[ID:4-6777428] 牛津高中英语语法(主谓一致)
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主谓一致 语法一致原则 主语和谓语通常在语法形式上保持一致,即主语是单数形式时,谓语动词也用单数形式;主语是复数形式时,谓语动词也用复数形式。如:He does well in maths. 谓语用单数时的情况 1)单数名词(代词)或不可数名词做主语时,其谓语动词用单数。例如: Lucy is a good girl, she likes helping others. There is a lot of water in the bottle. No news is good news. 特别提醒:不可数名词前若有表示数量的物量词,则谓语动词与物量词本身的形式一致。例如:One million tons of oil were produced last year. 2)不定式短语、动名词短语和从句做主语时,其谓语动词用单数。例如: To learn English well isn’t easy. What you said seems impolite. 但是What从句做主语,表语是复数,谓语动词用复数 如: What?the?students?need B good?books.??A.?is??B.?are????C.?have??D.?has? 3)主语是 either,neither或主语被 either,neither 修饰时。例如: Either of the answers is correct. Neither answer proves to be correct. every/some/any/no+body/one/thing 构成的复合不定代词做主语时。例如: Nobody is absent. 主语是 each 或单数主语被 each,every 修饰时, Each of the boys has a pencil box. Here every student is good at drawing 当“one of/the number of +名词复数”作主语时 The number of teachers in my school is 138. One of his uncles is an engineer. 但定语从句中关系代词who、that、which等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。如one前有the only则用单数形式。 One of the teachers who work in No.4 High School is his uncle. She was the only one of the girls who was late for class today. 2.谓语用复数时的情况 1)“a number of+名词复数”做主语时,其谓语动词用复数 A number of trees were planted in our city last year. and 或both...and...连接主语时,其谓语动词用复数,但如果并列主语指的是同一个人,同一事物或同一概念时,谓语动词用单数形式,这时and后面的名词没有冠词,前面有each, every, many a, no等修饰时, 谓语动词通常仍要用单数形式。例如: Each boy and each girl was congratulated. 每个男孩和女孩都受到了祝贺。 Both you and I are right. Tea and milk are good for our health. Truth and honesty is the best policy. To love and to be loved is the great happiness. Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit. A knife and fork is on the table. Every hour and every minute is important. 每时每刻都是重要的。 Many a boy and many a girl has seen this painting. 许多男孩和女孩都看了这幅油画。 No man and no animal is to be found on the moon. 在月球上没发现人和动物。 No teacher and no student is admitted. 师生一律不得入内。 3.取决于主语的情况 主语后有with,along with, like, except, besides, including, as well as, together with, rather than, except, but, besides, in addition to, added to, rather than, more than, no less than等连接的名词或代词时 Tom with his parents is watching TV now. a lot of/lots of/plenty of/all/ most of/分数/百分数 + 名词时, Lots of people have been there. Two thirds of the work has been done. 意义一致原则 意义一致原则就是概念一致,谓语动词的形式要和主语所表达的概念一致。 集合名词people,police作主语时,其谓语动词用复数。 The people in the park are having a good time now. “the +姓氏名词复数”作主语时,其谓语动词用复数。 The Blacks enjoy working in China. “the +形容词”作主语时,其谓语动词用复数。 The young are very energetic. 表示时间、距离、金额、度量/数学运算等词语作主语时,通常被视作整体,谓语动词用单数。Two months is a long holiday. Twenty years is not a long time. (二十年光阴, 弹指一挥间。) 但在该主语被视为“若干单位”的情况下谓语动词用复数形式。 Twenty years have passed since he left.( 他离开已二十个年头了。) and 连接的并列主语表示同一个人或物(即and后无冠词),谓语动词用单数。 6.集体名词(family,class,group等)作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。 His?family?isn’t?large.??他家的人不多。?? My?family?all?like?watching?TV.?我们一家人都喜欢看电视。 7.单、复数同形的名词作主语时,谓语动词应根据意义决定单、复数。?A?sheep?is?over?there.?Some?sheep?are?over?there. 8..名词性物主代词做主语时,谓语动词的单复数决于它所代替的是单数还是复数。? Your?classroom?is?small.Ours?(=our?classroom)?is?big.? Your?shoes?are?blue,?Mine?(=?my?shoes)?are?black.? 9.定语从句中关系代词who、that、which等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。? Ilike?the?music?that?is?interesting.I?like?the?people?who?are?friendly. 成双成对出现的复数名词(glasses, scissors, shoes, trousers,pants,gloves,stockings等)作主语时,通常谓语动词用复数,但如果前面有a/the pair of;a/the suit of等词语时,则谓语动词要用单数。 Those trousers are Lucy’s. A pair of scissors is a useful tool for a dressmaker. 11.有些以-s?结尾的名词本身不表示复数意义,谓语通常用单数形式,如news,?maths,?physics等。?? ??No?news?is?good?news.??没有消息就是好消息。??? ??Maths?is?very?popular?in?our?class??在我们班数学很受欢迎。? 就近一致原则 当主语为多个名词或代词时,谓语动词的形式和靠近它的名词或代词保持一致。 either...or...; neither...nor...; not only...but also...或or 连接的两个主语,谓语v.遵循“就近原则”; Tom? or?Jack?is?wrong.??不是汤姆就是杰克错了。? Neither she nor I am from Canada.我和她都不是加拿大人。 Not only you but also your brother says right. There be,Here be 结构中 There?is?a?book?and?three?pens?on?the?desk.??桌子上有一本书,三只钢笔? Here?are?some?books?and?paper?for?you.??这是给你的书和纸。 选择最佳答案 It ___ for this season ___ her uncle moved out of New York. A is,which B was,why C was,that D were,how The professor and author ___ come to our school. A has B have C are D were Neither Lucy nor I ___ at school on Sundays. A are B am C is D were The spy was being searched for by the police who ___ running after him. A has been B were C are D was My family all ___ in for pop music. A goes B go C going D gone More than 2 million people ___ visited the Pyramids of Egypt. A has B have been C have D had to Serving the people and motherland ___ my great happiness. A is B am C were D are I’m afraid that he or you ___ taken my umbrella away by mistake. A has B have C is D are Each of the students working hard at his or her lessons ___ to go to university. A hopes B hope C hoping D hoped Every means ___ tried at least three times. A have been B has been C are D were He together with his parents, ___ to Beijing. A go B have gone C goes D has gone Mr. Brown has two sisters, but either ___ out of work now. A is B was C are D were Since all ___ here, let’s begin the meeting. A is B was C were D are Two weeks ___ enough for us to have a trip to Tibet. A is B are C have D were Tom is one of the cowboys who ___ that farm on time. A reaches B got C reach D gets to This is the one of the articles on the subject ___ written in French. A that has ever been B which have ever been C that have ever been D which has ever Movies of this kind ___ not worth seeing again. A is B are C did D has Neither of them ___ to climb the high tower. A dare not B dares C did not dare D daring Eighty-five percent of the students in our class ___ passed the examination. A have B has C was D were Three-fourths of the surface of the Earth ___ covered with water. A are B is C had D has had More than seventy percent of the population of this country ___ living in rural areas. A is B has C are D have Every desk and every chair in the classroom ___ to be cleaned today. A are B is C have D were As is known to us, the English ___ to talk about weather. A likes B like C loves D liked Between the two tall buildings ___ a monument. A stand B standing C stands D is standing Your school clothes fit you well, but mine ___ me. A don’t fit B doesn’t fit C don’t fit for D aren’t fit Nobody but Jane ___ the secret. A know B knows C have known D is known All but one ___ here just now. A is B was C has been D were Not only Mary but also her parents ___ invited to attend the meeting last Friday. A was B were C had been D are A library with five thousand books ___ to the nation as a gift. A is offered B has offered C are offered D had offered When and where to build the new factory ___. A is not decided B are not decided C has not decided D have not decided The test on spelling ___ as your homework. A is to be done B are to do C are to be done D will do The rest of the food ___ in the refrigerator. A is to keep B are to keep C are to be kept D is to be kept Quite a number of the young ___ for the job. A has applied B have applied C have been applied D has been applied The number of the magazines in our school ___. A is increasing B are increasing C being increasing D have increased Large quantities of fish ___ in the lake. A is caught B have caught C has been caught D have been caught She was the only one of the girls who _____late for class today. was B.were C. does D. has Every hour and every minute ______important. are B. is C. were D was Many a boy and many a girl _________ this painting yet. haven’t seen B. see C. hasn’t seen D. doesn’t see Twenty years _________ since he died. was passed B. pass C.passes D. have passed Whose ______ these pencils on the desk? are B. is C. was D. have 参考答案: 1-5 CABBB 6-10 CABAB 11-15 DADAC 16-20 ABBAB 21-25 CBBCA 26-30 BDBAA 31-35 ADBAD 36-40 ABCDA
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  • 资料类型: 学案
  • 资料版本:牛津译林版
  • 适用地区:湖南省
  • 文件大小:33.39KB
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