[ID:4-4936913] [精]高考一轮复习学案 第17讲 被动语态(解析版+原卷版)
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第17讲 被动语态(原卷版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第11个条目就是被动语态。高考主要以语法填空和短文改错形式对被动语态进行考查,放在篇章当中结合语境和上下文语境的理解,有时与其它语法点结合,一般考一道题,个别省份考两道题,考点大都集中在被动语态的时态,近几年来考查最多的时态是现在完成时,其次是一般过去时态。所以教师在备考过程中应该帮助学生夯实被动语态的基础知识,从而提升语言应用能力。 The moment the 28th Olympic Games______ ( declare) [1] open, the whole world cheered. If they win the final tonight, the team are going to tour around the city _____ (cheer) [2] by their enthusiastic supporters. The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Bolt at the Bird's Nest, who ____ (report) [3] to have broken the world record in the running races. He________ (regard) [4] as a national hero for winning the first gold medal for his country in the Olympics. “Since I won the big prize, my telephone _____ (stop)[5]ringing. People ___ ( phone) [5] to ask??how I am going to spend the money.” 【深思熟虑】 1. were declared 根据句意:“第28届奥运会一被宣布开始…”,是过去的事,用一般过去时的被动语态“was/were+done”。 2. to be cheered 此处是不定时的被动形式做目的状语,表示“to be done表示将来被……”,此处句意为:如果他们今晚赢了决赛的话,这支队伍将在这所城市和热情的支持者一起游行,被欢呼庆祝。 3. was reported句意:据报道,博尔特打破了跑步比赛的世界纪录。表示“被报道过”, 用一般过去时的被动语态“was/were+done”。 4. was regarded 句意:他被认为是一位民族英雄。是过去的事,用一般过去时的被动语态“was/were+done”。 5. hasn't stopped句意:自从我获奖,我的电话就没有停止响过;指从过去开始一直延续到现在的动作。 6. are phoning句意:人们一直打电话来询问我问我如何花这笔钱。指现阶段一直进行的动作,故用现在完成时。 从文章中可以看出,根据动作的执行者还是承受者作主语,英语中的语态也不同。语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。英语中的被动语态由“be+过去分词”构成,be为助动词,有时态,人称和数的变化;而汉语中的被动句则多用“被…”或“为…..所”等句式,有时甚至没有任何标志。英语中的动词也有主动形式表示被动含义的情况。如: The dish tastes nice.这道菜尝起来味道不错。 一、语态定义 语态用来表示主语与谓语之间的关系,它是动词的一种形式。英语中有两种语态:主动语态( Active Voice)和被动语态( Passive voice),主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。 二、主动语态与被动语态的转换 1.主动语态转换为被动语态的步骤:先将主动句中的宾语变为被动句中的主语,再将主动句中的谓语变成被动形式,最后将主动句中的主语变为由by引起的短语并后置。 注意:主动语态变为被动语态时,谓语动词的时态不变;主动句中作宾语的人称代词须变为主格,作主语的人称代词放在介词by之后,需变为宾格;by短语常省略。 主动语态: Charles Dickens wrote this book . (主语) (谓语) (宾语) 被动语态: This book was written by Charles Dickens. (主语) (谓语) (状语) 2.主动语态转换成被动语态的几种情况 主动句为:主语+谓语+宾语 变成被动句时,将宾语变为被动句中的主语。如: The govemment supported the research.政府支持这项研究。(主动句) (外研M4) →The research was reported by the government.这项研究得到了政府的支持。(被动句) 主动句为:主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 变成被动句时,有两种情况: 把间接宾语变为被动句的主语,直接宾语位置不变; 把直接宾语变为被动句的主语,间接宾语前面加上介词to或for。如: My parents bought me a new computer.我父母给我买了一台新电脑。(主动句) →I was bought a new computer.有人给我买了一台新电脑。(被动句) →A new computer was bought for me.有人给我买了一台新电脑。(被动句) 主动句为:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 变成被动句时,将宾语变为被动句的主语,宾语补足语位置不变,如: Peple call this team a cheerleading squad.人们把这个队叫做拉拉队。 (主动句,宾语补足语为 a cheerleading squad) →The team is called a cheerleading squad.这个双被叫做拉社队。 (被动句,主动句中的 a cheerleading squad变成了主语补足语) 在主动句里,使役动词have,make,let以及感官动词see,watch,notice,hear, feel ,observe等后面不接不定式作宾语补足语时,不带to,但变为被动句时,要加上to。如: The manager often makes her work overtime.经理经常让她加班。(主动句) →She is often made to work overtime.她经常被迫加班。(被动句) 主动句为:主语+谓语+宾语从句 变成被动句时,有两种情况:常用it作形式主语,将宾语从句变为主语从句放在句尾。将主动句中从句的主语变为被动句的主语,从句谓语及其他成分改为不定式短语。如: We know that he is the best dentist in the town.我们知道他是城里最好的牙医。(主动句) →It is known to us that he is the best dentist in the town. 我们知道他是城里最好的牙医。(it做被动句的形式主语) →He is known to be the best dentist in the town.他被认为是城里最好的牙医。(主动句中从句的主语变为被动句的主语,从句的谓语动词便成不定式。) 三、不同时态的被动语态 时态 助动词be 过去分词 1、一般现在时 am/is/are done? 2、一般过去时 was/were done? 3、现在进行时 am/is/are being done 4、过去进行时 was/were being done 5、现在完成时 have/has been done 6、过去完成时 had /been done 7、一般将来时 will/shall be am/is/are going to be done 8、过去将来时 would/should be ?was/were going to be done? 9、情态动词 情态动词+be done 被动语态由“be+过去分词“构成,不同时态的被动语态的差别在于be的不同时态 下面为最常用的八种时态的被动语态 1.一般现在时: am/is/are+过去分词 Therefore,?the?Grammys?are?not taken?seriously?by?some?musicians?or music?fans. (外研M4) ★ 【即学即练】【北京改】In?the?spoken?English?of?some?areas?in?the?US,the"r"sounds? at?the?end?of?the?words (drop). 2.一般过去时: was/were+过去分词Researchers?were?brought?in?from?all?over?China?to?develop?the?new?system. (外研 M4) ★【即学即练】【湖南改】I had?a?strong?desire?to?reach?in?and?play?with?the?toy, but (hold)?back?thankfully by?the?shop?window. 3.一般将来时: shall/will be+过去分词 Otherwise,he will?soon?be?abandoned?by?his?company?and?his?fans. (外研 M4) ★ 【即学即练】【安徽改】It is?reported?that?a?space?station (build)?on?the?moon? in?years?to?come. 4.过去将来时:?should/?would?be+过去分词 He?knew?he?would?be?punished?for?his?parking?offence. She?hoped?that?she?would?be?given?a?more?suitable?job. 5.现在进行时: am/?is/?are?being+过去分词In?addition,?many?sea?creatures?are?being?wiped?out?by?fishing?boats.此外,大量的海洋生物正被捕捞船天绝。(译林U2)? ★【即学即练】【湖南改】Would?you?please?keep?silent??The?weather?report (broadcast)and?I?want?to?listen . 6.过去进行时: was/?were?being+过去分词 In both China and?Rome?at?this?time,poetry,?literature?and philosophy?were?being developed. 此时,在中国和罗马,诗歌、文学和哲学正在兴起。(译林U3)? ★ 【即学即练】【湖南改】During?the?period?of?recent?terrorist?activities,?people (always,?warn)not?to?touch an?unattended?bag. 7.现在完成时: have/?has?been+过去分调Some?sports?that?were?part?of?the?Olympics?in?the?past?has?been?removed.有些过去曾是奥达会的比项目如今已被淘汰了。(译林U3) ★【即学即练】【天津卷改】Despite?the?previous?rounds?of?talks,?no?agreement (reach)so?far?by?the?two?sides. 8.过去完成时: had been+过去分词 When we got to the cinema, all the tickets had been sold out. ★【即学即练】【北京卷改】Experiments of this kind (conduct) in both the U.S. and Europe well before the Second World War. 四、其他形式的被动语态 1.含情态动词的被动语态 含情态动词的被动语态由“情态动词+be+过去分词”构成。如: The poem was first published in The Times newspaper on 14th September 1914 and can be seen on war memorials in many parts of the world.这首诗最初刊于1914年9月14日的《泰晤士报》 上,在世界许多地方的战争纪念碑上也都能看到。(外研M6) In order for a new sport to be added, a current sport must be dropped.要增加一个新的运动项目,就得去掉一个现有的项目.。(译林④U2) 2.短语动词的被动语态 有的短语动词相当于及物动词,可以有被动语态,但含有短语动词的主动句变为被动句时,其中的副词或介词不可省。如: His new theory was laughed at by many scientists at that time.当时他的新学说遭到许多科学 家的嘲笑 She was taken to the nearby hospital and was operated on immediately.她被带到附近的医院, 立即实施了手术。 3.其他结构的被动语态 含 be going to,used to,have to, had better等结构变为被动时,只需将其后的动词变为被动形式即可,如: The sports meeting is going to be put off to next week.运动会将被推迟到下周举行。 All kinds of difficulties have to be overcome.必须克服各种国难。 五、被动语态的使用场合 1.不知道动作的执行者或没有必要指出动作的执行者以及强调动作的承受者时,常使用被动 态。如: In the future all shopping will be done online.将来(人们)会在网上购买所有物品。(外研M1) The marathon is the final Olympic event because it is thought to be the hardest.马拉松是奥 的最后一项赛事,因为它被认为是最难的项目。(外研M5) Unlike today's Olympic Games, the ancient games were always held at the same place.与现代奥运会不同,古代奥运会总是在同一地点举行。(译林U2) The trp is organised by a well-known tourist company with a good reputation.这次出游是由 一家声誉很好的旅游公司组织的。(人教U3) ★【即学即练】【山东卷改】We must definitely meet when I'm over. As is planning,I'm coming to Boston around the 15th… 1.不能用于被动语态的动词 一般说来,及物动词都有被动语态,但少数及物动词数及物动词,如: have, leave, become,cost,enter,reach,suit, benefit, lack等以及短语动词take place, lose heart, break out, belong to, consist of等,一般不能用于被动语态。如: When we reached a valley, it became much warmer.我们到达峡谷时,天气就暖和多了。 This book consists of 25 chapters.这本书有25章。 注意:考查语态实际上也同时在考查时态。所以在做这类单项选择时,思路要清晰。才不会出现不必要的丢分。一般分两步走:先确定语态,然后再确定时态,如果主语是动作的执行者,则为主动语态;如果主语是动作的承受者,则用被动语态。时态根据语境和句子结构来确定,基本遵循“时态呼应”的原则。 2.主动形式表示被动意义 (1)感官系动词 taste,feel,look, smell, sound等与形容词连用时,如: The soup smells delicious. (2)动词sell,wash,read,write,wear,play等作不及物动词,与well, easily等副词连用,说明主语的性质状态时,如: His book is selling well. The cloth washes easily. (3)动词 open, shut, start,act, keep, move等作不及物动词单独使用或与can’t , won’t , doesn't等连用,说明主语的状态时,如: The library doesn't open during the holiday . The window won't shut. (4)want, require, need后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。 (5)be worth doing用主动形式表示被动含义。 (6)在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。 This kind of water isn’t fit to drink. The girl isn’t easy to get along with. (7)另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。 3.被动语态与系表结构的区别 从形式上看,被动语态和“be+过去分词”的系表结构一样,但它们是有区别的,如下: 被动语态表示动作,其后常跟有by短语,表示动作的执行者; 系表结构表示状态,其后一般不跟by短语。比较下面句子: 被动语态的以动词be有时可以换成get,构成“get+过去分词”的被动结构。例: They get married?at?last.他们最终结为夫妻。 About 30?passengers?got?killed?in?that?terrible?traffic?accident.在那灰特大交通事故中约有30名乘客丧生。 The?teacher?was pleased?with?her answer.老师对她的回答感到满意。(系表结构) The?teacher?was?pleased?by?her?answer.她的回答令老师满意。(被动语态) The?door?is?closed.门是关着的。(系表结构) The?door?was?closed?by?Alice. 门是艾丽斯关的。(被动语态) My?car?is?made?of?some?special?material?which?is?light?and?can?be?folded?easily.我的汽车是用特殊材料制造的,很轻,而且容易折叠。(系表结构) (北师大③U9) My?car?was?made?in?Germany.我的汽车是德国造的。(被动语态) 4. 被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。 ①be seated坐着 He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。 ②be hidden躲藏 He was hidden behind the door.(He hid himself behind the door.)他藏在门后。 ③be lost迷路 ④be drunk喝醉 ⑤be dressed穿着 The girl was dressed in a red short skirt. 知识点一 被动语态中时态的考查 例1.【2018·天津】My washing machine ___________this week, so I have to wash my clothes by hand. A. was repaired B. is repaired C. is being repaired D. has been repaired 【答案】C 【解析】考查被动语态中的时态。句意:这周我的洗衣机正在修,所以我不得不手洗衣服。根据后句so I have to wash my clothes by hand.可知,洗衣机正在修,故用现在进行时态的被动。故选C。 点睛:分析选项可以知道,4个选项都用了被动语态,本题考查的其实是不同的时态。选项A是过去时;选项B是一般现在时的被动;选项C是现在进行时;选项D是现在完成时。再结合语境进行分析,最终判断出最佳答案。 变式训练 1: 【2018·江苏】I?was?sent?to?the?village?last?month?to?see?how?the?development?plan?_______ in?the?past two years. A. had?been?carried?out B. would be carried out C. is?being?carried?out D. has been carried out 变式训练 2: 【2017·江苏卷】He that he doesn’t qualify for the scholarship because of his academic background, so he is very upset A. has been informed B. had been informed C.is informed D.will be informed 知识点二 时态和语态的综合考查 例2.【2018·北京】9. A rescue worker risked his life saving two tourists who _________ in the mountains for two days. A. are trapping B. have been trapped C. were trapping D. had been trapped 【答案】D 【解析】考查时态和语态。句意:一位救援人员冒着生命危险营救了两位被困在山里两天的旅游者。who _______ in the mountains for two days是定语从句,修饰two tourists,two tourists与trap之间是被动关系,所以该空用被动语态,被困发生在挽救他们之前,即“过去的过去”所以应用过去完成时态,故选D。 点睛:过去完成时表示过去某一时间或动作以前已经发生或完成了的动作,即“过去的过去”,其表达形式为had done,被动语态的表达形式为had been done。 变式训练 3:【2017·北京卷】In the 1950s in the USA, most families had just one phone at home, and wireless phones _______ yet. A. haven’t invented B. haven’t been invented C. hadn’t invented D. hadn’t been invented 变式训练 4:【2017·江苏卷】He hurried home, never once looking back to see if he _______. A. was being followed B. was following C. had been followed D. followed 知识点三 无被动形式的词汇或短语的考查 例3.【重庆卷改】Professor Williams keeps telling his students that the future (belong) to the well-educated. 【答案】belongs 【解析】belong to不能用于进行时,也不能用于被动语态。 变式训练 5: This kindof silk cloth (date) back to Tang Dynasty. 知识点四 主动表示被动的考查 例4.【全国卷改】The water (feel) cool when I jumped into the pool for morning exercise. 【答案】felt 【解析】feel在此作系动词。意为“给人…感觉,被感觉起来是…”,主动形式表示被动意义。 变式训练6: 【重庆卷】A Midsummer Night’s Dream___________at the Theatre Royal on the 19th June and then tours through out Scotland. A. opens B. is opened C. will open D. will be opened 知识点四 主动与被动混淆的考查 例5. 【2017·全国卷Ⅲ改错】About one month after this photo was took, I entered my second year of high school and became a new member of the school music club. 【答案】took→taken  【解析】考点:考查一般过去时语态的构成。根据this photo与 take为被动关系,再根据一般过去时的被动语态构成:was/were+done,故把took改为过去分词taken。 变式训练7: 【2018·马鞍山测试改错】With the development of technology, more and more consumers are given up traditional payment methods for digital currency. 例6.The giant machine is hard to (test). 【答案】test 【解析】考查固定句式中的语态。在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动表示被动。此处“机器被测试”故用test。 一、高考模拟真题练习 1. 【2018·江苏改】Hopefully?in?2025?we?will?no?longer?be?e-mailing?each?other, for more convenient electronic communication?tools?_______?by?then. A. have been developed B. had?been developed C. will?have?been developed D. will?have developed 2.【2018·江苏】Hopefully?in?2025?we?will?no?longer?be?e-mailing?each?other, for?we _______ more convenient electronic communication?tools?by?then. A. have developed B. had?developed C. will?have?developed D. developed 3. 【2017·全国卷1语法填空】When fat and salt________ (remove) from food, the food tastes as if it is missing something. 4.【2018·长沙市联考改错】To collect opinions from the public,an online survey has made these days. 5.【2018·贵阳监测改错】Once I went to the market with mymum for a big dinner on Saturday. When we were walking past the stalls, a loud noise was caught my attention. 二、阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式。 (一) Air?pollution?is?becoming?more?and?more?serious.?Everyone?should?be?concerned?about the problem .It 1. (affect)?us?all,?and?as?it?continues?to?worsen,?so?the environmental? impact?increases.?One?of?the?major?causes?of?air?pollution?in?cities?is?car?use.Cars 2. (use)for even?the?shortest?of?journeys,and all?efforts?by?governments to?encourage?people? to?use?public?transport?seem?to?be?failing.?Industry?is?another major cause of?pollution in our cities,but fortunately,new industrial sites? 3. (build)?away from?large?urban?centres now. It? 4.? (say)?that?there factors?for?us?to?decide but?I?believe exactly?which?one?is?the? main?problem,?but I believe?that?one?of?the?most?serious?problems that needs?to?deal with?is?the?use?of?the?car.?In?some?cities?laws? 5. (pass) concerning car?use.Athens,?for? example,?only? 6. ? (allow)?a?certain?number?of?cars?into?the city?centre.?In?my?opinion,? this?is?a?good?idea.?With?this?kind?of?law,?people?have?no?choice?and 7. (force)?to?use? buses?and?trains.Then?public?transport? 8. ?(use). (二) In?recent?years?many?plans? 1. (make)?for?large floating cities with?living accommodation?for?as?many?as?50,000?people.?One?such?project?which 2. (advertise)? is?the Freedom?Ship.?According?to?the?plans?for?this?project,?this?huge?ship 3. (construct) from?smaller?units,?which? 4. (take)?out?to sea?for?final?assembly?(组装).?The?ship?5. (power)?by?100?engines,?and?the residents?on?board? 6. ?(carry)around?the?world? continuously.The?large?numberof?people?on?the?ship? 7.? (provide)?with?allkinds?of entertainment?and?sports facilities,and?modern?recycling?methods 8. (use)?to?save energy? on?board.At the?time?of?writing,?this?project 9. (not build )and 10. (criticize)?by some? people?who?say?it?is?too?expensive.?We?shall?have?to?wait?and?see?whether?this?plan ever becomes?reality. 7 第17讲 被动语态(解析版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第11个条目就是被动语态。高考主要以语法填空和短文改错形式对被动语态进行考查,放在篇章当中结合语境和上下文语境的理解,有时与其它语法点结合,一般考一道题,个别省份考两道题,考点大都集中在被动语态的时态,近几年来考查最多的时态是现在完成时,其次是一般过去时态。所以教师在备考过程中应该帮助学生夯实被动语态的基础知识,从而提升语言应用能力。 The moment the 28th Olympic Games______ ( declare) [1] open, the whole world cheered. If they win the final tonight, the team are going to tour around the city _____ (cheer) [2] by their enthusiastic supporters. The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Bolt at the Bird's Nest, who ____ (report) [3] to have broken the world record in the running races. He________ (regard) [4] as a national hero for winning the first gold medal for his country in the Olympics. “Since I won the big prize, my telephone _____ (stop)[5]ringing. People ___ ( phone) [5] to ask??how I am going to spend the money.” 【深思熟虑】 1. were declared 根据句意:“第28届奥运会一被宣布开始…”,是过去的事,用一般过去时的被动语态“was/were+done”。 2. to be cheered 此处是不定时的被动形式做目的状语,表示“to be done表示将来被……”,此处句意为:如果他们今晚赢了决赛的话,这支队伍将在这所城市和热情的支持者一起游行,被欢呼庆祝。 3. was reported句意:据报道,博尔特打破了跑步比赛的世界纪录。表示“被报道过”, 用一般过去时的被动语态“was/were+done”。 4. was regarded 句意:他被认为是一位民族英雄。是过去的事,用一般过去时的被动语态“was/were+done”。 5. hasn't stopped句意:自从我获奖,我的电话就没有停止响过;指从过去开始一直延续到现在的动作。 6. are phoning句意:人们一直打电话来询问我问我如何花这笔钱。指现阶段一直进行的动作,故用现在完成时。 从文章中可以看出,根据动作的执行者还是承受者作主语,英语中的语态也不同。语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。英语中的被动语态由“be+过去分词”构成,be为助动词,有时态,人称和数的变化;而汉语中的被动句则多用“被…”或“为…..所”等句式,有时甚至没有任何标志。英语中的动词也有主动形式表示被动含义的情况。如: The dish tastes nice.这道菜尝起来味道不错。 一、语态定义 语态用来表示主语与谓语之间的关系,它是动词的一种形式。英语中有两种语态:主动语态( Active Voice)和被动语态( Passive voice),主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。 二、主动语态与被动语态的转换 1.主动语态转换为被动语态的步骤:先将主动句中的宾语变为被动句中的主语,再将主动句中的谓语变成被动形式,最后将主动句中的主语变为由by引起的短语并后置。 注意:主动语态变为被动语态时,谓语动词的时态不变;主动句中作宾语的人称代词须变为主格,作主语的人称代词放在介词by之后,需变为宾格;by短语常省略。 主动语态: Charles Dickens wrote this book . (主语) (谓语) (宾语) 被动语态: This book was written by Charles Dickens. (主语) (谓语) (状语) 2.主动语态转换成被动语态的几种情况 主动句为:主语+谓语+宾语 变成被动句时,将宾语变为被动句中的主语。如: The govemment supported the research.政府支持这项研究。(主动句) (外研M4) →The research was reported by the government.这项研究得到了政府的支持。(被动句) 主动句为:主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 变成被动句时,有两种情况: 把间接宾语变为被动句的主语,直接宾语位置不变; 把直接宾语变为被动句的主语,间接宾语前面加上介词to或for。如: My parents bought me a new computer.我父母给我买了一台新电脑。(主动句) →I was bought a new computer.有人给我买了一台新电脑。(被动句) →A new computer was bought for me.有人给我买了一台新电脑。(被动句) 主动句为:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 变成被动句时,将宾语变为被动句的主语,宾语补足语位置不变,如: Peple call this team a cheerleading squad.人们把这个队叫做拉拉队。 (主动句,宾语补足语为 a cheerleading squad) →The team is called a cheerleading squad.这个双被叫做拉社队。 (被动句,主动句中的 a cheerleading squad变成了主语补足语) 在主动句里,使役动词have,make,let以及感官动词see,watch,notice,hear, feel ,observe等后面不接不定式作宾语补足语时,不带to,但变为被动句时,要加上to。如: The manager often makes her work overtime.经理经常让她加班。(主动句) →She is often made to work overtime.她经常被迫加班。(被动句) 主动句为:主语+谓语+宾语从句 变成被动句时,有两种情况:常用it作形式主语,将宾语从句变为主语从句放在句尾。将主动句中从句的主语变为被动句的主语,从句谓语及其他成分改为不定式短语。如: We know that he is the best dentist in the town.我们知道他是城里最好的牙医。(主动句) →It is known to us that he is the best dentist in the town. 我们知道他是城里最好的牙医。(it做被动句的形式主语) →He is known to be the best dentist in the town.他被认为是城里最好的牙医。(主动句中从句的主语变为被动句的主语,从句的谓语动词便成不定式。) 三、不同时态的被动语态 时态 助动词be 过去分词 1、一般现在时 am/is/are done? 2、一般过去时 was/were done? 3、现在进行时 am/is/are being done 4、过去进行时 was/were being done 5、现在完成时 have/has been done 6、过去完成时 had /been done 7、一般将来时 will/shall be am/is/are going to be done 8、过去将来时 would/should be ? ?was/were going to be done? 9、情态动词 情态动词+be done 被动语态由“be+过去分词“构成,不同时态的被动语态的差别在于be的不同时态 下面为最常用的八种时态的被动语态 1.一般现在时: am/is/are+过去分词 Therefore,?the?Grammys?are?not taken?seriously?by?some?musicians?or music?fans. (外研M4) ★ 【即学即练】【北京改】In?the?spoken?English?of?some?areas?in?the?US,the"r"sounds? at?the?end?of?the?words (drop). 【答案】are?dropped 【解析】句子说明的是美国某些地方发音的现实情况,另外“r”?sounds与drop是被动关系。2.一般过去时: was/were+过去分词Researchers?were?brought?in?from?all?over?China?to?develop?the?new?system. (外研 M4) ★【即学即练】【湖南改】I had?a?strong?desire?to?reach?in?and?play?with?the?toy, but (hold)?back?thankfully by?the?shop?window. 【答案】?was?held 【解析】由前一分句谓语动词为一般过去时可知,hold用一般过去时,又因为I与hold为被动关系,故hold应为一般过去式的被动语态。 3.一般将来时: shall/will be+过去分词 Otherwise,he will?soon?be?abandoned?by?his?company?and?his?fans. (外研 M4) ★ 【即学即练】【安徽改】It is?reported?that?a?space?station (build)?on?the?moon? in?years?to?come. 【答案】?will be built 【解析】时间状语years to come 可知,从句谓语动词应用一般将来时,又因为a space?station与bulid为被动关系,故hold应用一般将来时的被动语态。 4.过去将来时:?should/?would?be+过去分词 He?knew?he?would?be?punished?for?his?parking?offence. She?hoped?that?she?would?be?given?a?more?suitable?job. 5.现在进行时: am/?is/?are?being+过去分词In?addition,?many?sea?creatures?are?being?wiped?out?by?fishing?boats.此外,大量的海洋生物正被捕捞船天绝。(译林U2)? ★【即学即练】【湖南改】Would?you?please?keep?silent??The?weather?report (broadcast)and?I?want?to?listen . 【答案】?is being broadcast 【解析】由语境可知,此时正在播报天气预报,?the?weather?report与broadcast是被动关系,故用现在进行时的被动语态。 6.过去进行时: was/?were?being+过去分词 In both China and?Rome?at?this?time,poetry,?literature?and philosophy?were?being developed. 此时,在中国和罗马,诗歌、文学和哲学正在兴起。(译林U3)? ★ 【即学即练】【湖南改】During?the?period?of?recent?terrorist?activities,?people (always,?warn)not?to?touch an?unattended?bag. 【答案】were?always?being?warned? 【解析】always与进行时连用,表动作的重复,常带有说话者的感情色彩。people与warn之同是被动关系,故用过去进行时的被动语态。 7.现在完成时: have/?has?been+过去分调Some?sports?that?were?part?of?the?Olympics?in?the?past?has?been?removed.有些过去曾是奥达会的比项目如今已被淘汰了。(译林U3) ★【即学即练】【天津卷改】Despite?the?previous?rounds?of?talks,?no?agreement (reach)so?far?by?the?two?sides. 【答案】has?been?reached? 【解析】根据“so far到目前为止”可知谓语动词应用现在完成时,又因为agreement与reach 是被动关系,故应用现在完成时的被动语态。 8.过去完成时: had been+过去分词 When we got to the cinema, all the tickets had been sold out. ★【即学即练】【北京卷改】Experiments of this kind (conduct) in both the U.S. and Europe well before the Second World War. 【答案】had been conducted 【解析】experments和 conduct是被动关系,故用被动语态;根据时间状语 before the Second World War可知,谓语动词发生在过去的过去,故用过去完成时 四、其他形式的被动语态 1.含情态动词的被动语态 含情态动词的被动语态由“情态动词+be+过去分词”构成。如: The poem was first published in The Times newspaper on 14th September 1914 and can be seen on war memorials in many parts of the world.这首诗最初刊于1914年9月14日的《泰晤士报》 上,在世界许多地方的战争纪念碑上也都能看到。(外研M6) In order for a new sport to be added, a current sport must be dropped.要增加一个新的运动项目,就得去掉一个现有的项目.。(译林④U2) 2.短语动词的被动语态 有的短语动词相当于及物动词,可以有被动语态,但含有短语动词的主动句变为被动句时,其中的副词或介词不可省。如: His new theory was laughed at by many scientists at that time.当时他的新学说遭到许多科学 家的嘲笑 She was taken to the nearby hospital and was operated on immediately.她被带到附近的医院, 立即实施了手术。 3.其他结构的被动语态 含 be going to,used to,have to, had better等结构变为被动时,只需将其后的动词变为被动形式即可,如: The sports meeting is going to be put off to next week.运动会将被推迟到下周举行。 All kinds of difficulties have to be overcome.必须克服各种国难。 五、被动语态的使用场合 1.不知道动作的执行者或没有必要指出动作的执行者以及强调动作的承受者时,常使用被动 态。如: In the future all shopping will be done online.将来(人们)会在网上购买所有物品。(外研M1) The marathon is the final Olympic event because it is thought to be the hardest.马拉松是奥 的最后一项赛事,因为它被认为是最难的项目。(外研M5) Unlike today's Olympic Games, the ancient games were always held at the same place.与现代奥运会不同,古代奥运会总是在同一地点举行。(译林U2) The trp is organised by a well-known tourist company with a good reputation.这次出游是由 一家声誉很好的旅游公司组织的。(人教U3) ★【即学即练】【山东卷改】We must definitely meet when I'm over. As is planning,I'm coming to Boston around the 15th… 【答案】planning- planned 【解析】as is planned为非限制性定语从句,as指代的内容与plan是被动关系,此应用被动语态,改为planned。 1.不能用于被动语态的动词 一般说来,及物动词都有被动语态,但少数及物动词数及物动词,如: have, leave, become,cost,enter,reach,suit, benefit, lack等以及短语动词take place, lose heart, break out, belong to, consist of等,一般不能用于被动语态。如: When we reached a valley, it became much warmer.我们到达峡谷时,天气就暖和多了。 This book consists of 25 chapters.这本书有25章。 注意:考查语态实际上也同时在考查时态。所以在做这类单项选择时,思路要清晰。才不会出现不必要的丢分。一般分两步走:先确定语态,然后再确定时态,如果主语是动作的执行者,则为主动语态;如果主语是动作的承受者,则用被动语态。时态根据语境和句子结构来确定,基本遵循“时态呼应”的原则。 2.主动形式表示被动意义 (1)感官系动词 taste,feel,look, smell, sound等与形容词连用时,如: The soup smells delicious. (2)动词sell,wash,read,write,wear,play等作不及物动词,与well, easily等副词连用,说明主语的性质状态时,如: His book is selling well. The cloth washes easily. (3)动词 open, shut, start,act, keep, move等作不及物动词单独使用或与can’t , won’t , doesn't等连用,说明主语的状态时,如: The library doesn't open during the holiday . The window won't shut. (4)want, require, need后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。 (5)be worth doing用主动形式表示被动含义。 (6)在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。 This kind of water isn’t fit to drink. The girl isn’t easy to get along with. (7)另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。 3.被动语态与系表结构的区别 从形式上看,被动语态和“be+过去分词”的系表结构一样,但它们是有区别的,如下: 被动语态表示动作,其后常跟有by短语,表示动作的执行者; 系表结构表示状态,其后一般不跟by短语。比较下面句子: 被动语态的以动词be有时可以换成get,构成“get+过去分词”的被动结构。例: They get married?at?last.他们最终结为夫妻。 About 30?passengers?got?killed?in?that?terrible?traffic?accident.在那灰特大交通事故中约有30名乘客丧生。 The?teacher?was pleased?with?her answer.老师对她的回答感到满意。(系表结构) The?teacher?was?pleased?by?her?answer.她的回答令老师满意。(被动语态) The?door?is?closed.门是关着的。(系表结构) The?door?was?closed?by?Alice. 门是艾丽斯关的。(被动语态) My?car?is?made?of?some?special?material?which?is?light?and?can?be?folded?easily.我的汽车是用特殊材料制造的,很轻,而且容易折叠。(系表结构) (北师大③U9) My?car?was?made?in?Germany.我的汽车是德国造的。(被动语态) 4. 被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。 ①be seated坐着 He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。 ②be hidden躲藏 He was hidden behind the door.(He hid himself behind the door.)他藏在门后。 ③be lost迷路 ④be drunk喝醉 ⑤be dressed穿着 The girl was dressed in a red short skirt. 知识点一 被动语态中时态的考查 例1.【2018·天津】My washing machine ___________this week, so I have to wash my clothes by hand. A. was repaired B. is repaired C. is being repaired D. has been repaired 【答案】C 【解析】考查被动语态中的时态。句意:这周我的洗衣机正在修,所以我不得不手洗衣服。根据后句so I have to wash my clothes by hand.可知,洗衣机正在修,故用现在进行时态的被动。故选C。 点睛:分析选项可以知道,4个选项都用了被动语态,本题考查的其实是不同的时态。选项A是过去时;选项B是一般现在时的被动;选项C是现在进行时;选项D是现在完成时。再结合语境进行分析,最终判断出最佳答案。 变式训练 1: 【2018·江苏】I?was?sent?to?the?village?last?month?to?see?how?the?development?plan?_______ in?the?past two years. A. had?been?carried?out B. would be carried out C. is?being?carried?out D. has been carried out 【答案】A 【解析】考查被动语态中的时态。句意:上个月我被派到村里去看看在过去的两年里发展计划是如何执行的。根据句中时间状语last month和in the past two years可知用过去完成时。故选A。 点睛:句中包含的时间状语是解答此题的突破点。所以要做好此类题,一定要注意题中有没有明确的时间点,或者其他可以代替时间点的词,所以根据时间状语可以看出正确答案。本题的关键在于抓住题干中的两个时间状语last month和in the past two years,从而得出答案。 变式训练 2: 【2017·江苏卷】He that he doesn’t qualify for the scholarship because of his academic background, so he is very upset A. has been informed B. had been informed C.is informed D.will be informed 【答案】A 【解析】考查被动语态中的时态。句意:他已经被告知由于教育背景的原因而没有资格获得奖学金,因此很沮丧。主语he和inform是被动关系,qualify for sth.达标,获得参赛资格。强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响,故选A。 知识点二 时态和语态的综合考查 例2.【2018·北京】9. A rescue worker risked his life saving two tourists who _________ in the mountains for two days. A. are trapping B. have been trapped C. were trapping D. had been trapped 【答案】D 【解析】考查时态和语态。句意:一位救援人员冒着生命危险营救了两位被困在山里两天的旅游者。who _______ in the mountains for two days是定语从句,修饰two tourists,two tourists与trap之间是被动关系,所以该空用被动语态,被困发生在挽救他们之前,即“过去的过去”所以应用过去完成时态,故选D。 点睛:过去完成时表示过去某一时间或动作以前已经发生或完成了的动作,即“过去的过去”,其表达形式为had done,被动语态的表达形式为had been done。 变式训练 3:【2017·北京卷】In the 1950s in the USA, most families had just one phone at home, and wireless phones _______ yet. A. haven’t invented B. haven’t been invented C. hadn’t invented D. hadn’t been invented 【答案】D 【解析】句意:在美国20世纪50年代的时候,大多数的家庭家里只有一部电话,并且无线电话还根本没有发明出来。根据句意可知用被动语态,排除AC,事情发生在过去,与现在无关,不用现在完成时,排除B,故选D,过去完成时的被动语态。 变式训练 4:【2017·江苏卷】He hurried home, never once looking back to see if he _______. A. was being followed B. was following C. had been followed D. followed 【答案】A 【解析】考查动词的时态和语态。he和follow是动宾关系,即他被别人跟踪,排除B/D;根据句意“在匆忙赶回家的路上,他从未回头看是否被跟踪”,用过去进行时最合适,故选A。 知识点三 无被动形式的词汇或短语的考查 例3.【重庆卷改】Professor Williams keeps telling his students that the future (belong) to the well-educated. 【答案】belongs 【解析】belong to不能用于进行时,也不能用于被动语态。 变式训练 5: This kindof silk cloth (date) back to Tang Dynasty. 【答案】dates 【解析】date back to常用一般现在时,不能用于被动语态。 知识点四 主动表示被动的考查 例4.【全国卷改】The water (feel) cool when I jumped into the pool for morning exercise. 【答案】felt 【解析】feel在此作系动词。意为“给人…感觉,被感觉起来是…”,主动形式表示被动意义。 变式训练6: 【重庆卷】A Midsummer Night’s Dream___________at the Theatre Royal on the 19th June and then tours through out Scotland. A. opens B. is opened C. will open D. will be opened 【答案】A 【解析】句意:“6月19日,仲夏夜之梦在皇家剧院上演,然后在苏格兰进行巡回演出。”根据句意可知,此处表示经常性的事实,故用一般现在时。此处open为不及物动词,开始之意,和后面的tours 形成并列谓语。故选A。 知识点四 主动与被动混淆的考查 例5. 【2017·全国卷Ⅲ改错】About one month after this photo was took, I entered my second year of high school and became a new member of the school music club. 【答案】took→taken  【解析】考点:考查一般过去时语态的构成。根据this photo与 take为被动关系,再根据一般过去时的被动语态构成:was/were+done,故把took改为过去分词taken。 变式训练7: 【2018·马鞍山测试改错】With the development of technology, more and more consumers are given up traditional payment methods for digital currency. 【答案】given→giving  【解析】考点:考查主动与被动混淆。句意:随着技术的发展,越来越多的消费者放弃了传统的数字货币支付方式。根据consumers与give up是主动关系,又根据With the development of technology故用现在进行时的主动语态。 例6.The giant machine is hard to (test). 【答案】test 【解析】考查固定句式中的语态。在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动表示被动。此处“机器被测试”故用test。 一、高考模拟真题练习 1. 【2018·江苏改】Hopefully?in?2025?we?will?no?longer?be?e-mailing?each?other, for more convenient electronic communication?tools?_______?by?then. A. have been developed B. had?been developed C. will?have?been developed D. will?have developed 【答案】C 【解析】考查时态和语态。句意:希望在2025年,我们不再互相发电子邮件,因为到那时候更方便的电子通信工具将已经被开发出来。根据时间状语in 2025,可知用将来时;再根据时间状语by then到那时,可知用完成时。tools与develop是被动关系。结合三者可知用将来完成时的被动语态。故选C。 2.【2018·江苏】Hopefully?in?2025?we?will?no?longer?be?e-mailing?each?other, for?we _______ more convenient electronic communication?tools?by?then. A. have developed B. had?developed C. will?have?developed D. developed 【答案】C 【解析】考查时态。句意:希望在2025年,我们不再互相发电子邮件,因为到那时候我们将开发更方便的电子通信工具。根据时间状语in 2025,可知用将来时;再根据时间状语by then到那时,可知用完成时。结合两者可知用将来完成时。故选C。 3. 【2017·全国卷1语法填空】When fat and salt________ (remove) from food, the food tastes as if it is missing something. 【答案】are removed  【解析】句意:当脂肪和盐从食物中去除时,食物尝起来好像少了什么东西。fat and salt和remove是被动关系,根据语境和后面的tastes,要用一般现在时的被动。 4.【2018·长沙市联考改错】To collect opinions from the public,an online survey has made these days. 【答案】has made之间加been  【解析】句意:为了收集公众的意见,最近进行了一项网上调查。词组:make a survey,survey与make为被动关系,现在完成时的被动:has/have been+done,故加been。 5.【2018·贵阳监测改错】Once I went to the market with mymum for a big dinner on Saturday. When we were walking past the stalls, a loud noise was caught my attention. 【答案】was caught中的was去掉  【解析】句意:有一次我和妈妈去市场吃了一顿丰盛的晚餐。当我们走过摊位时,一声巨响引起了我的注意。a loud noise 与 caught my attention为主动关系. 二、阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式。 (一) Air?pollution?is?becoming?more?and?more?serious.?Everyone?should?be?concerned?about the problem .It 1. (affect)?us?all,?and?as?it?continues?to?worsen,?so?the environmental? impact?increases.?One?of?the?major?causes?of?air?pollution?in?cities?is?car?use.Cars 2. (use)for even?the?shortest?of?journeys,and all?efforts?by?governments to?encourage?people? to?use?public?transport?seem?to?be?failing.?Industry?is?another major cause of?pollution in our cities,but fortunately,new industrial sites? 3. (build)?away from?large?urban?centres now. It? 4.? (say)?that?there factors?for?us?to?decide but?I?believe exactly?which?one?is?the? main?problem,?but I believe?that?one?of?the?most?serious?problems that needs?to?deal with?is?the?use?of?the?car.?In?some?cities?laws? 5. (pass) concerning car?use.Athens,?for? example,?only? 6. ? (allow)?a?certain?number?of?cars?into?the city?centre.?In?my?opinion,? this?is?a?good?idea.?With?this?kind?of?law,?people?have?no?choice?and 7. (force)?to?use? buses?and?trains.Then?public?transport? 8. ?(use). 【答案与解析】 1.affects句意:它影响我们所有人,并且会变得越来越严重。It与affect是主动关系。又指现在的客观事实,所以用一般现在时的主动语态。 2.are used 句意:汽车即使在最短途的旅行也经常被使用。Cars与uses是主动关系,指现在的客观事实,所以用一般现在时的主动语态。 3. are being built 句意:幸运的是,新的工业区现在都正在在远离大型城市中心的地方被建造。主语与所给动词是被动关系,又指现阶段的正在进行的动作,故用现在进行时的被动。 4. is said 固定句式:It is said that…据说…。 5. have been passed 句意:在一些城市已经通过了关于汽车使用的法律。laws与pass是被动关系。又强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响,所以用现在完成时的被动语态。 6. allows 语境说的是现在的事实,Athens与allow是主动关系,故用一般现在时的单三形式allows。 7. are forced 句意:有了这种法律,人们别无选择,被迫乘坐公共汽车和火车。然后公共交通工具将被使用。people 与force是被动关系,指现在的事实,故用一般现在时的被动语态。 8. will be used 句意参看7的解释,public?transport与use是被动关系,又指将来的动作,故用一般将来时的被动。 (二) In?recent?years?many?plans? 1. (make)?for?large floating cities with?living accommodation?for?as?many?as?50,000?people.?One?such?project?which 2. (advertise)? is?the Freedom?Ship.?According?to?the?plans?for?this?project,?this?huge?ship 3. (construct) from?smaller?units,?which? 4. (take)?out?to sea?for?final?assembly?(组装).?The?ship?5. (power)?by?100?engines,?and?the residents?on?board? 6. ?(carry)around?the?world? continuously.The?large?numberof?people?on?the?ship? 7.? (provide)?with?allkinds?of entertainment?and?sports facilities,and?modern?recycling?methods 8. (use)?to?save energy? on?board.At the?time?of?writing,?this?project 9. (not build )and 10. (criticize)?by some? people?who?say?it?is?too?expensive.?We?shall?have?to?wait?and?see?whether?this?plan ever becomes?reality. 【答案与解析】 1. have been made 句意:近年来,许多计划已经被制定了,为多达5万人提供居住的大型漂浮城市。“make plans”是习惯搭配,故plans与make是被动关系。又强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响,所以用现在完成时的被动语态。 2.has been advertised “which…..”是“?One?such?project”的定语从句,which指代project,又因为advertise与project是被动关系,且语境强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响,所以用现在完成时的被动语态。 3.will be constructed 语境很明显说的是未来的动作,?this?huge?ship与construct是被动关系,所以用将来时的被动。 4.will be taken 句意:这艘巨大的船将由更小的单位组建而成,将在海上进行最后组装。指将来,又因为smaller?units与take是被动关系,所以用将来时的被动语态。 5.will be powered 句意:这艘船将由100个引擎提供动力,船上的居民将被连续在世界各地巡游。指将来,又因为the ship与power是被动关系,所以用将来时的被动语态。 6.will be carried 句意参考5的解释。指将来的动作,又因为the residents与carry是被动关系,所以用将来时的被动语态。 7.will be provided 句意:在船上的许多人将被提供给各种娱乐和体育设施,现代回收方法将用于节约能源。指将来的动作,又因为主语与所给动词是被动关系,所以用将来时的被动语态。 8.will be used 根据7的解释。 9.has not been built 句意:在撰写本文的时候,这个项目还没有建立起来,并且受到了一些人的批评。有人说太贵了。我们将不得不拭目以待,看看这个计划是否会成为现实。this?project与bulid是被动关系。又强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响,所以用现在完成时的被动语态。 10. has been criticized 根据10的解释。 4
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