[ID:4-6221298] 中考英语词形变换专题指导:知识点+练习300题(含答案)
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中考英语词形变换专题指导 一 . 转化:指由一种词性转化为另一种词性的构词形式。   1. 名词转化为动词: book ( n 书— v 预定);seat ( n 座位— v 使就位;落座);water ( n 水— v 浇水) 2. 动词转化为名词:   try ( v 尝试— n 尝试);look ( v 看— n 表情); dream ( v 做梦— n 梦)   3. 形容词转化为动词: dirty ( adj 脏的— v 弄脏);slow ( adj 慢的— v 放慢;减慢);right ( adj 正确的— v 纠正);dry ( adj 干的— v 变干);free ( adj 自由的— v 解放;使自由); 4. 形容词转化为名词:   dear ( adj 昂贵的— n 喜欢的人 / 物);quiet ( adj 寂静的— n 寂静)   5. 其它词类的转化情况:   Our classroom faces south. ( south: n 南方;南面— adv 向南;朝南)   6. 当英语词汇转化时,转化后的词的读音常有变化。 二 . 合成:指由两个或两个以上本身有独立含义的词合在一起组成一个有具体意义的新词的构词形式。 1. 合成形容词的常见构词形式: ⑴ 数词 + 名词 a five - year plan (五年计划);first-class products (一级品);second-hand goods (二手货) ⑵ 数词 + 名词 +ed a three - legged bench (三条腿的登子);a one - eyed camel (一只眼的骆驼) ⑶ 数词 + 名词 + 形容词  a 20-year-old lady (一位 20 岁的女士);a 1,000-metre-long bridge (一座 1000 米长的桥) ⑷ 名词 + 现在分词  peace-loving (热爱和平的);meat-eating (食肉的); history-making (创造历史的) ⑸ 名词 + 过去分词  heart-broken (伤心的);man-made (人造的); water-covered (被水覆盖的) ⑹ 形容词 + 名词 +ed  absent-minded (漫不经心的);blue-eyed (蓝眼睛的); kind-hearted (和善的) ⑺ 形容词 + 现在分词  bad-looking (相貌丑陋的);fine-sounding (动听的);easy-going (容易相处的) ⑻ 形容词 + 名词  short-term (短期的);part-time (兼职的);high-class (高级的);large-scale (大规模的) ⑼ 副词 + 现在分词  hard-working (努力工作的);far-reaching (深远的);ever-lasting (永恒的) ⑽ 副词 + 过去分词  well-developed (高度发达的);well-known (著名的);well-trained (训练有素的) ⑾ 其他构词形式的合成形容词  all-round (全面的);face-to-face (面对面的);thank-you (感谢的);out-of-date (过时的) 2. 合成名词的常见构成形式: ① 名词 + 名词  silkworm (蚕);footprint (脚印);newspaper (报纸);glasshouse (温室);bedroom (卧室) ② 名词 + 动名词  handwriting (书法);sun-bathing (日光浴);sight-seeing (观光) ③ 形容词 + 名词  shorthand (速记);hotline (热线);blackboard (黑板) ④ 动名词 + 名词  waiting-room (候车室);sleeping-pill (安眠药);writing-desk (写字台);reading-room (阅览室) ⑤ 动词 + 名词  pickpocket (扒手);post office (邮局);playground (操场);break-water (防波堤) ⑥ 动词 + 副词  get-together (联欢会);break-through (突破);take-off (起飞);lookout (岗哨) ⑦ 副词 + 动词  downfall (垮台);overthrow (推翻);outbreak (爆发);income (收入;所得) ⑧ 其他构成形式的合成名词  well-being (福利);good-for-nothing (无用之人);by-product (副产品);touch-me-not (含羞草);self-improvement (自我完善);self-criticism (自我批评)   注意:合成词如果出现复数形式时通常在其后加 -s 或 -es ,如 by-products, reading-rooms, 但应特别注意: passers-by, lookers-on 等词语是在其表达该词中心含义的词上加 -s 或 -es . 3. 合成动词及其他合成词类:  overthrow (推翻);sleep-walk (梦游);undergo (经历);everything (一切);furthermore (而且);forever (永远);maybe (也许) 三 . 派生:指由一个词根加上前缀和(或)后缀构成另一个词的构词形式。 1. 前缀:一般而言,前缀只改变词的含意,并不改变词的词性,有些前缀如 en- , under- 等却使原词改变了词性,如 force ( n 力量)— enforce ( v 加强);rich ( adj 富有)— enrich ( v 使富裕);line ( n 线)— underline ( v 在……之下画线)。   前缀??? 含义??????????? 词根????????????????? 派生词   dis-???? 不???????? like (喜欢)???????? dislike (不喜欢)   un-????? 不???????? fair (公平)???????? unfair (不公平)   il-??? 不;无?????? legal (合法的)????? illegal (非法的)   in-??? 不;非????? correct (正确的)???? incorrect (不正确的)   im-????? 非??????? possible (可能的)??? impossible (不可能的)   ir-??? 不;非????? regular (规则的)???? irregular (不规则的)   non-?? 无;非????? smoker (烟民)??????? non-smoker (不吸烟者)   en-????? 使??????? courage (勇气)?????? encourage (鼓励)   fore-? 前;预先???? head (头)?????????? forehead (前额)   inter- 在……之间?? national (国家的)?? international (国际的)   kilo-??? 千???????? meter (米)????????? kilometer (千米)   mid-?? 在…中间????? autumn (秋天)????? mid-autumn (中秋)   mis-?? 错误地?????? understand (理解)?? misunderstand (误解)   over- 在…上,过分;超过? head (头)???? overhead (在头顶上的)   re-?? 再;重;又???? build (修建)?????? rebuild (重建)   2. 后缀:通常情况下,后缀不但改变词,还改变词性,常见的后缀有动词后缀、副词后缀、形容词后缀和名词后缀。   ①动词后缀:   后缀?????? 含义??????? 词根????????????? 派生词   -en?????? 变得…?? wide (宽的)??? widen (加宽;变宽)   -ify????? 使…???? beauty (美)??? beautify (使漂亮)   -ize/ise? 使…???? real(的)?????? realize (实现)   ②副词后缀:   后缀????? 含义??????????????? 词根????????????????????? 派生词   -ly??? 在…状态中????? happy (高兴;幸福) happily (高兴地;幸福地)   -ward?? 朝…方向/地方? back (后)????????? backward (向后;朝后)   ③形容词后缀:   后缀??????????? 含义?????????????????? 词根????????????????? 派生词   -able/-ible 可…的;能…的?????? comfort (舒服)???? comfortable (舒适的)   -al/-ial??? 属于…的;有…特点?? practice (练习)??? practical (实际的;可行的)   -ed???????? 有…特性的?????????? interest (兴趣)??? interested (感兴趣的)   -ful??????? 充满…的???????????? harm (伤害;损伤)? harmful (有害的;致伤的)   -ish??????? 有…属性的?????????? self (自己)??????? selfish (自私的)   -ive??????? 有…倾向的?????????? create (创造)????? creative (创造性的)   ④名词后缀:   后缀????????? 含义??????????????? 词根??????????????????? 派生词   -ance/-ence 指行为、状态???? perform (表演)????? performance (演出;表演)   -dom??????? 指性质、状态???? free (自由的)?????? freedom (自由)   -er/or????? 指人的身份?????? work (工作)???????? worker (工人)   -ess??????? 指人的身份?????? host (招待;主持)?? hostess (女主人)   -ese??????? 表示国籍???????? China (中国)??????? Chinese (中国人)   -ian??????? 指人的身份?????? music (音乐)??????? musician (音乐家) 词形变换解题指导 出题方向 出题量最大,也是最难把握的方向——同词根不同词类之间的相互转换 常考的相互转换词类有四种:名词、动词、形容词、副词 名词 动词、形容词 动词、形容词 名词 动词 形容词 形容词 动词 形容词 副词 副词 形容词 做这样的转换需要平时大量的积累,建立词根词缀的概念,多掌握常用的词缀,灵活变通 最基本题型,必考方向——名词、代词、数词 名词考察方向:1. 复数 代词考察方向:1. 宾格 2. 形容词性、名词性物主代词转换 3. 反身代词可能出现 数词考察方向:1. 基数词、序数词的拼写与互换 2. 分数可能出现 简单题型,多练即可把握——比较级最高级 需要掌握:1. 比较级和最高级的变化方式 2. 比较级和最高级的辨识关键词 较难题型,多次转换,反义理解 有时候词类之间需要越级变换,要仔细斟酌词类间的修饰关系,确保答案的正确性 较难题目不仅会越级变换,还需要添加反义,这需要更耐心细致地解题,分析题意 解题技巧 形容词修饰名词、代词性成分;部分名词也可以修饰名词 动词、形容词、副词需要副词修饰,副词也可以修饰整句话 系动词后一般使用形容词,系动词后尤其需注意添加形容词,这点易和实义动词用副词修饰混淆 扎实掌握名词、代词、数词的基本知识 注意做完需要通读一下,检查反义及动词的时态语态问题 考点解析 一、可数名词单数变复数类 1.规则变化:   (1)一般情况加-s, 如: girls, books, pens, bags, boys, days等。  (2)以s, x, ch, sh结尾加-es, 如: buses, boxes, watches, brushes等。  (3)以o结尾的名词,无生命的名词多加-s,有生命的名词多加-es。  (4)以辅音字母加y结尾的名词, 变y为i加-es, 如: city→ cities, story→stories  (5)以f或fe结尾的名词变f或fe为v加-es。如:leaf→leaves, knife→knives,   shelf→shelves等。(roof→roofs) 2.不规则变化的名词要熟记: man→men,     woman→women,     child→children, deer→deer   foot→feet, tooth→teeth, mouse→mice, Japanese→Japanese people→people, sheep→sheep, Chinese→Chinese 二、名词变形容词类 1.在动词或名词后加后缀-ful, 如:   care→careful; use→useful; thank→thankful; forget→forgetful help→helpful; beauty→beautiful; wonder→wonderful 2.在名词后加-y, 如: luck→lucky, cloud→cloudy; wind→windy; noise→noisy rain→rainy; sun→sunny, snow→snowy; health→healthy 3.在名词后加-y, 如:    friend→friendly love→lovely day→daily 4.方位名词加-ern,如: east→eastern west→western south→southern north→northern 6.在名词后加-less, 变成否定含义的形容词。如: use→useless hope→hopeless care→careless 三、形容词加后缀变成名词 1.形容词加-ness变成名词,如:   happy→happiness ill→illness weak→weakness kind→kindness good→goodness careless→carelessness 2.形容词加-ty变成名词,如: safe→safety difficult→difficulty  3.形容词加-th变成名词,如: true→truth warm→warmth young→youth 4.形容词加-ence / ance变成名词,如: important→importance dependent→dependence different→difference 四、形容词变副词类 形容词修饰名词、代词等作定语或表语;副词修饰动词、形容词或副词作状语。 1.一般形容词词尾加-ly变成副词,如: slow→slowly  clear→clearly  quick→quickly; real→really quiet→quietly careful→carefully sudden→suddenly 2.以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,要变y为i加-ly,如: easy→easily happy→happily heavy→heavily lucky→luckily busy→busily angry→angrily; 3.以元音字母加辅音字母+e结尾的重读开音节,直接加-ly,如: polite→politely safe→safely wide→widely 4.以元音字母+e结尾,去e加-ly,如:   true→truly 5.以辅音字母加-le结尾,去e加-y,如: terrible→terribly possible→possibly 6.形容词与副词同形,如: fast→fast early→early high→high; hard→hard 7.形容词与副词异形,如:good→well 8.注意:hard作形容词时意思是“困难的;硬的;生硬的”等;作副词时意思是“努力地”。hardly是否定副词,意思是“几乎不”。 既是形容词又是副词 hard a hard question/a hard stone work hard / study hard/ rain hard early an early train get up early late be late for class come late for school deep a hole deep large dive deep into the sea high a high mountain jump high long It takes a long time. It takes too long. far My home is far from school. jump far straight a straight line go straight along 五、动词变名词类 1.动词加-er变成名词,如: work→worker farm→farmer teach→teacher sing→singer speak→speaker play→player read→reader drive→driver write→writer ride→rider dance→dancer run→runner; win→winner   cook→cooker wash→washer 2.动词加-or 变成名词,如: visit→visitor invent→inventor operate→operator conduct→conductor 3.动词加-tion 变成名词,如: operate→operation invent→invention liberate→liberation 六、基数词变序数词类 主要掌握好1-12和20、30、40、50、60、70、80、90及21、22、23这几个序数词的形式: one→first twenty→twentieth two→second thirty→thirtieth three→third forth→fortieth four→fourth fifty→fiftieth six→sixth sixty→sixtieth seven→seventh eighty→eightieth eight→eighth ninety→ninetieth nine→ninth twenty-one→twenty-first ten→tenth twenty-two→twenty-second eleven→eleventh twenty-three→twenty-third twelve→twelfth 七、形容词与副词的原级、比较级和最高级类 1.形容词和副词的比较级、最高级构成 (1)单音节词与部分双音节词规则变变化:   ① 一般词尾加er, est; 如:fast faster fastest   ② 以辅音字母加y结尾变y为i加-er, -est;如:easy easier easiest ③ 以一个元音加一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节,双写这个辅音字母再加-er, -est;如: hot hotter hottest ④ 以e结尾加-r,-st;如:fine→finer, nice→nicer (2) 部分双音节词或以形容词加-ly变成的副词和多音节词,在其前加more, most 变成比较级和最高级。如: interesting→more interesting,most interesting beautiful→more beautiful,most beautiful slowly→more slowly,most slowly quickly→more quickly,most quickly (3)不规则变化: good→better→best well→better→best many→more→most much→more→most little→less→least far→farther/further→farthest/furthest. ill→worse→worst bad/badly→worse→worst old→older/older→oldest/eldest 2.原级: as+形容词或副词的原形+as   “和……一样……”,      not as / so+形容词或副词的原形+as “和……不一样……”。 八、人称代词变化类 要熟练掌握和运用主格、宾格、形容词性物主代词及名词性物主代词。 九、常见的反义词 1.动词    buy — sell take — bring remember — forget die — live love — hate rise — fall ask — answer start — finish miss — catch pull — push go — come lend — borrow 2.形容词   little — much short — tall / long right — left / wrong free — busy full — empty few — many good — bad white — black careful — careless dead — living cheap — expensive clean — dirty easy — difficult wet — dry same — different open — closed strong —weak light — heavy 精选强化练习 Would you mind making a little less _____? They are having a meeting at the moment. (noisy) The Smiths live on the __________ floor of the building. (nine) All the great __________ are respected(尊敬)by the world. (invent) My pet is a ______ cat. She is very lovely. (male) I’ll do my homework more __________ next time. (care) When you study a foreign language, it’s important to make a good _________. (begin) Everyone knows such kind of books is ___________ to children. They shouldn’t be sold at any bookstore. (harm) In the past punishment(惩罚)was decided by the university. The student had no ___________ but to accept it. (choose) Our teacher told us the ___________ story I had ever heard at yesterday’s class meeting. (sad) The __________ Lesson is very difficult but very important. You must learn it by heart.(twelve) They looked very _____ in the idea. (interest) After they got on the bus, they found two _______. (sit) Help __________ to the fish, everyone. (you) What we have had is just part of the truth. We should try to get __________ information about it. (far) A ___________ sight stopped them from going forward. (frighten) He seemed very _________. He got a D in the English test. (happy) Before you start this work, you should try to realize its _________. (important) March 8 is _________ Day. (woman) This book belongs to you. Where is _____? (me) The visitors are ________ students. (main) Do you know about the ___ of the book? (write) Can you show me your ___ of coins? (collect) To my ________, I got full marks for maths last week. (surprised) In this new housing estate there stand a lot of high and magnificent _________. (build) In winter, most of the rivers and lakes are _________. It becomes a world of ice. (freeze) Then he slowly walked _____ the house. (pass) Do you know who is the __________ of the English contest? (win) Peter is very ______. I’m sure he will come to take care of your baby when he’s asked to. (help) The Yangtze River is the _________ longest river in the world. (three) __________ to meet all of you here. (please) Now more and more gardens are being built in our __________. (neighbour) It’s very important for us to learn English __________. (good) Both our teacher and my mother are satisfied with my ___________. (honest) Oliver Twist ate the cake ___________. (hungry) Of all the boys, Li Ming studies ______. (hard) We are all pleased to hear that the _________ went on very well. ( operate) The children in this kindergarten have been trained to take care of ___________ though they are only six years old. (they) Could you tell me who will give us a ___________ on children’s education? (speak) These modern machines work . (automatic) This cartoon film is _________ than the one I saw last Saturday. (fun) Will you please tell me how much the ___________ is? (post) The twin sisters used to be __________ in Hollywood. (act) Actions speak more _____ than words. (loud) I am _______ about my schoolwork because I haven't worked hard this term. (worry) Your pet dog is so __________ that all of us like to play with it. (love) It has been snowing ___ for a whole day. (heavy) We have been told the ______ of the case. (true) Have you made your ________ yet? (decide) People from Italy are called ___________. (Italy) I _________ where he comes from. (wonderful) The weather in April is _________, so you’d better take more clothes with you. (change) Ferries come and go on the river as ___________ as boats. (quick) Listen, everybody, we will meet at the ________ of the cinema at 4 pm. (enter) You cannot eat so much fast food, because it is ___________. (health) It is reported that three __________ have been put into prison. (Canada) Time flies _________ and never returns. (swift) We saw her running _________ the street just now. (cross) Do English people shake hands as often as _______? (Germany) We all know that there’s no _________ thing on the moon. (live) In order to make the trip ____________ for his children, Mr. Green kept the name of the destination (目的地) a secret. (excite) A _________ team from China will arrive in America next week. (medicine) This morning I lost my handbag and this afternoon I fell off my bike and broke my leg. I think it is an __________ day. (luck) Many students are not able to pay their college ________. (expensive) British people eat a large number of . (potato) She seems an __________ girl. (honesty) We tried all sorts of __________, but they were all useless. (medical) The digital (数码) camera is one of the __________ of the modern science. (wonderfully) I wouldn’t do business with such a __________ man. (fool) Carl looks much ________ than before. (health) I was _________ to meet Jane in a foreign country. (surprise) The mother was _________ to the brave man who had saved her son. (thank) I happened to meet a group of __________ on my way home yesterday. (France) The little boy can run a marathon in __________ than three hours. (little) I was told that my class teacher’s daughter would leave __________ school this July. (second) It’s a _________ to have a picnic with all the family members. (please) The lost calculator has been returned to its __________. (own) Be sure to let me know whenever you are in __________. ( dangerous) The completion (完成) of the big bridge made every one of us _________ and happy. (exciting) The __ is not so good as we expected. (perform) What a __________ day it is today! Shall we go to have a picnic in the countryside? (sun) The tall _________ is one of my father’s best friends. (art) Have you decided to take the headmaster’s __________? (advise) Even __________, he lost his job. (bad) Please answer the ________ questions. (follow) Many people became after the fire. (home) The of the restaurant is quite good. (serve) _________ speaking, the computer has become an important part of our life. (general) I thought the _________ was quite dull at yesterday’s party. (recite) The ________ of the river is still a secret. (long) No one knew why the baby kept . (cry) Life today is becoming harder and busier, so everyone should have his own way of __________. (relax) In _________ to hard work, we need some good ways to succeed. (add) I am fond of _________ fiction. (scientist) It’s __ of you to make such a decision. (wisdom) Quite a few __________ houses have been built for the tourists around the lake. (wood) The passenger plane landed at last after flying in the storm for about one hour. (safe) My family have been to Beijing __________ to climb the Great Wall. (two) One shouldn’t give up easily if he is determined to __________. (success) Laura’s husband works as a __________ in a bank. (message) The harder you work; the _________ progress you’ll make. (great) It will ______ rain this afternoon. (impossible) People from different _________ come together to visit the famous museum. (country) He can do everything on ______ own. (he) About two _________ ride in the bus will take you to the seaside. (hour) I would like to buy three kilos of ___. (tomato) What nice __________! Let’s put them on the walls of the meeting room. (paint) How often do you take your son to the __________ Palace? (child) In the ___________ century, science is developing very fast. (twenty-one) To be ____________, I think you didn’t sing as well as Jack. (honesty) Do you know if the headmistress of the school is a ___________ teacher? (chemical) The patient is getting __________. The doctors will use new medicine for him. (ill) “What can I do for you?” the ___ asked. (library) ____ food is sold in lots of supermarkets. (freeze) We have plenty of ______ after class. (active) A doctor’s duty is to save people’s ______. (life) She lives in Britain but has French ___. (national) In winter, British people use ________ instead of air-conditioners. (heat) It’s not ___________ to wear your school uniform on Friday. (need) Your homework today is to ________ all these new words. (memory) This is an __________ door. You needn’t press any button. (automatically) Hard ________ is very important to every player who wants to be successful in the match.. (train) She took the two o’clock __________ to Chicago just now. (fly) In _________ weather, the water is always covered with ice. (freeze) The old lady was too _______ to say a word. (frighten) It was too dark for us to see anything __________. (clear) My mum does ______ once a week. (shop) George Stephenson became famous in his _________. (twenty) We all found the film very _________. (interest) That girl’s _______ hair attracted all of us. (gold) The weather report says, “It’s __________ today.” (cloud) As we entered the garden, we saw a little girl ___________ on the grass in the sun. (lie) It’s great ________ to play chess on the internet. (funny) After showing the students how to do this experiment, the teacher told them that had been a ______________ change. (physics) Lin Tao is one of the most __________ boys in the class, because he never gets to school on time. (lazy) ___________, we won the basketball match without difficulty. (luck) The monkey looked at ___________ in the mirror. (it) I wondered whether the bag was that __________. (lady) The shopping centre is always _________ of customers at weekends. (fill) Do you know the __________ of the nearest police station? (located) I helped the old man to show my ______. (kind) _____ is more important than wealth. (healthy) Nothing is _________ if you set your mind to it. (possible) The sun is shining ________. Let’s go for a picnic. (bright) Don’t hesitate to ask if you have any ________ when doing your homework. (difficult) My mother is always busy __________ the clothes in the evening. (wash) The doctors were always busy operating on the __________ soldier in the field hospital during the war. (wound) Liz is much _______ than her twin sister. (thin) Please write down the _________ idea of this text. (mainly) It’s our responsibility to save water and ____________. (electrical) English has more __________ who learn it as a second language than Chinese. (speak) English is a __________ language. It makes peoples in the world understand each other better than ever. (use) You have to recite words every day to keep your ________ active. (memorize) Although he worked hardest, he got the ___________ money of all. (little) _________ should obey the traffic rule. (drive) My mother is a hard-working _____. (business) About twenty ___________ will come to visit our school this coming Saturday. (Australia) WHO means World Health ________. (organize) I felt _________ sorry for having missed such a wonderful football match. (truth) He apologized to Mike for the __________ from his birthday party. (absent) We should throw rubbish into litter bins so as not to _______ the city. (pollution) Our language lab is on the __________ floor of the classroom building. (four) “Stop them! They are __________,” an old man shouted. (thief) After a long __________, they got the solution to the problem. (discuss) We hope our country will become more and more ________. (power) Paris is the capital of _____, isn’t it? (French) The lady sold five __________ of bread to the little boy and wished him good luck. (loaf) Tom is better at _________ than anyone else in the class. (swim) Mary ________ playing the piano for two hours every day. (practice) Yao Ming is a famous _________ basketball player. (profession) My mother is very ___________ though she is only forty. (forget) ___________ does a lot of harm to others as well as the smoker himself. (smoke) American people usually have the ___________ turkey at Christmas. (tradition) The _____ light suddenly went out. (electricity) Who can tell me the___ of the Himalaya? (high) When autumn comes, _________ fall off trees. The ground is always covered with them. (leaf) These old cans are kept for _______. (recycle) Many ________ are waiting for the famous dancer at the airport. (report) Mary’s brother works as a __________ in the restaurant. (wait) The man saved the little girl from the fire and took her to ________. (safe) An American _______ said last week that there was enough water for life on Mars. (science) The Forbidden City will be ___________ in the following years. (build) Never be afraid of __________ face if you want to make progress in your spoken English. (lose) John found his former friends were as __________ to him as before. (friend) No one else can dance ___________ than the girl in red. (beautiful) Could you tell the __________ between the three sisters? (different) Taxi ________ are developing very fast in modern cities. (serve) Last night on my way home, I saw a bank ___________ with my own eyes. (rob) You’d better not swim in the river. The water has been __________ polluted. (serious) I have received an ___________ to her birthday party. (invite) The more you practise, the more __________ you can speak English. (fluent) The wind is blowing _______. It’s the right time to fly kites. (gentle) We’ve to work out a ___ to the problem. (solve) Chinese will be _________ used in the world from now on. (wide) A few friends of __________ will come to our dinner party tonight. (we) The government will take action to improve the __________ in the poor areas. (educational) Many people in China are not familiar with ________ customs. (west) The music sounded quite __________ while the dance was not beautiful. (wonder) July is usually the __________ month in Shanghai. (hot) The room is so dirty that a lot of __________ can be seen running here and there. (mouse) Which do you want to do, go into business or become a ___________? (fire) I don’t think it a good idea. Do you want to listen to my ________? (suggest) What he said __________ us a lot. We wondered what had happened to him. (surprise) Nowadays ________ can be seen here and there. (foreign) His grandparents have been _________ for over ten years, but he’ll never forget the days with them together. (death) The song was so ________ that she didn’t notice the telephone ring. (enjoy) With the ___________ of e-book technology, probably an e-book library will appear. (develop) I think the success will depend on your __________ not your money. ( wise) They will have some ___________ visits to other cities. (education) Everyone should take an ________ part in sports events. ( activity) I have been to Nanjing once and this is my _________ time to see the Yangtze River there. (two) Maths is my ________ subject. (favour) On the way I saw an old man ____________ beside the road. (sit) He used to be a ____________. (farm) That’s _________ for the girl to be late today. She is always the first to get to school. (usually) How many women _________ are there in the restaurant? (cooker) As the ______ goes, “ No pains, no gains”. (say) Eating too many sweets is bad for ________. (tooth) His aunt takes good ______ of him when his mother is away. (carefully) My uncle is a travel agent. His job is to serve ________. (tour) Sorry, I can't lend my tape ____ to you. (record) The street has been _____ by the workers. (wide) It's rude to look ________ at a person. (straight) Busiest men find the ___________ time. ( much ) Few ________ could speak Chinese in the past. ( English ) There is no short-cut to _________. ( succeed ) Computer is an amazing ____ our life? (invent) Many ___ come to Disneyland every day. (visit) ________ he arrived there on time. (final) The reporter went to the sea with several _________ to look for the lost boat. (fish) She has gains much _____________ because she keeps eating but never exercises. (weigh) She’s busy writing a letter to a friend of ___________ in her study. (she) There are many places of ________ interest in Shanghai. (history) They __________ the woman into buying all the dresses in the shop. (foolish) Our teacher told us that it was a _______ change. (chemistry) It’s important for a student to tell the _______ after he does something wrong. (true) The doll was the present from my auntie on my _________ birthday. (five) The sun gives us light and ________. (hot) School will be over in a few _____time. ( month ) I can’t find my wallet. It has ________! (appear) My grandfather keeps in good _______ though he’s over eighty. (healthy) The Atlantic is the second ____________ocean in the world. (big) Mr. Marko is one of the __________ of that factory. (engine) It’s ten _________ walk from here. You needn’t take a bus. (minute) Many years ago this kind of TV set was very ____________. (expense) I have made up my mind to study hard, because our teacher always tells us that __________ is power. (know) No one knows whether Bin Laden is still ___________ or not. (live) The man in the prison is looking forward to having __________ . (free) We travelled to a beautiful and quiet village. There we spent a ____________ day. (pleased) Mr Black is a singer ________ thirty. (age) What is the ___________ of the word? (mean) The little girl said ___________ to the strange man. (soft) ___________ hands is a kind of custom in some countries. ( shake) Young boys enjoy watching football __________ on TV. (match) Jacky told us an ________ story that everybody laughed happily. (amusement) We were surprised at the news of his ____. (die) Thanks for _______ me. I’ll do my best. (choice) Jiang Wen is one of the most famous ___________ in China. (act) Bob _______ a story to explain why he was late for school.(inventor) Of all the boys, John runs the most ______________. ( slow) This iron ball is much ______ than that one. (heavy) I'd like to have a talk with the ________ of this hotel. (manage) It’s ___________ cold tonight. (terrible) There are many __________ visiting the museum. ( Japan) On Christmas Eve, the ___________ park is always full of children. (amuse) Nanjing Road is __________ in the centre of Shanghai. (locate) It’s much ___________ to swim with your friend than to swim alone. (safe) Take care! The vase can _______ be broken. (easy) There used to be a great ____________ between the two families. (friend) I’m afraid we cannot go fishing today. It’s quite ___________ outside. (wind) The ________ is made of eggs and flour. (mix) I’m poor at ________ and geography. (historical) It’s ______ for the children to play with fire. (danger) Shanghai has ________ at an amazing speed these years. (development) Joe is one of my __________. (neighbourhood) We must train ___________ every day in order to keep strong. (we) Of all the Christmas cards, ____________ is the nicest. (Rose) I’m too tired to go a step __________. (far) The river is twenty _______ deep. (foot) Every month you can get three thousand yuan at _______. (little) Let’s cut this loaf of bread into ________. (half) His ___________ sister is only one year older than he. (old) Li Ming is a friend of my _____________. (cousin) He ________ for our country in the battle and we will always remember him. (death) Boys are quiet ___________. (noise) You’d better take a taxi instead of ___________ there. (walk) They are sitting in the room __________. (quiet) Who knows what the word __________? (mean) Miss Li taught _______ English last term. (we) Nobody will believe you since you are so __________. (honest) You ________ got the first prize! (real) Mr Smith spent his ____________ birthday the other day. (forty) __________ cannot calculate as fast as computers. (human) Da Shan is from ___________ but he can speak very good Chinese. (Canadian) It was snowing _________ outside. (hard) Air __________ makes us feel sick. (pollute) Look! There are so many ____________ here. Why do you take the small one? (toy) After hearing these words, his face turned even ___________. (red) How many ___________ lessons do you have every week? (physical) They sent a few ___________ letters to Japan last Friday. (busy) They were well ____________ at a friend’s house. (service) ( 第 1 页 共 19 页 ) 附录1 Keys: 1.noise 2.ninth 3.inventors 4.female 5.carefully 6.beginning 7.harmful 8.choice 9.saddest 10.twelfth 11. interested 12.seats 13. yourself 14.further 15.frightening 16.unhappy 17.importance 18.Women’s 19.mine 20.mainly 21.writer 22.collection 23.surprise 24.building 25.frozen 26.past 27.winner 28.helpful 29. third 30.Pleased 31.neightborhood 32. well 33.honesty 34.hungrily 35. hardest 36.operation 37.themselves 38.speech 39.automatically 40. funnier 41.poster 42.actresses 43.loudly 44. worried 45.lovely 46.heavily 47.truth 48. decision 49.Italians 50. wonder 51.changeable 52.quickly 53.entrance 54.unhealthy 55.Canadians. 56.swiftly 57.across 58.Germans 59. living 60.exciting 61.medical 62. unlucky 63.expenses 64.potatoes 65.honest 66.medicine 67.wonders 68.foolish 69. healthier 70.surprised 71. thankful 72. Frenchmen 73.less 74. secondary 75.pleasure 76.owner 77.danger 78. excited 79.performance 80. sunny 81.artist 82.advice 83.worse 84.following 85.homeless 86. ser vice 87.Generally speaking 88.recitation 89.length 90 crying 91.relaxation 92.addition 93. science 94.wise 95. wooden 96. safely 97.twice 98. succeed 99. messenger 100.greater 101.possibly 102.countries 103.his 104.hours’ 105.tomatoes 106.paintings 107.Children’s 108.twenty-first 109.honest 110.chemistry 111.worse 112.librarian 113.Frozen 114.activities 115.lives 116.nationality 117.heats 118.needed 119.memorize 120.automatical 121.training 122.flight 123.freezing 124.frightened 125.clearly 126.shopping 127.twenties 128.interesting 129.golden 130.cloudy 131.lying 132.fun 133.physical 134.laziest 135.Luckily 136.itself 137.lady’s 138.full 139.location 140.kindness 141.Health 142.impossible 143.brightly 144.difficulties 145.washing 146.wounded 147.thinner 148.main 149.electricity 150.speakers 151.useful 152.memory 153.least 154.Drivers 155.businesswoman 156.Australians 157.organization 158.truly 159.absence 160.pollute 161.fourth 162.thieves 163.discussion 164.powerful 165.France 166.loaves 167.swimming 168.practises 169.professional 170.forgetful 171.Smoking 172.traditional 173.electric 174.height 175.leaves 176.recycling 177.reporters 178.waiter 179.safety 180.scientist 181.rebuilt 182.losing 183.friendly 184.more beautiful 185.difference 186.services 187.robbery 188.seriously 189.invitation 190.fluently 191.gently 192.solution 193.widely 194.ours 195.education 196.western 197.wonderful 198.hottest 199.mice 200. fireman 201.suggestions 202.surprised 203. foreigners 204.dead 205.enjoyable 206.development207.wisdom 208 educational 209.active 210.second 211.famorite 212. sitting 213.farmer 214.unusual 215.cooks216.saying 217.teeth 218.care 219.tourists 220 recorder 221.widened 222. straight 223.most 224.Englishmen225.success 226.invention 227.visitors 228.Finally 229.fishermen 230.weitht 231.hers 232.historical 233.fooled234.chemical 235.truth 236.fifth 237.heat 238.months’ 239 disappeared 240.health 241.biggest 242 engineers 243.minutes’244.expensive 245.knowlegde 246.alive 247.freedom 248.pleasant 249. aged 250.meaning 251.softly 252.shaking 253.matches 254.amusing 255. death 256.choosing 257.actors 158.invented 259.slowly260. heavier 261.manager262.terribly 263.Japanese 264.amusement 265.located 266.safer 267.easily268.friendship 269.windy 270.mixture 271.history 272.dangerous 273.developed 274.neighbours275.ourselves 276. Rose’s 277.farther 278.feet 279.least 280 halves 281. elder 282 cousin’s 283.died 284.noisy 285.walking 286. quietly 287. means 288.us 289.dishonest.290. really 291.fotieth 292.humans293.Canada 294.hard 295.pollution 296.toys 297.redder 298 physics 299. business 300.served 附录2:(需熟练背诵) 常见词形转化分类归纳记忆 I.形容词——副词 1、加ly quiet安静的 quick 快速的 slow慢的 beautiful美丽的 bright明亮的 careful仔细的 certain一定 clear清楚 loud大声 sad难过的 wide广泛 serious严重的 usual通常 final最后 safe安全 real真的 recent最近的 main主要 accurate精确 2、去y加ily easy容易的 heavy大量 angry生气的 hungry饥饿的 happy 快乐的 lucky幸运的 3、le结尾的,去e变y possible可能 gentle轻柔的 4、不变 hard难的;努力地,猛烈地 fast 快 early早 late 晚 enough足够 straight笔直 II. 动词——名词 加er、or、ress 加er farm 耕种—农民 drive 驾驶—驾驶员 司机 teach 教—老师 work 工作—工人 write 写—作家 report 报道—记者 win 赢(winner)—获胜者 own 拥有—owner拥有者 paint画、粉刷---画家 manage 经营—经理 record 记录—录音机 加or act--actor 男演员 visit—visitor观光者 invent--inventor 发明家 calculate—calculator计算器 加ress wait—waitress女服务员 act—actress女演员 加ion结尾 add—addition 加 collect—collection 收集 discuss—discussion讨论 decide—decision决定 invent—invention发明物 invite—invitation 邀请 operate—operation手术 pollute—pollution 污染 collect—collection 收集 review—revision 复习 solve—solution解答 organize—organization组织 locate—location地点 suggest—suggestion建议 protect---prote ction 保护 3、 加ing begin—beginning开始 build—building大楼 say—saying 谚语 paint—painting 绘画 meet—meeting 会议 4、 其他 serve—service 服务 speak—speech 演讲、言语 fish—fisherman 渔夫 enter—entrance 入口 know—knowledge 知识 weigh—weight 重量 please—pleasure 愉快 develop—development 发展 choose—choice选择 tour—tourist 游客 die—death 死亡 succeed—success 成功 fly—flight 飞行、航班 memorize—memory 记忆 mix—mixture 混合物 cook—cook 厨师 save—safety 安全 act—activity 活动 able—ability 能力 III. 名词——名词 art艺术—artist画家 science—scientist 科学家 city—citizen市民 custom—customer 顾客 office—officer 官员 law法律—lawyer律师 engine—engineer工程师 friend—friendship 友谊 business—businessman男商人 business—businesswoman女商人 library—librarian 图书管理员 IV. 名词——形容词 名词后加ful care—careful 小心的 use—useful 有用的 help—helpful有帮助的 thank—thankful 感激的 wonder—wonderful精彩的 power—powerful 强大的 2、名词后加y cloud—cloudy 多云的 rain—rainy 下雨的 wind—windy 有风的 snow—snowy 下雪的 sun—sunny 晴朗的 noise—noisy 吵闹的 health—healthy 健康的 fun—funny 滑稽的 luck—lucky 幸运的 3、名词后加ly friend—friendly 友好的 love—lovely 可爱的 4、形容词以al 结尾 nation—national 国家的 education--educational 教育的 nature—natural 自然的 tradition—traditional 传统的 medicine—medical 医药的 physics—physical 物理的 chemistry—chemical 化学的 history—historical 历史的 5、名词末尾的ce变成t difference(s)—different 不同 importance—important 重要的 6、名词后加en wood—wooden木制的 gold—golden金色的 7、名词以ness结尾 kindness仁慈—kind仁慈的 illness病 疾病--- ill有病的 不健康的 8、形容词后加y difficult—difficulty 困难 honest—honesty诚实 9、形容词后加dom free—freedom 自由 wise—wisdom 聪明 10、其他 danger—dangerous 危险的 office—official 官方的、正式的 fool傻瓜—foolish 愚蠢的 west—western 西方的 height高度— high高的 length长度—long 长的 favour恩惠—favourite 最喜欢的 foreigner外国人—foreign 外国的 home家—homeless 无家可归的 expense费用—expensive 昂贵的 truth真相—true 真实的 wound创伤—wounded 受伤的 pleasure—pleasant 另人愉快的/ pleased 满意的 response相应 反映--- responsible 负责的 有责任的 electricity电—electric电的—electronic 电子的 V. 动词——形容词 interest引起兴趣—interesting 有趣的/ interested 感兴趣的 excite—exciting 令人激动的/ excited激动的 freeze—freezing 寒冷的/ frozen 冷冻的 frighten—frightening 令人害怕的/ frightened害怕的 forget—forgetful健忘的 / unforgettable 难忘的 depend—independent 独立的 有主见的 like—likely很有可能发生的 有希望的 realize意识到—real 真的 ( 第 15 页 共 19 页 )
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