[ID:4-6111107] [精]中考英语二轮语法专项系列导学案10: 情态动词
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中小学教育资源及组卷应用平台 中考英语二轮语法专项系列导学案10: 专题10: 情态动词 一、命题趋势 分析近五年中考试题可以看出,对情态动词的考查分值较少,主要出现在单项选择和用所给动词的适当形式填空中。 备考时,要熟练掌握情态动词的基本用法,把握情态动词的语法和语义特征,掌握每个情态动词的用法特点及功能,仔细摩语境中说者的情感、态度和语气。 二、考点梳理: 考点一:情态动词的概念、类型和基本特征 1. 怎样理解情态动词? 情态动词,顾名思义,就是表示说话人对事物/行为的看法,带有某种情绪、态度或语气的动词,带有一定的感情色彩,具有一定的词义,不能单独作谓语,必须后接动词原形。 试体会: (1)You?must?obey?the?school?rules. 你必须遵守校规。must表必须,表明说话人的态度。 (2)You can hang out with your friend if you finish your homework. 如果你能完成作业,你可以和你的朋友出去逛街。can表可以,表明说话人允许外出的态度。 2. 情态动词的类型 (1)专职情态动词,只能用作情态动词,主要有can; could; may; might; must; (2)兼职情态动词1,既可作情态动词又可作实义动词,主要有 need; dare; (3)兼职情态动词2,既可作情态动词又可作助动词,主要有: will; would; shall; should; (4)半情态动词,具有情态动词的部分特征,主要有: have to; had better; used to; 3. 情态动词的基本特征 (1)无人称和数的变化。 情态动词没有人称和数的变化,不管主语为何种人称,写法没有变化,即:没有词形的变化。 I can swim. You can swim. He can swim. 温馨提示:have to除外,有人称、数以及时态的变化。 I have to stay here. He has to stay here. They had to stay here yesterday. (2)情态动词后跟动词原形,共同构成意义完整的合成谓语,即:合成谓语=情态动词+行为动词原形或系动词原形,此用法区别于实义动词。 例如:He can swim. He swims. 试划分句子成分:I can swim. 错误:I(主语) can(谓语)swim.(宾语) 正确:I(主语) can swim.(合成谓语) 温馨提示:正确划分句子成分,弄清情态动词的谓语角色,有助于宾语从句陈述与疑问语序的判断。 想一想,辨一辨: ① I don’t know if can he do the job. (错误) ② I don’t know if he can do the job. (正确) If引导的宾语从句中,he为主语,can后加动词原形do构成合成谓语。①句中,谓语的一部分can放在主语he前面,为疑问语序,而宾语从句要求陈述语序(主语+全部谓语),所以,①句错误。 (3) 具有助动词的作用,可用来构成否定句、疑问句及用于简明答语。 例如: --- Can you sing an English song? 你会唱英语歌吗? --- Yes, I can. 是的,我会。 考点二:情态动词的用法 1. can, could的用法 用法一:表才能,有才。 can表示现在的能力,例如: We can speak a little English.我们会讲一点英语;could表示过去的能力,例如:Jimmy could read at the age of five. be able to即可表现在/过去能力,又可指将来具备的能力。 例如: He was able to swim at the age of five. We are able to speak English well. Kate will be able to drive when she is 18 years old. 用法二:表示请求或许可 例如:You can play basketball on Saturday. 周六你们可以打篮球。表示许可。 Can you help me with my English? 你能帮我学英语吗?表示请求。 表请求时,could不是can的过去式,但比can更可气、更委婉。 想一想,练一练: Could you please tell me ____________? A. where was the restroom? B. where the restroom was? C. where is the restroom? D. where the restroom is? 答案:D 解析:tell后常跟宾语从句,要求陈述语序,即:主语+全部谓语。选项A、C中谓语动词is、was放在主语的前面,疑问语序,排除;could表请求时,不是can的过去式,只是更委婉的请求,所以选择is。 用法三:can’t表有把握的否定猜测,意为:一定不... 例如:The old man at the gate can’t be Zhang Yi, because he has gone to the USA. 想一想,练一练: 1. He _______ speak English very well although he has studied it for only one year. A. mustn't B. can’t C. must D. can 答案:D 解析:根据句意可知,他英语能说得很好,尽管他只学了一年。英语说得好,这是表能力的用法,用情态动词can,故选D。 2. ---Mum, ______ I play football this afternoon? ---Sure, but you ______ finish your homework first. A. may; could B. can; must C. can; mustn't D. may; can't 答案:B 解析:根据句意可知, 妈妈,今天下午我能踢足球吗?考查can表请求的用法;但是你必须先完成作业。考查must表命令的用法。 3. ---What does Justin Bieber's song Never Say Never impress you most? --- It tells us that we _______ do almost anything if we never give up A. can B. have to C. should D. need 答案:A 解析:考查can表能力的用法。它告诉我们如果我们不放弃,几乎任何一件事我们能做到。 2. must的用法 用法一:表示命令、义务或要求,意为:必须; 例如:We must tell the truth to our parents. 我们必须把真想告诉我们的父母。 想一想,练一练: Nowadays all passengers ______ go through safety check before they take a train. A. can B. may C. must D. will 答案: C 解析: 考查情态动词must表命令、义务或要求的用法。根据生活常识及句意可知,现在所有的乘客乘火车前必须过安检,故选C。 用法二:must表示有把握的肯定推测,意为:一定……; 例如:There's someone knocking at the door. It must be Jim. 温馨提示: mustn’t意为:严禁,决不能,不表示有把握的否定猜测,can’t表示有把握的否定猜测。 想一想,练一练: 1. ---Whose bike is this? ---It ________ belong to Adam. Look! His bag is on it A. can B. may C. Will D. must 答案:D 解析:考查must表猜测的用法。他的书包在车上,说明自行车一定是Adam的。must表有把握的肯定猜测。 2. The girl in the classroom ______ be Sarah. She has gone to the library. A. may B. must C. can't D. needn't 答案:C 解析:考查can’t表有把握否定猜测的用法。教室里的这个女孩一定不是Sarah,因为她去图书馆了,有把握的否定猜测。 3. ---_______ I swim here? --- I’m sorry. Children _______ swim alone here. A. Must; can’t B. May; must C. Can; mustn’t D. Can’t; can 答案:C 解析:孩子们决不能独自一人在这儿游泳。mustn’t表严禁,决不能。 用法三:以must开头的疑问句,否定回答常用 needn't。needn't表 “不需要,不必”,相当于don' have to。 例如:---Must I finish the project today? 我必须今天完成这个项目吗? ---No, you needn't。不,你不必。 想一想,练一练: 1. ---Mum, must I wash the dishes right now? ---No, you ________. A. shouldn't B. wouldn’t C. mustn't D. needn't 答案:D 解析:以must开头的疑问句,否定回答常用 needn't, 表 “不需要,不必”。 2. --- Mom, must I clean my room now? --- No, you ________. You can do it tomorrow. A. can't B. needn't C. mustn't D. shouldn't 答案:B 解析:以must开头的疑问句,否定回答常用 needn't, 表 “不需要,不必”。 3. may与might的用法 用法一:表无充分判断依据的推测,意为:可能; 也许,常用于肯定句中。 例如: He may come tomorrow.明天他可能会来 辨析:may与maybe (1)may是情态动词,后接动词原形be,表示“可能是”,只能在句中作谓语。 (2)maybe为副词,用于句首,表示“可能;也许”相当于perhaps。 试转化:那个男孩可能来自加拿大。 句1:The boy may be from Canada. 句2:Maybe the boy is from Canada. 想一想,练一练: 1. ---Is that our new English teacher? ---Well, it _____ be, but I am not sure. A. should B. might C. must D. can’t 答案:B 解析:考查might表猜测的用法。有下句中I am not sure.不确定可知,这种猜测无充分判断依据,可能是我们的英语老师。 2. ---Have you decided which high school to choose? --- Not yet. I ______ go to Guangming High School. A. must B. shouldn’t C. may D. needn’t 答案:C 解析:考查may表猜测的用法。由下句中Not yet可知,尚未作出去哪儿上学的决定,因此,去光明中学只是可能的事情。 用法二:表示请求、许可,意为“可以”。 例如: May I borrow your book? 我可以借用你的书吗? may表示请求时,用于主语为第一人称的一般疑问句,其否定回答不用 may not,常用 mustn’t,意为:不可以;不许;禁止。 例如: ---May I go now? 我现在可以走了吗? ---No, you mustn’t. 不,不可以。 can和may均可用来征求意见或允许,意为“可以”,一般可互换使用。 用法三:表示祝愿。例如:May you success! 祝你成功! 4. need与dare的用法 need与dare既可作情态动词,又可作实意动词,在用法上有相似之处,以need为例,见下表: 作实意动词 Sb need sth. 意为:某人需要某物; I need some fruit to eat. Sb need to do sth.意为:某人需要做某事 I need to buy a new pen for my sister. 作情态动词 用于否定或疑问句中,后接动词原形,无人称数及时态的变化; 区分need或dare为情态动词还是实意动词的方法如下: (1)有无人称和数的变化; need或dare作情态动词时,无人称和数的变化;need或dare作实意动词时,无人称和数的变化; (2)后接动词形式不同; need或dare作情态动词时,后接动词原形;need或dare作实意动词时,后接动词不定式,即:need或dare to do sth。 He needn't get up early. = He doesn’t need to get up early. 他不需要早起。 He needn't worry about it. = He doesn't need to worry about it.。这件事他无需担心 (3)句式变换的方法不同; need或dare作情态动词时,变否定句在后面加not,变一般疑问句时提前;need或dare作实意动词时,进行各种句式变换需借助助动词do, does, did实现。 想一想,练一练: 1. Lisa is a little poor at Chinese. I think she needs _______ it every day. A. practice to speak B. to practice speaking C. practice speaking D. to practice to speak 答案:B 解析:needs有词形的变化,为实意动词,后跟动词不定式to practice;practice后面只能跟doing形式,所以选择B。 2. ---Must I clean the classroom right now? --- _________.You can do it after class A. Yes, you must. B. No, you can. C. Yes, you may D. No, you needn't 答案:D 解析:以must开头的疑问句,否定回答常用 needn't, 表 “不需要,不必”,相当于don' have to。 考点5:had better的用法 had better +动词原形,常用于提建议,没有人称和数的变化,意为:最好做某事,其否定句式为:had better not do sth。 例如:You'd better(not)stay at home。你最好(不要)待在家里。 想一想,练一练:You’d better _____ (not watch) TV every day. 答案:not watch 解析:had better not do sth。 考点6:shall( should), will( would)的用法 (1) shall用于第一人称,表示征求意见、询问。 例如:Shall I open the window? 我打开窗户好吗? Shall we have lunch here? 我们在这儿吃午饭好吗? (2) should常用来表示义务或责任。 例如:We should obey traffic laws. 我们应该遵守交通规则。 (3) will用于第二人称,表示询问、请求,也可以表达现在的意愿。 例如:Will you pass me the book? 把书递给我好吗? We will do anything for you 我们会为你做任何事。 (4) would用来表示过去的意愿或委婉询问。 例如:Would you tell me the way to the station? 你能告诉我去车站的路吗 三、真题感悟练: 1. ---Must we finish our homework now --- No, you ________. A. needn't B. mustn't C. can’t D. may 2. --- Must he sing the song in English? ---No. he _______. A. needn't B. can't C. mustn't 3. --- Have you decided which senior high school to choose? --- Not yet. I _____ go to Moonlight Senior High School. A. must B. shouldn’t C. may D. needn’t 4. You _____ jump onto a bus while it is still moving. It is too dangerous A. can B. must C. can't D. mustn't???? 5. There’s enough time for you to go to the airport. You _____ hurry now. A. should B. needn't. C must D. can't 6. With the help of the new technology, you _____ e-mail your friends by mobile phone A. can B. must C. need D. should 7. --- Could you help me with my English now? ---Yes. I _____ A. could B. can C. must D. couldn't 8. ---Will you go to the museum with me this afternoon? --- Sorry, ______. My aunt is coming to see me. A. I don't B. I can't C. I needn't D. I mustn’t 9. --- How is your friend coming? ---I’m not sure. He ______ drive here. A. may B. can C. must D. will 10. ---- May I take my pet dog with me into the cinema? --- The rule says no. So you ______. A. can B. mustn't C. may D. needn’t 11. ---Who can it be? ---I’m not sure. It ______ be Lucy's friend, Lin Mei. A. mustn't B. can't C. may D. must 12. According to a research, butterflies ______ see more colors than humans. A. must B. need C. will D. can 13. --- Can I go fishing with you, Dad? --- No, you ______. You ______ do your homework first A. won’t; may B. can’t; must C. shouldn't; ought D. needn’t; should 14. --- ______ I take the magazine away from the reading room? --- No, you mustn't. You _____ read it only here. A. Must; must B. Must; can C. Need; must D. May; can 15. ---Sir, you ____ park your car in the middle of the road. --- I ____ stop. A dog was running across the street. A. mustn’t; needn’t B. needn’t; mustn’t C. mustn’t; must D. needn’t; need 真题提升练答案: 1. A 2. A 3. C 4. D 5. B 6. A 7. B 8. B 9. A 10. B 11. C 12. D 13. B 14. D 15. C 21世纪教育网 www.21cnjy.com 精品试卷·第 2 页 (共 2 页) 21世纪教育网(www.21cnjy.com)
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