[ID:4-4835704] [精]高考一轮复习学案 第11讲 简单句(解析版+原卷版)
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第 11 讲 简单句(原卷版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第16个条目就是简单句的基本句型。笔者通过对2016-2018三年高考卷的研究,发现简单句的基本句式虽然没有作为直接考查对象,但是这一语法项目是其它并列句、复合句和长难句的基础,也是理解篇章的根本要素。所以学好简单句的基本句型,正确分析句子成分和判断句子结构是学好语言的必备常识。教师有义务指导考生打好坚实的基础,为篇章理解、完形填空、语篇型填空、短文改错乃至书面表达做好能力提升的准备。 There was an accident which happened to two students in our school yesterday afternoon. School was over. Michael and Jack from Grade 1 went home by bike. They were talking and laughing happily. When they saw a car passing by, they started to run after it. It was very interesting. The bus stopped when the traffic light turned red. The two students couldn’t stop their bikes in time. Michael broke his left arm and Jack hurt his leg. It taught us a lesson that we should be careful in the street. 整个篇章来看,英语句子有长在短,有简有繁,从现象看,似乎千变万化,难以捉摸,但从实质看(注意蓝色字体),可以发现其内在联系,找出其共同规律。 一、简单句的基本句型 英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 英语五种基本句型列式如下: 基本句型一: S +V (主+谓) 基本句型二: S +V +P (主+系+表) 基本句型三: S +V +O (主+谓+宾) 基本句型四: S +V +IO +O(主+谓+间宾+直宾) 基本句型五: S +V +O +C(主+谓+宾+宾补) 二、分类讲解: 1. 基本句型一:S V (主+谓) 这类句子的谓语动词都是不及物动词,都不带宾语,但可以带状语。如: It is raining now. (S V) We’ve worked for 5 hours. (S V) The meeting lasted half an hour. (S V) Time flies. (S V) 【即学即练】分析下列句子成分,并在后面括号内标明属于五种基本句型中的哪一种。 Dark clouds hung overhead. ( ) Gradually a smile appeared on her face. ( ) He is smiling all over his face. ( ) I did well in English. ( ) He talked loudly in the classroom yesterday. ( ) 2. 基本句型二: S V P (主+系+表) 常见的系动词有:be(是),become(变得),seem(看起来),appear(显得), get(变得)grow(变得),turn(变成), remain(仍然是),come(变得),fall(变得),hold(保持),keep(保持),stand(保持),stay(保持),smell(闻起来),look(看起来),sound(听起来),taste(尝起来),feel(摸起来)等。例如 It is a way of thinking. (人教②U5) Its walls remain as good as before. (人教②U1) All of the food looks, smells and tastes wonderful. 3. 基本句型三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 此结构是由“主语+及物动词(词组)+宾语”构成。如: The museum also has an excellent restaurant. (人教U1) I like taking risks. (北师大U14) The rapid development of tourism has created many job opportunities. 【即学即练】用下划线画出下列句中的宾语。 1. People all over the world speak English. 2. Jim cannot dress himself. 3. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy. 4. He did not know what to say. 5. He just wanted to stay at home. 6. He practices speaking English every day. 4.基本句型四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾 +直宾) 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give“给”,pass“递”,bring“带”,show“显示”。这两个宾语通常一个指人,为间接宾语;一个指物,为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。 如:One day, he offered me some crack cocaine.(外研M2)(S V o O) 强调间接宾语顺序为:动词 + 直接宾语 + 介词 + 间接宾语。 如:Show this house to Mr. Smith. 若直接宾语为人称代词:动词 + 代词直接宾语 + 介词 + 间接宾语。如: Bring it to me, please. (不能说 Bring me it, please.) 【即学即练】 分析下列句子中的间接宾语( )和直接宾语( )。 She ordered herself a new dress. She cooked her husband a delicious meal. He brought you a dictionary. He denies her nothing. I showed him my pictures. I gave my car a wash. I told him that the bus was late. He showed me how to run the machine. 5. 基本句型五:SVOC (主+谓+宾+宾补) 此句型的句子特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。宾语和宾语补足语合称为复合宾语,常见带复合宾语的及物动词有:elect,feel,find, get. have, hear, imagine, keep, make, notice, see, let,smell,start,watch,appoint,believe,call,catch, allow, ask. cause, consider, expect, know, tell, think, want, wish, listen to, look at等。如: I didn't want all the three to die. (外研M3) My wife calls me a “movie fan”. (北师大U1) 【即学即练】 分析下列句子并划出充当句子的宾语补足语,指出词性或结构。 1. They appointed him manager. ( ) 2. They painted the door green. ( ) 3. He pushed the door open. ( ) 4. They found the house deserted. ( ) 5. What makes him think so? ( ) 6. We saw him out. ( ) 7. He asked me to come back soon. ( ) 8. I saw them getting on the bus. ( ) 9. We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. ( ) 10. I’ll have my bike repaired. ( ) 11. We elected him monitor. ( ) 12. Don’t keep the lights burning. ( ) 6.there be 句型 此句型是由“there + be + 主语 + 状语”构成,用以表达“存在有”。 特点:它其实是倒装的一种情况,主语位于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词(也有看作形式主语的),并无实际意义。be 与其后的主语在人称和数上一致,有时态和数的变化。 现在时?? there is / are …??? 过去时?? there was / were… 将来时?? there will be…/there is / are going to be... 完成时? there has / have been… 可能有? there might be...?? 肯定有? there must be …/ there must have been... 过去曾经有? there used to be …? 似乎有? there seem / seems / seemed to be … 碰巧有? there happen / happens / happened to be …  提示:没有there have这种表示“有”的方法。 1. 如何辨别系动词 1 She looks beautiful. (looks变为is之后,她是美丽的,句意没有大的变化,looks是系动词。) Look at the picture.(look不能换为be, look为实义动词。) 2 He felt the book with his right hand. (felt不能换为be,felt为实义动词。) The silk feels soft. (feels变为is之后,丝绸是柔软的,句意没有大的变化,feels是系动词。) 【即学即练】 辨别下列斜体动词是系动词还是实义动词。 1 The door stays open at night. 2 He tasted the food, and the food tasted delicious. 3 The book still lies open on the desk. 4 What he said proved true. 5 He can’t proved his theory(理论). 2. 常见的系动词分类: 状态系动词 用来表示主语状态,只有be一词。如: He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。 持续系动词 用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, remain, stay, lie, stand。如: He kept silent at the meeting. 他开会时保持沉默。 This matter remains a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。 The food stays fresh in the fridge.食物在冰箱里仍然很新鲜。 The house stood empty for years.房子空了数年。 He lies awake in bed.他躺在床上,醒着。 表“像”系动词 用来表示“看起来像”这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look。如: Something seems wrong. 好像出差错了。 He appears young. 他看起来很年轻。 感官系动词 感官系动词主要有look“看起来”,feel“摸起来”, smell“闻起来”, sound“听起来”, taste“尝起来”。 This kind of cloth feels very soft. 这种布手感很软。 This flower smells very sweet. 这朵花闻起来很香。 变化系动词 这些系动词表示主语变成什么样。变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run。 He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。 She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。 He fell ill yesterday.他昨天病了。 Eggs go bad easily in summer. 蛋夏天容易变坏。 His face went red.他的脸变红了。 What he had dreamt of came true.他的梦想实现了。 Still waters run deep.静水流深。 终止系动词 表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达“证实”,“变成”之意。如: The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。 His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果) What he predicted turned out (to be) wrong.他预言的结果是错的。 【即学即练】用下画线画出下列句中的系动词。 1. His advice proved right. 2. The shop stays open till 8 o’clock. 3. The machine went wrong. 4. All these efforts seem in vain. 5. These words sound reasonable. 6. The room soon became crowded. 7. The days are getting longer and longer. 8. He fell ill yesterday. 9. Trees turn green in spring. 10. What you said sounds great. 3.在一个英语单句中,一般情况要有谓语动词 要注意:介词短语和形容词不能单独作谓语,要和系动词一起作谓语。 【即学即练】改错: ①Our school very beautiful and we like it very much. ②Your book on the desk. 4.关于带双宾的动词需注意: (需借助to的)allow, bring, deny, give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, permit, promise, read, refuse, sell, send, show, teach, tell, wish, write等。 (需借助for 的) buy, choose, fetch, get, make, order, paint, play(演奏), save, sing, spare等。 一般用to多些,用for的记住常用的三个:get, buy, make。 He sent me an English-Chinese Dictionary. = He sent an English-Chinese Dictionary to me. She bought John a book. = She bought a book for John. 5. There be 句式易错点 可用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive等词代替be动词。 此时还表示存在有,但表意要更具体一些。如: There lived an old man at the foot of the mountain. There came a shout for “help”. There exists no air on the moon. There lies a book on the desk. There stands a tree on the hill. 【即学即练】单项选择 ______ a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of the work. A. It existed B. There existed C. They had D. There had ______ a beautiful palace ______ the foot of the hill. A. There stand; at B. There stands; under C. Stands there; under D. There stands; at 2).there be 与have 的区别 there be …“某地有某物,某时有某事”;have 表示“某人拥有某物”。 【即学即练】改错: There has a book on the desk. There will have a meeting this evening. 知识点一 “主系表”句式考查 例1.Running is cheap,easy and it's always 69 (energy).(2018全国卷1语法填空)   【答案】energetic 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“主系表”结构,设空处在句中作表语,故用形容词词形。 变式训练 1: 1)Their chidren could become (addict) to video games during the July-August holiday. (2018年9月河北质量检测语法填空)  知识点二 “主谓”句式考查 例2.Many more big dishes (follow)later.(2018全国卷1书面表达)   【答案】will follow 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“主谓”结构,设空处在句中作谓语,follow为不及物动词,根据后面的later故用will follow。 变式训练 2:改错Great changes have been taken place. (2018年9月河北质量检测短文改错) 知识点三 “主谓宾”句式考查 例3.(When the gorillas and I frightened each other), I was just glad to find 68 (they) alive. (2018全国卷3语法填空)   【答案】them 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“主谓宾”结构,设空处在句中作宾语,应用人称代词的宾格,故用them。 变式训练 3: This switch has decreased 66 (pollute) in the country's major lakes and reservoirs and ……. (2018全国卷2语法填空) 知识点四 “主谓双宾语”句式考查 例4.(You need run for only half the time to get the same benefits as other sports ), so perhaps we should all give 70 a try. (2018全国卷1语法填空)     【答案】it 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“主谓双宾语”结构,设空处在句中作间接宾语,故用人称代词的宾格形式。 变式训练 4: True to a gorilla's unaggressive nature, the huge animal 69 (mean)me no real harm.(He was just saying……) (2018全国卷3语法填空)  知识点五 “主谓宾语宾补”句式考查 例5.Ineed anew passport so I will have to have my photographs___________. A. taking B. taken C. being taken D. take (2018天津卷单项选择7)   【答案】B 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“主谓宾宾补”结构,设空处在句中作宾语补足语,根据动词have的用法,此处为have sth. done 的结构,故用过去分词做宾补。 变式训练 5 Nothing will me my mind. A. get ;change B. make; change C. have;to change D.cause;change 知识点六 “There be”句式考查 例6.--Is there anything wrong with your computer? --Yes. There something wrong with it. I am going to have it tomorrow. A. seem to be; check B. seems to be; checked C. seem to being;checking D. seems to being; checking 【答案】B 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“There be”结构和“主谓宾宾补”结构,设空1处在句中作谓语且为there be句式的变式,设空2处在句中做宾补,故用B。 一、高考真题练 1. The review says it (be) more effective at lengthening life than walking, cycling or swimming. (2018全国卷1语法填空64) 2. I felt happily that their life had improved. (2018全国卷1短文改错)  3. I find a change there. (The first time I went there ……) (2018全国卷1短文改错) 4. Since 2011,the country (grow)more corn than rice. (2018全国卷2语法填空61) 5. (The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005—)when the government (start) a soil-testing program (which gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers - and 2011). (2018全国卷2语法填空68) 6. Still I unwilling to play the games for them sometimes. I didn’t…..(2018全国卷2短文改错) 7. So he doesn't feel (challenge). (2018全国卷3语法填空65) 8. He allowed me (stay)and watch . (2018全国卷3语法填空70) 9. And the writing class had just begin. (2018全国卷3短文改错) 10. (The classroom is a place for learning) and that include leaning from textbooks, and mistake as well. (两处错误)(2018全国卷3短文改错) 二、基础句式练习 1. –What is wrong,Iane? ---I can’t find my wallet.It . A.has disappeared B.is disappeared C. disappears D. has been disappearing 2. Mr. Brown, will you please again? A. explain it to us B. explain it us C.explain to us it D. explain us it 3.He promised to be here at four o'clock but until six. A. wasn't appeared B. was appeared C. appeared D. didn't appear 4.—Linda practises every day. —No wonder she has won several awards in singing competitions. A. sing B. to sing C. singing D. to singing 5. He is now studying in the U.S. for a doctor's degree. His dream of becoming a scientist will come . A. sure: true B. surely: true C. sure; truly D. surely; truly 三、根据所给提示翻译下列句子 1. 我可以给你一些建议。(give sb. sth.)(2018全国卷1书面表达) 2. 去太早或太晚都不合适。(appropriate)(2018全国卷1书面表达) 3.在餐桌上你可以随意吃些东西。( help oneself) (2018全国卷1书面表达) 4.我们学校最近放映一部英语电影短片。(shoot)(2018全国卷2书面表达) 5.电影将在学校礼堂与周六下午3点放映。(no show)(2018全国卷2书面表达) 6.至于我,我对篮球有特别的兴趣。(have interest in) (2018全国卷3书面表达) 1 第 11 讲 简单句(解析版) 2018年高考英语考试大纲对语言知识的考查中明确规定:要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),其中附录2语法项目表第16个条目就是简单句的基本句型。笔者通过对2016-2018三年高考卷的研究,发现简单句的基本句式虽然没有作为直接考查对象,但是这一语法项目是其它并列句、复合句和长难句的基础,也是理解篇章的根本要素。所以学好简单句的基本句型,正确分析句子成分和判断句子结构是学好语言的必备常识。教师有义务指导考生打好坚实的基础,为篇章理解、完形填空、语篇型填空、短文改错乃至书面表达做好能力提升的准备。 There was an accident which happened to two students in our school yesterday afternoon. School was over. Michael and Jack from Grade 1 went home by bike. They were talking and laughing happily. When they saw a car passing by, they started to run after it. It was very interesting. The bus stopped when the traffic light turned red. The two students couldn’t stop their bikes in time. Michael broke his left arm and Jack hurt his leg. It taught us a lesson that we should be careful in the street. 整个篇章来看,英语句子有长在短,有简有繁,从现象看,似乎千变万化,难以捉摸,但从实质看(注意蓝色字体),可以发现其内在联系,找出其共同规律。 一、简单句的基本句型 英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 英语五种基本句型列式如下: 基本句型一: S +V (主+谓) 基本句型二: S +V +P (主+系+表) 基本句型三: S +V +O (主+谓+宾) 基本句型四: S +V +IO +O(主+谓+间宾+直宾) 基本句型五: S +V +O +C(主+谓+宾+宾补) 二、分类讲解: 1. 基本句型一:S V (主+谓) 这类句子的谓语动词都是不及物动词,都不带宾语,但可以带状语。如: It is raining now. (S V) We’ve worked for 5 hours. (S V) The meeting lasted half an hour. (S V) Time flies. (S V) 【即学即练】分析下列句子成分,并在后面括号内标明属于五种基本句型中的哪一种。 Dark clouds hung overhead. ( ) Gradually a smile appeared on her face. ( ) He is smiling all over his face. ( ) I did well in English. ( ) He talked loudly in the classroom yesterday. ( ) 答案:以上都属于S+V类型。 2. 基本句型二: S V P (主+系+表) 常见的系动词有:be(是),become(变得),seem(看起来),appear(显得), get(变得)grow(变得),turn(变成), remain(仍然是),come(变得),fall(变得),hold(保持),keep(保持),stand(保持),stay(保持),smell(闻起来),look(看起来),sound(听起来),taste(尝起来),feel(摸起来)等。例如 It is a way of thinking. (人教②U5) Its walls remain as good as before. (人教②U1) All of the food looks, smells and tastes wonderful. 3. 基本句型三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 此结构是由“主语+及物动词(词组)+宾语”构成。如: The museum also has an excellent restaurant. (人教U1) I like taking risks. (北师大U14) The rapid development of tourism has created many job opportunities. 【即学即练】用下划线画出下列句中的宾语。 1. People all over the world speak English. 2. Jim cannot dress himself. 3. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy. 4. He did not know what to say. 5. He just wanted to stay at home. 6. He practices speaking English every day. 答案: 1. People all over the world speak English. 2. Jim cannot dress himself. 3. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy. 4. He did not know what to say. 5. He just wanted to stay at home. 6. He practices speaking English every day. 4.基本句型四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾 +直宾) 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give“给”,pass“递”,bring“带”,show“显示”。这两个宾语通常一个指人,为间接宾语;一个指物,为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。 如:One day, he offered me some crack cocaine.(外研M2)(S V o O) 强调间接宾语顺序为:动词 + 直接宾语 + 介词 + 间接宾语。 如:Show this house to Mr. Smith. 若直接宾语为人称代词:动词 + 代词直接宾语 + 介词 + 间接宾语。如: Bring it to me, please. (不能说 Bring me it, please.) 【即学即练】 分析下列句子中的间接宾语( )和直接宾语( )。 She ordered herself a new dress. She cooked her husband a delicious meal. He brought you a dictionary. He denies her nothing. I showed him my pictures. I gave my car a wash. I told him that the bus was late. He showed me how to run the machine. 答案: She ordered herself a new dress. She cooked her husband a delicious meal. He brought you a dictionary. He denies her nothing. I showed him my pictures. I gave my car a wash. I told him that the bus was late. He showed me how to run the machine. 5. 基本句型五:SVOC (主+谓+宾+宾补) 此句型的句子特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。宾语和宾语补足语合称为复合宾语,常见带复合宾语的及物动词有:elect,feel,find, get. have, hear, imagine, keep, make, notice, see, let ,smell,start,watch,appoint,believe,call,catch, allow, ask. cause, consider, expect, know, tell, think, want, wish, listen to, look at等。如: I didn't want all the three to die. (外研M3) My wife calls me a “movie fan”. (北师大U1) 【即学即练】 分析下列句子并划出充当句子的宾语补足语,指出词性或结构。 1. They appointed him manager. ( ) 2. They painted the door green. ( ) 3. He pushed the door open. ( ) 4. They found the house deserted. ( ) 5. What makes him think so? ( ) 6. We saw him out. ( ) 7. He asked me to come back soon. ( ) 8. I saw them getting on the bus. ( ) 9. We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. ( ) 10. I’ll have my bike repaired. ( ) 11. We elected him monitor. ( ) 12. Don’t keep the lights burning. ( ) 答案: 1. They appointed him manager. ( 名词 ) 2. They painted the door green. ( 形容词 ) 3. He pushed the door open. ( 形容词 ) 4. They found the house deserted. ( 过去分词 ) 5. What makes him think so? ( 不定式 ) 6. We saw him out. ( 副词 ) 7. He asked me to come back soon. ( 不定式 ) 8. I saw them getting on the bus. ( 现在分词短语 ) 9. We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. (名词短语 ) 10. I’ll have my bike repaired. (过去分词 ) 11. We elected him monitor. ( 名词 ) 12. Don’t keep the lights burning. ( 现在分词 ) 6.there be 句型 此句型是由“there + be + 主语 + 状语”构成,用以表达“存在有”。 特点:它其实是倒装的一种情况,主语位于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词(也有看作形式主语的),并无实际意义。be 与其后的主语在人称和数上一致,有时态和数的变化。 现在时?? there is / are …??? 过去时?? there was / were… 将来时?? there will be…/there is / are going to be... 完成时? there has / have been… 可能有? there might be...?? 肯定有? there must be …/ there must have been... 过去曾经有? there used to be …? 似乎有? there seem / seems / seemed to be … 碰巧有? there happen / happens / happened to be …  提示:没有there have这种表示“有”的方法。 1. 如何辨别系动词 1 She looks beautiful. (looks变为is之后,她是美丽的,句意没有大的变化,looks是系动词。) Look at the picture.(look不能换为be, look为实义动词。) 2 He felt the book with his right hand. (felt不能换为be,felt为实义动词。) The silk feels soft. (feels变为is之后,丝绸是柔软的,句意没有大的变化,feels是系动词。) 【即学即练】 辨别下列斜体动词是系动词还是实义动词。 1 The door stays open at night. 2 He tasted the food, and the food tasted delicious. 3 The book still lies open on the desk. 4 What he said proved true. 5 He can’t proved his theory(理论). 答案: 系动词: 实义动词: 2. 常见的系动词分类: 状态系动词 用来表示主语状态,只有be一词。如: He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。 持续系动词 用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, remain, stay, lie, stand。如: He kept silent at the meeting. 他开会时保持沉默。 This matter remains a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。 The food stays fresh in the fridge.食物在冰箱里仍然很新鲜。 The house stood empty for years.房子空了数年。 He lies awake in bed.他躺在床上,醒着。 表“像”系动词 用来表示“看起来像”这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look。如: Something seems wrong. 好像出差错了。 He appears young. 他看起来很年轻。 感官系动词 感官系动词主要有look“看起来”,feel“摸起来”, smell“闻起来”, sound“听起来”, taste“尝起来”。 This kind of cloth feels very soft. 这种布手感很软。 This flower smells very sweet. 这朵花闻起来很香。 变化系动词 这些系动词表示主语变成什么样。变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run。 He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。 She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。 He fell ill yesterday.他昨天病了。 Eggs go bad easily in summer. 蛋夏天容易变坏。 His face went red.他的脸变红了。 What he had dreamt of came true.他的梦想实现了。 Still waters run deep.静水流深。 终止系动词 表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达“证实”,“变成”之意。如: The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。 His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果) What he predicted turned out (to be) wrong.他预言的结果是错的。 【即学即练】用下画线画出下列句中的系动词。 1. His advice proved right. 2. The shop stays open till 8 o’clock. 3. The machine went wrong. 4. All these efforts seem in vain. 5. These words sound reasonable. 6. The room soon became crowded. 7. The days are getting longer and longer. 8. He fell ill yesterday. 9. Trees turn green in spring. 10. What you said sounds great. 答案: 1. His advice proved right. 2. The shop stays open till 8 o’clock. 3. The machine went wrong. 4. All these efforts seem in vain. 5. These words sound reasonable. 6. The room soon became crowded. 7. The days are getting longer and longer. 8. He fell ill yesterday. 9. Trees turn green in spring. 10. What you said sounds great. 3.在一个英语单句中,一般情况要有谓语动词 要注意:介词短语和形容词不能单独作谓语,要和系动词一起作谓语。 【即学即练】改错: ①Our school very beautiful and we like it very much. ②Your book on the desk. 答案: ①Our school (加入is) very beautiful and we like it very much. ②Your book (加入is) on the desk. 4.关于带双宾的动词需注意: (需借助to的)allow, bring, deny, give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, permit, promise, read, refuse, sell, send, show, teach, tell, wish, write等。 (需借助for 的) buy, choose, fetch, get, make, order, paint, play(演奏), save, sing, spare等。 一般用to多些,用for的记住常用的三个:get, buy, make。 He sent me an English-Chinese Dictionary. = He sent an English-Chinese Dictionary to me. She bought John a book. = She bought a book for John. 5. There be 句式易错点 可用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive等词代替be动词。 此时还表示存在有,但表意要更具体一些。如: There lived an old man at the foot of the mountain. There came a shout for “help”. There exists no air on the moon. There lies a book on the desk. There stands a tree on the hill. 【即学即练】单项选择 ______ a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of the work. A. It existed B. There existed C. They had D. There had ______ a beautiful palace ______ the foot of the hill. A. There stand; at B. There stands; under C. Stands there; under D. There stands; at 答案:B, D 2).there be 与have 的区别 there be …“某地有某物,某时有某事”;have 表示“某人拥有某物”。 【即学即练】改错: There has a book on the desk. There will have a meeting this evening. 答案:①把has改为is; ②把have改为be。 提示:没有there have这种表示“有”的方法。 知识点一 “主系表”句式考查 例1.Running is cheap,easy and it's always 69 (energy). (2018全国卷1语法填空)   【答案】energetic 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“主系表”结构,设空处在句中作表语,故用形容词词形。 变式训练 1: 1)Their chidren could become (addict) to video games during the July-August holiday. (2018年9月河北质量检测语法填空)  【答案】addicted   【解析】分析句子结构可知,become为系动词,此处应是填形容词形式作表语addicted。 知识点二 “主谓”句式考查 例2.Many more big dishes (follow)later.(2018全国卷1书面表达)   【答案】will follow 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“主谓”结构,设空处在句中作谓语,follow为不及物动词,根据后面的later故用will follow。 变式训练 2:改错Great changes have been taken place. (2018年9月河北质量检测短文改错) 【答案】去掉been  【解析】take place 为不及物动词词组,没有被动形式。 知识点三 “主谓宾”句式考查 例3.(When the gorillas and I frightened each other), I was just glad to find 68 (they) alive. (2018全国卷3语法填空)   【答案】them 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“主谓宾”结构,设空处在句中作宾语,应用人称代词的宾格,故用them。 变式训练 3: This switch has decreased 66 (pollute) in the country's major lakes and reservoirs and ……. (2018全国卷2语法填空) 【答案】pollution  【解析】分析句子结构可知,此处应是“主谓宾”结构,设空处应填名词形式作宾语。 知识点四 “主谓双宾语”句式考查 例4.(You need run for only half the time to get the same benefits as other sports ), so perhaps we should all give 70 a try. (2018全国卷1语法填空)     【答案】it 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“主谓双宾语”结构,设空处在句中作间接宾语,故用人称代词的宾格形式。 变式训练 4: True to a gorilla's unaggressive nature, the huge animal 69 (mean)me no real harm.(He was just saying……) (2018全国卷3语法填空)  【答案】meant  【解析】分析句子结构可知,此处应是为“主谓双宾语”结构,设空处在句中作谓语,根据后一句时态,故填meant过去式。 知识点五 “主谓宾语宾补”句式考查 例5.Ineed anew passport so I will have to have my photographs___________. A. taking B. taken C. being taken D. take (2018天津卷单项选择7)   【答案】B 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“主谓宾宾补”结构,设空处在句中作宾语补足语,根据动词have的用法,此处为have sth. done 的结构,故用过去分词做宾补。 变式训练 5 Nothing will me my mind. A. get ;change B. make; change C. have;to change D.cause;change 【答案】B  【解析】句意:没有什么能让我改变注意。分析句子结构可知,句子为“主谓宾宾补”结构,设空1处在句中作谓语,设空2处在句中做宾补,根据动词have的用法,此处为have/make sb.do 或者get/cause sb.to do 的结构,故用B正确。 知识点六 “There be”句式考查 例6.--Is there anything wrong with your computer? --Yes. There something wrong with it. I am going to have it tomorrow. A. seem to be; check B. seems to be; checked C. seem to being;checking D. seems to being; checking 【答案】B 【解析】分析句子结构可知,句子为“There be”结构和“主谓宾宾补”结构,设空1处在句中作谓语且为there be句式的变式,设空2处在句中做宾补,故用B。 一、高考真题练 1. The review says it (be) more effective at lengthening life than walking, cycling or swimming. (2018全国卷1语法填空64) 2. I felt happily that their life had improved. (2018全国卷1短文改错)  3. I find a change there. (The first time I went there ……) (2018全国卷1短文改错) 4. Since 2011,the country (grow)more corn than rice. (2018全国卷2语法填空61) 5. (The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005—)when the government (start) a soil-testing program (which gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers - and 2011). (2018全国卷2语法填空68) 6. Still I unwilling to play the games for them sometimes. I didn’t…..(2018全国卷2短文改错) 7. So he doesn't feel (challenge). (2018全国卷3语法填空65) 8. He allowed me (stay)and watch . (2018全国卷3语法填空70) 9. And the writing class had just begin. (2018全国卷3短文改错) 10. (The classroom is a place for learning) and that include leaning from textbooks, and mistake as well. (两处错误)(2018全国卷3短文改错) 二、基础句式练习 1. –What is wrong,Iane? ---I can’t find my wallet.It . A.has disappeared B.is disappeared C. disappears D. has been disappearing 2. Mr. Brown, will you please again? A. explain it to us B. explain it us C.explain to us it D. explain us it 3.He promised to be here at four o'clock but until six. A. wasn't appeared B. was appeared C. appeared D. didn't appear 4.—Linda practises every day. —No wonder she has won several awards in singing competitions. A. sing B. to sing C. singing D. to singing 5. He is now studying in the U.S. for a doctor's degree. His dream of becoming a scientist will come . A. sure: true B. surely: true C. sure; truly D. surely; truly 三、根据所给提示翻译下列句子 1. 我可以给你一些建议。(give sb. sth.)(2018全国卷1书面表达) 2. 去太早或太晚都不合适。(appropriate)(2018全国卷1书面表达) 3.在餐桌上你可以随意吃些东西。( help oneself) (2018全国卷1书面表达) 4.我们学校最近放映一部英语电影短片。(shoot)(2018全国卷2书面表达) 5.电影将在学校礼堂与周六下午3点放映。(no show)(2018全国卷2书面表达) 6.至于我,我对篮球有特别的兴趣。(have interest in) (2018全国卷3书面表达) 答案解析 一、 1. is句意:医学报告显示:跑步比散步、骑车和游泳更能有效地延长寿命。这里叙述的是一个事实,故用一般现在时。故填is。 2. happily—happy考查形容词作表语。他们的生活有了很大提高,我感到很高兴。此处形容词作表语,故将happily改成happy。 3. find---found根据文章中的During my last winter holiday可知,事件发生在过去,故用一个过去时。故将find改成found。 4.has grown since加时间点,主句要用现在完成时。句意:2011年以来,中国种植的玉米比水稻多。故填has grown。 5.started 考查谓语动词。句意:在2005年政府开始了一项土壤测试项目。本句是when引导的定语从句,由于时间是2005年,故用过去时。故填started。 6.unwilling前加 was 本文介绍的是过去的情况,故用过去时,主系表结构,所以在unwilling前加was。 7.challenged 根据语境可知,此处表示不直视他的眼睛,他就不会感到被挑战性。feel为系动词,表示“被挑战”,用过去分词challenged。 8.to stay 固定短语allow sb to do允许某人做某事,不定式做宾补,应该用to stay。 9. begin---begun 考查谓语,过去完成时的构成是had done,所以begin要改为begun。 10. include---includes;mistake---mistakes that作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数includes。第二处错误考查宾语和名词单复数。错误不是一个,所以要用复数。 二、 AADCB 三、 1. I can give you some tips. 2. It’s not appropriate to go too early or too late. 3. At table ,you can help yourself freely. 4.Our school has recently shot an English short film. 5. The film will be on show in our school auditorium at 3:00 p.m. this Saturday afternoon. 6. As for me,I have a special interest in basketball. 1
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