[ID:4-6760337] [精]高考英语语法填空题解题技巧课件
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(共45张PPT) 语法填空做题技巧 1. 语法填空题以语篇为载体,注重考查语言形式和逻辑结构。 2. 文章长度在200词左右,一般设10处空白,分为无提示词型(仅填一词)和给提示词型(用所给单词的适当形式填空)两种形式。 语法填空的命题特点 语法填空的关联考点 语篇类型:记叙文、说明文。 关联考点:全面考查非谓语动词、词性转换、构词法、时态、语态、主谓一致、从句等语法知识在语篇中的灵活运用。 本节课通过一些练习题的分析,穿插语法点的讲解,找到做题技巧。 给出单词提示的情况: 1. 名词 2. 动词 3. 代词 4. 形容词、副词 5. 数词 6. 词的派生&词性转换 课程框架 没有给出单词提示的情况: 1. 固定搭配/固定用法 2. 从句引导词 3. 联系上下文推导出的相关词 具体分九种做题技巧 Dear Grace, I arrived in Shenzhen for (1) ______ trip last week. (2)______ weather is fine now. I enjoy (3) ______ (my) here. It is my (4)______ (one) time here, so everything (5) ______ (look) fresh (新鲜的). I visited some tourist attractions. Most (6) ______ the places were crowded. Yesterday I went shopping and bought something (7)____________ (interest). I got lost on my way back to the hotel, (8) ______ it didn’t matter. I usually go out and have dinner in a restaurant and it takes me about (9) ______ hour because the food there is fantastic. I took many (10) _______ (photo), so you can see when I come back home. See you! Yours, Linda 导入练习 a The myself first looks of interesting but an photos 解题步骤 1、跳读大意 2、初填易题 3、补填难题 4、通读检查 分两种情况: 一种,给出单词提示, 另一种,不给单词提示。 下面就这两种情况分别讲解做题技巧。 做题技巧 一、给出单词提示 做题技巧 技巧一:名词形式变化 名词的形式变化主要有单数、复数、所有格的变化。 例:There are many students living at school,the ____ (child) houses are all far from school. 解析: 由students-词可以判断出横线处应填复数, 且作为houses的定语,所以应用其名词所有格形式, 故答案为child的复合变化形式—— 复数的所有格children’s。 1. When everyone quieted down, the speaker began to talk, saying that this was exactly what was happening in our ________ (life). 2. My mother would sit by the window, watching the falling __________ (leaf) from the trees floating in the air. 3. College students are ____________(grown-up) and it's their right to choose the way to live. 4. In _______ (today) world, as we are inching towards global warming and waining , trees serve as our best friend to keep us away from this. 5. This room is Jane and _______(Helen). 6. ___________(Dickens狄更斯,人名) novels are very interesting。 7. Air pollution is caused by the following three _________(reason): about half of the problem is caused by vehicles. lives leaves grown-ups Today's Helen's Dickens' reasons 技巧二:动词形式变化 动词形式有: 有谓语的变化 (时态、语态---主动还是被动、语气----虚拟语气), 进行时 be doing 完成时 have/has/had done 将来时 will + v. 注意助动词:do/does/did be动词过去式:was/were 被动语态形式 be done 有非谓语的变化 (-ing, -ed, to do)。 根据时态做出相应变化。后面会讲。 1. Li Ping often _____ (read) English in the morning. 2.The meeting must _______ (put) off till next Monday. 3. _______ he _____ (clean) the windows once a week? 4.Each child___________(offer) an apple at the party yesterday. 5. How long _____ you ______ (stay) there the day before yesterday? 6. His parents _______(go) to the Great Wall tomorrow morning. 7.That poor lady__________(rob) on her way home last night and she ______(call) out for help,but she couldn't______(hear) by anyone. 8. ____ they _____ (study) Japanese next term? 9. Look! The students _________ (clean) the classroom. 10. —What ____ your father ____ (do) yesterday?   —He ______ (write) two letters. 11. There _________ (be) a football match on TV this evening. 12.This book needn't __________(return) now, you can ________(keep) it for another two days. 13.This chicken _________(taste) more like turkey. reads be put Does clean was offered have stayed will go was robbed called hear Will study are cleaning did do wrote will be be returned keep tastes (1)不定式 to do (2)-ing 形式 (3)-ed形式 过去分词 例如: She has something important___________(do). The bottle____________(contain) vinegar should be sent to the laboratory. _______(move) by film, the children couldn't help crying. A talk___________(give) tomorrow is written by Professor Zhang. to do containing Moved 表将来 表主动 表被动 表将来 表被动 to be given 1. The Olympic games ____________ in 776 BC,did not include women players until 1912.   A.first playing B.to be first playing C.first played D.to be first playing 2. The man managed to make himself _____with his________ English .   A.understand,breaking B.understand,broken C.understand,breaking D.understood,broken 3. _______from the moon,our earth with water ____70% of its surface appears as a “blue ball ”.   A.seen,covered B.seeing,covered C.seen,covering D.to see,to cover 4. I have a book __________ (contain) 12 stories. C D C containing 技巧三:代词形式变化 代词形式变化通常是与人称变化有关的三大类五小类, 即人称代词(主格和宾格) 物主代词(形物和名物) my book/pen/……= mine 反身代词 oneself 例:The king decided to see the painter by (he). 注意:反身代词,表示“……自己” 构成规律:一二人称反身代词, 形物+self/selves; 第三人称是人称代词的宾格+self/selves 解析:by oneself亲自,横线处应填反身代词himself。 1. _______ (he) story is not interesting. 2. He thinks _____ (him) is healthy and never goes to see a doctor. 3. Help _________ (you) to the fish, Mary. 4. This book belongs to you. Where is _____? (me) 5. At age 34 , ______(her) was just too busy — busy fighting cancer. 6. A large variety of languages exist in the world. Every language has____ (it) own special words and expressions. 7. Once again she looked up at me and asked if I could give ______ (she) some water. It was then that I notice ____ (she) lip, which suggested?she?had not had a drop of water all day. 8. When he was a little boy, he could teach_______(him) English. 9. Did you cook the meal ________ (you)? His he yourself mine she its her her himself yourself 技巧四:形容词、副词的变化。 大部分形容词、表方式的副词都有原级、比较级和最高级的变化。 通常加后缀-er、-est,或在多音节词前加more/most,且形容词的最高级前面加the。 例:I am___(tall)than other students in my class.I am the ________ (tall). 解析: 关键词:than 第一个空用比较级 taller 根据意思,我是最高的,第二个空用最高级tallest,注意前面的the 1.Yesterday was even __________ (cold).? 2. Tom is heavy. Jack is as __________(heavy) as Tom.? 3. If you work harder, your English will be __________(good).? 4. Which do you like __________(well), this one or that one? 5. Mike is __________ (thin) of the two brothers.? 6. Nobody is ___________________ (clever) than Jane in our class.? 7. The elephant is __________ (big) than the horse.? 8. Your sweater is much _____________ (expensive) than mine.? 9. Our village is getting more and _____________ (beautiful). 10. The weather is getting __________(hot) and ______(hot).? 11. The ________(much ) you exercise, the _________(health) you will be.? 12. Sam is ________ (well) at Chinese than Jim. colder heavy better better the thinner cleverer/more clever bigger more expensive more beautiful hotter hotter more healthier better 技巧五:数词形式变化。 基数词、序数词, 注意次数表达法以及分数表达法 . 次数表达法:一次once, 两次 twice, 三次及以上 基数词+times 如 三次 three times, 四次 four times等 分数表达法:分子基数词,分母序数词,分子超过一时分母必须加-s. 如:三分之二 two thirds, 三分之一 one/a third 例: To my three sons, I leave my eighteen horses. My eldest son shall take a half, my second son shall take a__(three).  解析: 分马的计划,大儿子分得a half,也就是“一半”或“二分之一”,用了分数; 那么二儿子应该得“三分之一”,所以要填入 大儿子9 二儿子 6 三儿子 3 作分母的序数词“third”。 1.The __________ Lesson is very difficult but very important. You must learn it by heart. (twelve) 2. _________(Five) hundred yuan a month is enough to live on. 3. ______ of the buildings were ruined. A. Three fourth B. Three four C. Three-fourths D. Three-four 4. He has tried a _________ (two) time.? 5. _________ (thousand) of Chinese are looking for ways to learn English well before Beijing? 2008 Olympic.?? 6. Both of the rules are broken. I want to buy a _______ (three) one.? 7. About three quarters of the surface of the earth _______ (be) covered with water. 8. I go to visit my grandmother ___________(two) a week. twelfth Five C second Thousands third is twice 技巧六:词的派生和词性转换。 派生现象, 是英语的一种构词法,通过前后缀等。 词性转换,指一个词性转换为其他词性。比如quick-----quickly 无论派生还是词性转换,都需要先确定填空处需要的词性是什么。 例:Mary lost his wallet yesterday,So he was very ____ (happiness). 解析: 根据句意判断出该用形容词, 由此可知将happiness 变成词根happy; 但是钱包丢了,人应该是不开心的,所以要再加个前缀un ,就成了unhappy。 1. All the great __________ are respected by the world. (invent) 2.?I’ll do my homework more __________ next time. (care) 3. When you study a foreign language, it’s important to make a good _________. (begin) 4. Everyone knows such kind of books is ___________ to children. They shouldn’t be sold at any bookstore. (harm) 5.They looked very __________ in the idea. (interest) 6. Most newspapers _________ (regular) print letters from readers with problems.? 7. ___________ sights stopped them from going forward. (frighten) 8. Do you know about the _______ of the book? (write) 9. If tourism creates too much traffic, the inhabitants will become __________ (annoy) and unhappy. inventions carefully beginning harmful interested regularly Frightening writer annoyed 10. Tourism should also advance the wealth and __________ (happy) of local inhabitants.? (advance 促进,使增长) 11. My sister speaks English as __________(good) as me.? 12. But Jane knew from past experience that her ________ (choose) of ties hardly ever pleased her father. happiness well choice 二、未给单词提示 做题技巧 技巧一:固定搭配或固定用法。 可以是动词搭配,介词搭配,也可以是一种固定用法或关联词等。 如 neither… nor ,both……and, not only……but also,one……the other, some……others, too……to, so……that等。 例1:The children were playing on the ground, enjoying ____,dirty but happy. 解析:孩子们开心,应用enjoy oneself短语,因enjoying 的逻辑主语为children, 故其答案为themselves。 例2:Mrs Baker was ill,so her daughter had to ask for a leave to take_____of her. 解析:生病需要人照顾,所以答案是care,与前后词构成take care of。 例3:Mr Smith took a plane to London____of taking a train. 解析:此题中说到两种交通工具,所以可以理解此句有“坐……而不是坐……”的意思,故答案为instead,以构成介词短语instead of。 例4:Just then,he saw a blackboard in_____of him. 解析:细心观察,可以看出填入front即可构成in front of,此题得解。 例5:Old Tom’s grand·daughter used to visit him_____Saturday afternoon. 例6:Though Liu Qiang did the same work____Zhang Wen did,he got a lower pay______Zhang Wen. 解析:Saturday afternoon是指定的某天下午,所以不用介词in,而用on才是正解 解析:第一条横线可由前面的the same断出用as,第二条横线则可由lower断出比较意义,故答案为than。 例7:____Marrie and Jannie like going to the theatre. 解析:横线处的词与后面可以构成both…and,故答案为Both。 1.?When you meet ________ new word, look it ________ in your dictionary.? 2.?Some of these writers are doctors, ________ are lawyers or educators.? 3. She is such a girl ________ is always finding fault with other people. 4. He is famous ____________ his books. 5. He is famous _____________ a writer. 6. Their working conditions stayed the same ________ before. 7. This book is very different _______ that one. 8. The box is too heavy ________ carry. 9. It is so hot ___________ no one wants to go outside. 10. The British policeman has ________ several nicknames, but ________ most frequently used are“copper”. 11. After ___________ (accept) this job, he felt very tired. a up others as for as as from to that 不填 the accepting 技巧二:从句引导词。 定语从句结构:先行词+引导词+其他成分 引导词分关系代词和关系副词 关系代词的选择 先行词是物:which, that, whose 先行词是人:who, whom, that, whose 先行词既有人又有物:that 关系副词:when, why, where 以后会细讲 例1:I have a book _____ is very expensive. 解析:审题可知,定语从句,先行词是物,用which。 解析:横线所在为定语从句的引导词,进一步观察可知先行词为those,且指人,所以只能填入who。 例2:Those_____want to go to the village must sign here. 例3:We are talking about the pinao and the pianist______ were in the concert we attended last night. 解析:后面有个were,是are的过去式,说明是复数,前面的pianist钢琴家,人,单数,不符合题意,所以前面depinao也是先行词。既有人又有物,用that。 1. He is the man _________ wants to see you. 2. This is the best film ________ I have ever seen. 3. The student _________ we saw just now is the best runner in our school. 4. I was born in Hangzhou, a city_______name will create a picture of beautiful trees and green grass in our mind. 5. My friend showed me round the town, ______was very kind of him. ?? 6. Yesterday she sold her car _________ she had bought a month ago. 7. The Science Museum ___________we visited during a recent trip to Britain, is one of London's tourist attractions. 8. His movie won several awards at the film festival, _______ was beyond his wildest dream. who/that that whom/that whose which which/that which/that which 技巧三:上下文中出现的相关词。 这是最为灵活的,但也是最难的。需要根据上下文关系和自己积累的知识,推导。 例1:Tony____travelling abroad,but dislikes staying at home watching TV. 解析:由第二句话中的dislikes可以判断,此横线处应该是填其反义词likes/enjoys. 例2:It was only one day left._____,his father had no idea to answer him. 解析:观察上下旬,可以看出是转折关系,且横线与前后用逗号隔开,排除but,所以答案是副词however 。 Many years ago, my friend's grandfather decided to become an eye surgeon. He spent six years at ______ university studying medicine, and then had to go off to war. His parents were proud of him, ______they supported him when he finally began as a doctor in a small village. He was very patient ______ sick people and very skillful at curing diseases.__________, during his ______ (one) week as a doctor, he deliberately poisoned a very old lady, a patient ______ simply wanted to die to avoid more _________(suffer). The old doctor that he __________ (know) in the village practice encouraged him to continue. He should have been charged for murder, but the old doctor and the family never told anybody about______. If the public had ever been aware of the grandfather’s actions, the family's reputation would have been ruined. a so/and with However first who/that suffering had known it 1. Little Wang Jun could not go to school_______his family was too poor. 2. In the morning and in the evening when people go to or come from ________, the streets are very busy. 3.?People living in different countries made different kinds of words. Today there are about fifteen hundred __________ in the world. Each contains many thousands of words. 4. Why is setting goals so ___________? Because goals can help you do, be, and experience everything you want in life.? 5. Most Americans don’t like to get advice _______ members of their family. They get advice from strangers.? because work languages important from 给出单词提示的情况: 1. 名词 单复数 所有格 2. 动词 谓语 非谓语 3. 代词 人称 物主 反身 4. 形容词、副词 比较等级 5. 数词 基数词 序数词 分数表达法 次数表达法 6. 词的派生&词性转换 如happiness变形容词happy 九种做题技巧 没有给出单词提示的情况: 1. 固定搭配/固定用法 动词搭配 介词搭配等 2. 从句引导词 定语从句 3. 联系上下文推导出的相关词 如however转折关系等 九种做题技巧 学生点评和作业布置 完成后面练习题,可以做两篇 (一) Hello, I’m Bruce. I have three good (1) ______ (friend). We are different (2) ____ each other. Jack is thirteen years old. He is one year (3) _____ (old) than me. And he is much taller than any one of us. He is talented for sports. And football is his favorite sport. Tom is as tall as me. He is very (4) ______ (fun) and outgoing. He often (5) _____ (make) us laugh. We both like (6) ______ (read). Henry is one year younger than me. And he is shorter than any of us. (7) _____ he is as heavy as me. He is good at (8) ________ (draw). He likes drawing pictures a lot. I'm (9) ______ (quiet) than them. But we are all friendly to each other (10) _______ can share everything. (二) Last week's talent show (1) _______ really successful. (2) ______ all the performers, Li Ping and Li Hua were the (3) _____ (winner). Li Ping is (4) _____ outgoing and cool boy. At the talent show, he could (5) _____ (play) six balls at the same time very well. He (6) _____ (win) the prize for the most (7) ____ (excited) performance. Li Hua is a girl with curly hair. She is a great magician. She could put knives (刀) into the body of a person. (8)_____ the person wasn’t hurt at all. We were so afraid that some of us shouted (9) ____ (loud). She was the most creative performer although (10)_____ (she) show was the most frightening (令人恐惧的). (三) There was a little cat. He spent much time eating and sleeping. He ate once (1) ______ day, and then went to bed and slept. When he slept, his snoring (鼾声) sound (2) ______ very loud. He hardly took exercises, (3) ______ he was very heavy. Other (4) ______ (animal) were angry at the cat, (5) ______ they couldn’t sleep well at night. One day, a big cat (6) ______ (plan) to teach the little cat a lesson. He asked a few animals to help (7) ______ (he). They wanted to catch the little cat and beat (打) him. Because (8) ______ cat never exercised, he was too heavy to move. When other animals ran after him, he couldn’t run (9) _______ (quick). He knew it’s (10) _________ (importance) to do exercises when he was caught. (四) Do you want to travel on your own? Being (1) _____ exchange student is (2) ______ good way. Exchange students can live in a foreign country and learn (3) ______ (it) language and culture. Students go to a high school (4) ______ live with a host family, often for six (5) _____ (month) to a year. These programmes (6) _____ (be) very good for students. They can learn a lot about a (7) ______ (difference) culture. They can also learn to be more independent and (8) ______ (feel) more confident (自信的). Being an exchange student helps you (9) ______ (make) friends with different people. Besides, it can help improve your understanding of (10) ______ world. Exchange students share their own culture with people in the new country as well. The Dragon Boat Festival is on 1 fifth day of May according to the Chinese calendar. For thousands of years, the festival has been celebrated by eating zong zi and racing dragon boats in honour 2 Qu Yuan, who is said to have committed suicide(自杀) by drowning himself. Qu was a minister of the State of Chu located in present-day Hunan and Hubei provinces, during the Warring States Period(战国时期). He was upright(正直的), loyal and highly respected. ____3____, he was dismissed from office(被革职). Realizing that the country was in the hands of evil officials, Qu 4 (leap) into River Miluo on the fifth day of the fifth month. Nearby fishermen rushed over to save him but were ____5____ (able) to recover his body. The people of Chu ____6____ mourned(哀悼) Qu’s death threw rice into the river to feed his ghost ____7____ year on the day of his 8 (die). But one year, the spirit of Qu appeared and told the mourners that a huge reptile(爬行动物)in the river had stolen the rice. The spirit then advised __9______ to wrap the rice and bind(捆绑) it ____10____ throwing it into the river. During the Duanwu Festival, zong zi is eaten to symbolize(象征,表示) the rice offerings to Qu. And the dragon-boat races symbolize the many attempts to rescue and recover Qu's body. 阅读,在空白处填入适当的内容(不多于3个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。
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