[ID:4-5034199] [精]高考一轮复习学案 第20讲 宾语从句(解析版+原卷版)
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第20讲 宾语从句(原卷版) 近几年语法填空与短文改错题中对名词性从句的考查多集中在宾语从句上,这也与高考重基础知识的考查这一主题思路相符;通过近五年语法填空和短文改错试题分析可以发现,名词性从句是考查的重点。语法填空考查形式为无提示词型填空,重点考查名词性从句的引导词,尤其是对what,that,who的考查。短文改错主要考查引导词的误用和多余。这一部分是英语语法中一个重要组成部分,也是英语语言中运用最为广泛的知识点之一,对其涉及的所有知识都应重点掌握。 考生在解答这类题目时,要根据连接词在宾语从句中所作的句子成分来确定选用什么连接词。若在从句中作主语或宾语用连接代词,若作状语就用连接副词;如果不作成分则要考虑从句意思是否完整,是否需要用whether/if;如果不作成分且从句意思完整则用that. 1、 宾语从句定义 在复合句中充当宾语的句子叫做宾语从句(?Objective?Clause)。引导宾语从句的有连词 that.if,?whether等,连接代词what,?which,who,?whose,?whatever,?whichever,?whoever等,还有 连接副词when,?where,why,how等 二、连接词that,if,?whether引导 We?also?realise?that?hiking?can?be?hard?work?and?believe?that?hikers?need?all?our?help。我们还意识到长途跋涉很艰苦,也相信跋涉者需要我们的帮助。(北师大U8) I?asked?her?whether?she?had?looked?at?a?map?yet.我问她是否看过地图。(人教U3) ★【即学即练】(1)?【北京卷】I?truly?believe beauty?comes?from?within。 (2)?【山东卷改】We've?offered?her?the?job,?but?I?don't?know she'll?accept?it. (3)【江苏卷改】?We?haven't?settled?the?question?of it?is?necessary?for?him?to?study?abroad. 三、连接代词引导 I'Il?just?say?whatever?comes?into?my mind.我想到什么就说什么。 She?asked?me?whose?handwriting?was?the?best?in?the?class.她问我班上谁的书法最好 ★ 【即学即练】【北京卷】It?is?difficult?for?us?to?imagine life?was?like?for?slaves?in?the? ancient?world. 四、连接副词引导 Do?you?know?when?the?ancient?games?began?你们知道古代奥运会是何时开始的吗?(译林U2) I've?been?thinking?about?how?we?can?make?the?newspaper?more?interesting.我一直在考虑如何 使我们的报纸更加有趣。(外研M2) ★【即学即练】--I?wonder Mary?has?kept?her?figure?after?all?these?years。 --By?working?out?every day. (2015面 五、在复合宾语结构中,有时用it作形式宾语,而将宾语从句放在宾语补足语之后,如: I thought?it strange?that?my?teacher?could?not?show?me?love.我感到奇怪的是老师不告诉我什么是爱。(北师大U16) The?report?did?not?make?it?clear?how?the?conclusion?was?arrived?at.这份报告没有讲清楚这个结论是如何得出的。 六、否定的转移 在动词?think,?believe,?guess,?suppose,?expect,?Imagine,?fancy,?assume等引起的宾语从句中, 往往将谓语动词的否定含义转移到主句谓语上,即将think等动词变为否定形式,如: I?don’t believe?it is a fact. 我相信这不是真的。 I don’tt?think?I?can?ever?forgive?her. 我觉得我永远都不会原谅她。(译林⑤U1) 1.that连接宾语从句时通常可以省略(但多个并列的宾语从句中只能省略第一个that),没有具体的意思,不充当句子成分,只是起连接作用。what引导时,在从句中充当成分,且有意义。 ◆(全国卷Ⅰ)I’m writing to tell you that my uncle Li Ming is going to your city for a conference. 我写信是想告诉你我叔叔李明要去你的城市开会。 2.在whether/if连接的宾语从句中,whether/if意为“是否”,但在whether...or not结构中,或者whether引导的宾语从句作介词的宾语时,以及whether+to do结构中和whether引导的从句作少数动词(如leave,put,discuss,doubt,know等)的宾语时,只能用whether,不能用if来替换。 ◆We’ve offered her the job,but I don’t know whether she’ll accept it. 我们已经为她提供了这份工作,但我不知道她是否会接受。 ◆I don’t know whether to leave or not. 我不知道是否要离开。 3.连接代词、连接副词引导宾语从句时不能省略,并在从句中充当句子成分。 ◆Our teachers always tell us to believe in what we do and who we are if we want to succeed. 老师总是告诉我们,如果想要成功,就要相信我们所做的事情以及我们是谁。 4.有些动词或动词短语,如like,hate,appreciate,depend on,see to等,一般不直接跟从句,需要借助it。 ◆You may depend on it that she will go with you. 你可以相信她会与你一起去。 5.当主句的主语是第一人称时,在think,believe,suppose,expect等动词后的宾语从句若是否定的,就运用否定转移,将否定词转移到主句谓语动词上。 ◆I don’t believe she will attend the meeting. 我认为她不会来参加该会议。 6.it作形式宾语,真正的宾语后置,常用此种结构的及物动词有find,make,think,feel,consider等。 ◆I find it important that we should keep calm in danger. 我发现我们在危险中保持镇静是很重要的。 7.不论主句为何种句型,宾语从句都用陈述语序。 ★【即学即练】 【全国卷短文改错】My classmates and I are talking about how to do during the holiday. 知识点一 连接副词的考查 例1.【2018·天津】The gold medal will be awarded to ___________ wins the first place in the bicycle race. A. whomever B. wherever C. whoever D. whatever 【答案】C 【解析】考查宾语从句连接词。句意:无论谁获得自行车比赛第一名,金牌将授予他。分析句子可知,宾语从句中缺少主语,故用whoever,表示“任何人,无论谁”。故选C。 变式训练 1: 【2017·江苏】We choose this hotel because the price for a night here is down to $20, half of _______ it used to charge. A. that B. which C. what D. how 知识点二 连接副词的考查 例2.【2018·安徽黄山二模】?While?visiting?Hangzhou’?s?West Lake?and?its?surrounding? Beautiful hills,?you'?ll?understand it's?been?a?great?source?of?inspiration?for artists, poems?and?philosophers?throughout?Chinese?history. 【答案】why 【解析】考查宾语从句。句意:当你游览杭州西湖及周围美丽的群山时,你就会懂得为什么在中国历史中,那个地方一直是画家、诗人和哲学家的灵感之源。宾语从句中缺少原因状语,故 填why。 变式训练2: 【2017·天津】She asked me _______ I had returned the books to the library, and I admitted that I hadn’t. A. when B. where C. whether D. what 变式训练3: 【2017·北京】26. Jane moved aimlessly down the tree-lined street, not knowing ______she was heading. A. why B. where C. how D. when 知识点三 it做形式主语或形式宾语的考查 例3.【2018北京东城二模】Since there is only one laboratory in the school ,it is important to check the students can use it. 【答案】when 【解析】it 是形式主语,真正主语为to do sth .而check 动词之后少宾语,故应为补全宾语从句,根据句意少连接副词when. 变式训练4: The teacher made it clear ice cream is junk food. 知识点四 短文改错中宾语从句that,what,which的误用 例4.【2018·柳州模拟】We should make full use of time to do that should be done. 【答案】that改为what 【解析】that should be done在do之后做动词的宾语从句,但是shuold be done之前应用what 作主语,故that改为what。 变式训练6: 【2018·湖南师大附中模拟】 When I went to the kitchen to get my breakfast,I was astonished at which I saw. 知识点五短文改错中宾语从句that,what与连接副词的误用 例5.【2016全国卷Ⅰ改错】My Uncle is the owner of a restaurant close to that I live. 【答案】that 改为where 【解析】?that I live 是介词to的宾语从句,live后少地点状语,故that 改为where。 变式训练7: 【2016全国卷Ⅱ改错】My classmates and I are talking about how to do during the holiday. 语法填空模拟真题练习 1.(全国卷)As?natural?architects,?the?Pueblo?Indians figured out exactly thick the adobe?walls needed to be to?make?the?evele?work?on?most?days 2. (2018·广四桂林百色模拟)?People?are?able?to?see?the Chinese?technologies?of?the?time, ?which?helps?them?a great?deal?in?understanding? the?Chinese lived. 3.(2017·贵州贵阳联考)To our astonishment, we saw a light and some people in a cabin. Jim was too frightened to go on but I felt curious, wondering ____________was happening. 4.(2017·石家庄一模)Finally, keep in mind____________there are many things that can’t be learnt immediately, and never be frustrated when you fail in one or two exams. 5.(2017·福建安溪模拟)Success partially depends on ____________you have the patience to do simple things perfectly. 6..(2018·湖北襄阳1月调研)?The?WHO?has?stated?that?of?the?56.?5?million?deaths?per?year? around?the?world,over?50?percent?are?caused?by?diseases?closely?associated with?unhealthy?diet? and?lack?of?exercise?and? many?of?these?deaths?could?be?prevented 7.(2018·南昌第一次模拟)?These?days,?modern?buildings are everywhere.?But?if?you?want?to?see life was?back?in?the?old?days,?China?still?has?many?beautifuI water?towns?to?visit. 8.(2018·湖北七市联考)?Over?time?flowers?have?come?to symbolize?the?most?powerful?human? Experiences,beauty,?love,?hope,?and?rebirth.?Sweet?flowers?alone?cansay ?one?fears?expressing. 1 第20讲 宾语从句(解析版) 近几年语法填空与短文改错题中对名词性从句的考查多集中在宾语从句上,这也与高考重基础知识的考查这一主题思路相符;通过近五年语法填空和短文改错试题分析可以发现,名词性从句是考查的重点。语法填空考查形式为无提示词型填空,重点考查名词性从句的引导词,尤其是对what,that,who的考查。短文改错主要考查引导词的误用和多余。这一部分是英语语法中一个重要组成部分,也是英语语言中运用最为广泛的知识点之一,对其涉及的所有知识都应重点掌握。 考生在解答这类题目时,要根据连接词在宾语从句中所作的句子成分来确定选用什么连接词。若在从句中作主语或宾语用连接代词,若作状语就用连接副词;如果不作成分则要考虑从句意思是否完整,是否需要用whether/if;如果不作成分且从句意思完整则用that. 1、 宾语从句定义 在复合句中充当宾语的句子叫做宾语从句(?Objective?Clause)。引导宾语从句的有连词 that.if,?whether等,连接代词what,?which,who,?whose,?whatever,?whichever,?whoever等,还有 连接副词when,?where,why,how等 二、连接词that,if,?whether引导 We?also?realise?that?hiking?can?be?hard?work?and?believe?that?hikers?need?all?our?help。我们还意识到长途跋涉很艰苦,也相信跋涉者需要我们的帮助。(北师大U8) I?asked?her?whether?she?had?looked?at?a?map?yet.我问她是否看过地图。(人教U3) ★【即学即练】(1)?【北京卷】I?truly?believe beauty?comes?from?within。 (2)?【山东卷改】We've?offered?her?the?job,?but?I?don't?know she'll?accept?it. (3)【江苏卷改】?We?haven't?settled?the?question?of it?is?necessary?for?him?to?study?abroad. 【答案】①that ②whether/if ③?whether 三、连接代词引导 I'Il?just?say?whatever?comes?into?my mind.我想到什么就说什么。 She?asked?me?whose?handwriting?was?the?best?in?the?class.她问我班上谁的书法最好 ★ 【即学即练】【北京卷】It?is?difficult?for?us?to?imagine life?was?like?for?slaves?in?the? ancient?world. 【答案】?what? 【解析】what引导宾语从句,并在从句中作介词lke的宾语。 四、连接副词引导 Do?you?know?when?the?ancient?games?began?你们知道古代奥运会是何时开始的吗?(译林U2) I've?been?thinking?about?how?we?can?make?the?newspaper?more?interesting.我一直在考虑如何 使我们的报纸更加有趣。(外研M2) ★【即学即练】--I?wonder Mary?has?kept?her?figure?after?all?these?years。 --By?working?out?every day. (2015面 【答案】?how 【解析】根据答语?By?working?out?every?day可知,应用how引导宾语从句,在从句中作方式状语。 五、在复合宾语结构中,有时用it作形式宾语,而将宾语从句放在宾语补足语之后,如: I thought?it strange?that?my?teacher?could?not?show?me?love.我感到奇怪的是老师不告诉我什么是爱。(北师大U16) The?report?did?not?make?it?clear?how?the?conclusion?was?arrived?at.这份报告没有讲清楚这个结论是如何得出的。 六、否定的转移 在动词?think,?believe,?guess,?suppose,?expect,?Imagine,?fancy,?assume等引起的宾语从句中, 往往将谓语动词的否定含义转移到主句谓语上,即将think等动词变为否定形式,如: I?don’t believe?it is a fact. 我相信这不是真的。 I don’tt?think?I?can?ever?forgive?her. 我觉得我永远都不会原谅她。(译林⑤U1) 1.that连接宾语从句时通常可以省略(但多个并列的宾语从句中只能省略第一个that),没有具体的意思,不充当句子成分,只是起连接作用。what引导时,在从句中充当成分,且有意义。 ◆(全国卷Ⅰ)I’m writing to tell you that my uncle Li Ming is going to your city for a conference. 我写信是想告诉你我叔叔李明要去你的城市开会。 2.在whether/if连接的宾语从句中,whether/if意为“是否”,但在whether...or not结构中,或者whether引导的宾语从句作介词的宾语时,以及whether+to do结构中和whether引导的从句作少数动词(如leave,put,discuss,doubt,know等)的宾语时,只能用whether,不能用if来替换。 ◆We’ve offered her the job,but I don’t know whether she’ll accept it. 我们已经为她提供了这份工作,但我不知道她是否会接受。 ◆I don’t know whether to leave or not. 我不知道是否要离开。 3.连接代词、连接副词引导宾语从句时不能省略,并在从句中充当句子成分。 ◆Our teachers always tell us to believe in what we do and who we are if we want to succeed. 老师总是告诉我们,如果想要成功,就要相信我们所做的事情以及我们是谁。 4.有些动词或动词短语,如like,hate,appreciate,depend on,see to等,一般不直接跟从句,需要借助it。 ◆You may depend on it that she will go with you. 你可以相信她会与你一起去。 5.当主句的主语是第一人称时,在think,believe,suppose,expect等动词后的宾语从句若是否定的,就运用否定转移,将否定词转移到主句谓语动词上。 ◆I don’t believe she will attend the meeting. 我认为她不会来参加该会议。 6.it作形式宾语,真正的宾语后置,常用此种结构的及物动词有find,make,think,feel,consider等。 ◆I find it important that we should keep calm in danger. 我发现我们在危险中保持镇静是很重要的。 7.不论主句为何种句型,宾语从句都用陈述语序。 ★【即学即练】 【全国卷短文改错】My classmates and I are talking about how to do during the holiday. 【答案】?how→what 【解析】句意:我和我的同学正在谈论假期做什么。根据句意可知,about后的宾语从句表达的意思为“做什么”,而不是“怎么做”,故用what。 知识点一 连接副词的考查 例1.【2018·天津】The gold medal will be awarded to ___________ wins the first place in the bicycle race. A. whomever B. wherever C. whoever D. whatever 【答案】C 【解析】考查宾语从句连接词。句意:无论谁获得自行车比赛第一名,金牌将授予他。分析句子可知,宾语从句中缺少主语,故用whoever,表示“任何人,无论谁”。故选C。 变式训练 1: 【2017·江苏】We choose this hotel because the price for a night here is down to $20, half of _______ it used to charge. A. that B. which C. what D. how 【答案】C 【解析】考查宾语从句连接词。句意:我们选择这家旅馆是因为这里的房价降到了20美元,是过去的一半。分析句子可知,of之后少宾语,且从句中缺少动词charge的宾语,故用what,表示“索要的价钱”。故选C。 知识点二 连接副词的考查 例2.【2018·安徽黄山二模】?While?visiting?Hangzhou’?s?West Lake?and?its?surrounding? Beautiful hills,?you'?ll?understand it's?been?a?great?source?of?inspiration?for artists, poems?and?philosophers?throughout?Chinese?history. 【答案】why 【解析】考查宾语从句。句意:当你游览杭州西湖及周围美丽的群山时,你就会懂得为什么在中国历史中,那个地方一直是画家、诗人和哲学家的灵感之源。宾语从句中缺少原因状语,故 填why。 变式训练2: 【2017·天津】She asked me _______ I had returned the books to the library, and I admitted that I hadn’t. A. when B. where C. whether D. what 【答案】C 【解析】考查宾语从句。句意:他问我是否已经把书还给图书馆了,我承认。我还没有还。A.什么时候;B.在哪里;C是否;D.什么。根据句意,故选C 变式训练3: 【2017·北京】26. Jane moved aimlessly down the tree-lined street, not knowing ______she was heading. A. why B. where C. how D. when 【答案】B 【解析】A. why 为什么 B. where 在哪 C. how 如何 D. when什么时候。句意:Jane漫无目的地走在两旁栽树的街道上,不知道她将去往何方,根据语境可知此处是表地点的,很容易就可选出答案B。 知识点三 it做形式主语或形式宾语的考查 例3.【2018北京东城二模】Since there is only one laboratory in the school ,it is important to check the students can use it. 【答案】when 【解析】it 是形式主语,真正主语为to do sth .而check 动词之后少宾语,故应为补全宾语从句,根据句意少连接副词when. 变式训练4: The teacher made it clear ice cream is junk food. 【答案】that 【解析】it 是形式宾语,真正宾语为 ice cream is junk food.而此句子为完整宾语从句,不少成分,故应为that. 知识点四 短文改错中宾语从句that,what,which的误用 例4.【2018·柳州模拟】We should make full use of time to do that should be done. 【答案】that改为what 【解析】that should be done在do之后做动词的宾语从句,但是shuold be done之前应用what 作主语,故that改为what。 变式训练6: 【2018·湖南师大附中模拟】 When I went to the kitchen to get my breakfast,I was astonished at which I saw. 【答案】which改为 what 【解析】?which I saw应该做介词at的宾语从句,saw的宾语应用what,故which改为 what. 知识点五短文改错中宾语从句that,what与连接副词的误用 例5.【2016全国卷Ⅰ改错】My Uncle is the owner of a restaurant close to that I live. 【答案】that 改为where 【解析】?that I live 是介词to的宾语从句,live后少地点状语,故that 改为where。 变式训练7: 【2016全国卷Ⅱ改错】My classmates and I are talking about how to do during the holiday. 【答案】what改为how 【解析】to do 少宾语,故应用what与其连用。 语法填空模拟真题练习 1.(全国卷)As?natural?architects,?the?Pueblo?Indians figured out exactly thick the adobe?walls needed to be to?make?the?evele?work?on?most?days 【答案】how 【解析】根据语境和空后的形容词thick可知应用how引导宾语从句,表示程度。此处表示要弄清楚到底土坯房的墙需要“多”厚。故答案为how。 2. (2018·广四桂林百色模拟)?People?are?able?to?see?the Chinese?technologies?of?the?time, ?which?helps?them?a great?deal?in?understanding? the?Chinese lived. 【答案】how 【解析】考查宾语从句。句意:人们能够看到当时的中国技术,这对人们了解当时的中国人是如何生活的很有帮助。分析该句结构可知,空处引导宾语从句,作understanding的宾语;结合语境可知,该处表示“如何”,故用how引导宾语从句, 3.(2017·贵州贵阳联考)To our astonishment, we saw a light and some people in a cabin. Jim was too frightened to go on but I felt curious, wondering ____________was happening. 【答案】what  【解析】句意:令我们惊讶的是,我们看到在小屋内有一束光和一些人。吉姆太害怕了,不敢继续往前,但是我觉得很好奇,想知道发生了什么事。设空处引导宾语从句,并在从句中作主语,表示事物,故用what引导。 4.(2017·石家庄一模)Finally, keep in mind____________there are many things that can’t be learnt immediately, and never be frustrated when you fail in one or two exams. 【答案】that  【解析】考查宾语从句。动词短语keep in mind后是一个宾语从句,且从句中不缺少成分,因此用that引导。 5.(2017·福建安溪模拟)Success partially depends on ____________you have the patience to do simple things perfectly. 【答案】whether  【解析】句意:成功部分取决于你是否有耐心把简单的事情做得完美。设空处引导宾语从句,作介词on的宾语,意为“是否”,故填whether。 6..(2018·湖北襄阳1月调研)?The?WHO?has?stated?that?of?the?56.?5?million?deaths?per?year? around?the?world,over?50?percent?are?caused?by?diseases?closely?associated with?unhealthy?diet? and?lack?of?exercise?and? many?of?these?deaths?could?be?prevented 【答案】that  【解析】句意:世界卫生组织公布全世界每年有5650万人死亡,其中有50%以上是由与不健康的饮食有关的疾病和缺乏锻炼造成的,这些死亡许多是可以避免的。 many?of?these deaths could?be?prevented"与“?that?of?the 565?million...?lack?of exercise”并列,都作stated的宾语,设空处所在的宾语从句不缺任何成分,故填that,由于与前面that引导的宾语从句并列,故设空处所填的that不可省略。 7.(2018·南昌第一次模拟)?These?days,?modern?buildings are everywhere.?But?if?you?want?to?see life was?back?in?the?old?days,?China?still?has?many?beautifuI water?towns?to?visit. 【答案】how  【解析】考查宾语从句的引导词。分析该句结构可知,空处引导宾语从句,作及物动词see的宾语;根据该句中的“life was?back?in?the?old?days”可知,从句中缺表语,结合语境可知,该句意为“但如果你想看看古代的生活是怎样的,中国还有许多美丽的水乡。”故用how引导该宾语从句。 15.(2018·湖北七市联考)?Over?time?flowers?have?come?to symbolize?the?most?powerful?human? Experiences,beauty,?love,?hope,?and?rebirth.?Sweet?flowers?alone?cansay ?one?fears?expressing. 【答案】what  【解析】考查宾语从句。分析句子√结构可知,空处引导宾语从句,同时结合语境“一个人害怕表达什么”,所以填what。 7
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