[ID:4-4962494] [精]高考英语一轮复习学案 第18讲 动词不定式(解析版+原卷版)
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第18讲 动词不定式(原卷版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第12个条目是非谓语动词,其中包含对动词不定式的考查。高考主要以语法填空和短文改错形式,放在篇章当中结合上下文语境,主要考查不定式的作用和形式。其中在作用方面,主要考查作宾语时用不定式还是动名词;作定语、状语、补语时用不定式还是分词;它们作某一成分时的特殊情况及特殊结构。在形式方面,主要考查用是完成式、主动式不是被动式等。这一部分是英汉差异较大的部分,汉语中没有非谓语动词形式,所以教师在一轮复习时要帮助学生抓住基础,把握要点,找准突破点,夯实易错点。 1-6观察to do在句中所作成分;7-12观察to do的各种形式及省略。1.?It?is?terrible?to?see?the?ship?sinking?into?the?sea. 2.?Do?you?think?it?necessary?for?us?to?learn?to?wait? 3.?The?old?mans?job?is?to?take?care?of?the?flowers?in?the?garden. 4.He told me not to bring you anything. 5.In my dreams I always have very different jobs to do. 6.In?his?third?year,?he?left?Harvard?to?work?for?a?company?called?Microsoft. 7.?She?pretended?not?to?see?me?when?I?passed?by. 8.IDS?is said to have been the biggest health challenge to both men and women in that area over the past few years. 9.Hurry up!He is sure to be waiting for us. 10.-You should have thanked her before you left. -I?meant?to,?but?when?I?was?leaving?I?couldn't?find?her?anywhere. 11.-Has?he?finished?his?homework? -He ought to have,but?he?played?all?the time. 12.-Tina?has?changed?a?lot?since?she?became?a?senior?high?grade?three?students. -Yes.?She?is?no?longer?what?she?used?to?be. to do在句子中所做成分 to do的否定形式 to do的完成形式 to do的进行形式 to do的省略 【深思熟虑】 to do在句子中所做成分:1.真正主语2.真正宾语 3.表语 4.宾补5.目的状语6.主补 to do的否定形式: not to do to do的完成形式: to have done to do的进行形式: to be doing to do的省略: mean to; ought to; used to be 从以上句子中含义可以看出,动词不定式可以充当各种句子成分,在句中有不同的功能和作用;从句子中形式可以看出,根据语境和表达的需要,动词不定式也有不同的形式。本节会分类讲解,总结规律,抓住特征,参透语法,从而提升学生使用动词不定式的能力。 一、不定式的构成与特征 动词不定式的英语名称为“The?Infinitive”,一般由“to+动词原形”构成。它在句中起名词、形容词或副词的作用,同时也保留着动词的一些特征,可以有自己的宾语或状语。如: At the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, Liu Xiang excited people all over Asia when he became the first Asian to win the gold medal in the men'l0- metre hurdles. 在2004年雅典奥运会上,刘翔在110米跨栏比赛中成为第一个获得金牌的亚洲人,使全亚洲人兴奋不已。(不定式起形容词的作用,带有宾语和状语) (译林U2) 二、不定式的功能与用法 1、作主语 To see is to believe.眼见为实。 在很多情况下,特别是在口语中,我们常用it作形式主语,而把不定式移至句尾,以保持句子平衡。如: It’s not easy to find your way around the town.在这个小镇要找到路很不容易。(外研M2) It is difficult to imagine a more inhospitable place.很难想象出一个比这(南极洲)更不宜居 住的地方. (外研M1) 2、作表语 His ambition is to become an actor.他的理想是成为一名演员。(人教U1) The?aim?of?the?treaty?is?to prevent?the?commercial and military use of the continent. 以这个公约的目的是为了阻止商业和军事上使用这个洲。(外研M1) Acollege counsellor’s job is to help students adjust to college life. 大学辅导员的工作是帮助学生适应大学生活。(北师大U23) 注意:当主语中有实意动词do 时,表语中的不定式符号to可以省略。如: All she could do is go back home. 3、作宾语 ①常见的接不定式作宾语的动词有:afford,aim,ask,bear,begin,bother,care,choose,continue, dare,decide,demand,desire,determine,expect,fail,forget,hate,help,hope,intend,?learn,?like,? long,?love,?manage,?mean,?need,?offer,?plan,?pretend,?promise,?refuse,?remember,threaten,try,want,wish等。如: He?was?very?happy?to?meet?two?foreigners?and?wanted?to?learn?all?about?Europe. 他很高兴遇到两个外国人,于是想全面了解欧洲。 (北师大①U8) ★【即学即练】【上海卷改】David threatened (report)?his?neighbour?to?the?police?if?the? damages were?not?paid. 注意:介词but后一般接带10的不定式,但在”do something /?anything/nothing/?everythiny…but”结构中but后要接不带to的不定式,如: ?My?dog?can?do?everything but speak. 我的狗什么都会做,就是不会说话。 当不定式作宾语,而后面又有宾语补足语时,常用it作形式宾语,而将不定式后置。常见结构为:?consider/fell/find/make/?think…+it+宾补+?to?do?sth。如: He?felt?it?necessary?to?learn?English well.他觉得有必要学好英语。 They?found?it?impossible?to?get everything ready in such a short time.他们发现不可能让他在短时间把一切准备好。 He made it a rule only to speak English in class.他规定课上只能讲英语。 ★【即学即练】【山东卷改】The two girls are so alike that strangers find difficult to tell one from the other. 4、作宾语补足语 常见的接不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:advise,allow,ask,beg,?cause,?command,?direct,?enable,encourage,expect,forbid,force,instruct,invite,?order,?permit,?persuade,?press,recommend,remind,request,teach,tell,train,urge,?want,?warm等。如: I?was?interested?in?astronomy?and?he?asked?me?to?give?a?presentation?to?the?class.我对天文学很感兴趣,他叫我对全班作口头陈述 (北师大③U15 ) ★【即学即练】【北京卷改】My advice encouraged me (take)?a?summer?course?to?improve? my?writing?skill. 注意:在汉语里,我们常说“希望某人做某事”,但在英语里却不可以说“?hope?sb?to?do?sth",即hope不接不定式作宾补。如:They hope?me to?tell them?my?experiences?in?China.是错误的表达,可将hopc改为wish或want,也可使用从句表达:? They?hope (that)?David?will?make?a?speech?about?his?experiences?in?China. 有些感官动词和使役动词接不定式作宾语补足语语补足语时,通常不带to。下面的口诀可以帮助记忆:“吾看三室两厅一感觉”可以解释为:吾即我,我重点大学毕业,单位分给一套三室两厅的房子,自己去看时就一个感觉--好。其实为“五看三使两听一感觉”共11个词。“五看(?(see,?watch,look at,?notice,observe),三使役(let,have,make)二听(hear,?listen?to)一感觉(feel)”。如: They?made?me?wait?while?they?checked?everyone'?s?air?tickets.他们检查所有人的机票,而让我等着。 ★【即学即练】【全国卷改】The director had her assistant (pick) up some hot dogs for the meeting. help后的不定式作宾语补足语可以带to,也可以不带,如: ?This?interesting?study?can?help?you?avoid?difficulty?in?communication.这项有趣的研究能帮助你避免交际中遇到的困难。Xie?Lei's?preparation?course?is?helping?her?to?get?used?to?academic?requirements?of?a?Westernunversity。谢蕾的预科班课程帮助她适应西方大学的学业要求。(人教U5) 注意:感官动词和使役动词make用于被动语态时,作主语补足语的不定式要带to。如:Tom?doesn't?have?to?be?made?to?learn.?He?always?works hard .不必强迫汤姆学习,他一直很用功。 5、作定语 不定式作定语一般与所修饰的名词构成主谓关系、动宾关系、同位关系或偏正关系。如:I?am?always?the?first?person?to?get?to?the?office.我总是第一个到办公室的人。(主谓关系) (北师大U1) There?are?lots?of?interesting?things?to?see?there.那里有许多有趣的东西可看。(动宾关系) (人教U3) Thers are many ways to make people tough.有很多方法逗人们笑。(偏正关系) ★【即学即练】 【北京卷改】Birds'singingr is sometimes a warning to other hirds (stay)away. ★【即学即练】【上海卷改】If there is a lot of work (do), I'm happy to just keep on until it is finished. ★【即学即练】【全国卷改】---The last (arrive) pays the meal!-----Agreed! 注意:不定式作定语时,如果与其所修饰的名词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,而不定式动词又是一个不及物词,则不定式后要有相应的分词,如: Give me a pen to write with.给我一支笔写字. You might think that with all these dangerous animals Australia is an unsafe place to live in or visit.澳大利亚有这么多的危动物,你也许会认为在这里居住或到这里旅游很不安全. (人教U3) 还有一种“介词+ which/whom+不定式”的结构也可以作定语,如: The young couple needs a lot of money with which to buy a new house.这对年轻夫妇需要一大笔钱,用来买房子。 不定式作定语时,多表示将来的动作。如: The meeting to be held tomorrow is of great importance.明天要召开的会议非常重要。 6、作状语 不定式做状语,多表目的,也表示结果、原因等。 To make friends easily ,you need to be kind.要想很容易的交朋友,你需要友善。(目的) The poor girl has been collecting seashells to make a living.这位穷苦的女孩一直靠拾贝壳为生。(目的)(人教U5) I am so exicted to be here .(译林U3) 注意: 在强调目的状语时,会出现in order to和so as to,但是so as to不能置于句首。如: In order to persuade people to do something ,advertisements often appeal to our hopes and dreams or our emtions.为了规劝人们去做某事,广告常常激起人们的希望、梦想和情感。(人教U5) 在so ….as to,enough to,only to,too…to等结构中,不定式表结果。 ★【即学即练】【福建卷改】 (learn) more about Chinese culture, Jack has decided to take Chinese folk music as an elective course. ★【即学即练】【辽宁卷改】This machine is very easy (operate). Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes. ★【即学即练】【四川卷改】Tom took a taxi to the airport,only (find) his plane high up in the sky. 一、不定式的否定式 不定式的否定式由“not+不定式”构成。如: Try not to worry it you don't understand every word of the passage如果你不理解文章里的每 一个单词,不要担心。(外研⑥M2) 二、不定式的时态与语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 to write to be written 进行式 to be writing × 完成式 to have written to have been written 1、不定式的时态 不定式的一般式表示其动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生或在谓语动词的动作之后发生;不定式的进行式表示谓语动词的动作发生时,不定式表示的动作正在进行;不定式的完成式表示其动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前,如: People began to wonder how long the disaster would last.人们开始想知道灾难将要持续多久。(不定式 to wonder表示的动作和 began的动作同时发生)(人教U4) She pretended to be reading when her mother came in.她妈妈进来的时候她假装正在看书。(不定式to be reading表示read这一动作在谓语 pretended的动作发生时正在进行) Robert is said to have studied abroad, but I don' t know which country he studied in.据说罗伯 特在国外学习过,但我不知道他是在哪个国家学习的。(不定式 to have studied表示study这 动作发生在谓语 is said之前) ★【即学即练】【 重庆卷改】 The engine just won't start. Something seems (go) wrong with It. 2、不定式的语态 不定式的主动式表示其逻辑主语是不定式动作的执行者;不定式的被动式表示其逻辑主语是不定式动作的承受者。如: It?is?believed?by?many?people?to?have been?gradually?covered?over?by?sandstorms?from?AD?200 to AD500.许多人认为它(古楼兰城)在公元200年至500年期间渐渐被沙尘暴所覆盖。(不定式的逻辑主语是it,与cover是被动关系,且动作发生在?is?believed之前,故用不定式的完成被动式) (译林U3) 注意:不定式的语态由不定式与其主语的关系而定,因此准确辩识不定式的逻辑主语是关键。一般情况下,不定式复合结构作主语时,介词for或of后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语;不定式作宾语时,句子的主语是其逻辑主语;不定式作宾语补足语时,不定式前面的宾语是其逻辑主语;不定式作定语时,不定式所修饰的名词或代词是其逻辑主语或宾语;不定式作状语时,句子的主语是其逻辑主语。 ★ 【即学即练】【 陕西卷改】?His?first?book (publish)next?month?is?based?on?a?true?story. 注意: 在easy,?difficult,?hard,?comfortable等形容词作表语或构成复合宾语时,其后不定式通常用主动形式表示被动含义。如: This?sentence?is?difficult?to?translate.这句话很难翻译。 They?found?the?lecture?hard?to?understand他们发现这报告不好懂。 不定式作定语时,如果与其所修饰的名词或代词为动宾关系,但同时与句子中另一个名词或代词为主谓关系,不定式常用主动形式表示被动含义。如: Do?you?have?anything?to?buy?你要买什么东西吗? Give?him?some?books?to?read给他点书看。 ?to?blame作表语时,用主动形式表示被动含义。如:Who?is?to?blame?for?it?这该怪谁呢? 三、“疑问词+不定式”结构 疑问词?who,?what,?which,when,?where,how等后加上不定式相当于名词性从句。同样一句话英语里可用从句和不定式结构来表达,意思没有区别。试比较: I?didn'?t?know?how?I?could?get?back?to?the?village.我不知道怎样回到村子。(宾语从句,较正式) I didn’t?know?how?to?get?back?to?the?village.我不知道怎样回到村子。(“疑问词+不定式”结构作宾语,简洁,较口语化) ★【即学即练】【 四川卷改】 He?told?us?whether (have)?a?picnic?was?still?under?discussion. 四、不定式的复合结构 1、有时候不定式前有自己的逻辑主语,用for引出,结构为“for+名词/代词宾格+不定式”的复合结构。 When she arrived at Gombe in 1960, it was unusual for a woman to live in the forest. (人教④U1) 她1960年来到汞贝时,对女性来说,住进大森林还是件很不寻常的事。 2、在kind,silly, foolish, stupid, careless,crue,rude, clever等表示人物特征的形容词后接不定式的复合结构时,介词用of,说明不定式所指对象。如: It' s cruel of them to kill animals.他们屠杀动物,真是太残忍了。 知识点一不定式做不同句子成分的考查 例1.【2018·北京】During the Mid-Autumn Festival, family members often gather together _________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes. A. share B. to share C. having shared D. shared 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式做目的状语。句意:在中秋期间,家人们会通常聚在一起吃饭,赏月,品尝月饼。Gather是谓语动词,“_________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes ”是目的状语,不定式形式表示目的,所以选用B。 点睛:动词不定式可以做主语,状语,定语,宾语,表语等。动词不定式做目的状语时,可以置于主句之前也可以置于主句之后,通常译为“为了”。 变式训练 1: 【2017·北京卷】27. Many airlines now allow passengers to print their boarding passes online ______ their valuable time. A. save B. saving C. to save D. saved 例2.【2018·天津】I didn't mean ___________anything but the ice cream looked so good that I couldn’t help_______ it. A. to eat;to try B. eating;trying C. eating;to try D. to eat; trying 【答案】D 【解析】考查不定式和动名词作宾语。句意:我不打算吃任何东西,但冰淇淋看起来如此的好以至于我忍不住的要试一试。固定短语mean to do(打算做,不定式作宾语),couldn’t help doing(忍不住做,doing形式作宾语)。故选D。 点睛:本题考查动词短语固定搭配。同学在平时学习中要多把握动词不同搭配的不同含义,本题需要区分“mean to do打算做”与“mean doing意味着做”和“can’t help to do sth.不能帮助做”与“couldn’t help doing忍不住做”之间的含义。 变式训练 2: 【安徽卷】I remembered the door before I left the office,but forgot to turn off the lights. A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked 例3.【上海卷】As Jack left his membership card at home,he wasn’t allowed into the sports club. A. going B.to go C. go D. gone 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式作补足语。句意:因为杰克把会员卡丢在家里了,他不被允许进入体育俱乐部。固定短语allow sb. to do sth(允许某人做某事,不定式作宾语补足语),sb be allowed to do sth(某人被允许做某事,不定式作主语补足语)。故选B。 变式训练 3:【北京卷】My advisor encouraged me (take)a summer course to improve my writing skills.(单句语法填空) 例4.【山东卷】It is standard practical for a company like this one a security officer. A. employed B.being employed C. to employ D. employs 【答案】C 【解析】考查不定式作真正主语。句意:对于像这样的公司来说,雇佣一名安全人员是标准可行的。根据句意可知,It是形式主语,而to employ a security officer是真正主语, 故选C。 变式训练 4: (climb) the mountain road is hard work but to go down the hills is great fun. (单句语法填空) 例5.The airport next year will help you respond quickly to emergencies. A. being completed B.to be completed C. completed D. having been completed 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式作定语。句意:明年完工的机场将帮助你迅速应对紧急情况。 根据句意可知, next year做的是The airport的定语,the airport与complete是逻辑上的被动关系,又是将来发生的动作,故选B。 变式训练5:【北京卷】Volunteering gives you a chance lives,including your sons. A.change B.changing C. changed D. to change 例6.What he likes to do best on weekends is (listen)to some light music. 【答案】to listen 【解析】考查不定式作表语。句意:每逢周末他最喜欢做的事情就是听听一些轻音乐。 根据句意可知,表语说明的是主语的性质状态,故用to do形式。 知识点二 不定式否定式的考查 例7.【上海卷改】The purpose of new technology is (not,make) life more difficult ,but to make it easier.(单句语法填空) 【答案】not to make 【解析】考查不定式的否定形式。句意:新技术的目的不是是生活更困难,而是更容易。根据表语 (not,make) life more difficult ,but to make it easier和“not….but…不是…而是…”以及not to do sth是不定式的否定形式,推出此处填not to make。 变式训练6:【2018·内蒙古自治区模拟】There is going to ______ an important meeting tomorrow. Please try ______ late. A. have,not to be B. have,not be C. be,not to be D. be,not be 知识点三 不定式时态和语态的考查 例8.【山东卷改】We are invited to a party (hold) in our club next Friday. 【答案】to be held 【解析】考查不定式的语态。不定式作定语,表示一个将来的被动动作,故用不定式的被动式。 变式训练7: 【北京卷】 There are still many problems before we are ready for a long stay on the moon. A. solving B. solved C. being solved D. to be solved 知识点四 不定式特殊句式中的考查 例9.【 江西卷改】He is thought (act) foolishly. Now he has no one but himself to blame for losing the job 【答案】to have acted 【解析】考查不定式特殊句式中的应用。句意:他被认为行事愚蠢,现在丢了那份工作,他只能责怪自己了。“be thought+不定式”为固定句式,意为“被认为…”由句意可知他行事愚蠢是在丢掉工作之前,故用不定式的完成式。 变式训练8: 【湖南卷】You were silly not (lock) your car. 一、高考模拟真题练习 1.【2018·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空】?The?government?encourages?farmers to grow corn?instead?of?rice (improve)water quality. 2. 【2018·南昌市质检一语法填空】Once I arrived in China.,my dream was (learn) tai chi and kung fu and master the techniques of martial arts. 3.【2018·天津河北区模拟改语法填空】With five professional hands (help) them next month,these students are sure (complete) the expertment on time. 4.【2018·山西联考一语法填空】It is hoped that having one day every year ( celebrate) Mandarin will encourage more people around the world to take it up. 5.【2018·太原市质检一语法填空】 This mode of travel provided protection from robbers who might attempt (rob)the valuable goods being transported. 6.【2018·福州市质检语法填空】 “ Every dog has his day” describes a person with a period of good fortune and"work like a dog" is used (describe) a hard worker. 7.【2017·北京卷】Many airlines now allow passengers to print their boarding passes online ______ their valuable time. A. save B. saving C. to save D. saved 8.【2017·全国卷Ⅲ语法填空】 But Sarah, who has taken part in shows along with top models, wants (prove) that she has brains as well as beauty. 9.【2016·全国卷1语法填空改】I ?was?the?first?Western?TV?reporter permitted (?film)?a? special?unit caring?for?pandas from?starvation?in?the?wild. 10.【2016·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空】You find something you love doing outside of the office, you'll be less likely (bring)your work home. 11.【2016·全国卷Ⅲ 语法填空】Skilled workers also combine various hardwoods and metal (create)special designs. 二、阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式。 (一) Mary:I?have?decided? 1. (leave)?my?job?next?month. John:?But?you?said? 2 (work)in?an?architect's?office?was?enjoyable. Mary:?Oh,?I?did.?But?I?feel?like 3. (do)something different for a while. John:?Didn't?you?promise? 4. ?(?stay)??there?at?least?two?years. Mary:Yes,?I?did?but?I?just?can't?stand?working?with?these?people.?One?of?them?refuses? 5. (stop) talking?while?she?works,?and?another?one? keeps? 6. (sing)?to himself.?And?there?is?a?man? attampting 7. (?tell)?awful?jokes?all?the?time?which he?always?gets?wrong.?I?feel annoyed?with?all?that?noise?around?me. John:?It?sounds?a?quite?cheerful?place?to?me.?Can't?you?think?of?a?way? 8. (solve)your?problem?? You?can?manage? 9. (?ignore)?them?and?get?on?with?your?work. Mary:?No,?I?can't.?I?just?can't carrry?on going?there?every?day.?I'm?hoping? 10. (?go )abroad? for?a?bit. John:?Well! good?luck. (二) The Interner is playing a more and more important part in people’s daily life.It is an 1. (amaze) information resource. Students, teachers, and researchers use it as an investigative tool. Journalists use it 2. (find) information for stories. Doctors use it 3 (learn)more about unfamiliar diseases and the latest medical deveopment. Ordinary people use it for shopping, banking billpaying ,and 4 (communicate) with family and friends. People all over the world use it 5 (connect) with individuals from other countries and cultures.However, while there are many positive developments 6. (associate) with the Internet, there are also certain fears and concerns. One concern relates to a lack of control over what appears on the Internet. With television and radio there are editors 7. (check) the accuracy or appropriateness of the content of programs, and with television there are restrictions on other aspects, for example, what kinds of programs can 8. ( broadcast) and at what time of the day. With the Internet, parents cannot check a published guide 9. ( determine) what is suitable for their children 10. (see). 1 第18讲 动词不定式(解析版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第12个条目是非谓语动词,其中包含对动词不定式的考查。高考主要以语法填空和短文改错形式,放在篇章当中结合上下文语境,主要考查不定式的作用和形式。其中在作用方面,主要考查作宾语时用不定式还是动名词;作定语、状语、补语时用不定式还是分词;它们作某一成分时的特殊情况及特殊结构。在形式方面,主要考查用是完成式、主动式不是被动式等。这一部分是英汉差异较大的部分,汉语中没有非谓语动词形式,所以教师在一轮复习时要帮助学生抓住基础,把握要点,找准突破点,夯实易错点。 1-6观察to do在句中所作成分;7-12观察to do的各种形式及省略。1.?It?is?terrible?to?see?the?ship?sinking?into?the?sea. 2.?Do?you?think?it?necessary?for?us?to?learn?to?wait? 3.?The?old?mans?job?is?to?take?care?of?the?flowers?in?the?garden. 4.He told me not to bring you anything. 5.In my dreams I always have very different jobs to do. 6.In?his?third?year,?he?left?Harvard?to?work?for?a?company?called?Microsoft. 7.?She?pretended?not?to?see?me?when?I?passed?by. 8.IDS?is said to have been the biggest health challenge to both men and women in that area over the past few years. 9.Hurry up!He is sure to be waiting for us. 10.-You should have thanked her before you left. -I?meant?to,?but?when?I?was?leaving?I?couldn't?find?her?anywhere. 11.-Has?he?finished?his?homework? -He ought to have,but?he?played?all?the time. 12.-Tina?has?changed?a?lot?since?she?became?a?senior?high?grade?three?students. -Yes.?She?is?no?longer?what?she?used?to?be. to do在句子中所做成分 to do的否定形式 to do的完成形式 to do的进行形式 to do的省略 【深思熟虑】 to do在句子中所做成分:1.真正主语2.真正宾语 3.表语 4.宾补5.目的状语6.主补 to do的否定形式: not to do to do的完成形式: to have done to do的进行形式: to be doing to do的省略: mean to; ought to; used to be 从以上句子中含义可以看出,动词不定式可以充当各种句子成分,在句中有不同的功能和作用;从句子中形式可以看出,根据语境和表达的需要,动词不定式也有不同的形式。本节会分类讲解,总结规律,抓住特征,参透语法,从而提升学生使用动词不定式的能力。 一、不定式的构成与特征 动词不定式的英语名称为“The?Infinitive”,一般由“to+动词原形”构成。它在句中起名词、形容词或副词的作用,同时也保留着动词的一些特征,可以有自己的宾语或状语。如: At the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, Liu Xiang excited people all over Asia when he became the first Asian to win the gold medal in the men'l0- metre hurdles. 在2004年雅典奥运会上,刘翔在110米跨栏比赛中成为第一个获得金牌的亚洲人,使全亚洲人兴奋不已。(不定式起形容词的作用,带有宾语和状语) (译林U2) 二、不定式的功能与用法 1、作主语 To see is to believe.眼见为实。 在很多情况下,特别是在口语中,我们常用it作形式主语,而把不定式移至句尾,以保持句子平衡。如: It’s not easy to find your way around the town.在这个小镇要找到路很不容易。(外研M2) It is difficult to imagine a more inhospitable place.很难想象出一个比这(南极洲)更不宜居 住的地方. (外研M1) 2、作表语 His ambition is to become an actor.他的理想是成为一名演员。(人教U1) The?aim?of?the?treaty?is?to prevent?the?commercial and military use of the continent. 以这个公约的目的是为了阻止商业和军事上使用这个洲。(外研M1) Acollege counsellor’s job is to help students adjust to college life. 大学辅导员的工作是帮助学生适应大学生活。(北师大U23) 注意:当主语中有实意动词do 时,表语中的不定式符号to可以省略。如: All she could do is go back home. 3、作宾语 ①常见的接不定式作宾语的动词有:afford,aim,ask,bear,begin,bother,care,choose,continue, dare,decide,demand,desire,determine,expect,fail,forget,hate,help,hope,intend,?learn,?like,? long,?love,?manage,?mean,?need,?offer,?plan,?pretend,?promise,?refuse,?remember,threaten,try,want,wish等。如: He?was?very?happy?to?meet?two?foreigners?and?wanted?to?learn?all?about?Europe. 他很高兴遇到两个外国人,于是想全面了解欧洲。 (北师大①U8) ★【即学即练】【上海卷改】David threatened (report)?his?neighbour?to?the?police?if?the? damages were?not?paid. 【答案】to?report ? 【解析】threaten后接不定式作直接宾语。 注意:介词but后一般接带10的不定式,但在”do something /?anything/nothing/?everythiny…but”结构中but后要接不带to的不定式,如: ?My?dog?can?do?everything but speak. 我的狗什么都会做,就是不会说话。 当不定式作宾语,而后面又有宾语补足语时,常用it作形式宾语,而将不定式后置。常见结构为:?consider/fell/find/make/?think…+it+宾补+?to?do?sth。如: He?felt?it?necessary?to?learn?English well.他觉得有必要学好英语。 They?found?it?impossible?to?get everything ready in such a short time.他们发现不可能让他在短时间把一切准备好。 He made it a rule only to speak English in class.他规定课上只能讲英语。 ★【即学即练】【山东卷改】The two girls are so alike that strangers find difficult to tell one from the other. 【答案】it ? 【解析】it在此是作形式宾语,真正的宾语是后面的不定式短语 to tell one from the other。 4、作宾语补足语 常见的接不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:advise,allow,ask,beg,?cause,?command,?direct,?enable,encourage,expect,forbid,force,instruct,invite,?order,?permit,?persuade,?press,recommend,remind,request,teach,tell,train,urge,?want,?warm等。如: I?was?interested?in?astronomy?and?he?asked?me?to?give?a?presentation?to?the?class.我对天文学很感兴趣,他叫我对全班作口头陈述 (北师大③U15 ) ★【即学即练】【北京卷改】My advice encouraged me (take)?a?summer?course?to?improve? my?writing?skill. 【答案】?to?take? 【解析】encourage后接不定式作宾语补足语。 注意:在汉语里,我们常说“希望某人做某事”,但在英语里却不可以说“?hope?sb?to?do?sth",即hope不接不定式作宾补。如:They hope?me to?tell them?my?experiences?in?China.是错误的表达,可将hopc改为wish或want,也可使用从句表达:? They?hope (that)?David?will?make?a?speech?about?his?experiences?in?China. 有些感官动词和使役动词接不定式作宾语补足语语补足语时,通常不带to。下面的口诀可以帮助记忆:“吾看三室两厅一感觉”可以解释为:吾即我,我重点大学毕业,单位分给一套三室两厅的房子,自己去看时就一个感觉--好。其实为“五看三使两听一感觉”共11个词。“五看(?(see,?watch,look at,?notice,observe),三使役(let,have,make)二听(hear,?listen?to)一感觉(feel)”。如: They?made?me?wait?while?they?checked?everyone'?s?air?tickets.他们检查所有人的机票,而让我等着。 ★【即学即练】【全国卷改】The director had her assistant (pick) up some hot dogs for the meeting. 【答案】?pick 【解析】根据句意,had是使役动词的过去式have的过去式,后长接不带to的不定式作宾语补足语。have sb. do sth 意为“让某人做某事”。 help后的不定式作宾语补足语可以带to,也可以不带,如: ?This?interesting?study?can?help?you?avoid?difficulty?in?communication.这项有趣的研究能帮助你避免交际中遇到的困难。Xie?Lei's?preparation?course?is?helping?her?to?get?used?to?academic?requirements?of?a?Westernunversity。谢蕾的预科班课程帮助她适应西方大学的学业要求。(人教U5) 注意:感官动词和使役动词make用于被动语态时,作主语补足语的不定式要带to。如:Tom?doesn't?have?to?be?made?to?learn.?He?always?works hard .不必强迫汤姆学习,他一直很用功。 5、作定语 不定式作定语一般与所修饰的名词构成主谓关系、动宾关系、同位关系或偏正关系。如:I?am?always?the?first?person?to?get?to?the?office.我总是第一个到办公室的人。(主谓关系) (北师大U1) There?are?lots?of?interesting?things?to?see?there.那里有许多有趣的东西可看。(动宾关系) (人教U3) Thers are many ways to make people tough.有很多方法逗人们笑。(偏正关系) ★【即学即练】 【北京卷改】Birds'singingr is sometimes a warning to other hirds (stay)away. 【答案】?to stay 【解析】不定式在句中与 warning是同位关系。 ★【即学即练】【上海卷改】If there is a lot of work (do), I'm happy to just keep on until it is finished. 【答案】?to do 【解析】此处表示未来的动作,不定式与work构成逻辑上的动宾关系。 ★【即学即练】【全国卷改】---The last (arrive) pays the meal!-----Agreed! 【答案】?to arrive 【解析】根据句子结构,此处用非谓语形式,表示未来的动作,用不定式作定语,one与to arrive构成逻辑上的主谓关系。 注意:不定式作定语时,如果与其所修饰的名词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,而不定式动词又是一个不及物词,则不定式后要有相应的分词,如: Give me a pen to write with.给我一支笔写字. You might think that with all these dangerous animals Australia is an unsafe place to live in or visit.澳大利亚有这么多的危动物,你也许会认为在这里居住或到这里旅游很不安全. (人教U3) 还有一种“介词+ which/whom+不定式”的结构也可以作定语,如: The young couple needs a lot of money with which to buy a new house.这对年轻夫妇需要一大笔钱,用来买房子。 不定式作定语时,多表示将来的动作。如: The meeting to be held tomorrow is of great importance.明天要召开的会议非常重要。 6、作状语 不定式做状语,多表目的,也表示结果、原因等。 To make friends easily ,you need to be kind.要想很容易的交朋友,你需要友善。(目的) The poor girl has been collecting seashells to make a living.这位穷苦的女孩一直靠拾贝壳为生。(目的)(人教U5) I am so exicted to be here .(译林U3) 注意: 在强调目的状语时,会出现in order to和so as to,但是so as to不能置于句首。如: In order to persuade people to do something ,advertisements often appeal to our hopes and dreams or our emtions.为了规劝人们去做某事,广告常常激起人们的希望、梦想和情感。(人教U5) 在so ….as to,enough to,only to,too…to等结构中,不定式表结果。 ★【即学即练】【福建卷改】 (learn) more about Chinese culture, Jack has decided to take Chinese folk music as an elective course. 【答案】To learn 【解析】不定式作目的状语。 ★【即学即练】【辽宁卷改】This machine is very easy (operate). Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes. 【答案】to operate 【解析】不定式可用在作表语的形容词后面作状语. ★【即学即练】【四川卷改】Tom took a taxi to the airport,only (find) his plane high up in the sky. 【答案】to find 【解析】不定式与only连用作结果状语,表示出人意料的结果。 一、不定式的否定式 不定式的否定式由“not+不定式”构成。如: Try not to worry it you don't understand every word of the passage如果你不理解文章里的每 一个单词,不要担心。(外研⑥M2) 二、不定式的时态与语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 to write to be written 进行式 to be writing × 完成式 to have written to have been written 1、不定式的时态 不定式的一般式表示其动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生或在谓语动词的动作之后发生;不定式的进行式表示谓语动词的动作发生时,不定式表示的动作正在进行;不定式的完成式表示其动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前,如: People began to wonder how long the disaster would last.人们开始想知道灾难将要持续多久。(不定式 to wonder表示的动作和 began的动作同时发生)(人教U4) She pretended to be reading when her mother came in.她妈妈进来的时候她假装正在看书。(不定式to be reading表示read这一动作在谓语 pretended的动作发生时正在进行) Robert is said to have studied abroad, but I don' t know which country he studied in.据说罗伯 特在国外学习过,但我不知道他是在哪个国家学习的。(不定式 to have studied表示study这 动作发生在谓语 is said之前) ★【即学即练】【 重庆卷改】 The engine just won't start. Something seems (go) wrong with It. 【答案】to have gone 【解析】seems后接不定式作宾语,不定式表示的动作发生在谓语表示的动作或状态之前,故用动词不定式的完成式。 2、不定式的语态 不定式的主动式表示其逻辑主语是不定式动作的执行者;不定式的被动式表示其逻辑主语是不定式动作的承受者。如: It?is?believed?by?many?people?to?have been?gradually?covered?over?by?sandstorms?from?AD?200 to AD500.许多人认为它(古楼兰城)在公元200年至500年期间渐渐被沙尘暴所覆盖。(不定式的逻辑主语是it,与cover是被动关系,且动作发生在?is?believed之前,故用不定式的完成被动式) (译林U3) 注意:不定式的语态由不定式与其主语的关系而定,因此准确辩识不定式的逻辑主语是关键。一般情况下,不定式复合结构作主语时,介词for或of后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语;不定式作宾语时,句子的主语是其逻辑主语;不定式作宾语补足语时,不定式前面的宾语是其逻辑主语;不定式作定语时,不定式所修饰的名词或代词是其逻辑主语或宾语;不定式作状语时,句子的主语是其逻辑主语。 ★ 【即学即练】【 陕西卷改】?His?first?book (publish)next?month?is?based?on?a?true?story. 【答案】to?be?published 【解析】?逻辑主语?book?与publish之间是被动关系,且通过?next?month可知动作将要发生,故用不定式的被动式。 注意: 在easy,?difficult,?hard,?comfortable等形容词作表语或构成复合宾语时,其后不定式通常用主动形式表示被动含义。如: This?sentence?is?difficult?to?translate.这句话很难翻译。 They?found?the?lecture?hard?to?understand他们发现这报告不好懂。 不定式作定语时,如果与其所修饰的名词或代词为动宾关系,但同时与句子中另一个名词或代词为主谓关系,不定式常用主动形式表示被动含义。如: Do?you?have?anything?to?buy?你要买什么东西吗? Give?him?some?books?to?read给他点书看。 ?to?blame作表语时,用主动形式表示被动含义。如:Who?is?to?blame?for?it?这该怪谁呢? 三、“疑问词+不定式”结构 疑问词?who,?what,?which,when,?where,how等后加上不定式相当于名词性从句。同样一句话英语里可用从句和不定式结构来表达,意思没有区别。试比较: I?didn'?t?know?how?I?could?get?back?to?the?village.我不知道怎样回到村子。(宾语从句,较正式) I didn’t?know?how?to?get?back?to?the?village.我不知道怎样回到村子。(“疑问词+不定式”结构作宾语,简洁,较口语化) ★【即学即练】【 四川卷改】 He?told?us?whether (have)?a?picnic?was?still?under?discussion. 【答案】to have 【解析】本题考查的是“?whether+不定式”在宾语从句中作主语。 四、不定式的复合结构 1、有时候不定式前有自己的逻辑主语,用for引出,结构为“for+名词/代词宾格+不定式”的复合结构。 When she arrived at Gombe in 1960, it was unusual for a woman to live in the forest. (人教④U1) 她1960年来到汞贝时,对女性来说,住进大森林还是件很不寻常的事。 2、在kind,silly, foolish, stupid, careless,crue,rude, clever等表示人物特征的形容词后接不定式的复合结构时,介词用of,说明不定式所指对象。如: It' s cruel of them to kill animals.他们屠杀动物,真是太残忍了。 知识点一不定式做不同句子成分的考查 例1.【2018·北京】During the Mid-Autumn Festival, family members often gather together _________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes. A. share B. to share C. having shared D. shared 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式做目的状语。句意:在中秋期间,家人们会通常聚在一起吃饭,赏月,品尝月饼。Gather是谓语动词,“_________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes ”是目的状语,不定式形式表示目的,所以选用B。 点睛:动词不定式可以做主语,状语,定语,宾语,表语等。动词不定式做目的状语时,可以置于主句之前也可以置于主句之后,通常译为“为了”。 变式训练 1: 【2017·北京卷】27. Many airlines now allow passengers to print their boarding passes online ______ their valuable time. A. save B. saving C. to save D. saved 【答案】C 【解析】考查不定式做目的状语。句意:许多航空公司现在允许乘客网上打印他们的登机牌来节省时间。此处是动词不定式表目的,故选C。 例2.【2018·天津】I didn't mean ___________anything but the ice cream looked so good that I couldn’t help_______ it. A. to eat;to try B. eating;trying C. eating;to try D. to eat; trying 【答案】D 【解析】考查不定式和动名词作宾语。句意:我不打算吃任何东西,但冰淇淋看起来如此的好以至于我忍不住的要试一试。固定短语mean to do(打算做,不定式作宾语),couldn’t help doing(忍不住做,doing形式作宾语)。故选D。 点睛:本题考查动词短语固定搭配。同学在平时学习中要多把握动词不同搭配的不同含义,本题需要区分“mean to do打算做”与“mean doing意味着做”和“can’t help to do sth.不能帮助做”与“couldn’t help doing忍不住做”之间的含义。 变式训练 2: 【安徽卷】I remembered the door before I left the office,but forgot to turn off the lights. A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式作宾语。句意:我记得离开办公室时去锁门了,但忘记去关灯了。 本句考查的还有forget的用法。注意:forget to dosth. 忘记去做某事;forget doing sth忘记做过某事;此处符合第一种用法,故选C。 例3.【上海卷】As Jack left his membership card at home,he wasn’t allowed into the sports club. A. going B.to go C. go D. gone 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式作补足语。句意:因为杰克把会员卡丢在家里了,他不被允许进入体育俱乐部。固定短语allow sb. to do sth(允许某人做某事,不定式作宾语补足语),sb be allowed to do sth(某人被允许做某事,不定式作主语补足语)。故选B。 变式训练 3:【北京卷】My advisor encouraged me (take)a summer course to improve my writing skills.(单句语法填空) 【答案】to take 【解析】考查不定式作宾语补足语。句意:我的班主任鼓励我上暑假课程来改善我的写作技巧。根据encourage的用法, encourage sb to do sth. 鼓励某人去做某事;故填to take。 例4.【山东卷】It is standard practical for a company like this one a security officer. A. employed B.being employed C. to employ D. employs 【答案】C 【解析】考查不定式作真正主语。句意:对于像这样的公司来说,雇佣一名安全人员是标准可行的。根据句意可知,It是形式主语,而to employ a security officer是真正主语, 故选C。 变式训练 4: (climb) the mountain road is hard work but to go down the hills is great fun. (单句语法填空) 【答案】To climb 【解析】考查不定式作主语。句意:上山很艰难而下山却很好玩。根据but to go down the hills is great fun推出此句的主语也应为to do的形式;故填To climb。 例5.The airport next year will help you respond quickly to emergencies. A. being completed B.to be completed C. completed D. having been completed 【答案】B 【解析】考查不定式作定语。句意:明年完工的机场将帮助你迅速应对紧急情况。 根据句意可知, next year做的是The airport的定语,the airport与complete是逻辑上的被动关系,又是将来发生的动作,故选B。 变式训练5:【北京卷】Volunteering gives you a chance lives,including your sons. A.change B.changing C. changed D. to change 【答案】D 【解析】考查不定式作定语。句意:志愿服务给你一个改变生活的机会,包括你的儿子。 根据句意可知, lives做的是a chance的定语,a chance to do sth是习惯搭配,故选D。 例6.What he likes to do best on weekends is (listen)to some light music. 【答案】to listen 【解析】考查不定式作表语。句意:每逢周末他最喜欢做的事情就是听听一些轻音乐。 根据句意可知,表语说明的是主语的性质状态,故用to do形式。 知识点二 不定式否定式的考查 例7.【上海卷改】The purpose of new technology is (not,make) life more difficult ,but to make it easier.(单句语法填空) 【答案】not to make 【解析】考查不定式的否定形式。句意:新技术的目的不是是生活更困难,而是更容易。根据表语 (not,make) life more difficult ,but to make it easier和“not….but…不是…而是…”以及not to do sth是不定式的否定形式,推出此处填not to make。 变式训练6:【2018·内蒙古自治区模拟】There is going to ______ an important meeting tomorrow. Please try ______ late. A. have,not to be B. have,not be C. be,not to be D. be,not be 【答案】C 【解析】句意:明天有一个重要会议。请尽力不要迟到。根据句意可知第一句为there be句式,第二句表达“尽力不要做某事try not to do sth”,故选C。 知识点三 不定式时态和语态的考查 例8.【山东卷改】We are invited to a party (hold) in our club next Friday. 【答案】to be held 【解析】考查不定式的语态。不定式作定语,表示一个将来的被动动作,故用不定式的被动式。 变式训练 7: 【北京卷】 There are still many problems before we are ready for a long stay on the moon. A. solving B. solved C. being solved D. to be solved 【答案】D 【解析】考查不定式的语态。句意:在我们准备长时间在月球上停留之前,还有许多问题有待解决。不定式作定语,表示many problems与solve是被动动作,故用不定式的被动式。 知识点四 不定式特殊句式中的考查 例9.【 江西卷改】He is thought (act) foolishly. Now he has no one but himself to blame for losing the job 【答案】to have acted 【解析】考查不定式特殊句式中的应用。句意:他被认为行事愚蠢,现在丢了那份工作,他只能责怪自己了。“be thought+不定式”为固定句式,意为“被认为…”由句意可知他行事愚蠢是在丢掉工作之前,故用不定式的完成式。 变式训练8: 【湖南卷】You were silly not (lock) your car. 【答案】to have locked 【解析】考查不定式特殊句式中的应用。句意:“你没有锁上车真是太傻了”根据句意可知,此处表示be silly to do sth.,但是lock的动作早于谓语动词were,故用不定式的完成时。 一、高考模拟真题练习 1.【2018·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空】?The?government?encourages?farmers to grow corn?instead?of?rice (improve)water quality. 【答案】to improve 【解析】考查非谓语动词中的动词不定式。句意:为了改善水质政府鼓励农民种植玉米而不是大米。谓语动词是encourages,故improve应该用非谓语动词。此处表示目的,故用不定式。故填to improve。 2. 【2018·南昌市质检一语法填空】Once I arrived in China.,my dream was (learn) tai chi and kung fu and master the techniques of martial arts. 【答案】to learn  【解析】考查非谓语动词中的不定式做表语。句意:一到中国,我的梦想就是学习太极和功夫,掌握武术技巧。此处是动词不定式作表语,表示my dream的内容,故填to learn。 3.【2018·天津河北区模拟改语法填空】With five professional hands (help) them next month,these students are sure (complete) the expertment on time. 【答案】to help;to complete  【解析】考查非谓语动词中的不定式做宾补和不定时的特殊结构。句意:下月有五个专业人员将帮助他们,这些学生肯定能按时完成这个实验。with+n/pron+to do (表将来)是with的复合结构,此处With five professional hands (help) them正好符合,故填to help;be sure to do sth表示一定会做某事,是固定句式,故填to complete。 4.【2018·山西联考一语法填空】It is hoped that having one day every year ( celebrate) Mandarin will encourage more people around the world to take it up. 【答案】to celebrate  【解析】考查非谓语动词中动词不定式作定语。句意:希望每年有庆祝普通话的一天会鼓励世界各地更多的人去学习普通话。“one day to do sth用于做….的一天”是类似于“time to do sth”的结构,为固定搭配,故用动词不定式作定语。 5.【2018·太原市质检一语法填空】 This mode of travel provided protection from robbers who might attempt (rob)the valuable goods being transported. 【答案】to rob  【解析】考查非谓语动词中动词不定式作宾语。attempt to do sth尝试/企图做某事,是固定搭配,故用不定式做宾语。 6.【2018·福州市质检语法填空】 “ Every dog has his day” describes a person with a period of good fortune and"work like a dog" is used (describe) a hard worker. 【答案】to describle  【解析】考查非谓语动词中动词不定式作补足语。sth be used to do sth某物被用于做某事,习惯搭配,做主语sth的补足语,故用不定式形式。 7.【2017·北京卷】Many airlines now allow passengers to print their boarding passes online ______ their valuable time. A. save B. saving C. to save D. saved 【答案】C 【解析】考查非谓语动词中的不定式做状语。 句意:许多航空公司现在允许乘客网上打印他们的登机牌来节省时间。此处是动词不定式表目的,故选C。 8.【2017·全国卷Ⅲ语法填空】 But Sarah, who has taken part in shows along with top models, wants (prove) that she has brains as well as beauty. 【答案】to prove  【解析】考查非谓语动词中的动词不定式作宾语。want to do sth为固定搭配,故用动词不定式。 9.【2016·全国卷1语法填空改】I ?was?the?first?Western?TV?reporter permitted (?film)?a? special?unit caring?for?pandas from?starvation?in?the?wild. 【答案】to?film?  【解析】考查非谓语动词中的不定式做定语。句意:关于在野外照顾饥饿的熊猫,我是第一个被允许拍摄一个特殊单元的西方电视记者。the+?序数词?/next /only/last +n.to do sth是习惯搭配,故此处用to?film?作定语。 10.【2016·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空】You find something you love doing outside of the office, you'll be less likely (bring)your work home. 【答案】to bring  【解析】考查非谓语动词中动词不定式的特殊句式。Be likely to do sth为固定搭配,故用动词不定式。 11.【2016·全国卷Ⅲ 语法填空】Skilled workers also combine various hardwoods and metal (create)special designs. 【答案】to design 【解析】考查非谓语动词中的不定式做状语。句意:熟练的工人还将各种硬木和金属结合在一起,以便创造出独特的设计。此处是动词不定式表目的,故填to design。 二、阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式。 (一) Mary:I?have?decided? 1. (leave)?my?job?next?month. John:?But?you?said? 2 (work)in?an?architect's?office?was?enjoyable. Mary:?Oh,?I?did.?But?I?feel?like 3. (do)something different for a while. John:?Didn't?you?promise? 4. ?(?stay)??there?at?least?two?years. Mary:Yes,?I?did?but?I?just?can't?stand?working?with?these?people.?One?of?them?refuses? 5. (stop) talking?while?she?works,?and?another?one? keeps? 6. (sing)?to himself.?And?there?is?a?man? attampting 7. (?tell)?awful?jokes?all?the?time?which he?always?gets?wrong.?I?feel annoyed?with?all?that?noise?around?me. John:?It?sounds?a?quite?cheerful?place?to?me.?Can't?you?think?of?a?way? 8. (solve)your?problem?? You?can?manage? 9. (?ignore)?them?and?get?on?with?your?work. Mary:?No,?I?can't.?I?just?can't carrry?on going?there?every?day.?I'm?hoping? 10. (?go )abroad? for?a?bit. John:?Well! good?luck. 【答案与解析】 1. to leave 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “decide to do sth”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 2.working 考查非谓语doing形式作主语 “2 (work)in?an?architect's?office?”是“?was?enjoyable.”的主语,动词作主语有两种形式,doing和to do,doing表示经常性习惯性的动作或正在发生的动作,to do表示具体的偶然性的动作;此处是第一种情况,故用working。 3.doing 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “feel like doing想要做某事”是习惯搭配,故用doing 形式作介词like的宾语。 4.to stay 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “promise to do sth许诺做某事”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 5.to stop 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “refuse to do sth拒绝做某事”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 6.singing 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “keep doing一直做某事”是习惯搭配,故用doing形式作宾语。 7.to tell 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “attempt to do sth尝试/企图做某事”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 8.to solve考查非谓语doing形式作定语 “a way to do sth做某事的方法”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作定语。 9.to ignore 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “manage to do sth设法做某事”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 10. to go 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 “hope to do sth希望做某事”是习惯搭配,故用to do 形式作宾语。 (二) The Interner is playing a more and more important part in people’s daily life.It is an 1. (amaze) information resource. Students, teachers, and researchers use it as an investigative tool. Journalists use it 2. (find) information for stories. Doctors use it 3 (learn)more about unfamiliar diseases and the latest medical deveopment. Ordinary people use it for shopping, banking billpaying ,and 4 (communicate) with family and friends. People all over the world use it 5 (connect) with individuals from other countries and cultures.However, while there are many positive developments 6. (associate) with the Internet, there are also certain fears and concerns. One concern relates to a lack of control over what appears on the Internet. With television and radio there are editors 7. (check) the accuracy or appropriateness of the content of programs, and with television there are restrictions on other aspects, for example, what kinds of programs can 8. ( broadcast) and at what time of the day. With the Internet, parents cannot check a published guide 9. ( determine) what is suitable for their children 10. (see). 【答案与解析】 1.amazing 考查非谓语doing形式作定语,句意:这是一个惊人的信息资源。“amazing adj. 令人惊异的”指事物的性质。 2.to find 考查非谓语to do形式作宾语补足语“use sth. to do sth使用…做某事”是习惯搭配,故用不定式形式做宾补。 3. to learn 考查非谓语to do形式作宾语补足语 句意:医生用它来了解更多不熟悉的疾病和最新的医疗发展。 “use sth. to do sth使用…做某事”是习惯搭配,故用不定式形式做宾补。 4. communicating 考查非谓语doing形式作宾语 在介词for之后,shopping, banking billpaying ,and (communicate)是并列形式做宾语,都为doing形式。 5. to connect 考查非谓语to do形式作宾语补足语 同2,3的解释。 6. associated? 考查非谓语done形式作定语 句意:然而,尽管有许多有关互联网的积极发展….语境中associate与所修饰词development是动宾关系,故用过去分词作定语。 7. to check 考查非谓语中不定式形式作定语 句意:有了电视和收音机,编辑就可以检查节目内容的准确性或适宜性,而有了电视,就有了其他方面的限制…。editors与check是主动关系,在there be句式中常有there be sb to do sth的习惯搭配,所以用to do形式作定语。 8. be broadcast(ed)? 考查含情态动词的谓语被动形式。broadcast与programs是动宾关系,所以programs做主语时,谓语动词用被动形式。 9. to determine 考查非谓语中不定式形式作目的状语 句意:在互联网上,父母们无法查看出版的指南,以便确定什么适合他们的孩子可以看。“ ( determine) what is suitable for …”表示目的,故用to do形式。 10.to see 考查特殊句式中不定式的使用。符合句式:sth is +adj+for sb +to do ,故用to see。 13
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