if 在作“是否”的意思讲时在下列情况下一般只能用whether,不用if: (1)引导主语从句并在句首时; (2)引导表语从句时; (3)引导从句作介词宾语时; (4)从句后有“or not”时; (5)后接动词不定式时。 E.g. Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question. 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。 E.g. Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。 E.g. I wonder whether he will come or not. 我想知道他来还是不来。 E.g. Can you tell me whether to go or to stay? 你能否告诉我是去还是留? 4.注意宾语从句中的时态呼应,当主句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句子情况,而使用 不同时态。 E.g. He studies English every day.(从句用一般现在时) E.g. He studied English last term.(从句用一般过去时) E.g. I know (that) he will study English next year.(从句用一般将来时) E.g. He has studied English since 1998.(从句用现在完成时) 当主句动词是过去时态(could, would除外),从句则要用相应的过去时态,如一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时等;当从句表示的是客观真理,科学原理,自然现象,则从句仍用现在时态。 E.g. The teacher told us that Tom had left us for America. 5.think, believe, imagine, suppose等等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中,要把上述主句中的动词变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。 E.g. We don’t think you are here. 我们认为你不在这。 E.g. I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做。 二、表语从句 表语从句:从句放在系动词be, look ,remain ,seem等之后即构成表语从句 引导表语从句的词有连词that,whether;连接代词who,what,which;连接副词when,where,how,why以及其它连词as if,as though,because等。 E.g. The question is whether it is worth reading. E.g. They are just what I want. E.g. That’s why they were late. 1.that引导的表语从句 that引导表语从句时,在句中无意义,一般不可省略。而what引导表语从句时,不但有意义,而且在从句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语等成分。 E.g. The trouble is that I have lost his address. E.g. China is no longer what it used to be.中国不再是过去的样子了。 2.whether 引导的表语从句 whether 引导表语从句仍表示“是否”之意,不能在从句中充当句子成分。if则不可用来引导表语从句 E.g. The question is whether they will be able to help us. The question is whether the film is worth seeing. 3.as if (as though)引导的表语从句 as if (as though) 引导表语从句,意思是“好像,似乎”。 E.g. It looks as if it is going to rain.看起来天要下雨了。 E.g. It sounds as if you are from the South of the USA.听起来你好像来自美国南部。 注意:不用 if 引导表语从句。reason做主语时,表语从句应由that引导,不用because。that 引导表语从句时,通常不能省略。 4.其他类型的表语从句 其他连接词引导表语从句的用法与引导宾语从句的用法类似。但要注意几个表示原因的表语从句的常见句型: (1)That’s why … (2)That’s because… (3)The reason why… is that… E.g. That’s why we decided to put off the sports meeting. E.g. That’s because we haven’t got well prepared. E.g. The reason why I like the dictionary is that it is useful for my work. 1.(2014浙江)“Every time you eat a sweet, drink green tea.” This is ________my mother used to tell me. A. what B. how C. that D. whether 2.(2014江苏)---What a mess! You are always so lazy! ---I’m not to blame, mum. I am________ you have made me. A. how B. what C. that D. who 3.(2014山东)It is difficult for us to image ________ life was like for slaves in the ancient world. A. where B. what C. which D. why 4.(2014福建)Pick yourself up. Courage is doing ________ you are afraid to do. A. that B. what C. how D. whether 5.(2013北京)Experts believe________ people can waste less food by shopping only when it is necessary. A. why B. where C. that D. what 基础演练 单项选择 — I flew to New York for the talk show on TV last week.   — Is that ______you had a few days off? A. why    B. when    C. what    D. where 2. I ask her _____ come with me. A. if she will       B. if will she C. whether will she   D. will she 3. It was a matter of _______ would take the position. A. who   B. whoever    C. whom    D. whomever 4. Can you tell me ________? A. who is that gentleman is  B. that gentleman is who C. who that gentleman is     D. whom is that gentleman 5. Can you tell me ________ the railway station? A. how I can get to   B. what can I get to C. where I can got to    D. where can I get to 6. It is generally considered unwise to give a child ________ he or she wants. A. however   B. whatever   C. whichever   D. whenever 7. Do you know ________ ? A. what is his name    B. how is his name C. what his name is    D. how his name is 8. Go and get your coat. It's________ you left it. A. there    B. where    C. there where  D. where there 9. I wonder how much ________. A. does the watch cost   B. did the watch cost C. the watch cost    D. the watch costs 10. It was _____ he said _____ disappointed me. A. what; that    B. that; that C. what; what    D. that; what 巩固提高 1. "Is Mary from New York City?" "I don't know _______." A. from what city does she come from B. from what city she come C. what city does she come from D. what city she comes from 2. Henry killed the dog. I'll ask him why ________. A. did he do that    B. he did that C. he did        D. he has done so 3. Have you seen Henry lately? My boss wants to know ________. A. how he is getting along B. how is he getting along C. what he is getting along D. what is he getting along 4. I am sure ________ he said is true. A. that   B. about that   C. of that   D. that what 5. You can’t imagine ________ when they received these nice Christmas presents. A. how they were excited  B. how excited they were C. how excited were they    D. they were how excited 1. We haven’t settled the question of _______ it is necessary for him to study abroad. A. if B. where C. whether D. that 2. A warm thought suddenly came to me _______I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday. A. if B. when C. that D. which 3. There is much chance _______ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race. A. that B. which C. until D. if 4. Please remind me _______ he said he was going. I may be in time to see him off. A. where B. when C. how D. what 5. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us. _______ we gave some bells and glasses. A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which 6. With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased _______ he was a man of action. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 7. _______ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships. A. No matter what B. No matter which C. Whatever D. Whichever 8. I just wonder _______ that makes him so excited. A. why it does B. what he does C. how it is D. what it is 9. _______ is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger, more prosperous economy. A. As B. That C. This D. It 10. Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class _______ he had to meet his uncle at the airport. A. why B. that C. where D. because 11. The shopkeeper did not want to sell for _______ he thought was not enough. A. where B. how C. what D. which 12. He noticed that the straight part of the dance was different in the afternoon from _______ it had been in the morning. A. that B. where C. what D. which 13. I’d like to work with _______ is honest and easy to get on with. A. who B. whoever C. whomever D. no matter who 14. When you are reading, make a note of _______ you think is of great importance. A. which B. that C. what D. when 15. —Can we get everything ready by the weekend? —It all depends on _______ we can get Mr. Green’s cooperation. A. that B. what C. whether D. if _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 单项选择 1.______ good, this kind of fruit sells very well in our city. A .Taste B. Being tasted C. Tasting D. Having been tasted 2. The ______ look on his face suggested that he ______ that he would fail in the Math test. A. surprising; wouldn’t expect B. surprising; hadn’t expected C. surprised; hadn’t expected D. surprised; shouldn’t expect 3. I think he must have seen me at the meeting last night, ______? A. didn’t he B. don’t I C.do I D. mustn’t he 4. The Changjiang River has been polluted badly and is not good _______. A.to swim it B.to be swum in C.to swim in it D.to swim in 5. Thomas _____ in inventing many electrical machines A. was successful B. succeed C. was success D. successes 6. I would love ______ to the party that evening, but I had an unexpected visitor. A.to go B.to have gone C. going D. having gone 7. It is well known to all that water, ______ enough, can change into ice quickly. A. if cooling B. though to be cooled C. when cooled D. when is cooled 8. Mr. Wang ______ the person referred to at the meeting be put in prison. A. said B. wished C. agreed D. suggested 9. Is this school ______you studied in three years ago? A. where B. that C. the one D. which 10._____ hardly made Mike pay any attention to _____ his mistakes. A. Scolding; correcting B. Being scolded; correct C. Being scolded; correcting D. Having been scolded; correct 11.Hardly ______ on the bus ______ the bus drove off. A. did he get; than B. had he got; when C. did he get; when D. had he got; than 12.—Which sport is the most popular in the US? —It’s hard to say. It largely ______ what you mean by “popular”? A. belongs to B. comes about C. depends on D. determines on 13. I _____ when it began to rain. A. was about to going out B. was in the point of going out C. was on the point of going out D. both A and C 14. You never imagine what trouble I have had ______ your house. It took me nearly 2 hours. A.to find B. finding C. found D. for finding 15.______ in her novel that she didn’t hear what I was saying. A. So absorbed had Nancy B. So absorbed Nancy was C. So absorbed was Nancy D. So absorbed Nancy had 二、阅读理解 C Sports can help you keep fit and get in touch with nature.However, whether you are on the mountains, in the waves, or on the grassland, you should be aware that your sport of choice might have great influence on the environment. Some sports are resource-hungry. Golf, as you may know, eats up not only large areas of countryside, but also tons of water. Besides, all sorts of chemicals and huge amounts of energy are used to keep its courses (球场) in good condition. This causes major environmental effects. For example, in the dry regions of Portugal and Spain, golf is often held responsible for serious water shortage in some local areas. There are many environment-friendly sports. Power walking is one of them that you could take up today. You don’t need any special equipment except a good pair of shoes; and you don’t have to worry about resources and your purse. Simple and free, power walking can also keep you fit. If you walk regularly, it will be good for your heart and bones. Experts say that 20 minutes of power walking daily can make you feel less anxious, sleep well and have better weight control. Whatever sport you take up, you can make it greener by using environment-friendly equipment and buying products made from recycled materials. But the final goal should be “green gyms”. They are better replacements for traditional health clubs and modern sports centers. Members of green gyms play sports outdoors, in the countryside or other open spaces. There is no special requirement for you to start your membership. And best of all, it’s free. 1. Which of the following is the author most probably in favor of? A. Cycling around a lake. B. Motor racing in the desert. C. Playing basketball in a gym. D. Swimming in a sports center. 2. What do we know about golf from the passage? A. It is popular in Portugal and Spain. B. It causes water shortages around the world. C. It pollutes the earth with chemicals and wastes. D. It needs water and electricity to keep its courses green. 3. The author uses power walking as an example mainly because _________. A.it is an outdoor sport B.it improves our health C.it uses fewer resources D.it is recommended by experts 4. The author writes the passage to _________. A. show us the function of major sports B. encourage us to go in for green sports C. discuss the major influence of popular sports D. introduce different types of environment-friendly sports D Liverpool, my hometown, is a unique city. It is so unique that in 2004 it became a World Heritage (遗产) Site. I recently returned to my home city and my first stop was at a museum on the River Mersey. Blanketed in mist (薄雾), Victorian architecture rose from the banks of the river, responded to the sounds of sea-birds, and appeared unbelievably charming. When I headed toward the centre, I found myself surrounded by buildings that mirror the best palaces of Europe. It is not hard to imagine why, on first seeing the city, most visitors would be overpowered by the beauty of the noble buildings, which are solid signs of Liverpool’s history. As if stress its cultural role, Liverpool has more museums and galleries (美术馆) than most cities in Britain. At Walker Art Gallery, I was told that it has best collections of Victorian paintings in the world, and is the home of modern art in the north of England.However, culture is more than galleries. Liverpool offers many music events. As Britain’s No.1 music city, it has the biggest city music festival in Europe, and its musicians are famous all over the world. Liverpool is also well-known for its football and other sports events. Every year, the Mersey River Festival attracts thousands of visitors, madding the city a place of wonder. As you would expect from such a city, there are restaurants serving food from around the world. When my trip was about to complete, I chose to rest my legs in Liverpool’s famous Philharmonic pub (酒馆).It is a monument to perfection, and a heritage attraction itself. Being a World Heritage Site, my home city is certainly a place of “outstanding universal value”. It is a treasure house with plenty of secrets for the world to explore. 5. Visitors who see the city for the first time would be deeply impressed by __________. A. its charming banks B. its famous museums C. its wonderful palaces D. its attractive buildings 6. The third paragraph is developed mainly by __________. A. providing different examples B. following the order of space C. making comparisons D. analyzing causes 7. The author uses the Philharmonic pub to prove that _________. A. Liverpool is a well-known city for its restaurants B. Liverpool is an impressive place full of attraction C. a pub is a wonderful place for visitors to relax themselves D. a pub is a perfect choice for visitors to complete their journey 8. What is the passage mainly about? A. The universal value of the world heritage in Liverpool. B. The exciting experience of the author in Liverpool. C. The special cultural atmosphere of Liverpool. D. The beautiful historic sites of Liverpool. Unit3 The Million Pound Bank Note语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握本单元重点语法----宾语从句和表语从句,并能熟练应用宾语从句和表语从句的相关语法解决相应的语法练习 一、宾语从句 宾语从句:在复合句中起宾语的作用,可以放在动词和介词之后。宾语从句应用陈述句语序。 1.由连接词that引导宾语从句时,that在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的文体中常被省去,但如从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。 E.g. He has told me that he will go to Shanghai tomorrow. E.g. We must never think (that) we are good in everything while others are good in nothing. 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不好。 注意:在demand, order,suggest, decide,insist,desire,request,command等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾语从句常用“(should)+ 动词原形”。例如: E.g. I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。 E.g. The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 司令员命令部队马上出发。 2.用who, whom,which, whose,what,when, where, why,how,whoever, whatever,whichever等关联词引导的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句,应注意句子语序要用陈述语序。 E.g. I want to know what he has told you. 我想知道他告诉了你什么。 E.g. She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。 E.g. She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持。 3.用whether或if引导的宾语从句,其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒,仍保持陈述句语序。此外,whether与if 在作“是否”的意思讲时在下列情况下一般只能用whether,不用if: (1)引导主语从句并在句首时; (2)引导表语从句时; (3)引导从句作介词宾语时; (4)从句后有“or not”时; (5)后接动词不定式时。 E.g. Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question. 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。 E.g. Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。 E.g. I wonder whether he will come or not. 我想知道他来还是不来。 E.g. Can you tell me whether to go or to stay? 你能否告诉我是去还是留? 4.注意宾语从句中的时态呼应,当主句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句子情况,而使用 不同时态。 E.g. He studies English every day.(从句用一般现在时) E.g. He studied English last term.(从句用一般过去时) E.g. I know (that) he will study English next year.(从句用一般将来时) E.g. He has studied English since 1998.(从句用现在完成时) 当主句动词是过去时态(could, would除外),从句则要用相应的过去时态,如一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时等;当从句表示的是客观真理,科学原理,自然现象,则从句仍用现在时态。 E.g. The teacher told us that Tom had left us for America. 5.think, believe, imagine, suppose等等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中,要把上述主句中的动词变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。 E.g. We don’t think you are here. 我们认为你不在这。 E.g. I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做。 二、表语从句 表语从句:从句放在系动词be, look ,remain ,seem等之后即构成表语从句 引导表语从句的词有连词that,whether;连接代词who,what,which;连接副词when,where,how,why以及其它连词as if,as though,because等。 E.g. The question is whether it is worth reading. E.g. They are just what I want. E.g. That’s why they were late. 1.that引导的表语从句 that引导表语从句时,在句中无意义,一般不可省略。而what引导表语从句时,不但有意义,而且在从句中作主语、宾语、表语、定语等成分。 E.g. The trouble is that I have lost his address. E.g. China is no longer what it used to be.中国不再是过去的样子了。 2.whether 引导的表语从句 whether 引导表语从句仍表示“是否”之意,不能在从句中充当句子成分。if则不可用来引导表语从句 E.g. The question is whether they will be able to help us. The question is whether the film is worth seeing. 3.as if (as though)引导的表语从句 as if (as though) 引导表语从句,意思是“好像,似乎”。 E.g. It looks as if it is going to rain.看起来天要下雨了。 E.g. It sounds as if you are from the South of the USA.听起来你好像来自美国南部。 注意:不用 if 引导表语从句。reason做主语时,表语从句应由that引导,不用because。that 引导表语从句时,通常不能省略。 4.其他类型的表语从句 其他连接词引导表语从句的用法与引导宾语从句的用法类似。但要注意几个表示原因的表语从句的常见句型: (1)That’s why … (2)That’s because… (3)The reason why… is that… E.g. That’s why we decided to put off the sports meeting. E.g. That’s because we haven’t got well prepared. E.g. The reason why I like the dictionary is that it is useful for my work. 1.(2014浙江)“Every time you eat a sweet, drink green tea.” This is ________my mother used to tell me. A. what B. how C. that D. whether 解析:根据句意“每次你吃糖果的时候,喝点绿茶。”这就是我妈妈过去常常告诉我的。根据句意可知,设空处引导表语从句,引导词在句中作宾语,因此用what引导 答案:A。 2.(2014江苏)---What a mess! You are always so lazy! ---I’m not to blame, mum. I am________ you have made me. A. how B. what C. that D. who 解析:根据句意“---真是太乱了!你总是这么懒惰!---妈妈,别责怪我。你使我成为了现在这个样子。”本题考查表语从句。What引导表语从句,且what在句子中作made的宾语补足语。 答案:B。 3.(2014山东)It is difficult for us to image ________ life was like for slaves in the ancient world. A. where B. what C. which D. why 解析:根据句意“我们很难想象古代奴隶们的生活是什么样子的。”此题考查宾语从句。在该空引导的宾语从句中介词like后面缺少宾语且设空处表示“事物”,所以用what引导宾语从句。Which表示在一定范围内进行选择,在此处不符合题意,故排除C项。 答案:B。 4.(2014福建)Pick yourself up. Courage is doing ________ you are afraid to do. A. that B. what C. how D. whether 解析:根据句意“振作起来,勇气就是去做你害怕去做的事情。”本题考查宾语从句。分析题干可知doing后为宾语从句,从句中缺作宾语的连接词。在宾语从句中,that只起连接作用,不作任何成分what作主语或宾语;how作状语;whether意为“是否” 答案:B。 5.(2013北京)Experts believe________ people can waste less food by shopping only when it is necessary. A. why B. where C. that D. what 解析:根据句意“专家认为人们可以通过只有需要(食物)时才去购买这一方法来减少食物的浪费”本题考查宾语从句。空格处引导的宾语从句的结构和意思都很完整,故选C项。 答案:C。 基础演练 单项选择 — I flew to New York for the talk show on TV last week.   — Is that ______you had a few days off? A. why    B. when    C. what    D. where 2. I ask her _____ come with me. A. if she will       B. if will she C. whether will she   D. will she 3. It was a matter of _______ would take the position. A. who   B. whoever    C. whom    D. whomever 4. Can you tell me ________? A. who is that gentleman is  B. that gentleman is who C. who that gentleman is     D. whom is that gentleman 5. Can you tell me ________ the railway station? A. how I can get to   B. what can I get to C. where I can got to    D. where can I get to 6. It is generally considered unwise to give a child ________ he or she wants. A. however   B. whatever   C. whichever   D. whenever 7. Do you know ________ ? A. what is his name    B. how is his name C. what his name is    D. how his name is 8. Go and get your coat. It's________ you left it. A. there    B. where    C. there where  D. where there 9. I wonder how much ________. A. does the watch cost   B. did the watch cost C. the watch cost    D. the watch costs 10. It was _____ he said _____ disappointed me. A. what; that    B. that; that C. what; what    D. that; what Keys: 1---5 AAACA 6---10 BCBDA 巩固提高 1. "Is Mary from New York City?" "I don't know _______." A. from what city does she come from B. from what city she come C. what city does she come from D. what city she comes from 2. Henry killed the dog. I'll ask him why ________. A. did he do that    B. he did that C. he did        D. he has done so 3. Have you seen Henry lately? My boss wants to know ________. A. how he is getting along B. how is he getting along C. what he is getting along D. what is he getting along 4. I am sure ________ he said is true. A. that   B. about that   C. of that   D. that what 5. You can’t imagine ________ when they received these nice Christmas presents. A. how they were excited  B. how excited they were C. how excited were they    D. they were how excited Keys: 1---5 DACAA 1. We haven’t settled the question of _______ it is necessary for him to study abroad. A. if B. where C. whether D. that 2. A warm thought suddenly came to me _______I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday. A. if B. when C. that D. which 3. There is much chance _______ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race. A. that B. which C. until D. if 4. Please remind me _______ he said he was going. I may be in time to see him off. A. where B. when C. how D. what 5. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to

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  • ID:4-6094403 人教版高中英语必修三辅导讲义:Unit2 Healthy eating词汇篇及语法篇(学生版+教师版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修3、4/必修3/Unit 2 Healthy eating

    Unit2 Healthy eating词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1.应当;应该 ought to 2.体重减轻;减肥 lose weight 3.被放过;不受惩 get away with 4.说谎 tell a lie 5.赢回;重新获得 win ... back 6.谋生 earn one’s living 7.欠债 in debt 8.消减;删节 cut down 9.暗中监视;侦查 spy on 10.不久之后 before long 11.增加体重 put on weight 二、词义辨析 1. glare,stare和glance: glare“怒目而视”,指用力地或有威胁性地看,强调敌意和惊恐。 stare “凝视,盯着看”,指长时间地、目不转睛地看。 glance “一瞥,匆匆一看”,指由于对所看对象已有了解或由于匆忙而扫视。 2.lie和lay 词形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义 lie lay lain lying 躺,位于 lie lied lied lying 说谎 lay laid laid laying 放置;下蛋 3. slim和thin slim“苗条的,细长的”褒义词,称得上slim的人往往给人以美感 thin“瘦的,薄的”,只是客观地描述人或动物的胖与瘦、物的厚与薄 三、要点梳理 1. diet(n.)日常饮食 (vi.)节食 have a balanced diet 有均衡的饮食 go on a diet/be on a diet 节食 diet drinks 低热量饮料 2. balance (vt.)均衡;权衡 (n.)天平;平衡 balanced(adj.)保持平衡的 balance sth. on sth. 使在某物上保持平衡 keep /lose one’s balance 保持/失去平衡 disturb the balance of one’s mind 打破心里平衡 3. “Nothing could be better.” 没有比这更好的了。比较级的否定形式, 表示最高级的含义。 Eg. He has never spent a more worrying day. 这是他最担心的一天了。 4. slim (adj.)苗条的;纤细的 (vi.)减肥;变细 slimmer(n.)减肥者 slimness (n.)减肥 5. curiosity(n.)好奇心 curious(adj.)好奇的 curiously(adv.)好奇地;说来奇怪 be curious about sth.对......感到好奇 be curious to do sth. 极想做…… It is curious that……奇怪的是…… satisfy one’s curiosity about sth.对某物表现出好奇 6. have sb. do sth. “让某人做某事“ (主谓关系,一次性动作)have 可以用let, make代替 have sb./sth. doing“让某人/某物一直做”(一直处于某种状态) have可以用keep代替 have sth. to do “有某事要做” have sth. done “让某事被(别人)做”,即ask sb. else to do sth 7. get away with (做坏事)不受惩罚;被放过 get away (from…)摆脱/脱离(得以)脱身 get away with sth.携带某物逃跑 keep away from…避免接近…/远离…… break away(from…)脱离;挣脱 run away from sth.避开/逃避/回避 8. lie(n.)谎话;谎言(vi.)说谎 lie still一动不动地躺着 lie on one’s back/side/stomach仰卧/侧卧/俯卧 lie in 在于 a white lie 善意的谎言 tell a lie 说谎 9. discount(n.)折扣 get/give/offer a discount得到/给予/提供折扣 at a discount以折扣价,打折扣 a 10%dicount/a discount of 10%打九折 10.srength (n.)力量;长处;强项 strengthen (v.)(使)加强,变强 strong(adj.)强壮的;强大的;坚定的;强烈的 strongly(adv.)强烈地;坚固地;强硬地 the strength to do sth.做某事的力气 build up one’s strength增强体力 with all one’s strength 用尽全身的力气 the strength of public opinion 公众言论的力量 strengths and weakness优点和缺点,强项和弱项 11. consult (v.) 咨询;请教;商量 consult sb. about sth.向某人咨询某事 consult with sb.与某人商议 consult a doctor看医生 consult a dictionary/map 查字典/地图 12. digest (v.)消化 (n.)摘要;概要 digestible(adj.)容易消化的,易理解的 digestive (adj.)消化的(仅用于名词前) digestion(n.)消化;消化能力 the digestive system消化系统 have a good /poor digestion 消化能力强/弱 13. in debt欠债 be heavily in debt负债累累 be out of debt不欠债 pay off all the debts还清所有债务 be in one’s debt欠某人情;感激某人 14.glare(v.)怒目而视;闪耀 (n.)怒视;炫目的光 glare at 怒视 the glare of the sun耀眼的阳光 15. limit (v.) 限制;限定 (n.)界限;限度 limited (adj.)有限的;受限制的 limitless (adj.)无限制的;无限度的 limitation(n.)限制;控制 There is a limit to ······是有限的 know one’s limits知道某人的限度 within limits 在某种程度上;有一定限制 16. benefit (n.)利益;好处 (v.)有益于;有利于 beneficial(adj.)有利的;有益的 benefit from/by 得益于 be of great benefit to 对······大有裨益 for the benefit of sb./for sb.’s benefit 为了······的利益,为帮助······ be beneficial to 对······有益 a beneficial result to us 对我们是有利的结果 17. combine (v.)(使)联合;(使)结合 combination(n.)结合;联合;混合 combine …with…把······与······结合起来 combine to do 结合起来…… combined effect/effort共同作用/努力 in combination with 与······结合;与······联合 18. serve(vt&vi)送上(食物或饮料);端上(饭菜);伺候(某人进餐);接待(顾客) service(n.)服务 serve sb. with sth.用······配······ serve sb. with sth./serve sth. to sb.招待某人······ serve one’s needs 满足某人的需要 serve as 担任(职务) do sb. a service有助于某人 at sb.’s service愿为某人效劳,听候某人的吩咐 be of service有用,能帮忙 19. cut down削减;缩减(数量、数目等);删节;压缩(文章等);砍到(树) cut up切碎,割碎 cut off切断供应,隔绝 cut in插入,插嘴;打断 cut out 删掉;剪下;割掉 cut through开辟通道 20. before long 不久以后 long before 很久以前 long ago 很久以前 It will be long before…要过很久才······ It will be+时间+ before… ······后才会 1.(2014山西忻州一中期末)Jane has lost weight by going on_____ diet and taking______ exercise every day. A. a;an B. /;/ C. a;/ D. /;an 2. (2014江西白鹭洲中学期中)After that, he knew he could _______any emergency by doing what he could to the best of his ability.. A. get away with B. get on with C. get through D. get across 3. (2014福建厦门一中期中)At the foot of the mountain_______ with a beautiful river surrounding it. A. a small village lies B. lies a small village C. does a small village lie D. a small village is lying 4. (2014河南五校联考)We paid ______cash in the hope that we could get a 15%_______ A. by; count B. with; account C. in; discount D. in; charge 5. I won’t have it_______ that I treated him unfairly. A. say B. said C. saying D. to say 基础演练 1. (2014福建龙岩模拟)High school students are supposed to be _______about public services, which will benefit them in the long run. A. curious B. anxious C. particular D. enthusiastic 2. People have always been_______ about exactly how life on earth began. A. curious B. anxious C. particular D. enthusiastic 3. According to the doctor, you can still eat breakfast when you are ________ A. slimmer B. slimness C. slim D. slimming 4. I had hoped to take a holiday this year but I wasn’t able to ______ A. get away B. drop in C. check out D. hold on 5. Claire had her luggage _______an hour before her plane left. A. check B. checking C. to check D. checked 巩固提高 1. Take care during the holidays! Drinking too much can______ heart disease and cause high blood pressure. A. result from B. lie in C. stick to D. contribute to 2. With the world changing fast, we have something new______ with every day. A. deal B. dealt C. to deal D. dealing 3. ---Did you have a good night’s sleep, sir? ---Oh, exactly! It was such a comfortable bed. I could never have ______sleep. A. a good B. the best C. a better D. a best 4. The child should be punished. You shouldn’t let him______ telling lies A. keep away from B. keep away with C. get away from D. get away with 5. To make members of a team perform better, the coach first of all has to know their______ and weakness A. strengths B. benefits C. techniques D. values 6. When Alice came to, she did not know how long she______ there. A. had been lying B. has been lying C. was lying D. has lain 7. ---Why do you choose to work at an international travel agency? ---Well, you know , English is my______. So it is my best choice. A. strength B. talent C. ability D. skill 8. At present the international situation is very______, which is beyond our comprehension. A. perfect B. delicate C. slim D. slight 9. Alexander tried to get his work _______in the medical circles. A. to recognize B. recognizing C. recognize D. recognized 10. If we have illegal immigrants_______ in many local workers will lose their jobs. A. came B. coming C. to come D. having come 根据提示翻译句子 1.教师对学生应该有耐心(ought to) __________________________________________________________________________________ 2.她每天都跑步是为了减肥(lose weight) __________________________________________________________________________________ 3.那些撒谎的人绝对不会逃得过惩罚(get away with) __________________________________________________________________________________ 4.我父母总是教导我不能说谎(tell a lie) __________________________________________________________________________________ 5.我如何才能赢回她的信任(win··· back) __________________________________________________________________________________ 根据首字母提示或汉语提示用本单元所学的单词填空 1. Look at your waist line! It’s time you went on a d_______ 2. Some green vegetables will do you good if they are eaten r______ 3. In that store, you can get a 20percent ______(折扣)in cash. 4.You should know your______(优势)if you want to succeed. 5.For a______(苗条的)figure, share your food with hungry people. 6. When you buy goods from a particular shop or company, you are one of its c______. 7. We must work together to ensure a strong, stable and ______(平衡的)growth in the future. 8. Children show c______ about everything. They are eager to know more. 9.His______(虚弱)was simply caused by loss of blood. 10. A visit to Beijing is not complete without a taste of Beijing R______ Duck. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1. —Did you manage to get in touch with David? —No, I didn’t. I ______ him up, but there was no answer. A. ring B. rang C. will ring D. would ring 2. Visitors can see the large diamond, ______ has been kept at the Tower since the 17th century. A. which B. that C. what D. who 3. Sparing no thought for her own safety, she dived into the river ______ the child. A. saving B. being saved C. to save D. to be saved 4. I’m continually losing my pens these days. I ______ them on my desk, but they disappear somehow. A. leave B. am leaving C. was leaving D. would leave 5. ______ you know him well, you will find him easy to be around and thoughtful. A. However B. Though C. Once D. Before 6. Hotel owners ______ to find new ways of attracting tourists since the sudden drop in tourism last year. A. force B. have forced C. are forced D. have been forced 7. —What about going by coach? It’s cheap and comfortable. —If we went that way, it would mean ______ more time than going by train. A. to spend B. spending C. spent D. being spent 8. Mother often tells us never to put off ______ we can do today till tomorrow. A. where B. when C. what D. which 9. Today’s approach to advertising is very different from ______ of 20 years ago. A. that B. it C. some D. any 10. This video camera can prevent the picture from jumping as the photographer ______. A. moved B. is moving C. will move D. has moved 11. Janet has worked in the manager’s office for five years, ______ with letters and documents. A. deal B. dealt C. dealing D. to have dealt 12. ______ he worked out the problem in such a short time puzzled all of us. . A. What B. Where C. When D. How 13. Judging from his worried face, we knew that he ______ have had some trouble. A. would B. will C. need D. must 14. Steam engines are no longer ______ use in most parts of the world’s transportation now. A. in B. for C. of D. on 15. I might speak French fluently if I ______ the chance to stay in France for some time. A. am being given B. were given C. will be given D. would be given 二、情景作文 假设你是红星中学高一(1)班的学生李华,下面四幅图描述了你周末生活方式变化的经过。请根据图片的先后顺序,为校刊“英语园地”写一篇短文。词数不少于60。 ___________________________________________________________________________ _ Unit2 Healthy eating词汇篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1.应当;应该 ought to 2.体重减轻;减肥 lose weight 3.被放过;不受惩 get away with 4.说谎 tell a lie 5.赢回;重新获得 win ... back 6.谋生 earn one’s living 7.欠债 in debt 8.消减;删节 cut down 9.暗中监视;侦查 spy on 10.不久之后 before long 11.增加体重 put on weight 二、词义辨析 1. glare,stare和glance: glare“怒目而视”,指用力地或有威胁性地看,强调敌意和惊恐。 stare “凝视,盯着看”,指长时间地、目不转睛地看。 glance “一瞥,匆匆一看”,指由于对所看对象已有了解或由于匆忙而扫视。 2.lie和lay 词形 过去式 过去分词 现在分词 词义 lie lay lain lying 躺,位于 lie lied lied lying 说谎 lay laid laid laying 放置;下蛋 3. slim和thin slim“苗条的,细长的”褒义词,称得上slim的人往往给人以美感 thin“瘦的,薄的”,只是客观地描述人或动物的胖与瘦、物的厚与薄 三、要点梳理 1. diet(n.)日常饮食 (vi.)节食 have a balanced diet 有均衡的饮食 go on a diet/be on a diet 节食 diet drinks 低热量饮料 2. balance (vt.)均衡;权衡 (n.)天平;平衡 balanced(adj.)保持平衡的 balance sth. on sth. 使在某物上保持平衡 keep /lose one’s balance 保持/失去平衡 disturb the balance of one’s mind 打破心里平衡 3. “Nothing could be better.” 没有比这更好的了。比较级的否定形式, 表示最高级的含义。 Eg. He has never spent a more worrying day. 这是他最担心的一天了。 4. slim (adj.)苗条的;纤细的 (vi.)减肥;变细 slimmer(n.)减肥者 slimness (n.)减肥 5. curiosity(n.)好奇心 curious(adj.)好奇的 curiously(adv.)好奇地;说来奇怪 be curious about sth.对......感到好奇 be curious to do sth. 极想做…… It is curious that……奇怪的是…… satisfy one’s curiosity about sth.对某物表现出好奇 6. have sb. do sth. “让某人做某事“ (主谓关系,一次性动作)have 可以用let, make代替 have sb./sth. doing“让某人/某物一直做”(一直处于某种状态) have可以用keep代替 have sth. to do “有某事要做” have sth. done “让某事被(别人)做”,即ask sb. else to do sth 7. get away with (做坏事)不受惩罚;被放过 get away (from…)摆脱/脱离(得以)脱身 get away with sth.携带某物逃跑 keep away from…避免接近…/远离…… break away(from…)脱离;挣脱 run away from sth.避开/逃避/回避 8. lie(n.)谎话;谎言(vi.)说谎 lie still一动不动地躺着 lie on one’s back/side/stomach仰卧/侧卧/俯卧 lie in 在于 a white lie 善意的谎言 tell a lie 说谎 9. discount(n.)折扣 get/give/offer a discount得到/给予/提供折扣 at a discount以折扣价,打折扣 a 10%dicount/a discount of 10%打九折 10.srength (n.)力量;长处;强项 strengthen (v.)(使)加强,变强 strong(adj.)强壮的;强大的;坚定的;强烈的 strongly(adv.)强烈地;坚固地;强硬地 the strength to do sth.做某事的力气 build up one’s strength增强体力 with all one’s strength 用尽全身的力气 the strength of public opinion 公众言论的力量 strengths and weakness优点和缺点,强项和弱项 11. consult (v.) 咨询;请教;商量 consult sb. about sth.向某人咨询某事 consult with sb.与某人商议 consult a doctor看医生 consult a dictionary/map 查字典/地图 12. digest (v.)消化 (n.)摘要;概要 digestible(adj.)容易消化的,易理解的 digestive (adj.)消化的(仅用于名词前) digestion(n.)消化;消化能力 the digestive system消化系统 have a good /poor digestion 消化能力强/弱 13. in debt欠债 be heavily in debt负债累累 be out of debt不欠债 pay off all the debts还清所有债务 be in one’s debt欠某人情;感激某人 14.glare(v.)怒目而视;闪耀 (n.)怒视;炫目的光 glare at 怒视 the glare of the sun耀眼的阳光 15. limit (v.) 限制;限定 (n.)界限;限度 limited (adj.)有限的;受限制的 limitless (adj.)无限制的;无限度的 limitation(n.)限制;控制 There is a limit to ······是有限的 know one’s limits知道某人的限度 within limits 在某种程度上;有一定限制 16. benefit (n.)利益;好处 (v.)有益于;有利于 beneficial(adj.)有利的;有益的 benefit from/by 得益于 be of great benefit to 对······大有裨益 for the benefit of sb./for sb.’s benefit 为了······的利益,为帮助······ be beneficial to 对······有益 a beneficial result to us 对我们是有利的结果 17. combine (v.)(使)联合;(使)结合 combination(n.)结合;联合;混合 combine …with…把······与······结合起来 combine to do 结合起来…… combined effect/effort共同作用/努力 in combination with 与······结合;与······联合 18. serve(vt&vi)送上(食物或饮料);端上(饭菜);伺候(某人进餐);接待(顾客) service(n.)服务 serve sb. with sth.用······配······ serve sb. with sth./serve sth. to sb.招待某人······ serve one’s needs 满足某人的需要 serve as 担任(职务) do sb. a service有助于某人 at sb.’s service愿为某人效劳,听候某人的吩咐 be of service有用,能帮忙 19. cut down削减;缩减(数量、数目等);删节;压缩(文章等);砍到(树) cut up切碎,割碎 cut off切断供应,隔绝 cut in插入,插嘴;打断 cut out 删掉;剪下;割掉 cut through开辟通道 20. before long 不久以后 long before 很久以前 long ago 很久以前 It will be long before…要过很久才······ It will be+时间+ before… ······后才会 1.(2014山西忻州一中期末)Jane has lost weight by going on_____ diet and taking______ exercise every day. A. a;an B. /;/ C. a;/ D. /;an 解析:go/be on a diet 节食。take exercise锻炼。根据句意“简已经通过每天节食和锻炼减轻了体重。” 答案:C。 2. (2014江西白鹭洲中学期中)After that, he knew he could _______any emergency by doing what he could to the best of his ability.. A. get away with B. get on with C. get through D. get across 解析:根据句意“从那之后,他知道他能尽最大能力处理任何紧急事件。” get away with 逃避惩罚;get on with 继续干,与······相处;get through 通过,完成;get across通过,使······被理解 答案:C。 3. (2014福建厦门一中期中)At the foot of the mountain_______ with a beautiful river surrounding it. A. a small village lies B. lies a small village C. does a small village lie D. a small village is lying 解析:根据句意“在山脚有一个小村庄,周围环绕着一条美丽的小河。” 考查全部倒装:当表地点的介词短语提前位于句首时,句子应该用全部倒装形式。 答案:B。 4. (2014河南五校联考)We paid ______cash in the hope that we could get a 15%_______ A. by; count B. with; account C. in; discount D. in; charge 解析:根据句意“我们用现金支付,希望能得到八五折的优惠。”考查介词和名词。 in cash用现金;by check 用支票 account账户;charge费用,收费;count总数;discount打折,折扣 答案:C。 5. I won’t have it_______ that I treated him unfairly. A. say B. said C. saying D. to say 解析:根据句意“我不允许有人说我待他不公平。”考查”have sth. done” 结构。It为形式主语,后指后面的that从句。因it与say之间为被动关系 答案:B。 基础演练 1. (2014福建龙岩模拟)High school students are supposed to be _______about public services, which will benefit them in the long run. A. curious B. anxious C. particular D. enthusiastic 2. People have always been_______ about exactly how life on earth began. A. curious B. anxious C. particular D. enthusiastic 3. According to the doctor, you can still eat breakfast when you are ________ A. slimmer B. slimness C. slim D. slimming 4. I had hoped to take a holiday this year but I wasn’t able to ______ A. get away B. drop in C. check out D. hold on 5. Claire had her luggage _______an hour before her plane left. A. check B. checking C. to check D. checked Keys: 1---5 DADAD 巩固提高 1. Take care during the holidays! Drinking too much can______ heart disease and cause high blood pressure. A. result from B. lie in C. stick to D. contribute to 2. With the world changing fast, we have something new______ with every day. A. deal B. dealt C. to deal D. dealing 3. ---Did you have a good night’s sleep, sir? ---Oh, exactly! It was such a comfortable bed. I could never have ______sleep. A. a good B. the best C. a better D. a best 4. The child should be punished. You shouldn’t let him______ telling lies A. keep away from B. keep away with C. get away from D. get away with 5. To make members of a team perform better, the coach first of all has to know their______ and weakness A. strengths B. benefits C. techniques D. values 6. When Alice came to, she did not know how long she______ there. A. had been lying B. has been lying C. was lying D. has lain 7. ---Why do you choose to work at an international travel agency? ---Well, you know, English is my______. So it is my best choice. A. strength B. talent C. ability D. skill 8. At present the international situation is very______, which is beyond our comprehension. A. perfect B. delicate C. slim D. slight 9. Alexander tried to get his work _______in the medical circles. A. to recognize B. recognizing C. recognize D. recognized 10. If we have illegal immigrants_______ in many local workers will lose their jobs. A. came B. coming C. to come D. having come Keys: 1---5 DCCDA 6---10AABD 根据提示翻译句子 1.教师对学生应该有耐心(ought to) __________________________________________________________________________________ 2.她每天都跑步是为了减肥(lose weight) __________________________________________________________________________________ 3.那些撒谎的人绝对不会逃得过惩罚(get away with) __________________________________________________________________________________ 4.我父母总是教导我不能说谎(tell a lie) __________________________________________________________________________________ 5.我如何才能赢回她的信任(win··· back) __________________________________________________________________________________ 根据首字母提示或汉语提示用本单元所学的单词填空 1. Look at your waist line! It’s time you went on a d_______ 2. Some green vegetables will do you good if they are eaten r______ 3. In that store, you can get a 20percent ______(折扣)in cash. 4.You should know your______(优势)if you want to succeed. 5.For a______(苗条的)figure, share your food with hungry people. 6. When you buy goods from a particular shop or company, you are one of its c______. 7. We must work together to ensure a strong, stable and ______(平衡的)growth in the future. 8. Children show c______ about everything. They are eager to know more. 9.His______(虚弱)was simply caused by loss of blood. 10. A visit to Beijing is not complete without a taste of Beijing R______ Duck. Keys: 一、1. Teachers ought to patient with students. 2. She runs every day in order to lose weight. 3. Those who lie will never get away with it. 4. My parents always teach me not to tell a lie. 5. How can I win her trust back? 二、1---5 diet/raw/discount/strengths/slim 6---10 customers/balanced/curiosity/weakness/Roast _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、单项选择 1. —Did you manage to get in touch with David? —No, I didn’t. I ______ him up, but there was no answer. A. ring B. rang C. will ring D. would ring 2. Visitors can see the large diamond, ______ has been kept at the Tower since the 17th century. A. which B. that C. what D. who 3. Sparing no thought for her own safety, she dived into the river ______ the child. A. saving B. being saved C. to save D. to be saved 4. I’m continually losing my pens these days. I ______ them on my desk, but they disappear somehow. A. leave B. am leaving C. was leaving D. would leave 5. ______ you know him well, you will find him easy to be around and thoughtful. A. However B. Though C. Once D. Before 6. Hotel owners ______ to find new ways of attracting tourists since the sudden drop in tourism last year. A. force B. have forced C. are forced D. have been forced 7. —What about going by coach? It’s cheap and comfortable. —If we went that way, it would mean ______ more time than going by train. A. to spend B. spending C. spent D. being spent 8. Mother often tells us never to put off ______ we can do today till tomorrow. A. where B. when C. what D. which 9. Today’s approach to advertising is very different from ______ of 20 years ago. A. that B. it C. some D. any 10. This video camera can prevent the picture from jumping as the photographer ______. A. moved B. is moving C. will move D. has moved 11. Janet has worked in the manager’s office for five years, ______ with letters and documents. A. deal B. dealt C. dealing D. to have dealt 12. ______ he worked out the problem in such a short time puzzled all of us. . A. What B. Where C. When D. How 13. Judging from his worried face, we knew that he ______ have had some trouble. A. would B. will C. need D. must 14. Steam engines are no longer ______ use in most parts of the world’s transportation now. A. in B. for C. of D. on 15. I might speak French fluently if I ______ the chance to stay in France for some time. A. am being given B. were given C. will be given D. would be given 二、情景作文 假设你是红星中学高一(1)班的学生李华,下面四幅图描述了你周末生活方式变化的经过。请根据图片的先后顺序,为校刊“英语园地”写一篇短文。词数不少于60。 ___________________________________________________________________________ _ Keys: 一、单项选择1---5 BACAC 6---10 DBCAB 11---15 CDD AB 二、情景作文 One possible version I used to play computer games almost every weekend. Computer games were so appealing to me that I was totally addicted to it. After some time, my eyesight became weak. Meanwhile, I gained a lot of weight. With the situation getting worse, I had to go to see a doctor. The doctor gave me a physical examination and I had my eyes examined as well. The doctor advised me to do some exercise in the open air as much as possible. To improve my health, I accepted his advice and began to ride bicycle every weekend. And now I’m feeling much better. Unit2 Healthy eating语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法----情态动词表示推测的用法。 一、情态动词表推测: 1. 大多数情态动词(除表‘能力、许可、意志’外),都可以表示推测,其程度有差异。 按可能性程度的高低排列为:must ﹥will ﹥would ﹥ought to ﹥ should 完全肯定 完全可能 很可能 ﹥ can ﹥ could﹥ may ﹥ might 可能 有可能 2. 区分情态动词的否定含义:may not或许不、可能不 might not可能不 can’t 不可能 mustn't不许、禁止 shouldn’t不应该 needn’t 不必 3. 情态动词表推测具体运用:情态动词可以对现在、进行、过去推测。 S主+情态动词 + be + adj 对“性质”“特征”的推测 S主+情态动词 + be + n 对“职业”“事物”的推测 S主+情态动词 + 动词原形 对经常性行为的推测:I guess he might come tomorrow. S主+情态动词 + be + V-ing 对进行着的行为的推测:He may be waiting at the station. S主+情态动词 + have + PP 对过去的行为的推测 情态动词表推测时: 1.can只能用于否定句和疑问句 2.must只能用于肯定句(它的否定句和疑问句其实就用can来代替了) 3.如句中有情态动词 + 完成时,定是对过去的推测。 4.句中如有表示不肯定的话语:I am not sure; I don’t know 之类,常选may /might的各种形式。 5. “could +have done”除了表示对过去的行为进行推测外,还可表示曾有能力做某事,但并没有做,或者表示某事可能发生但并没有发生,含有轻微的责备或批评的意义,常译作“本来可以”、“本来能”等。这一用法一般只用于肯定句中。 Eg. I could have passed the exam, but I didn’t study hard.我本来能够通过考试,但却没努力学习 4. 表示反劝的特殊的表推测形式 1). could + have + P.P. 表示本来能做到,但事实上没有做到。 He could have finished the task on time, but the heavy snow came. . couldn’t +have + P.P. 表示本来不能做到,但已经做到了。 She could not have covered the whole distance, but in fact she arrived ahead of time. needn’t + have + P.P. 表示本不必做的,但已经做到了。 She needn’t have attended the meeting yesterday, but she did. ) should/ought to +have + P.P. 表示该做而没有做 The plant is dead. I should/ought to have given ot more water. shouldn’t/ oughtn’t to +have + P.P. 表示不该做而做了。 You oughtn’t to / shouldn’t have taken her bike without permission. 5. 注意: must只能用于肯定句(它的否定句和疑问句其实就用can来代替了) must + have + P.P. 表示对过去肯定的推测,“一定是,准是” The road is wet. It must have rained yesterday. can + have + P.P. 表示对过去的推测(限于问句中) Can she have said so? 他可能这样说吗? can’t + have + P.P. 表示对过去的否定推测 He cannot have said such a foolish thing. 二、情态动词表推测的反意疑问句 情态动词表推测的反意疑问句,简单来说,就是以情态动词后的时态为淮,如句子里有明确的时间状语,则以其为准。 以 must 为例: Eg.1. You must be hungry now, aren’t you? 2. He must be watching TV , isn’t he ? 3 Tom must have lived her for a long time, hasn’t he ? 4. She must have arrived yesterday, didn’t she? 注:如选择题中(以She must have arrived yesterday, didn’t she?为例)既有didn’t she又有hasn’t she则以didn’t she?为最佳答案。 1. It______ be the vocabulary that caused you the problem in the exercise because you know a lot of words. A. may B. couldn’t C. should D. needn’t 2. (2014全国大纲)Although you ______find bargains in London, it’s not generally a cheap place to shop. A. should B. need C. must D. can 3. (2014陕西)My book, The House of Hades, is missing. Who ________ have taken it? A. need B. must C. should D. could 4.(2013浙江) I______ myself more—it was a perfect day. A. shouldn’t have enjoyed B. needn’t have enjoyed C. wouldn’t have enjoyed D. couldn’t have enjoyed 5. If I______ it with my own eyes, I wouldn't have believed it. A. didn't see B. weren't seeing C. wouldn't see D. hadn't seen 基础演练 1. --- What does the sign over there read? ---“No person _______ smoke or carry a lighted cigarette, cigar or pipe in this area.” A. will B. may C. shall D. must 2. ---I’m sorry. I______ at you the other day. --- Forget it. I was a bit out of control myself. A. shouldn’t shout B. shouldn’t have shouted C. mustn’t shout D. mustn’t have shouted 3. My MP4 player isn’t in my bag. Where _______ I have put it? A. can B. must C. should D. would 4. ---She looks very happy. She______ have passed the exam. --- I guess so. It’s not difficult after all. A. should B. could C. must D. might 5. ---Where is my dictionary? I remember I put it here yesterday. --- You _______ it in the wrong place. A. must put B. should have put C. might put D. might have put 巩固提高 1. ---I'm very sorry. I______ but I had a visitor at the last minute. A. would like have B. would like to C. had planned to D. were going to 2. --- Haven't your returned the books to the school library? --- No, I______, but I forgot. A. should B. must C. should have D. must have 3. Most Chinese people are leading lives they______ just 20 years ago. A. could not be imagining B. could not be imagined C. could not have imagined. D. could not have been imagined 4. When______ if he had any idea what the novel was about, Jack kept silent. He______ have read it very carefully. A. asking; needn't B. asking; shouldn't C. asked; can't D. asked; mustn't 5. Apple will need to replace the vital spark that he has brought to its affairs. And history suggests that this ______from another individual, not a management team, ______ talented. A. can only come; however B. should only come; however C. only come; whatever D. must only come; whatever 6. --- Are you coming to Jeff’s party? ---I’m not sure. I _______ go to the concert instead. A. must B. would C. should D. might 7. --- It _______ be Mary in the office. --- I’m sure it _______ be her. I saw her off at the bus station just ten minutes ago. A. must; shouldn’t B. should; can’t C. must; can’t D. can; mustn’t 8. ---Listen! Someone is knocking at the door. I ________ be Father. --- It _______ be him; he is supposed to be back home tomorrow. A. may; may B. must; can’t C. can; can’t D. could; must 9. A left-luggage office is a place where bags _________ be left for a short time, especially at a railway station. A. should B. can C. need D. may 10. ---You really shouldn’t have shouted to them. --- Right. I ______ crazy then. A. must be B. must have been C. would have been D. should have been 改正下列句子中的错误 1. ---May I come in? ---No, you may not. I am having my voice recorded. 2. ---Must I finish the report today? ---No you mustn’t. 3. I would get up very early, but now I don’t. 4. All the villagers could move to the safe place before flood arrived. 5. The computer mustn’t be yours. It belongs to someone else. 6. You mustn’t work tomorrow if you don’t want to. 7. In the old days my parents must work from morning till night. 8. He is honest. He mustn’t have done such a thing. 9. She could get there in time, but she met with a traffic accident. 10. I didn’t need to buy this car. I have already got a new one. 二、单项选择 1. ---My doctor mastered English in less than two years. ---Did she? She ______ have a gift for languages. A. can B. would C. should D. must 2. ---How did you do in the test? ---Not so well. I ______much better but I misread the directions for Part D. A. could do B. could have done C. must have done D. should do 3. ---Sorry, Mum. I got a C in the exam ---You _____have done better, but you didn’t try your best. A. would B. must C. could D. shall 4. ---We are worried about Tom. Why hasn’t he come back? ---Don’t worry. He ______ in a traffic jam. A. might be caught B. may have been caught C. can have been caught D. should have been caught 5. ---Why hasn’t Steve contacted us up to now? ______ anything have happened to him? ---I’m not sure, but I guess something______. A. Must; may B. Could; might C. May; must have D. Can; may have _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、七选五 How to Turn Your Child into a Lifelong Bookworm Literacy is one of the most important skills we will ever develop over our lifetimes. Most small children love books, looking at the pictures and hearing the story, but as they get older they often move away from books. 1 Join the library Libraries have changed a lot in recent years. 2 Take your child regularly and encourage them to take out books on whatever subject interests them. Not just novels Many parents think that reading counts if the child is reading a work of fiction or a novel. 3___ Non-fiction books are particularly attractive to boys. Kids especially love the sorts of books which allow them to make a decision between various paths and choose their own endings. Set an example If your child never sees you reading, they aren’t going to pick up a book either. 4 Having plenty of books around the house makes reading more accessible and the normal thing to do when bored. If you struggle with reading and literacy, do something about it by going back to college or attending a special adult literacy course. Make their own books If your child dislikes reading, think about encouraging them to start writing their own stories and novels. Buy them a special notebook. Allow them to write whatever captures their imagination, and don’t worry too much about messy handwriting or poor spelling. 5 So how do you keep your kids interested in books? As long as a child is reading, it doesn’t matter what they are reading. Libraries will have a great range of books for children. There are newspapers printed especially for children. Reading and writing are often thought of as two separate issues. The idea is to cause an interest in books, reading and fiction, and the rest will develop over time. Next time pick up a newspaper or a book and encourage your child to sit with you and read too. 二、完型填空 My sister and I grew up in a little village in England. Our father was a struggling 1 , but I always knew he was 2 . He never criticized us, but used 3 to bring out our best. He’d say, “If you pour water on flowers, they flourish. If you don’t give them water, they die.” I 4 as a child I said something 5 about somebody, and my father said, “ 6 time you say something unpleasant about somebody else, it’s a reflection of you.” He explained that if I looked for the best 7 people, I would get the best 8 . From then on I’ve always tried to 9 the principle in my life and later in running my company. Dad’s also always been very 10 . At 15, I started a magazine. It was 11 a great deal of my time, and the headmaster of my school gave me a 12 :stay in school or leave to work on my magazine. I decided to leave, and Dad tried to sway me from my decision, 13 any good father would. When he realized I had made up my mind, he said, “Richard, when I was 23, my dad 14 me to go into law. And I’ve 15 regretted it. I wanted to be a biologist, 16 I didn’t pursue my 17 .You know what you want. Go fulfill it.” As 18 turned out, my little publication went on to become Student, a national 19 for young people in the U.K. My wife and I have two children, and I’d like to think we are bringing them up in the same way Dad 20 me. 1. A. biologist B. manager C. lawyer D. gardener 2. A. strict B. honest C. special D. learned 3. A. praise B. courage C. power D. warmth 4. A. think B. imagine C. remember D. guess 5. A. unnecessary B. unkind C. unimportant D. unusual 6. A. another B. some C. any D. other 7. A. on B. in C. at D. about 8. A. in case B. by turns C. by chance D. in return 9. A. revise B. set C. review D. follow 10. A. understanding B. experienced C. serious D. demanding 11. A. taking up B. making up C. picking up D. keeping up 12. A. suggestion B. decision C. notice D. choice 13. A. and B. as C. even if D. as if 14. A. helped B. allowed C. persuaded D. suggested 15. A. always B. never C. seldom D. almost 16. A. rather B. but C. for D. therefore 17. A. promise B. task C. belief D. dream 18. A. this B. he C. it D. that 19. A. newspaper B. magazine C. program D. project 20. A. controlled B. comforted C. reminded D. raised Unit2 Healthy eating语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点语法----情态动词表示推测的用法。 一、情态动词表推测: 1. 大多数情态动词(除表‘能力、许可、意志’外),都可以表示推测,其程度有差异。 按可能性程度的高低排列为:must ﹥will ﹥would ﹥ought to ﹥ should 完全肯定 完全可能 很可能 ﹥ can ﹥ could﹥ may ﹥ might 可能 有可能 2. 区分情态动词的否定含义:may not或许不、可能不 might not可能不 can’t 不可能 mustn't不许、禁止 shouldn’t不应该 needn’t 不必 3. 情态动词表推测具体运用:情态动词可以对现在、进行、过去推测。 S主+情态动词 + be + adj 对“性质”“特征”的推测 S主+情态动词 + be + n 对“职业”“事物”的推测 S主+情态动词 + 动词原形 对经常性行为的推测:I guess he might come tomorrow. S主+情态动词 + be + V-ing 对进行着的行为的推测:He may be waiting at the station. S主+情态动词 + have + PP 对过去的行为的推测 情态动词表推测时: 1.can只能用于否定句和疑问句 2.must只能用于肯定句(它的否定句和疑问句其实就用can来代替了) 3.如句中有情态动词 + 完成时,定是对过去的推测。 4.句中如有表示不肯定的话语:I am not sure; I don’t know 之类,常选may /might的各种形式。 5. “could +have done”除了表示对过去的行为进行推测外,还可表示曾有能力做某事,但并没有做,或者表示某事可能发生但并没有发生,含有轻微的责备或批评的意义,常译作“本来可以”、“本来能”等。这一用法一般只用于肯定句中。 Eg. I could have passed the exam, but I didn’t study hard.我本来能够通过考试,但却没努力学习 4. 表示反劝的特殊的表推测形式 1). could + have + P.P. 表示本来能做到,但事实上没有做到。 He could have finished the task on time, but the heavy snow came. . couldn’t +have + P.P. 表示本来不能做到,但已经做到了。 She could not have covered the whole distance, but in fact she arrived ahead of time. needn’t + have + P.P. 表示本不必做的,但已经做到了。 She needn’t have attended the meeting yesterday, but she did. ) should/ought to +have + P.P. 表示该做而没有做 The plant is dead. I should/ought to have given ot more water. shouldn’t/ oughtn’t to +have + P.P. 表示不该做而做了。 You oughtn’t to / shouldn’t have taken her bike without permission. 5. 注意: must只能用于肯定句(它的否定句和疑问句其实就用can来代替了) must + have + P.P. 表示对过去肯定的推测,“一定是,准是” The road is wet. It must have rained yesterday. can + have + P.P. 表示对过去的推测(限于问句中) Can she have said so? 他可能这样说吗? can’t + have + P.P. 表示对过去的否定推测 He cannot have said such a foolish thing. 二、情态动词表推测的反意疑问句 情态动词表推测的反意疑问句,简单来说,就是以情态动词后的时态为淮,如句子里有明确的时间状语,则以其为准。 以 must 为例: Eg.1. You must be hungry now, aren’t you? 2. He must be watching TV , isn’t he ? 3 Tom must have lived her for a long time, hasn’t he ? 4. She must have arrived yesterday, didn’t she? 注:如选择题中(以She must have arrived yesterday, didn’t she?为例)既有didn’t she又有hasn’t she则以didn’t she?为最佳答案。 1. It______ be the vocabulary that caused you the problem in the exercise because you know a lot of words. A. may B. couldn’t C. should D. needn’t 解析:根据句意“不可能是词汇导致了你习题中的问题,因为你知道了很多词汇。”可以得出此处表示否定的推测。 答案:B。 2. (2014全国大纲)Although you ______find bargains in London, it’s not generally a cheap place to shop. A. should B. need C. must D. can 解析:根据句意“尽管你能在伦敦找到便宜货,但是一般不是购物便宜的地方。”此处can意为“能”的意思。 答案:D。 3. (2014陕西)My book, The House of Hades, is missing. Who ________ have taken it? A. need B. must C. should D. could 解析:根据句意“我的书丢了。可能会是谁拿走了呢?”从语境分析,could在此处表示对过去“可能性”的推测。 答案:D。 4.(2013浙江) I______ myself more—it was a perfect day. A. shouldn’t have enjoyed B. needn’t have enjoyed C. wouldn’t have enjoyed D. couldn’t have enjoyed 解析:根据句意“我从未玩得更开心过——这是完美的一天。”shouldn’t have done表示“本不应该做而事实上已经做了”;needn’t have done表示“本没有必要做而事实上已经做了”;wouldn’t have done用于虚拟语气;couldn’t have done表示“不可能做过”。此处用not和比较级连用表达最高级的含义,意为“从未比这更高兴过”。 答案:D。 5. If I______ it with my own eyes, I wouldn't have believed it. A. didn't see B. weren't seeing C. wouldn't see D. hadn't seen 解析:根据句意“如果不是亲眼所见,我根本不会相信”,本题考查虚拟语气。与过去事实相反。” 答案:D。 基础演练 1. --- What does the sign over there read? ---“No person _______ smoke or carry a lighted cigarette, cigar or pipe in this area.” A. will B. may C. shall D. must 2. ---I’m sorry. I______ at you the other day. --- Forget it. I was a bit out of control myself. A. shouldn’t shout B. shouldn’t have shouted C. mustn’t shout D. mustn’t have shouted 3. My MP4 player isn’t in my bag. Where _______ I have put it? A. can B. must C. should D. would 4. ---She looks very happy. She______ have passed the exam. --- I guess so. It’s not difficult after all. A. should B. could C. must D. might 5. ---Where is my dictionary? I remember I put it here yesterday. --- You _______ it in the wrong place. A. must put B. should have put C. might put D. might have put Keys: 1---5 CBACD 巩固提高 1. ---I'm very sorry. I______ but I had a visitor at the last minute. A. would like have B. would like to C. had planned to D. were going to 2. --- Haven't your returned the books to the school library? --- No, I______, but I forgot. A. should B. must C. should have D. must have 3. Most Chinese people are leading lives they______ just 20 years ago. A. could not be imagining B. could not be imagined C. could not have imagined. D. could not have been imagined 4. When______ if he had any idea what the novel was about, Jack kept silent. He______ have read it very carefully. A. asking; needn't B. asking; shouldn't C. asked; can't D. asked; mustn't 5. Apple will need to replace the vital spark that he has brought to its affairs. And history suggests that this ______from another individual, not a management team, ______ talented. A. can only come; however B. should only come; however C. only come; whatever D. must only come; whatever 6. --- Are you coming to Jeff’s party? ---I’m not sure. I _______ go to the concert instead. A. must B. would C. should D. might 7. --- It _______ be Mary in the office. --- I’m sure it _______ be her. I saw her off at the bus station just ten minutes ago. A. must; shouldn’t B. should; can’t C. must; can’t D. can; mustn’t 8. ---Listen! Someone is knocking at the door. I ________ be Father. --- It _______ be him; he is supposed to be back home tomorrow. A. may; may B. must; can’t C. can; can’t D. could; must 9. A left-luggage office is a place where bags _________ be left for a short time, especially at a railway station. A. should B. can C. need D. may 10. ---You really shouldn’t have shouted to them. --- Right. I ______ crazy then. A. must be B. must have been C. would have been D. should have been Keys: 1---5 CCCCA 6---10DCABB 改正下列句子中的错误 1. ---May I come in? ---No, you may not. I am having my voice recorded. 2. ---Must I finish the report today? ---No you mustn’t. 3. I would get up very early, but now I don’t. 4. All the villagers could move to the safe place before flood arrived. 5. The computer mustn’t be yours. It belongs to someone else. 6. You mustn’t work tomorrow if you don’t want to. 7. In the old days my parents must work from morning till night. 8. He is honest. He mustn’t have done such a thing. 9. She could get there in time, but she met with a traffic accident. 10. I didn’t need to buy this car. I have already got a new one. 二、单项选择 1. ---My doctor mastered English in less than two years. ---Did she? She ______ have a gift for languages. A. can B. would C. should D. must 2. ---How did you do in the test? ---Not so well. I ______much better but I misread the directions for Part D. A. could do B. could have done C. must have done D. should do 3. ---Sorry, Mum. I got a C in the exam ---You _____have done better, but you didn’t try your best. A. would B. must C. could D. shall 4. ---We are worried about Tom. Why hasn’t he come back? ---Don’t worry. He ______ in a traffic jam. A. might be caught B. may have been caught C. can have been caught D. should have been caught 5. ---Why hasn’t Steve contacted us up to now? ______ anything have happened to him? ---I’m not sure ,but I guess something______. A. Must; may B. Could; might C. May; must have D. Can; may have Keys: 一、1. you may not改为you must not/mustn’t 2. you mustn’t改为you needn’t/don’t have to 3. would改为used to 4.could改为were able to 5.mustn’t 改为can’t 6. mustn’t 改为needn’t 7.must改为had to 8. mustn’t 改为can’t 9.could get改为could have got 10. didn’t need to buy改为needn’t have bought 二、单项选择 1---5 DACBD _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、七选五 How to Turn Your Child into a Lifelong Bookworm Literacy is one of the most important skills we will ever develop over our lifetimes. Most small children love books, looking at the pictures and hearing the story, but as they get older they often move away from books. 1 Join the library Libraries have changed a lot in recent years. 2 Take your child regularly and encourage them to take out books on whatever subject interests them. Not just novels Many parents think that reading counts if the child is reading a work of fiction or a novel. 3___ Non-fiction books are particularly attractive to boys. Kids especially love the sorts of books which allow them to make a decision between various paths and choose their own endings. Set an example If your child never sees you reading, they aren’t going to pick up a book either. 4 Having plenty of books around the house makes reading more accessible and the normal thing to do when bored. If you struggle with reading and literacy, do something about it by going back to college or attending a special adult literacy course. Make their own books If your child dislikes reading, think about encouraging them to start writing their own stories and novels. Buy them a special notebook. Allow them to write whatever captures their imagination, and don’t worry too much about messy handwriting or poor spelling. 5 So how do you keep your kids interested in books? As long as a child is reading, it doesn’t matter what they are reading. Libraries will have a great range of books for children. There are newspapers printed especially for children. Reading and writing are often thought of as two separate issues. The idea is to cause an interest in books, reading and fiction, and the rest will develop over time. Next time pick up a newspaper or a book and encourage your child to sit with you and read too. 二、完型填空 My sister and I grew up in a little village in England. Our father was a struggling 1 , but I always knew he was 2 . He never criticized us, but used 3 to bring out our best. He’d say, “If you pour water on flowers, they flourish. If you don’t give them water, they die.” I 4 as a child I said something 5 about somebody, and my father said, “ 6 time you say something unpleasant about somebody else, it’s a reflection of you.” He explained that if I looked for the best 7 people, I would get the best 8 . From then on I’ve always tried to 9 the principle in my life and later in running my company. Dad’s also always been very 10 . At 15, I started a magazine. It was 11 a great deal of my time, and the headmaster of my school gave me a 12 :stay in school or leave to work on my magazine. I decided to leave, and Dad tried to sway me from my decision, 13 any good father would. When he realized I had made up my mind, he said, “Richard, when I was 23, my dad 14 me to go into law. And I’ve 15 regretted it. I wanted to be a biologist, 16 I didn’t pursue my 17 .You know what you want. Go fulfill it.” As 18 turned out, my little publication went on to become Student, a national 19 for young people in the U.K. My wife and I have two children, and I’d like to think we are bringing them up in the same way Dad 20 me. 1. A. biologist B. manager C. lawyer D. gardener 2. A. strict B. honest C. special D. learned 3. A. praise B. courage C. power D. warmth 4. A. think B. imagine C. remember D. guess 5. A. unnecessary B. unkind C. unimportant D. unusual 6. A. another B. some C. any D. other 7. A. on B. in C. at D. about 8. A. in case B. by turns C. by chance D. in return 9. A. revise B. set C. review D. follow 10. A. understanding B. experienced C. serious D. demanding 11. A. taking up B. making up C. picking up D. keeping up 12. A. suggestion B. decision C. notice D. choice 13. A. and B. as C. even if D. as if 14. A. helped B. allowed C. persuaded D. suggested 15. A. always B. never C. seldom D. almost 16. A. rather B. but C. for D. therefore 17. A. promise B. task C. belief D. dream 18. A. this B. he C. it D. that 19. A. newspaper B. magazine C. program D. project 20. A. controlled B. comforted C. reminded D. raised Keys: 一、七选五ACBGF 二、完型填空1---5CCACB 6---10 CBDDA 11---15 ADBCA 16---20 BDCBD

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  • ID:4-6094390 人教版高中英语必修三辅导讲义:Unit1 Festivals around the world词汇篇及语法篇(学生版+教师版)

    高中英语/人教版(新课程标准)/必修3、4/必修3/Unit 1 Festivals around the world

    Festivals around the world __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1.盛装;打扮;装饰 dress up 2.好像 as though/as if 3.使……想起…… remind ... of ... 4.爱上 fall in love(with sb.) 5.扔掉 throw away 6.……是很显然的 It was obvious that 7.导致,通向 lead to/result in(注意区分result from) 8.打算做 mean to do sth. 9.意味着 mean doing sth. 10.在某方面钦佩某人 admire sb. for sth. 11.出现 turn up 12.守信用,履行诺言 keep one’s word 13.屏息,屏气 hold one’s breath 14.出发,动身 set off 15.纪念,缅怀 in memory of 16.发生 take place 17.搞恶作剧 play a trick on 18.期望 look forward to 19.日夜,整天 day and night 20.玩得开心 have fun=have a good time 二、词义辨析 1. award和reward: award作为动词时意为“授予、颁发”后接双宾语,用法较为正式。作为名词时意为“奖 品、奖金”,指因优点或善行而颁发的奖 award sb. a metal 授予某人奖章 reward作动词时意为“报答、酬劳”指因某种行为,可以是善行,也可以是一般的行为, 给予的回报、酬劳或奖金。作名词时意为“报酬、赏金或一些非金钱的回报”,不能接双 宾语; reward sb. for sth. 因…奖赏某人; reward sb. with sth. 用某物酬劳某人 2. look forward to期望;期待;盼望(其中to为介词) 短语扩展 be used to 习惯于 stick to坚持 lead to导致 object to反对 pay attention to注意 devote oneself to…致力于…… get down to…开始认真做…… 3.set off 出发;动身;使爆炸;引起 set aside 把……放在一边;省出,留出 set about (doing ) sth 开始做,着手做 set down 登记;记下,写下 set fire to 点火;放火 set out to do sth 开始做,着手做 set out 出发,开始;摆设;陈述,阐明 set up建立、成立(组织) 4. make an apologize to sb for(doing)sth.=say sorry to sb. for doing sth.因某事向某人道歉 forgive sb. sth.原谅某人所做的某事 forgive sb. for sth.原谅某人做某事 forgive doing sth.原谅做某事 I’m sorry about/for Excuse me =Pardon me= Forgive me请原谅,对不起 5. turn up出现;到场;被发现;被找到;调高(音量等) turn down关小,拒绝 turn off关掉 turn on打开 turn out结果是 turn to sb. for help向某人求助 6. gain (v)获得;得到 (n)好处;收益 gain强调目的物需要努力奋斗才能得到,其宾语多为优势、经验等 earn 指经过艰苦的努力而获得报酬,其宾语一般是金钱或荣誉 get 普通用词,可指主动地“获得”,也可指被动地“接受”,与物质名词和抽象名 词均可搭配,多用于口语。 7. gather 和collect gather系常用词,作作及物动词时指把分散的东西,如花卉、果实、书籍、消息、金钱等 “搜集到一起” collect指有计划、有选择地“搜集”而gather一般表示由少积多地收集 8. custom和habit custom风俗;习惯,主要指某个“国家、社会、社会群体”经过一个较长时间形成的风俗 或习惯。指“关税,进口税”时用复数形式,the customs表示“海关” habit指长期逐渐养成的、一时不易改变的“个人的”习惯,如爱散步的习惯、饮茶的习 惯等 三、要点梳理 1. starve (vt.) &(vi.)使饿死;饿得要死 (n.)starvation starve to death 饿死 be starving感觉很饿,饿极了 die of /from starvation 饿死 2. origin(n.)起源;由来;起因;出身 original (adj.) by origin籍贯,出身 the origin of the human race人类的起源 in the original用原著的语言,未经翻译 3. in memory of 纪念;追念 (v.)memorize 记忆、记住 (adj.& n.)memorial 纪念碑;纪念的 have a good/bad memory记忆力好/差 bring back memories 引起对某事的回忆 4. belief (n.) 信任;信心;信仰 believe in 信任,信赖 beyond belief 难以置信 5. keep one’s word 守信用,遵守诺言 break one’s word 违背诺言 in a word 简言之 in other words 换句话说 have a word with sb.与sb.交谈 have words with sb. (about sth.)关于sth.与sb.争吵 6. trick (n.)诡计;恶作剧;敲门 trick sb. into doing sth.欺骗某人做某事 trick sb. out of sth.从某人处骗走某物 play a trick (on)开玩笑;戏弄 do the trick奏效;达到预期的结果 7. gather (vi. &vt. )聚集;集合;搜集 gather around/round 聚拢过来 gather together 聚在一起 gather for 因…..而集合 8. admire赞美;钦佩;羡慕 (n.)admiration 赞美;钦佩 admirable(adj.)可钦佩的;令人羡慕的 admiring(adj.)羡慕的 admirer (n.)钦佩者;赞赏者 in/with admiration 羡慕地 admire sb. for sth.因……而佩服某人 9. energetic (adj.)充满活力的;精力充沛的;积极的 energy(n)力量,活力;能量;能源 be full of energy精力充沛,充满活力 solar/nuclear energy 太阳能/核能 10.dress up穿上盛装;打扮;装饰 dress sb./oneself in+衣服/颜色 给别人穿/自己穿…… sb.be dressed in 某人穿着…… Eg. He always dresses himself in dark brown.= He is always dressed in dark brown. 11. permission(n.)许可;允许 permit(v.)许可;允许;容许 (n.)通行证、许可证 give sb. permission to do sth.准许某人做某事 without permission 未经许可 12.remind (vt.)提醒;使回忆起 remind sb. to do sth.提醒某人做某事 remind sb. that/what…提醒某人…… remind sb. of…提醒某人……. reminder(n.)引起回忆的事物,提醒某人的事物 例1.(2014吉林长春期中)Before building a house, you have to ask for the government’s_______ A. award B. permission C. request D. excuse 例 2.(2014辽宁辽师大附中期中)In order to go to the palace ball, the pretty girl _______herself _______carefully A. is dressed; up B. is dressed; in C. is dressing; in D. is dressing; up 例3.(2014江苏江阴期中)While in London, we paid a visit to the hospital founded _______ the nurse Florence Nightingale. A. in memory of B. in place of C. in search of D. in charge of 例4. (2014山东青岛期中)When he realized the audience’s attention was beginning to______, he raised his voice. A. wander B. exist C. starve D. celebrate 例5. (2014浙江金华期中) I think you should go back to your _______plan which is much more practical than the present one. A. original B. gentle C. impressive D. protective 基础演练 1. The b comes from your character and personality. 2. A person in your family who lived a long time ago is called 3. E_____________ is celebrated to remember the death of Christ and his return to life. 4. America gained i_______________from Britain in 1776. 5.Courage and _________(宗教的)faith are not enough to win the battle. 6. Mary was_________(授予)a prize for her good performance at the fashion show. 7. No one knows for certain the ____________(起源)of the holiday. 8. Christmas is an important ___________________(节日)of the holiday. 9. Much as I ___________(羡慕)him as a writer, I don’t like him as a man. 10. R________ is an adult male chicken, mainly used in American English. Keys: beauty/ancestor/Easter/independence/religious/awarded/origin/feast/admire/Rooster/ 巩固提高 1.(2014安徽,28)When the sports hero_______ at our party, he was welcomed with open arms A. turned up B. left off C. moved on D. got away 2. (2014福建福州期中) I apologized__ him _______breaking his MP5? A. for; to B. to; to C. for; by D. to; for 3. Look! A child is ______for help in the river. A. weeping B. sobbing C. crying D. sniffing 4.(2014天津)The two countries are going to meet to______ some barriers to trade between them A. make up B. use up C. turn down D. break down 5.(2014湖南十三校联考)To my great joy, I got a chance to take a photo with Andy after the vocal concert, which I _______forward to for years. A. have been looking B. had looking C. looked D. had looked 6. You are old enough to_______ your own living. A. win B. gain C. take D. earn 7. 根据汉语提示完成句子 (1).The library was built ____________________________(为了纪念那位科学家) (2).She likes to___________________________________(盛装打扮去参加聚会). (3). Our children used to________________________ (捉弄我们) (4). He caught a cold and ______________________________(日夜咳嗽) (5). We __________________________________(玩得很高兴)during the summer holidays. 1. Don’t play____ trick on him. He is not in______ mood for fun at that moment. A. a; / B. a; the C. the; a D. /; the 2. ---Could you tell me the _______of making such tasty cakes? ---Well, I just follow the direction in the cookbook. A. feature B. plan C. cost D. trick 3. You’d better write down the phone number of that restaurant for future______ A. purpose B. reference C. progress D. memory 4.______ around the fire, the tourists danced with the local people. A. Gather B. To gather C. Gathering D. To be gathering 5. We are looking forward to _______a chance to watch the opening ceremony of the 2016 Rio Olympics Games. A. give B. be given C. being given D. giving 6. I’ve _______the habit of calling on my grandparents on my way home from school. A. come into B. gone into C. got into D. run into 7. My grandfather is as _______as a young man and hate sitting around doing nothing all day. A. desperate B. energetic C. religious D. sensitive 8. You have nothing to______ by refusing to listen to our advice. A. gain B. grasp C. seize D. earn 9. It’s illegal to read others’ private letters without _________. A. permission B. evidence C. intention D. promise 10. The villagers collected money to set up a monument_______ those who died in the earthquake. A. in charge of B. in place of C. in need of D. in memory of 11. ---Are you hungry? ---Yes. I________ A. had starved B. starved to death C. am starving D. starve to death 12. Ralph W. Emerson would always ________new ideas that occurred to him. A. set off B. set about C. set up D. set down 13. Tom put up a picture of Yao Ming beside the bed to keep himself _______of his own dream. A. reminding B. to remind C. reminded D. remind 14. Though Tom was impolite to the new teacher, she ______him his rudeness. A. excused B. apologized C. forgave D. punished 15. Mary, I______ John of his promise to help you A. told B. reminded C. warned D. advised _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、阅读理解 The influence of America is increasing in my country. Spanish people drink Coca Cola, wear blue jeans, watch Hollywood movies, listen to American music, and eat fast food, and they do these things every day. I think that American movies are a good way to spread American culture because people are often influenced by what they see in the movies. Most of the programs and documentaries (纪录片) we watch on TV are from America, and most of the movies we go to see are made in Hollywood. In the last few years, the government has tried to protect the Spanish movies. Now, in our cinemas, at least twenty percent of the movies which are shown must be from Spain or from other countries in Europe. American culture is a part of Spanish life now. It’s certain that many things from America are as much a part of people’s lives as Spanish things. For example, Coca Cola is as familiar to everybody as any typical Spanish product. I’ve known about Coca Cola for my whole life. However, it’s different with Western fast food. For example, I don’t think McDonald’s is as successful in Spain as it is in other countries. In my opinion, one of the reasons may be the lifestyle of the Spanish people. The Spanish people normally eat at home. On the other hand, maybe McDonald’s hamburgers will eventually replace the famous Spanish tapas. It’s true that in every city in Spain you can find a McDonald’s, and it is more popular among the Spanish children than among the adults. In any case, it’s obvious that American culture is becoming more and more a part of our lives every day. 1. From the first paragraph we can know that ____. A. the influence of America on Spain can be found everywhere B. most Spanish people don’t like to listen to their own music C. fast food spreads from Spain to the United States D. some Spanish actors go to America to improve their acting skills 2. What plays an important part in the spreading of American culture in Spain? A. American novels. B. Hollywood movies. C. McDonald’s. D. American music. 3. Why did the government set some rules for the films shown in Spain? A. To protect foreign culture in Spain. B. To earn more money from Spanish films. C. To limit the number of foreign movies. D. To unite the European Community. 4. Why does the author think that McDonald’s is not as successful as it is in other countries? A. Its fast food contains too much fat. B. He thinks it is unhealthy. C. Spanish people seldom eat out. D. Spanish adults don’t like its fast food. 5. What do you think Spanish tapas might be? A. The name of a drink. B. The name of a restaurant. C. A clothing brand. D. A certain kind of food. 二、短文改错(共有10处错误) The first place I suggest you would visit is the Great Wall, which is said to be one of the wonder in the world. It has history of more than twenty centuries. It is amazed to see such a huge wall that was made entire by hand. Another place worth visiting is the Palace Museum it was built in 1406. Twenty-four different emperors had once lived there. You can learn a lot about Chinese history by visiting this palace. What a pity when you can’t stay longer, or you could visit many other place such as the Summer Palace or Beihai Park. Festivals around the world __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 要求学生掌握本单元的重点单词、重点短语、重要词汇辨析并能熟练应用。 一、重点短语 1.盛装;打扮;装饰 dress up 2.好像 as though/as if 3.使……想起…… remind ... of ... 4.爱上 fall in love(with sb.) 5.扔掉 throw away 6.……是很显然的 It was obvious that 7.导致,通向 lead to/result in(注意区分result from) 8.打算做 mean to do sth. 9.意味着 mean doing sth. 10.在某方面钦佩某人 admire sb. for sth. 11.出现 turn up 12.守信用,履行诺言 keep one’s word 13.屏息,屏气 hold one’s breath 14.出发,动身 set off 15.纪念,缅怀 in memory of 16.发生 take place 17.搞恶作剧 play a trick on 18.期望 look forward to 19.日夜,整天 day and night 20.玩得开心 have fun=have a good time 二、词义辨析 1. award和reward: award作为动词时意为“授予、颁发”后接双宾语,用法较为正式。作为名词时意为“奖 品、奖金”,指因优点或善行而颁发的奖 award sb. a metal 授予某人奖章 reward作动词时意为“报答、酬劳”指因某种行为,可以是善行,也可以是一般的行为, 给予的回报、酬劳或奖金。作名词时意为“报酬、赏金或一些非金钱的回报”,不能接双 宾语; reward sb. for sth. 因…奖赏某人; reward sb. with sth. 用某物酬劳某人 2. look forward to期望;期待;盼望(其中to为介词) 短语扩展 be used to 习惯于 stick to坚持 lead to导致 object to反对 pay attention to注意 devote oneself to…致力于…… get down to…开始认真做…… 3.set off 出发;动身;使爆炸;引起 set aside 把……放在一边;省出,留出 set about (doing ) sth 开始做,着手做 set down 登记;记下,写下 set fire to 点火;放火 set out to do sth 开始做,着手做 set out 出发,开始;摆设;陈述,阐明 set up建立、成立(组织) 4. make an apologize to sb for(doing)sth.=say sorry to sb. for doing sth.因某事向某人道歉 forgive sb. sth.原谅某人所做的某事 forgive sb. for sth.原谅某人做某事 forgive doing sth.原谅做某事 I’m sorry about/for Excuse me =Pardon me= Forgive me请原谅,对不起 5. turn up出现;到场;被发现;被找到;调高(音量等) turn down关小,拒绝 turn off关掉 turn on打开 turn out结果是 turn to sb. for help向某人求助 6. gain (v)获得;得到 (n)好处;收益 gain强调目的物需要努力奋斗才能得到,其宾语多为优势、经验等 earn 指经过艰苦的努力而获得报酬,其宾语一般是金钱或荣誉 get 普通用词,可指主动地“获得”,也可指被动地“接受”,与物质名词和抽象名 词均可搭配,多用于口语。 7. gather 和collect gather系常用词,作作及物动词时指把分散的东西,如花卉、果实、书籍、消息、金钱等 “搜集到一起” collect指有计划、有选择地“搜集”而gather一般表示由少积多地收集 8. custom和habit custom风俗;习惯,主要指某个“国家、社会、社会群体”经过一个较长时间形成的风俗 或习惯。指“关税,进口税”时用复数形式,the customs表示“海关” habit指长期逐渐养成的、一时不易改变的“个人的”习惯,如爱散步的习惯、饮茶的习 惯等 三、要点梳理 1. starve (vt.) &(vi.)使饿死;饿得要死 (n.)starvation starve to death 饿死 be starving感觉很饿,饿极了 die of /from starvation 饿死 2. origin(n.)起源;由来;起因;出身 original (adj.) by origin籍贯,出身 the origin of the human race人类的起源 in the original用原著的语言,未经翻译 3. in memory of 纪念;追念 (v.)memorize 记忆、记住 (adj.& n.)memorial 纪念碑;纪念的 have a good/bad memory记忆力好/差 bring back memories 引起对某事的回忆 4. belief (n.) 信任;信心;信仰 believe in 信任,信赖 beyond belief 难以置信 5. keep one’s word 守信用,遵守诺言 break one’s word 违背诺言 in a word 简言之 in other words 换句话说 have a word with sb.与sb.交谈 have words with sb. (about sth.)关于sth.与sb.争吵 6. trick (n.)诡计;恶作剧;敲门 trick sb. into doing sth.欺骗某人做某事 trick sb. out of sth.从某人处骗走某物 play a trick (on)开玩笑;戏弄 do the trick奏效;达到预期的结果 7. gather (vi. &vt. )聚集;集合;搜集 gather around/round 聚拢过来 gather together 聚在一起 gather for 因…..而集合 8. admire赞美;钦佩;羡慕 (n.)admiration 赞美;钦佩 admirable(adj.)可钦佩的;令人羡慕的 admiring(adj.)羡慕的 admirer (n.)钦佩者;赞赏者 in/with admiration 羡慕地 admire sb. for sth.因……而佩服某人 9. energetic (adj.)充满活力的;精力充沛的;积极的 energy(n)力量,活力;能量;能源 be full of energy精力充沛,充满活力 solar/nuclear energy 太阳能/核能 10.dress up穿上盛装;打扮;装饰 dress sb./oneself in+衣服/颜色 给别人穿/自己穿…… sb.be dressed in 某人穿着…… Eg. He always dresses himself in dark brown.= He is always dressed in dark brown. 11. permission(n.)许可;允许 permit(v.)许可;允许;容许 (n.)通行证、许可证 give sb. permission to do sth.准许某人做某事 without permission 未经许可 12.remind (vt.)提醒;使回忆起 remind sb. to do sth.提醒某人做某事 remind sb. that/what…提醒某人…… remind sb. of…提醒某人……. reminder(n.)引起回忆的事物,提醒某人的事物 例1.(2014吉林长春期中)Before building a house, you have to ask for the government’s_______ A. award B. permission C. request D. excuse 解析:根据句意“在建房之前你必须得到政府的许可”可知此题考查 “ask for one’s permission” 答案:B。 例 2.(2014辽宁辽师大附中期中)In order to go to the palace ball, the pretty girl _______herself _______carefully A. is dressed; up B. is dressed; in C. is dressing; in D. is dressing; up 解析:根据句意“为了去宫廷舞会,那位漂亮的女孩正仔细地乔装打扮。”第一空后面已有宾语,所以排除A、B, dress sb. up打扮 答案:D。 例3.(2014江苏江阴期中)While in London, we paid a visit to the hospital founded _______ the nurse Florence Nightingale. A. in memory of B. in place of C. in search of D. in charge of 解析:根据句意“当我们在伦敦的时候,我们参观了一所为了纪念佛罗伦斯·南丁格尔护士而建立的医院”为了去宫廷舞会,那位漂亮的女孩正仔细地乔装打扮。”A.纪念;追念; B.代替;C.寻找;搜寻 D.负责; 答案:A。 例4. (2014山东青岛期中)When he realized the audience’s attention was beginning to______, he raised his voice. A. wander B. exist C. starve D. celebrate 解析:根据句意“当他意识到听众的注意力开始分散时,他提高了嗓音。” “wander”此处引申为(人的思想等)走神,胡思乱想。 答案:B。 例5. (2014浙江金华期中) I think you should go back to your _______plan which is much more practical than the present one. A. original B. gentle C. impressive D. protective 解析:根据句意“我认为你应该返回最初的计划,那比现在的计划实用得多了”尤其是句中的go back to 可知选择A.原始的;最初的;B.温柔的;C.令人赞叹的;D.保护的 答案:A。 基础演练 1. The b comes from your character and personality. 2. A person in your family who lived a long time ago is called 3. E_____________ is celebrated to remember the death of Christ and his return to life. 4. America gained i_______________from Britain in 1776. 5.Courage and _________(宗教的)faith are not enough to win the battle. 6. Mary was_________(授予)a prize for her good performance at the fashion show. 7. No one knows for certain the ____________(起源)of the holiday. 8. Christmas is an important ___________________(节日)of the holiday. 9. Much as I ___________(羡慕)him as a writer, I don’t like him as a man. 10. R________ is an adult male chicken, mainly used in American English. Keys: beauty/ancestor/Easter/independence/religious/awarded/origin/feast/admire/Rooster/ 巩固提高 1.(2014安徽,28)When the sports hero_______ at our party, he was welcomed with open arms A. turned up B. left off C. moved on D. got away 2. (2014福建福州期中) I apologized__ him _______breaking his MP5? A. for; to B. to; to C. for; by D. to; for 3. Look! A child is ______for help in the river. A. weeping B. sobbing C. crying D. sniffing 4.(2014天津)The two countries are going to meet to______ some barriers to trade between them A. make up B. use up C. turn down D. break down 5.(2014湖南十三校联考)To my great joy, I got a chance to take a photo with Andy after the vocal concert, which I _______forward to for years. A. have been looking B. had looking C. looked D. had looked 6. You are old enough to_______ your own living. A. win B. gain C. take D. earn 7. 根据汉语提示完成句子 (1).The library was built ____________________________(为了纪念那位科学家) (2).She likes to___________________________________(盛装打扮去参加聚会). (3). Our children used to________________________ (捉弄我们) (4). He caught a cold and ______________________________(日夜咳嗽) (5). We __________________________________(玩得很高兴)during the summer holidays. Keys: 1-6: ADCDDD 7. (1) in memory of that scientist (2) dress up for parties (3) play a trick on us/play tricks on us (4) coughed day and night (5) had a lot of fun 1. Don’t play____ trick on him. He is not in______ mood for fun at that moment. A. a; / B. a; the C. the; a D. /; the 2. ---Could you tell me the _______of making such tasty cakes? ---Well, I just follow the direction in the cookbook. A. feature B. plan C. cost D. trick 3. You’d better write down the phone number of that restaurant for future______ A. purpose B. reference C. progress D. memory 4.______ around the fire, the tourists danced with the local people. A. Gather B. To gather C. Gathering D. To be gathering 5. We are looking forward to _______a chance to watch the opening ceremony of the 2016 Rio Olympics Games. A. give B. be given C. being given D. giving 6. I’ve _______the habit of calling on my grandparents on my way home from school. A. come into B. gone into C. got into D. run into 7. My grandfather is as _______as a young man and hate sitting around doing nothing all day. A. desperate B. energetic C. religious D. sensitive 8. You have nothing to______ by refusing to listen to our advice. A. gain B. grasp C. seize D. earn 9. It’s illegal to read others’ private letters without _________. A. permission B. evidence C. intention D. promise 10. The villagers collected money to set up a monument_______ those who died in the earthquake. A. in charge of B. in place of C. in need of D. in memory of 11. ---Are you hungry? ---Yes. I________ A. had starved B. starved to death C. am starving D. starve to death 12. Ralph W. Emerson would always ________new ideas that occurred to him. A. set off B. set about C. set up D. set down 13. Tom put up a picture of Yao Ming beside the bed to keep himself _______of his own dream. A. reminding B. to remind C. reminded D. remind 14. Though Tom was impolite to the new teacher, she ______him his rudeness. A. excused B. apologized C. forgave D. punished 15. Mary, I______ John of his promise to help you A. told B. reminded C. warned D. advised Keys: 1-5 BDDCC 6-10 CBCAD 11-15 CDCBB _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 一、阅读理解 The influence of America is increasing in my country. Spanish people drink Coca Cola, wear blue jeans, watch Hollywood movies, listen to American music, and eat fast food, and they do these things every day. I think that American movies are a good way to spread American culture because people are often influenced by what they see in the movies. Most of the programs and documentaries (纪录片) we watch on TV are from America, and most of the movies we go to see are made in Hollywood. In the last few years, the government has tried to protect the Spanish movies. Now, in our cinemas, at least twenty percent of the movies which are shown must be from Spain or from other countries in Europe. American culture is a part of Spanish life now. It’s certain that many things from America are as much a part of people’s lives as Spanish things. For example, Coca Cola is as familiar to everybody as any typical Spanish product. I’ve known about Coca Cola for my whole life. However, it’s different with Western fast food. For example, I don’t think McDonald’s is as successful in Spain as it is in other countries. In my opinion, one of the reasons may be the lifestyle of the Spanish people. The Spanish people normally eat at home. On the other hand, maybe McDonald’s hamburgers will eventually replace the famous Spanish tapas. It’s true that in every city in Spain you can find a McDonald’s, and it is more popular among the Spanish children than among the adults. In any case, it’s obvious that American culture is becoming more and more a part of our lives every day. 1. From the first paragraph we can know that ____. A. the influence of America on Spain can be found everywhere B. most Spanish people don’t like to listen to their own music C. fast food spreads from Spain to the United States D. some Spanish actors go to America to improve their acting skills 2. What plays an important part in the spreading of American culture in Spain? A. American novels. B. Hollywood movies. C. McDonald’s. D. American music. 3. Why did the government set some rules for the films shown in Spain? A. To protect foreign culture in Spain. B. To earn more money from Spanish films. C. To limit the number of foreign movies. D. To unite the European Community. 4. Why does the author think that McDonald’s is not as successful as it is in other countries? A. Its fast food contains too much fat. B. He thinks it is unhealthy. C. Spanish people seldom eat out. D. Spanish adults don’t like its fast food. 5. What do you think Spanish tapas might be? A. The name of a drink. B. The name of a restaurant. C. A clothing brand. D. A certain kind of food. 二、短文改错(共有10处错误) The first place I suggest you would visit is the Great Wall, which is said to be one of the wonder in the world. It has history of more than twenty centuries. It is amazed to see such a huge wall that was made entire by hand. Another place worth visiting is the Palace Museum it was built in 1406. Twenty-four different emperors had once lived there. You can learn a lot about Chinese history by visiting this palace. What a pity when you can’t stay longer, or you could visit many other place such as the Summer Palace or Beihai Park. Keys: 一、1-5: ABCCD 二、短文改错 1. would→should 2. wonder→wonders 3. history前加a 4. amazed→amazing 5. entire→entirely 6. it→that / which 7. 去掉had 8. when→that 9. place→places 10. or→and Unit1 Festivals around the world语法篇 __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 掌握本单元重点语法----情态动词,并能熟练应用情态动词相关语法解决相应的语法练习 重点语法:情态动词 情态动词是一种本身有一定的词义,表示说话人的情绪、态度或语气的动词,但不能单独作谓语,只能和其他动词原形构成谓语。本单元学习情态动词的用法。 may 与might的用法 情态 动词 用法 例句 may 与 might 表示允许、许可。否定答语一般要用mustn’t,表示“禁止、阻止”之意。 --- May I watch TV after supper? --- Yes, you may. / No, you mustn’t. 在表示请求、允许时, might比 may的语气更委婉一些。在日常口语中,用can征询对方意见更为常见。 ---Might I use your telephone? --- Yes, please. --- May / Can I go home now? --- Yes, you may / can. 表示可能性的推测,含有“或许”“大概”“可能”之意,用might代替may时,则语气显得更加不肯定。 What he said may be true. She may come tomorrow. He might have some fever. 2. can与could的用法 情态 动词 用法 例句 can 与 could 表示能力 Some of us can use the computer now, but we couldn’t last year. 表示客观的可能性 It will be sunny in the daytime, but it could rain later on this evening. 表示请求和允许 --- Can I go now? --- Yes, you can. 表示请求,口语中常用could代替can,使语气更加婉转 Could you wait a few day for the money? Could you please show me the way to the station? 表示惊异、怀疑、不相信的态度(主要用于否定句、疑问句和惊叹句中) Can this news be true? It can’t be the headmaster. He’s gone to Beijing. How can you be so foolish! 3. will与would的用法 情态 动词 用法 例句 will 与 would 用于表示意志或意愿。Will指现在,would指过去 I will never do that again. They said that they would help us. 表示请求、建议等,用would比用 will委婉、客气些 Will you please take a message for me? Would you please pass him the book? 表示习惯性动作,译为“总是”“惯于”。Will指现在,would指过去 Fish will die without water. Every evening, she would sit by the window, deep in thought. 表示预料或猜想 It would be about ten when he left home. I thought he would have told you about that. 用于否定句中,表示“不肯”“不乐意” No matter what I said, he wouldn’t listen to me. 4.shall与should的用法 情态 动词 用法 例句 shall 用于第一、第三人称疑问句中,表示说话人征求对方的意见 What shall we do next? Shall I do the washing-up? When shall my brother be able to leave hospital? 用于第二、第三人称的陈述句中,表示说话人给对方的命令、警告、允诺或威胁 You shall go with me. ( 命令) You shall have a new dress for your birthday.(允诺) He shall be punished.(威胁) should 表示劝告或建议,作“应该”讲 We should be strict with ourselves. You should keep your promise. 表示推测,作“可能”、“该”讲 The roads should be less crowded today. I should have finished reading it by Friday. Why / how + should结构表示说话人对谋事不能理解、感到惊异等意思,译为“竟会” Why should you be so late today? (你今天怎么来的这么晚?) I don’t know why you should think that I did it. (我真不明白你凭什么认为这件事是我干的。) 5. must, may (might) 和can表示“推测”的用法 情态 动词 用法 例句 must 只能用于肯定句,表示可能性很大的一种推测,作“肯定”“一定”讲 (1)--- Look, someone is coming. Who can it be? --- It may be the headmaster. ---It can’t be him. He has gone to Shanghai. --- Then it must be Mr. Zhang. He looks like the headmaster. (2)--- What can they be talking about? ----They may / must be talking about the question raised at the meeting. (3)--- Can they have finished the work? --- Yes, they may / must have finished it. --- No, they can’t have finished the work so soon. --- Then they must have played so much. may /might 用于肯定句中(可能,或许,大概);用于否定句中(可能不)。表示可能性较小的一种推测 can 表示推测时,只用于否定句和疑问句中 6.should与ought to用法 对比点 should ought to 1.表“应该” 表劝告、建议 You should listen to the doctor’s advice. We should learn from Zhang Hua. “有责任有必要”做某事 You ought to finish your work before you go home. We ought to help each other. 2.表“估计” They should get home by now. “非常可能”的事,可译为“总应该” If we start to work right now, we ought to finish it before lunch. 注: 1)should还可在虚拟语气中的使用 2) 注意:ought to的疑问式及否定式 ---Ought he to go? ---Yes, I think he ought to. ---No, he oughtn’t to. 否定式:oughtn’t to do (不说ought to not do)反疑问句:oughtn’t ______? 7.need与dare用法 对比点 need dare 1.情态v.+动词原形 1)否定式 2)疑问式 He need not (needn’t) go. ---Need we do it again? ---No, you needn’t do it again. He dare not say so. Dare she go out alone at night? How dare you say I’m unfair? If he dare do that, he’ll be punished. I dare say. (固定用法) 2.实义v.+to do 1)肯定式 2)否定式 3)疑问式 He needs to go. He doesn’t(does not) need to go. Does he need to do it again? No, he doesn’t need to do it again. He dares to say. He does not (doesn’t) dare to say. If you dare to jump into the water from here, so dare I. 3. did not need to do表示过去没必要做 She didn’t need to attend the meeting yesterday, and she stayed with her children.(她没有参加) 8. used to与would用法 used to would 1.表示过去的动作、状态,重在与现在情况的对比,不一定要有时间状语。 I used to play cards a lot, but now I seldom play. My hometown is not what it used to be. 1.只表示过去动作的重复,有明确的时间状语。 I would go to see my grandfather on Sunday when he was in the middle school. 2.would 后只接表动作的动词,不接表认识或状态动词 He used to be nervous in the exam. 2. 表示过去的习惯有时可互换: When we were very young, we used to / would go skating every winter. 3. 表示过去的次数时,不能使用: ( √)We went to the Great Wall five times when we were young. ( X ) We used to go / would go to the Great Wall five times when we were young. 注:used to do的否定式:usedn’t to do 或didn’t use to do (usedn’t也可写作usen’t) 疑问式: Did you use to do ? Didn’t you use to do? Used you to do? Usedn’t you to do? 例1.(2014北京卷27.)________ I have a word with you? It won’t take long. A. Can B. Must C. Shall D. Should 例2.(2014大纲卷)30. Although you _____ find bargains in London, it’s not generally a cheap place to shop. A. should B. need C. must D. can 例3.(2014湖南卷)---I’ve prepared all kinds of food for the picnic. ---Do you mean we_____ bring anything with us? A. can’t B. mustn’t C. shan’t D. needn't 例4.(2014江苏卷)It was sad to me that they, so poor themselves, bring me food. A. might B. would C. should D. could 例5.(2014江西卷)Life is unpredictable; even the poorest __ become the richest. A. shall B. must C. need D. might 基础演练 1.(2014陕西卷)My book, The House of Hales, is missing. Who ________ have taken it? A. need B. must C. should D. could 2.(2014四川卷)I still remember my happy childhood when my mother ______ take me to Disneyland at weekends. A. might B. must C. would D. should 3.—How’s your tour around the North Lake? Is it beautiful? —It be, but it is now heavily polluted.? A. might B. would C. should D. must 4.(2014重庆卷)I’ve ordered some pizza , so we _____ worry about cooking when we get home tired. A. can’t B. dare not C. needn’t D. may mot 5. Write in simple English in order that everybody ______ understand you. A. may B. must C. should D. will 6. You _______ miss the lecture, though you ______ have it. A. mustn’t; needn’t B. needn’t; mustn’t C. mustn’t; mustn’t D. can’t; needn’t 7. --- Better not have the operation right now. --- ________. A. I mustn’t B. I shouldn’t C. I won’t D. I