[ID:4-4923893] [精]高考一轮复习学案 第16讲 完成时态与将来时态(解析版+原卷版)
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第16讲 完成时态与将来时态(原卷版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第10个条目就是时态。通过对近几年全国课标卷的研究发现,除语篇理解和完形填空文章中出现不同时态的句子外,时态或语态已成为语篇型填空和短文改错的必考内容。每份试卷会有2-3各小题,通过上下文语境的设置,考查这一语法项目,其中完成时态频率较高些。所以教师在学生备考阶段注意从基础着手,强调语境理解和上下文提示,提高考生的语言灵活运用能力。 Planning so far ahead makes no sense — so many things will have changed [1]by next year. The palace caught fire three times in the last century, and little of the original building remains now. Have you heard [2]about that fire in the market? Fortunately no one was hurt. Peter had intended [3]to take a job in business, but abandoned that plan after the unpleasant experience in Canada in 2010. "Life is like walking in the snow", Granny used to say, "because every step shows ”. The hard work that you do now will be repaid[4] later in life. If you plant watermelon seeds in the spring, you will be eating [5]fresh watermelon in the fall. Close the door of fear behind you, and you will see [6]the door of faith open before you .Don’t worry. 【深思熟虑】 1. will have changed 根据后面“by next years到明年为止”表示完成的动作对将来的影响,此处用将来完成时。 2. Have…heard 表示过去的动作对现在造成的影响,故用现在完成时。 3. had intended表示“Peter 本打算从事商业工作…”,之动作发生abandoned之前,即在过去的过去,故用过去完成时。 4. will be repaired 句意:你现在付出的艰苦工作在以后生活中会被回报的。指将来,故用将来时的被动。 5.will be eating 句意:在秋天你将正在品尝美味的西瓜;指将来某事某刻正在进行的动作。 6. will see句意:关上身后恐惧之门,你将会看到信心之门在你面前打开。指将来的动作,故用一般将来时。 英语文章在叙述不同时间发生的事情或动作时,常常需要用不同时态来表达;从表面看,时态形式千变万化,但从内在联系看(注意蓝色字体),不难发现其中的规律。 一、时态定义 所谓时态,就是动作行为的时间状态。时间有现在、过去、将来、过去将来;动作分一般、完成、进行、完成进行,这样就构成了不同时态。本章讲解重点是高考常见的完成时和将来时。 二、时态分类 完成时和将来时分类和构成 时态 构成(以do为例) 现在完成时 has/have done 过去完成时 had done 将来完成时 will/shall have done 现在完成进行时 has/have been doing 过去完成进行时 had been doing 将来完成进行时 will /shall have been learning 一般将来时 will/shall do 过去将来时 would/should do 将来进行时 will/shall/be going to be doing 过去将来进行时 should/would be learning 过去将来完成时 would have done 过去将来完成进行时 should/would have been learning 三、完成时 1.现在完成时的用法: 基本结构:have/has + done. 否定形式:have/has + not +done. 一般疑问句:have或has提前。 时间状语:recently, lately, since…for…,in the past few years, etc. A)?表示动作到现在为止已经完成或刚刚完成。 The writer has finished his novel and prepares to publish it. B)?表示从过去某时刻开始,持续到现在的动作或情况,并且有可能会继续延续下去。此时经常用延续性动词。时间状语常用since加一个过去的时间点,或for加一段时间,或by加一个现在时间。 It was the fastest I' d seen him move since 1964. (北师大③U23) It had been very windy for a few hours and it had rained for two days. (外研③M3) 注意:现在完成时是联系过去和现在的纽带。现在完成时和过去时的区别在于:现在完成时强调动作的动态,或受动态的影响,是动态的结果,对现在有影响;过去时只表示过去的某个具体时间里发生的动作,与现在没有联系。 I bought a new house,but I haven't sold my old one yet,so at the moment I have two houses. John has broken his left leg. 比较:He worked in that hospital for 8 years. He has worked in that hospital for 8 years. 2. 过去完成时用法:   概念:表示在过去的某个时间或动作以前已经发生的动作或已经存在的状态。就是我们常说的:表示"过去的过去的动作或状态"。 基本结构:had + done. 否定形式:had + not + done. 一般疑问句:had放于句首 时间状语:before, by the end of last year(term, month…),etc. Until then, his family hadn't heard from him for six months. There had been some one in our room just now, because I noticed a burning cigarette end on the floor when we opened the front door.(刚才有人在我们的房间里,因为我们打开前门进来时,我注意到地板上有一支仍在燃烧的香烟。) 3. 将来完成时用法: 概念:表示从将来的某一时间开始、延续到另一个将来时间的动作或状态,或是发生在某个将来时间,但对其后的另一个将来时间有影响的动作或状态。 结构:will/shall+have+done By the middle of the century, computers that are millions of times smarter than us will have been developed.(北师大③U20) ★【即学即练】(天津卷改)By the time Jane gets home, her aunt (leavee)for London to attend a meeting. 注意:由于本时态是由将来时和完成时融合在一起的,所以关于本时态的注意事项,可以参考“一般将来时”和“现在完成时”的有关注意事项。 4.现在完成进行时用法: 概念:表示某一动作开始于过去某一时间,延续或重复地出现至今,或将继续延续至将来。 结构:(have been doing) We have been working on this project for over a month now. (到目前为止,我们一直在处理那个项目,已经花了一个多月时间了。) 注意:与现在完成时相比,现在完成进行时更强调:在从过去到现在的时间里,动作或状态一直持续或一直反复出现。 5.过去完成进行时用法: 结构:had been doing The old clock had been being taken apart of and fixed up again for several times by my 10-year old son before I came back home. (我回到家之前,我10岁大的儿子已经把这个旧钟表拆卸并重新组装了好几回了。) Finally,?after?he?had?been?waitng?for?about?an?hour,?he?was?called?in.?终于,等了大约一个小时后,他被叫了进来。(北师大U17) 四、将来时 1. 一般将来时的用法: 概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。 基本结构:①am/is/are going to + do; ②will/shall + do. ③be (about) to do? ?④一般现在时表将来??? ⑤现在进行时表将来。 否定形式:①am/is/are+not going to + do;?②在行为动词前加will/shall not。 一般疑问句:①be放于句首;②will/shall提到句首。 时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, in a few minutes, by…,the day after tomorrow, etc. A)?基本结构是will / shall do。 We shall send her a present as her birthday gift. B)?有些动词,如:arrive, be close, come, do, done, go, have, leave, open, play, return, sleep, start, stay等,用于现在进行时,并且通常与一个表示将来时间的时间状语连用,可以表示将来时。 My mother is coming to visit me next week and is staying here until May. C)?表示“打算去……,要……”时,可用be going to do。   This is just what I am going to say. D)?表示“即将、正要”时,可用be about to do。强调近期内或马上要做的事。  Don't worry, I am about to make a close examination on you. E) "be to do"?表示“按计划、安排即将发生某事或打算做某事”。 F)?同样可以表示“正要、将要”的意思的句型是be on the point of doing。??????? I was on the point of telephoning him when his letter arrived. 注意:在以if, when, as long as, as soon as, after, before, in case, until, unless等连词以及具有连词作用的副词(immediately, the moment, directly)等引导的状语从句,一般用现在时代替将来时。 If I meet her, I will give her the book. 2.过去将来时用法: 概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。 时间状语:the next day(morning, year…),the following month(week…),etc. 基本结构:①was/were/going to + do;②would/should + do. 否定形式:①was/were/not + going to + do;②would/should + not + do. 一般疑问句:①was或were放于句首;②would/should提到句首。 ?I said on Thursday I should see my friend the next day. (我星期四说我将于第二天拜访我的朋友。) 3. 将来进行时用法: 概念:强调在将来的某个具体时间正在发生的动作或事情。 结构:will/shall+be+doing Don't worry, you won't miss her. She will be wearing a red T-shirt and a white skirt at that time.(别担心,你不会认不出她的。她到时会穿一件红色的T恤衫和一条白色的短裙。) 注意:由于本时态是由将来时和进行时融合在一起的,所以关于本时态的注意事项,可参考"一般将来时"和"现在进行时"的有关注意事项。 4.过去将来进行时用法: 结构:should be doing , would be doing The government promised that a new highway would be being built next July. (政府承诺说第二年7月将有一条新的高速公路正在修建。) 五、既属于完成时又属于将来时的时态 1. 将来完成进行时用法: 结构:shall have been doing , will have been doing By this time next week,I will have been working for this company for 30 years.到下星期此刻,我已经为该公司干了30年了。 Have you been writing books for long? —By the time I've completed this one,I'll have been writing for six years.你写书已经很长时间了吗? ——到我写完这本书时,我将已经写了6年书了。 If it snows again tomorrow,then it will have been snowing for a whole week.如果明天再下雪,就整整下了一个星期了。 2.过去将来完成时的用法 结构:should / would have done sth. 概念:表示在过去 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E8%BF%87%E5%8E%BB&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)将来某一时间以前 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%BB%A5%E5%89%8D&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)发生的动作,并往往会对过去将来某一时间产生影响。 We hoped that she would have got the plan ready before we came back. 我们希望她能在我们回来之前把计划做好。 He said he would let me have the book as soon as he had read it. 他说书一看完就借给我。 3.过去将来完成进行时用法: 结构:should have been doing , would have been doing They said that by the end of the following month, the project would have been being worked for 3 years. (他们说到第二个月底为止,这项工程就已经不停地进行了3年了。) 一、完成时应注意: 1.现在完成时 come,?arrive,?buy,?hear,?join等终止性动词的现在完成时一般不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。如: “他参军三年了” 不可说:?He?has joined?the?army?for?three?years. 应该说:?He?has been?a?soldier?for?three?years. 或?He?has?been?in?the army?for?three?years.? hear等非延续性动词的否定式可与for等引起的表示一段时间的状语连用: 1?haven't?heard?from?you?for?weeks.我有好几个星期都没收到过你的来信了。(译林①U3) have?been?(to)与?have?gone(to)的区别: ?have?been(to)表示去过(某地)(现在已经回来了),可用于各种人称;? have?gone(o)表示去某地了(说话时某人不在此地),仅用于第三人称。 前者可与once,never,?several?times等连用,后者则不能。如: They?have?been?to?France?twice.他们已去过法国两次。 He?has gone to?France.他已经去法国了。 since从句中的谓语动词多用一般过去时,而主句谓语动词用现在完成时;如果主句单纯表示一段时间,那么可以用一般现在时代替现在完成时。试比较:We?have?been?friends?since?we?first?met. It?is?six?years?since?we?last?saw?each?other. 在时间或条件状语从句中,须用现在完成时代替将来完成时。如:I'll?show?you?our?garden?when?the?rain?has?stopped. ★【即学即练】(北京卷)--- leave?at?the?end?of?this?month。 -----I?don't?think?you?should?do?that?until another?job A.?I'm?going?to,?you'd?found? B.?I'm?going?to,?you've?found? C.?I'll;?you'll?find? D.?I'Il;?you'd?find 在含有序数词及形容词最高级的句型中一般用现在完成时。如:This?is?the?first?time?I?have?seen?such?a?grand?palace. This?is?the?most?interesting?book?(that)I?have?ever?read. Howard?Carter?is?one?of?the?most?famous?explorers?the?world?has?ever?known. 2.过去完成时 先发生的动作用过去完成时,后发生的动作用一般过去时,过去某时刻正在进行的动作用过 去进行时。下例为时态综合运用的典型例题: ★【即学即练】(全国卷)The students busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she in the office. A had written: left B. were writing; has left C. had written; had left D. were writing; had left )如果一个并列分句用的是一般过去时,而另一个并列分句表示的动作在更早的过去发生,须用过去完成时。如: Tom flew home, but his father had already died. The Challenger had exploded in midair and we all started screaming. (外研M5) 在 before,after等引导的时间状语从句中,由于这些连词本身已经表示出时间先后,所以主句或从句的谓语动词可以用一般过去时来代替过去完成时。如: She and her family hid away for nearly twenty-five months before they were discovered. (人教①U1) 在when引导的时间状语从句中,谓语动词的动作发生后,主句谓语动词的动作紧接着发生, 这时两者均用一般过去时。如: When he heard these words, Jim panicked and ran to the raft.(外研M3) 如果从句中有明确的表示过去时间的状语,则常用一般过去时。如: He said he was born in1991. 3.现在完成进行时 在时间或条件状语从句中,要用现在完成进行时代替将来完成进行时。如: ★【即学即练】(湖北卷)I?won't?tell?the?student?the?answer?to?the?math?problem?until he on?it?for?more?than?an?hour. A?.has?been?working B.will?have?worked C.?will?have?been?working ?D.?had?worked 5.过去完成进行时 过去完成进行时与现在完成进行时的用法相似,只不过把时间从现在移到了过去。 试比较: How?long?have?you?been?waiting?你等多久了? She?asked?me?how?long?I?had?been?waiting.她问我等多久了 6.现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别 )现在完成进行时的动作不一定已经完成,很可能持续下去,而现在完成时一般表示动作 已经完成。如: You' ve been designing solar racing cars for a long time.你们很长时间以来一直在设计太阳 能赛车。(北师大③U9) We have designed five or six different cars so far.到目前为止,我已经设计了五六种不同的小汽车。(北师大③U9) 现在完成进行时往往表示动作在重复,而现在完成时一般不表示动作的重复,如: And I've been taking part in races for about four years.大约四年了,我一直在参加比赛。(北师大③U9) How many races have you taken part in?你参加过多少次比赛了?(北师大③U9) ★【即学即练】(北京卷)Tom in the library every night over the last three months. A. works B. worked C. has been working D. had been working 现在完成进行时与所有进行时态一样带有感情色彩,使表达生动;而现在完成时往往只表明一个事实,一种影响或结果,不带感情色彩。如: What have you been doing?You look fed up! 你在做什么?你看起来受够了! (北师大③U9) What have you done?你做些什么? 二 将来时应注意 1. 一般将来时的其他表达法 (1)“ be going to+动词原形”结构表示打算做某事或即将发生某事。如: I feel I 'm going to make progress with her.我觉得有她的帮助我会进步的。(外研①M2 The speech is going to be at3pm.on9 th October..演讲定于10月9日下午3点开始。(译林①UD) (2) begin, leave, arrive等动词的一般现在时可表示按计划或安排将要发生的事。如: When does the plane arrive?飞机什么时候到? When does the winter vacation begin?寒假什么时候开始? (3) leave, go,come,stay,do,take,have等动词的现在进行时可表示计划或准备要做某事。如: we' re leaving school in one year's time.我们一年后就要毕业了。 The Talent Show is coming in two weeks'time.新秀选拔演出还有两周时间就要到了。 (北师大②U5) (4)"be to+动词原形”结构表示即将发生某事,或按计划安排要发生的事。如: What am I to do? 我该做什么呢? (译林①U2) (5)" be about to+动词原形”表示即将发生某事。例如: Now ladies and gentlemen, you ‘re about to hear the most incredible tale.女士们,先生们,你 们马上就要听到一个难以置信的故事。 (人教③U3) 2.过去将来时 过去将来时的其他表达法 (1) come,go,?leave等动词用过去进行时表示过去某时打算要做某事。如:My?cousin?told?me?he?was?leaving?for?New?Zealand?the?next?morning.我堂弟告诉我他第二天晨要去新西兰。 ★【即学即练】(重庆卷)James?has?just?arrived,?but?I?didn't?know?he until?yesterday. A?will?come B?was?coming C?had?come D?came (2)“?was?/were?going?to+动词原形”和“was/?were?about?to+动词原形”结构也可表过去某时预计即将要做某事。如: When?I?arrived?at?the?airport,?the?plane?was?just?going?to?take?off.我到达机场时,飞机正要This?was?the?call?that?announced?there?was?about?to?be?a?whale?hunt.这是宣告捕鲸行动马上就要开始的声音。(人教U3) 3.将来进行时 在口语中,将来进行时用得较多,而且可与现在进行时互换,竟义无区别。如: I’ll?be?leaving for London?tomorrow.?=I'm?leaving for London??tomorrow明天我将离开去伦敦。 有时将来进行时也可与一般将来时互换,但意义有细微的差别。试比较: Won't you?join in our game?你不想参加我们的游戏吗?(表示邀请) Won't?you?be??joining in our game?你来参加我们的游戏吗?(单纯谈事件) 4.现在完成进行时 在时间或条件状语从句中,要用现在完成进行时代替将来完成进行时。如: ★【即学即练】(湖北卷)I?won?'t?tell?the?student?the?answer?to?the?math?problem?until he on?it?for?more than?an?hour. A?has?been?working B.?will?have?worked C?will?have?been?working? D?had?worked 三、时态的呼应: 从句(尤其是宾语从句)谓语动词的时态受主句谓语动词时态的制约,如主句谓语动词为过去时态,从句谓语动词要用相应的过去时态。如: 1?didn’t?know?where?she was waiting. I?heard?he?had?won?first?prize. 1?wanted?to?know?where?all my customers?had?gone?yesterda. (人教U2) 知识点一 完成时与其他时态混淆 例1.【2018·北京】China’s high-speed railways _________ from 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers in the past few years. A. are growing B. have grown C. will grow D. had grown 【答案】B 【解析】考查时态。句意:在过去的几年里,中国的高速铁路已经从9,000公里增长到25,000公里。该句时间状语为in the past few years。中国高速铁路的增长是从过去一直到现在几年里的情况,故该句应用现在完成时态。B选项正确。 点睛:现在完成时可以表示过去的事情对现在的影响,也可以表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的。常见的时间状语有:since + 时间点/从句,for two months,so far,recently,in the past/last few days等。 变式训练 1: 【2017·北京卷改】—______ that company to see how they think of our product? —Yes. I am happy to know their opinions. A. Did you call B. Have you called C. Will you call D. Were you calling 变式训练 2: 【2017·江苏卷改】The school him that he doesn’t qualify for the scholarship because of his academic background, so he is very uoset A. has informed B. had informed C.informed D. informs 知识点二 将来时与其他时态混淆 例2.【2017·北京卷改】People______ better access to health care in the future than they do , and they will live longer as a result. A. will have B. have C. had D. had had 【答案】A 【解析】句意:人们将来有着比现在更好的医疗保险,结果他们会更长寿。与现在对比是将来,所以than前一句话是用将来的时间,而且后一句用的就是将来时态,所以前面也用现在时态,故选A。 变式训练 3:(改错)Alice has returned to America and I don’t know when I see her again. 变式训练 4:(改错)It will be a while before we will know the results. 知识点三 时态在固定句式中的考查 例3.(2017·山东高考仿真冲刺)—Did you enjoy your holiday? —Yes, it’s the best holiday I ________(have) these years. 【答案】have had  【解析】句意:你假期过得愉快吗?是的,这是我这些年里度过的最好的假日。根据前面的it’s the best holiday来看,很明显是过去的动作对现在产生的影响性评价。由时间状语these years 可以推断,应该采用现在完成时态。 变式训练 5: It was the second time that I (speak)to a foreigner. 例4. (2017·重庆南开中学月考)—Did you enjoy your holiday in Hawaii? —Yes, but I would rather you________(go) there too.114 【答案】had gone 【解析】句意:——你在夏威夷的假期过得好吗?——是的,我想你要是去了该多好呀。would rather 后跟从句时,谓语动词用过去完成时形式表达对过去情况的虚拟语气。 变式训练6: 【2018·天津】15. If we ___________the flight yesterday, we would be enjoying our holiday on the beach A. had caught B. caught C. have caught D. would catch 例5. By the time I arrived at the company, the manager ______. A. just went away B. had gone away C. wasn’t just going away D. has just gone away25 【答案】B  【解析】考点:考查动词时态。根据“by the time 一般过去时的从句,主句为过去完成时”的搭配,句意是“经理在我们来之前就已经离开”故指过去的过去。 变式训练7: By the time Jane gets home,her aunt (leave )for London to attend a meeting. 例6.Hardly had I got on the bus when it (start) to move . 【答案】started 【解析】考查固定句式中的时态。句式:Hardly……when……“一……就…….”主句常为过去完成时,从句为一般过去时。根据前面的Hardly had I got推出后面为started。 一、高考模拟真题练习 1-2单项选择;7-15 单句语法填空。 1. 【2018·北京】7. China’s high-speed railways _________ from 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers in the past few years. A. are growing B. have grown C. will grow D. had grown 2.【2018·江苏】Hopefully?in?2025?we?will?no?longer?be?e-mailing?each?other, for?we _______ more convenient electronic communication?tools?by?then. A. have developed B. had?developed C. will?have?developed D. developed 3. 【2017·甘肃嘉峪关市一中六模】China ________ (be) famous for tea production since ancient times. 4.【2017·山西太原五中模拟】There ________ (be) more than 100 million references to the word “tuhao” on social media since early September this year. 5.【2017·黑龙江大庆一中段考二】He ________ (work) hard at his lessons every evening for months.He wants to go to Oxford University next year. 6. 【2017·河北邯郸市一模】Simon:Right.And how many people are coming? Did you say about 8? Linda:Yes,they said 8 at first,but________(change) to 6 this morning. 7. 【2017·益阳模拟】—It’s a pity that you didn’t talk much with Andy. —Yes, the train________(leave) when I rushed to the station to see him off 8.【2017·渭南三模】—Ring me at six tomorrow morning, will you? —Why that early? I ________(sleep) then. 9.【2017·宿迁市三校3月质检】—Will you come over to Beijing next summer? —I’d like to,but my family ________ (visit)London that summer. 10.【2017·宁波市十校联考】The nationwide smog serves as a constant reminder,indicating that it’s high time we ________ (reflect)on ourselves. 11.【2017·南通市二模】—Have you brought the photo of your family? —Yes,I ________ (look for)it the whole morning. 12.【2018全国卷2】Diets have changed in China — and so too has its top crop. Since 2011,the country ___61___(grow)more corn than rice. 13.【2018沈阳检测一】This is the first time I (experience)sandstorm and I don’t ever want to be in one again. 14.【2018贵州适应性考试】 Hardly I (get) home when the rain poured down. 15.【2018 梧州一摸】I say to him with a smile,“Go to exercise and you (feel) better” 二. 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式 When he was a little boy, Christopher Cockerell once watched his mother turning the wheel of her sewing?machine with her hand. “(1) (not) it (work) quickly if a machine turned the wheel for you?”?he asked. “I suppose it would,”?said his mother, without paying any attention to him. Christopher (2)________ (know) she always had a lot of work, and he wanted to help her. In his bedroom there was a toy steam?engine which his father (3)________ (buy) him as a gift.“I (4)________ (make) better use of it,”?little Christopher said to himself.So, when his mother (5)________ (not use) her sewing? machine, he fixed the toy steam?engine onto it.When the job was finished, he was quite pleased, thinking his mother (6)________ (like) it. “Very clever,”?his mother said, when she saw it.Then she sat down and went on turning the wheel by hand.“I (7)________ (work) like this for too many years,”?she explained. This taught Christopher the lesson that anyone who (8)________ (try) to improve anything (9)________ (have) to learn: Many people (10) (not,like)new ideas. 14 第16讲 完成时态与将来时态(解析版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第10个条目就是时态。通过对近几年全国课标卷的研究发现,除语篇理解和完形填空文章中出现不同时态的句子外,时态或语态已成为语篇型填空和短文改错的必考内容。每份试卷会有2-3各小题,通过上下文语境的设置,考查这一语法项目,其中完成时态频率较高些。所以教师在学生备考阶段注意从基础着手,强调语境理解和上下文提示,提高考生的语言灵活运用能力。 Planning so far ahead makes no sense — so many things will have changed [1]by next year. The palace caught fire three times in the last century, and little of the original building remains now. Have you heard [2]about that fire in the market? Fortunately no one was hurt. Peter had intended [3]to take a job in business, but abandoned that plan after the unpleasant experience in Canada in 2010. "Life is like walking in the snow", Granny used to say, "because every step shows ”. The hard work that you do now will be repaid[4] later in life. If you plant watermelon seeds in the spring, you will be eating [5]fresh watermelon in the fall. Close the door of fear behind you, and you will see [6]the door of faith open before you .Don’t worry. 【深思熟虑】 1. will have changed 根据后面“by next years到明年为止”表示完成的动作对将来的影响,此处用将来完成时。 2. Have…heard 表示过去的动作对现在造成的影响,故用现在完成时。 3. had intended表示“Peter 本打算从事商业工作…”,之动作发生abandoned之前,即在过去的过去,故用过去完成时。 4. will be repaired 句意:你现在付出的艰苦工作在以后生活中会被回报的。指将来,故用将来时的被动。 5.will be eating 句意:在秋天你将正在品尝美味的西瓜;指将来某事某刻正在进行的动作。 6. will see句意:关上身后恐惧之门,你将会看到信心之门在你面前打开。指将来的动作,故用一般将来时。 英语文章在叙述不同时间发生的事情或动作时,常常需要用不同时态来表达;从表面看,时态形式千变万化,但从内在联系看(注意蓝色字体),不难发现其中的规律。 一、时态定义 所谓时态,就是动作行为的时间状态。时间有现在、过去、将来、过去将来;动作分一般、完成、进行、完成进行,这样就构成了不同时态。本章讲解重点是高考常见的完成时和将来时。 二、时态分类 完成时和将来时分类和构成 时态 构成(以do为例) 现在完成时 has/have done 过去完成时 had done 将来完成时 will/shall have done 现在完成进行时 has/have been doing 过去完成进行时 had been doing 将来完成进行时 will /shall have been learning 一般将来时 will/shall do 过去将来时 would/should do 将来进行时 will/shall/be going to be doing 过去将来进行时 should/would be learning 过去将来完成时 would have done 过去将来完成进行时 should/would have been learning 三、完成时 1.现在完成时的用法: 基本结构:have/has + done. 否定形式:have/has + not +done. 一般疑问句:have或has提前。 时间状语:recently, lately, since…for…,in the past few years, etc. A)?表示动作到现在为止已经完成或刚刚完成。 The writer has finished his novel and prepares to publish it. B)?表示从过去某时刻开始,持续到现在的动作或情况,并且有可能会继续延续下去。此时经常用延续性动词。时间状语常用since加一个过去的时间点,或for加一段时间,或by加一个现在时间。 It was the fastest I' d seen him move since 1964. (北师大③U23) It had been very windy for a few hours and it had rained for two days. (外研③M3) 注意:现在完成时是联系过去和现在的纽带。现在完成时和过去时的区别在于:现在完成时强调动作的动态,或受动态的影响,是动态的结果,对现在有影响;过去时只表示过去的某个具体时间里发生的动作,与现在没有联系。 I bought a new house,but I haven't sold my old one yet,so at the moment I have two houses. John has broken his left leg. 比较:He worked in that hospital for 8 years. He has worked in that hospital for 8 years. 2. 过去完成时用法:   概念:表示在过去的某个时间或动作以前已经发生的动作或已经存在的状态。就是我们常说的:表示"过去的过去的动作或状态"。 基本结构:had + done. 否定形式:had + not + done. 一般疑问句:had放于句首 时间状语:before, by the end of last year(term, month…),etc. Until then, his family hadn't heard from him for six months. There had been some one in our room just now, because I noticed a burning cigarette end on the floor when we opened the front door.(刚才有人在我们的房间里,因为我们打开前门进来时,我注意到地板上有一支仍在燃烧的香烟。) 3. 将来完成时用法: 概念:表示从将来的某一时间开始、延续到另一个将来时间的动作或状态,或是发生在某个将来时间,但对其后的另一个将来时间有影响的动作或状态。 结构:will/shall+have+done By the middle of the century, computers that are millions of times smarter than us will have been developed.(北师大③U20) ★【即学即练】(天津卷改)By the time Jane gets home, her aunt (leavee)for London to attend a meeting. 【答案】will have left 【解析】by the time, Jane gets home是表示将来时间的状语,leave这一动作发生在 get home之前,因此主句谓语用将来完成时态。 注意:由于本时态是由将来时和完成时融合在一起的,所以关于本时态的注意事项,可以参考“一般将来时”和“现在完成时”的有关注意事项。 4.现在完成进行时用法: 概念:表示某一动作开始于过去某一时间,延续或重复地出现至今,或将继续延续至将来。 结构:(have been doing) We have been working on this project for over a month now. (到目前为止,我们一直在处理那个项目,已经花了一个多月时间了。) 注意:与现在完成时相比,现在完成进行时更强调:在从过去到现在的时间里,动作或状态一直持续或一直反复出现。 5.过去完成进行时用法: 结构:had been doing The old clock had been being taken apart of and fixed up again for several times by my 10-year old son before I came back home. (我回到家之前,我10岁大的儿子已经把这个旧钟表拆卸并重新组装了好几回了。) Finally,?after?he?had?been?waitng?for?about?an?hour,?he?was?called?in.?终于,等了大约一个小时后,他被叫了进来。(北师大U17) 四、将来时 1. 一般将来时的用法: 概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。 基本结构:①am/is/are going to + do; ②will/shall + do. ③be (about) to do? ?④一般现在时表将来??? ⑤现在进行时表将来。 否定形式:①am/is/are+not going to + do;?②在行为动词前加will/shall not。 一般疑问句:①be放于句首;②will/shall提到句首。 时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, in a few minutes, by…,the day after tomorrow, etc. A)?基本结构是will / shall do。 We shall send her a present as her birthday gift. B)?有些动词,如:arrive, be close, come, do, done, go, have, leave, open, play, return, sleep, start, stay等,用于现在进行时,并且通常与一个表示将来时间的时间状语连用,可以表示将来时。 My mother is coming to visit me next week and is staying here until May. C)?表示“打算去……,要……”时,可用be going to do。   This is just what I am going to say. D)?表示“即将、正要”时,可用be about to do。强调近期内或马上要做的事。  Don't worry, I am about to make a close examination on you. E) "be to do"?表示“按计划、安排即将发生某事或打算做某事”。 F)?同样可以表示“正要、将要”的意思的句型是be on the point of doing。??????? I was on the point of telephoning him when his letter arrived. 注意:在以if, when, as long as, as soon as, after, before, in case, until, unless等连词以及具有连词作用的副词(immediately, the moment, directly)等引导的状语从句,一般用现在时代替将来时。 If I meet her, I will give her the book. 2.过去将来时用法: 概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。 时间状语:the next day(morning, year…),the following month(week…),etc. 基本结构:①was/were/going to + do;②would/should + do. 否定形式:①was/were/not + going to + do;②would/should + not + do. 一般疑问句:①was或were放于句首;②would/should提到句首。 ?I said on Thursday I should see my friend the next day. (我星期四说我将于第二天拜访我的朋友。) 3. 将来进行时用法: 概念:强调在将来的某个具体时间正在发生的动作或事情。 结构:will/shall+be+doing Don't worry, you won't miss her. She will be wearing a red T-shirt and a white skirt at that time.(别担心,你不会认不出她的。她到时会穿一件红色的T恤衫和一条白色的短裙。) 注意:由于本时态是由将来时和进行时融合在一起的,所以关于本时态的注意事项,可参考"一般将来时"和"现在进行时"的有关注意事项。 4.过去将来进行时用法: 结构:should be doing , would be doing The government promised that a new highway would be being built next July. (政府承诺说第二年7月将有一条新的高速公路正在修建。) 五、既属于完成时又属于将来时的时态 1. 将来完成进行时用法: 结构:shall have been doing , will have been doing By this time next week,I will have been working for this company for 30 years.到下星期此刻,我已经为该公司干了30年了。 Have you been writing books for long? —By the time I've completed this one,I'll have been writing for six years.你写书已经很长时间了吗? ——到我写完这本书时,我将已经写了6年书了。 If it snows again tomorrow,then it will have been snowing for a whole week.如果明天再下雪,就整整下了一个星期了。 2.过去将来完成时的用法 结构:should / would have done sth. 概念:表示在过去 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E8%BF%87%E5%8E%BB&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)将来某一时间以前 (?http:?/??/?www.so.com?/?s?q=%E4%BB%A5%E5%89%8D&ie=utf-8&src=internal_wenda_recommend_textn" \t "_blank?)发生的动作,并往往会对过去将来某一时间产生影响。 We hoped that she would have got the plan ready before we came back. 我们希望她能在我们回来之前把计划做好。 He said he would let me have the book as soon as he had read it. 他说书一看完就借给我。 3.过去将来完成进行时用法: 结构:should have been doing , would have been doing They said that by the end of the following month, the project would have been being worked for 3 years. (他们说到第二个月底为止,这项工程就已经不停地进行了3年了。) 一、完成时应注意: 1.现在完成时 come,?arrive,?buy,?hear,?join等终止性动词的现在完成时一般不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。如: “他参军三年了” 不可说:?He?has joined?the?army?for?three?years. 应该说:?He?has been?a?soldier?for?three?years. 或?He?has?been?in?the army?for?three?years.? hear等非延续性动词的否定式可与for等引起的表示一段时间的状语连用: 1?haven't?heard?from?you?for?weeks.我有好几个星期都没收到过你的来信了。(译林①U3) have?been?(to)与?have?gone(to)的区别: ?have?been(to)表示去过(某地)(现在已经回来了),可用于各种人称;? have?gone(o)表示去某地了(说话时某人不在此地),仅用于第三人称。 前者可与once,never,?several?times等连用,后者则不能。如: They?have?been?to?France?twice.他们已去过法国两次。 He?has gone to?France.他已经去法国了。 since从句中的谓语动词多用一般过去时,而主句谓语动词用现在完成时;如果主句单纯表示一段时间,那么可以用一般现在时代替现在完成时。试比较:We?have?been?friends?since?we?first?met. It?is?six?years?since?we?last?saw?each?other. 在时间或条件状语从句中,须用现在完成时代替将来完成时。如:I'll?show?you?our?garden?when?the?rain?has?stopped. ★【即学即练】(北京卷)--- leave?at?the?end?of?this?month。 -----I?don't?think?you?should?do?that?until another?job A.?I'm?going?to,?you'd?found? B.?I'm?going?to,?you've?found? C.?I'll;?you'll?find? D.?I'Il;?you'd?find 【答案】B 【解析】打算本月底离开,故第一个空用I’?m?going?to;第二个空前的until引导时间状语从句,用现在完成时代替将来完成时. 在含有序数词及形容词最高级的句型中一般用现在完成时。如:This?is?the?first?time?I?have?seen?such?a?grand?palace. This?is?the?most?interesting?book?(that)I?have?ever?read. Howard?Carter?is?one?of?the?most?famous?explorers?the?world?has?ever?known. 2.过去完成时 先发生的动作用过去完成时,后发生的动作用一般过去时,过去某时刻正在进行的动作用过 去进行时。下例为时态综合运用的典型例题: ★【即学即练】(全国卷)The students busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she in the office. A had written: left B. were writing; has left C. had written; had left D. were writing; had left 【答案】D 【解析】布朗小姐去取书的时候,学生们正在写,故用过去进行时;“把书忘在办公室”发生在 “去取书”这一过去的动作之前,因此用过去完成时。 )如果一个并列分句用的是一般过去时,而另一个并列分句表示的动作在更早的过去发生,须用过去完成时。如: Tom flew home, but his father had already died. The Challenger had exploded in midair and we all started screaming. (外研M5) 在 before,after等引导的时间状语从句中,由于这些连词本身已经表示出时间先后,所以主句或从句的谓语动词可以用一般过去时来代替过去完成时。如: She and her family hid away for nearly twenty-five months before they were discovered. (人教①U1) 在when引导的时间状语从句中,谓语动词的动作发生后,主句谓语动词的动作紧接着发生, 这时两者均用一般过去时。如: When he heard these words, Jim panicked and ran to the raft.(外研M3) 如果从句中有明确的表示过去时间的状语,则常用一般过去时。如: He said he was born in1991. 3.现在完成进行时 在时间或条件状语从句中,要用现在完成进行时代替将来完成进行时。如: ★【即学即练】(湖北卷)I?won't?tell?the?student?the?answer?to?the?math?problem?until he on?it?for?more?than?an?hour. A?.has?been?working B.will?have?worked C.?will?have?been?working ?D.?had?worked 【答案】A 【解析】until引导时间状语从句,从句中谓语动词要用?has?been?working代替?will?have?been?working。 5.过去完成进行时 过去完成进行时与现在完成进行时的用法相似,只不过把时间从现在移到了过去。 试比较: How?long?have?you?been?waiting?你等多久了? She?asked?me?how?long?I?had?been?waiting.她问我等多久了 6.现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别 )现在完成进行时的动作不一定已经完成,很可能持续下去,而现在完成时一般表示动作 已经完成。如: You' ve been designing solar racing cars for a long time.你们很长时间以来一直在设计太阳 能赛车。(北师大③U9) We have designed five or six different cars so far.到目前为止,我已经设计了五六种不同的小汽车。(北师大③U9) 现在完成进行时往往表示动作在重复,而现在完成时一般不表示动作的重复,如: And I've been taking part in races for about four years.大约四年了,我一直在参加比赛。(北师大③U9) How many races have you taken part in?你参加过多少次比赛了?(北师大③U9) ★【即学即练】(北京卷)Tom in the library every night over the last three months. A. works B. worked C. has been working D. had been working 【答案】C 【解析】时间状语 over the last three months常与现在完成时连用。此处用现在完成进行时,表示动作从过去某时一直持续到现在。 现在完成进行时与所有进行时态一样带有感情色彩,使表达生动;而现在完成时往往只表明一个事实,一种影响或结果,不带感情色彩。如: What have you been doing?You look fed up! 你在做什么?你看起来受够了! (北师大③U9) What have you done?你做些什么? 二 将来时应注意 1. 一般将来时的其他表达法 (1)“ be going to+动词原形”结构表示打算做某事或即将发生某事。如: I feel I 'm going to make progress with her.我觉得有她的帮助我会进步的。(外研①M2 The speech is going to be at3pm.on9 th October..演讲定于10月9日下午3点开始。(译林①UD) (2) begin, leave, arrive等动词的一般现在时可表示按计划或安排将要发生的事。如: When does the plane arrive?飞机什么时候到? When does the winter vacation begin?寒假什么时候开始? (3) leave, go,come,stay,do,take,have等动词的现在进行时可表示计划或准备要做某事。如: we' re leaving school in one year's time.我们一年后就要毕业了。 The Talent Show is coming in two weeks'time.新秀选拔演出还有两周时间就要到了。 (北师大②U5) (4)"be to+动词原形”结构表示即将发生某事,或按计划安排要发生的事。如: What am I to do? 我该做什么呢? (译林①U2) (5)" be about to+动词原形”表示即将发生某事。例如: Now ladies and gentlemen, you ‘re about to hear the most incredible tale.女士们,先生们,你 们马上就要听到一个难以置信的故事。 (人教③U3) 2.过去将来时 过去将来时的其他表达法 (1) come,go,?leave等动词用过去进行时表示过去某时打算要做某事。如:My?cousin?told?me?he?was?leaving?for?New?Zealand?the?next?morning.我堂弟告诉我他第二天晨要去新西兰。 ★【即学即练】(重庆卷)James?has?just?arrived,?but?I?didn't?know?he until?yesterday. A?will?come B?was?coming C?had?come D?came 【答案】B 【解析】句意:詹姆斯已经到了,但是直到昨天我才知道他要来。根据句意,come应用过去将来时,come的过去进行时可表示过去将来。 (2)“?was?/were?going?to+动词原形”和“was/?were?about?to+动词原形”结构也可表过去某时预计即将要做某事。如: When?I?arrived?at?the?airport,?the?plane?was?just?going?to?take?off.我到达机场时,飞机正要This?was?the?call?that?announced?there?was?about?to?be?a?whale?hunt.这是宣告捕鲸行动马上就要开始的声音。(人教U3) 3.将来进行时 在口语中,将来进行时用得较多,而且可与现在进行时互换,竟义无区别。如: I’ll?be?leaving for London?tomorrow.?=I'm?leaving for London??tomorrow明天我将离开去伦敦。 有时将来进行时也可与一般将来时互换,但意义有细微的差别。试比较: Won't you?join in our game?你不想参加我们的游戏吗?(表示邀请) Won't?you?be??joining in our game?你来参加我们的游戏吗?(单纯谈事件) 4.现在完成进行时 在时间或条件状语从句中,要用现在完成进行时代替将来完成进行时。如: ★【即学即练】(湖北卷)I?won?'t?tell?the?student?the?answer?to?the?math?problem?until he on?it?for?more than?an?hour. A?has?been?working B.?will?have?worked C?will?have?been?working? D?had?worked 【答案】A 【解析】until引导时间状语从句,从句中的谓语动词要用has been working 代替will have been working. 三、时态的呼应: 从句(尤其是宾语从句)谓语动词的时态受主句谓语动词时态的制约,如主句谓语动词为过去时态,从句谓语动词要用相应的过去时态。如: 1?didn’t?know?where?she was waiting. I?heard?he?had?won?first?prize. 1?wanted?to?know?where?all my customers?had?gone?yesterda. (人教U2) 知识点一 完成时与其他时态混淆 例1.【2018·北京】China’s high-speed railways _________ from 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers in the past few years. A. are growing B. have grown C. will grow D. had grown 【答案】B 【解析】考查时态。句意:在过去的几年里,中国的高速铁路已经从9,000公里增长到25,000公里。该句时间状语为in the past few years。中国高速铁路的增长是从过去一直到现在几年里的情况,故该句应用现在完成时态。B选项正确。 点睛:现在完成时可以表示过去的事情对现在的影响,也可以表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的。常见的时间状语有:since + 时间点/从句,for two months,so far,recently,in the past/last few days等。 变式训练 1: 【2017·北京卷改】—______ that company to see how they think of our product? —Yes. I am happy to know their opinions. A. Did you call B. Have you called C. Will you call D. Were you calling 【答案】B 【解析】句意:--你有没有给那家公司打电话问问他们对我们的产品感觉怎么样?--打了,对于他们的观点很开心。动作发生在过去,强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响,故选B。 变式训练 2: 【2017·江苏卷改】The school him that he doesn’t qualify for the scholarship because of his academic background, so he is very uoset A. has informed B. had informed C.informed D. informs 【答案】A 【解析】考点:考查动词的现在时。句意:他已经被告知由于教育背景的原因而没有资格获得奖学金,因此很沮丧。qualify for sth.达标,获得参赛资格。强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响,故选A。 知识点二 将来时与其他时态混淆 例2.【2017·北京卷改】People______ better access to health care in the future than they do , and they will live longer as a result. A. will have B. have C. had D. had had 【答案】A 【解析】句意:人们将来有着比现在更好的医疗保险,结果他们会更长寿。与现在对比是将来,所以than前一句话是用将来的时间,而且后一句用的就是将来时态,所以前面也用现在时态,故选A。 变式训练 3:(改错)Alice has returned to America and I don’t know when I see her again. 【答案】see之前加上will 【解析】考查时态。句意:Alice已经回美国了我不知道什么时候还会再见她。根据语境可知“我不知道什么时候还会再见她”应该是将来的事,因此用将来时,故从句加will。 变式训练 4:(改错)It will be a while before we will know the results. 【答案】we will know中的will去掉。 【解析】考点:考查时态。句意:还要等一段时间才会知道结果。before引导的时间状语从句,主句是将来从句需要用现在时,即“主将从现”故选will去掉。 知识点三 时态在固定句式中的考查 例3.(2017·山东高考仿真冲刺)—Did you enjoy your holiday? —Yes, it’s the best holiday I ________(have) these years. 【答案】have had  【解析】句意:你假期过得愉快吗?是的,这是我这些年里度过的最好的假日。根据前面的it’s the best holiday来看,很明显是过去的动作对现在产生的影响性评价。由时间状语these years 可以推断,应该采用现在完成时态。 变式训练 5: It was the second time that I (speak)to a foreigner. 【答案】had spoken 【解析】考查固定句式中的时态。句式:This/That/It was the +序数词+time that+过去完成时的从句。根据前面的It was the second time推出后面从句谓语动词应为had spoken。 例4. (2017·重庆南开中学月考)—Did you enjoy your holiday in Hawaii? —Yes, but I would rather you________(go) there too.114 【答案】had gone 【解析】句意:——你在夏威夷的假期过得好吗?——是的,我想你要是去了该多好呀。would rather 后跟从句时,谓语动词用过去完成时形式表达对过去情况的虚拟语气。 变式训练6: 【2018·天津】15. If we ___________the flight yesterday, we would be enjoying our holiday on the beach A. had caught B. caught C. have caught D. would catch 【答案】A 【解析】句意:如果我们昨天赶上飞机的话,现在我们正在海滩享受我们的假日了。根据时间状语yesterday可知,从句表示与过去事实相反,故用had + v-ed。故选A。虚拟语气重要做题原则:根据题干中主句或从句中动词形式判断所考查的动词的虚拟时间,一般要保持一致,但要注意错综时间虚拟语气要根据各自所表示的虚拟时间做出调整。本题就是错综条件虚拟语气,从句与过去事实相反,故用had + v-ed,主句与现在事实相反。 例5. By the time I arrived at the company, the manager ______. A. just went away B. had gone away C. wasn’t just going away D. has just gone away25 【答案】B  【解析】考点:考查动词时态。根据“by the time 一般过去时的从句,主句为过去完成时”的搭配,句意是“经理在我们来之前就已经离开”故指过去的过去。 变式训练7: By the time Jane gets home,her aunt (leave )for London to attend a meeting. 【答案】will have left  【解析】考点:考查动词时态。根据“by the time +一般现在时的从句,主句为将来完成时”的搭配,句意:到Janes到家的时候为止,她的姑姑将已经离开去伦敦了。是对将来造成的影响,故用将来完成时。 例6.Hardly had I got on the bus when it (start) to move . 【答案】started 【解析】考查固定句式中的时态。句式:Hardly……when……“一……就…….”主句常为过去完成时,从句为一般过去时。根据前面的Hardly had I got推出后面为started。 一、高考模拟真题练习 1-2单项选择;7-15 单句语法填空。 1. 【2018·北京】7. China’s high-speed railways _________ from 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers in the past few years. A. are growing B. have grown C. will grow D. had grown 【答案】B 【解析】考查时态。句意:在过去的几年里,中国的高速铁路已经从9,000公里增长到25,000公里。该句时间状语为in the past few years。中国高速铁路的增长是从过去一直到现在几年里的情况,故该句应用现在完成时态。B选项正确。 2.【2018·江苏】Hopefully?in?2025?we?will?no?longer?be?e-mailing?each?other, for?we _______ more convenient electronic communication?tools?by?then. A. have developed B. had?developed C. will?have?developed D. developed 【答案】C 【解析】考查时态。句意:希望在2025年,我们不再互相发电子邮件,因为到那时候我们将开发更方便的电子通信工具。根据时间状语in 2025,可知用将来时;再根据时间状语by then到那时,可知用完成时。结合两者可知用将来完成时。故选C。 3. 【2017·甘肃嘉峪关市一中六模】China ________ (be) famous for tea production since ancient times. 【答案】has been 【解析】根据时间状语since ancient times可知,表示自过去某一时刻到现在这段时间的经历,要用现在完成时。 4.【2017·山西太原五中模拟】There ________ (be) more than 100 million references to the word “tuhao” on social media since early September this year. 【答案】have been  【解析】九月份上旬以来,“土豪”一词在中国社交网络上出现了1亿多次。和时间状语since early September this year 连用,要用现在完成时。 5.【2017·黑龙江大庆一中段考二】He ________ (work) hard at his lessons every evening for months.He wants to go to Oxford University next year. 【答案】has been working  【解析】这几个月他一直在努力学习。用现在完成进行时表示最近一直在做的事情。 6. 【2017·河北邯郸市一模】Simon:Right.And how many people are coming? Did you say about 8? Linda:Yes,they said 8 at first,but________(change) to 6 this morning. 【答案】changed 【解析】他们一开始说是8个人,但是后来改成了6个。根据时间状语this morning可知此处要用一般过去时。 7. 【2017·益阳模拟】—It’s a pity that you didn’t talk much with Andy. —Yes, the train________(leave) when I rushed to the station to see him off 【答案】was leaving 【解析】——很遗憾你和Andy交流得不多。——是的,当我冲到车站去送他时火车正要开动。根据语境此处表示过去正在发生的事,应用过去进行时。 8.【2017·渭南三模】—Ring me at six tomorrow morning, will you? —Why that early? I ________(sleep) then. 【答案】will be sleeping 【解析】——明天早晨六点给我电话,好吗?——为什么那么早?那个时候我还在睡觉呢!本题的关键是then, 本题的then 指代的是“at six tomorrow morning”。这是一个将来的时间点,故本题是指在将来的一个时间点正在发生的事情,应使用将来进行时。 9.【2017·宿迁市三校3月质检】—Will you come over to Beijing next summer? —I’d like to,but my family ________ (visit)London that summer. 【答案】will be visiting 【解析】考查时态。句意:——明年夏天你来北京吗?——我愿意去,但是我的家人那个夏日将正在游览伦敦。根据题干中的next summer,表示将来某个时间点或者时间段正在进行的动作用将来进行时。 10.【2017·宁波市十校联考】The nationwide smog serves as a constant reminder,indicating that it’s high time we ________ (reflect)on ourselves. 【答案】reflected 【解析】考查动词的时态。句意:全国范围的雾霾充当了不断地提醒者,暗示着是我们该反省我们自己的时候了。It is time+主语+过去时,意为“是……的时候了”。 11.52.【2017·南通市二模】—Have you brought the photo of your family? —Yes,I ________ (look for)it the whole morning. 【答案】looked for 【解析】考查时态和语态。句意:——你带来你的家庭照了吗?——是的,我找了一个早上。分析句子。已经带来了家庭照。故一个早上寻找家庭照只是过去的事情,故用一般过去时。 12.【2018全国卷2】Diets have changed in China — and so too has its top crop. Since 2011,the country ___61___(grow)more corn than rice. 【答案】has grown 【解析】考查时态。Since2011与现在完成时连用;句意:自从2011中国种植的玉米比水稻多。 13.【2018沈阳检测一】This is the first time I (experience)sandstorm and I don’t ever want to be in one again. 【答案】 have experienced 【解析】考查时态。句式:This/That/It is the +序数词+time that+现在完成时的从句。根据前面的This is the first time推出后面从句谓语动词应为have experienced。 14.【2018贵州适应性考试】 Hardly I (get) home when the rain poured down. 【答案】had, got 【解析】考查动词时态。固定句式考查:Hardly+had+主语+done+when+一般过去时表示“一…就…”,故从句为when the rain poured down时,主句为had,got过去完成时的倒装。 15.【2018 梧州一摸】I say to him with a smile,“Go to exercise and you (feel) better” 【答案】will feel 【解析】考查动词时态。固定句式“祈使句+and+一般将来时的句子”,故and之后用一般将来时will feel。 二. 阅读下面材料,在空白处填入括号内单词的正确形式 When he was a little boy, Christopher Cockerell once watched his mother turning the wheel of her sewing?machine with her hand. “(1) (not) it (work) quickly if a machine turned the wheel for you?”?he asked. “I suppose it would,”?said his mother, without paying any attention to him. Christopher (2)________ (know) she always had a lot of work, and he wanted to help her. In his bedroom there was a toy steam?engine which his father (3)________ (buy) him as a gift.“I (4)________ (make) better use of it,”?little Christopher said to himself.So, when his mother (5)________ (not use) her sewing? machine, he fixed the toy steam?engine onto it.When the job was finished, he was quite pleased, thinking his mother (6)________ (like) it. “Very clever,”?his mother said, when she saw it.Then she sat down and went on turning the wheel by hand.“I (7)________ (work) like this for too many years,”?she explained. This taught Christopher the lesson that anyone who (8)________ (try) to improve anything (9)________ (have) to learn: Many people (10) (not,like)new ideas. 【答案与解析】 1. Wouldn't ; work 句意:克里斯托弗·科克雷尔还是个小男孩的时候,有一次他看到母亲用手转动缝纫机的轮子。“如果一台机器来牵动轮子,难道它不会工作的很快吗?”他问道。此处为虚拟语气,对现在情况的虚拟,主句用would+v。 2.knew 叙述过去的事,用一般过去时。 3.had bought 指他父亲在there was之前给他买的玩具蒸汽机,故用过去完成时。 4.will/shall make 句意:小克里斯托弗自言自语说以后会好好用的,故指将来。 5.was not using  句意:但他的母亲不正使用缝纫机时…..。指过去某个阶段正在进行的动作,用过去进行时。 6.would like 句意:他认为他的母亲会喜欢它。指站在过去说过去的将来,用过去将来时。 7.have been working 句意:我一直这样工作很多年了。从过去延续到现在,且动作为停止过,用现在完成进行时。 8.tries 经常性习惯性的动作,主语为who,指anyone,单三。 9.has 经常性习惯性的动作, 主语为anyone。 10. don't like 客观事实,主语为复数,用don't like, 6
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