[ID:4-6308393] 2020届中考语法专项复习--形容词与副词教案及练习题
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形容词与副词 教学目标 1.学生能够掌握形容词与副词比较级、最高级的变化规则。 2.学生能够熟练掌握形容词与副词原级、比较级和最高级的的用法。 知识梳理 1、概念 (1)形容词、副词比较级:人或物两者之间做比较。 (2)形容词、副词最高级:人或物三者或以上之间做比较。 二、形容词、副词的比较级 (一)变化规则 ? 规则变化: 类别 构成方法 原级 比较级 单音节词和少数双音节词 一般直接加-er short tall shorter taller 不发音的e结尾时加-r large late larger later “辅音字母+y”结尾时先把y变i,再加-er happy easy happier easier 重读闭音节结尾且只有一个辅音字母时,双写最后的辅音字母,再加-er hot big hotter bigger 多音节词和少数双音节词 前加more beautiful important more beautiful more important ? 不规则变化 原级 比较级 原级 比较级 good/well better little less bad/ill/badly worse far farther/further many/much more old older/elder 3、形容词和副词的最高级 (一)变化规则 ? 规则变化 类别 构成方法 原级 最高级 单音节词和少数双音节词 一般直接加-est long tall longest tallest 不发音的e结尾时加-st late large latest largest “辅音字母+y结尾”时把y变i,再加-est easy happy easiest happiest 重读闭音节结尾并且只有一个辅音字母时,双写最后的辅音字母,再加-est big hot biggest hottest 多音节词和部分双音节词 (1)在原级前加most careful beautiful most careful most beautiful (2)在原级前加least important useful least important least useful ? 不规则变化: 原级 最高级 good/well(身体好的) best many/much most bad/ill worst little least far farthest(更远的) furthest(最大程度) old oldest eldest(较年长的) 四、 形容词和副词的原级、比较级和最高级用法 1. 主语+谓语(系动词)+as+形容词原形+as+从句。表示两者对比相同。 (1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。例如: He cannot run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。 Maths is as interesting as English.数学和英语一样有趣。 (2)当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式:as +形容词+ a +单数名词/ as + many/much +名词。例如: This is as good an example as the other is. 这个例子和另外一个一样好。 I can carry as much paper as you can. 你能搬多少纸,我也能。 (3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。例如: This room is twice as big as that one. 这房间的面积是那间的两倍。 Your room is the same size as mine. 你的房间和我的一样大。 (4)倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ the … + of。例如: This bridge is three times as long as that one. 这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。 This bridge is three times the length of that one. Your room is twice as large as mine. 你的房间是我的两倍大。 Your room is twice the size of mine. 2. 比较级用法讲解 1). 表示两者进行比较时用形容词比较级,最明显的提示词是than,其结构为“A…+比较级+than+B”。 e.g.Li Lei’s room is bigger than mine.李雷的房间比我的大。 This moon cake is nicer than that one.这块月饼比那块好吃。 注意:为了避免重复,在从句中常用the one,that,those等词来替代前面出现过的名词。其中the one替代可数名词单数形式,the ones或those替代可数名词复数形式,that替代不可数名词。 e.g.The weather in Beijing is colder than that in Guangzhou in winter. 北京的天气比广州的天气冷。 2). 表示“两者之间最……一个(of the two)”时,常用“the+比较级”结构。 e.g.Mary is the taller of the twins. Mary是双胞胎中的高个子。 3). 表示“越来越……”,用比较级重叠结构,即“比较级+and+比较级”,多音节词和部分双音节词时用“more and more+形容词原级”。 e.g.It’s getting warmer and warmer in spring. 春天天气变得越来越暖和。 Our hometown is becoming more and more beautiful. 我们的家乡越来越漂亮了。 4). 表示“越……就越……”时,用“the+比较级,the+比较级”结构。 e.g.The more we get together, the happier we’ll be. 我们越是在一起,就越开心。 注意:? (1)要避免重复使用比较级。 (错) He is more cleverer than his brother. (对) He is more clever than his brother. (对) He is clever than his brother. (2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 (错) China is larger than any country in Asia. (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia. (3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。 The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing. It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out. (4). 要注意定冠词在比较级中的使用。 比较:Which is larger, Canada or Australia?    Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?    She is taller than her two sisters.    She is the taller of the two sisters. ? most 同形容词连用而不用 the,表示 "极,很,非常, 十分"。?    It's most dangerous to be here. 在这儿太危险。? 3.最高级表达形式及用法 1).表示三者或三者以上的人或物进行比较时,用最高级形式。形容词最高级前必须加定冠词the,句末常跟一个in/of短语来表示范围。 e.g.He is the strongest of the three boys. 在三个男孩子中,他是最强壮的。 Shanghai is the biggest city in China. 上海是中国最大的城市。 2). 表示“最……的……之一”时,用“one of the+形容词最高级”结构,该形容词后面的名词要用复数形式。 e.g.Zhou Jielun is one of the most popular singers. 周杰伦是最受欢迎的歌星之一。 3). 形容词最高级前面可以加序数词,表示“第几最……”。 e.g.The Changjiang River is the first longest river in China. 长江是中国第一大长河。 4). 形容词比较级结构可以表示最高级含义。 e.g.Li Lei is the tallest student in his class. 李雷是班上最高的学生。 =Li Lei is taller than any other student in his class. 李雷比班上其他任何一个学生都高。 =Li Lei is taller than the other students in his class. 李雷比班上其他所有的学生都高。 =Li Lei is taller than anyone else in his class. 李雷比班上其他任何人都高。 5).比较级表示最高级的几个句型: 在中学英语里,最高级表示的最常见形式是“主语+谓语+ the most.......(est) + 比较范围。”除此之外,常见的表达最高级含义的比较级结构还有: 1)主语 + 谓语 + 比较级 + than the others This one is much larger than the others.这一个比其它大的多得多。 He is taller than the others in his class.他比班上其他人都高。 2)主语 + 谓语 + 比较级 + than anyone (anybody, anything)else He is stronger than anyone else in his class.他比班上的任何人都强壮。 His handwriting is much better than anyone else's.他的书法比其他人都好 3) 主语+谓语+比较级 + than any other +单数名词 I think Chinese is more popular than any other subject.我想汉语比任何的课程更受欢迎。 Tom is taller than any other student in our class.汤姆在我们班比其他任何一个学生都高。 India produces more films than any other country in the world.印度是世界上拍摄电影最多的国家。 Ⅰ.单项填空 1.[2019·贵港]—What do you think of the TV program TheReader? —Excellent.Many people are     about it.They never miss it. A.nervous B.worried C.crazy D.angry 2.[2019·滨州]—Confucius Institute(孔子学院) has been set up in many other countries. —Yes, Chinese is     spoken in those countries.I am proud of that as a Chinese.? A.hardly B.widely C.never D.seldom 3.[2019·达州]—As we know, it’s very difficult to live in a foreign country like the UK, the US and so on. —I agree.    , if you don’t understand the local language. A.Especially B.Generally C.Naturally D.Exactly 4.[2019·青岛]To make rivers     than before, everybody is supposed to protect them.? A.dirty B.dirtier C.clean D.cleaner 5.[2019·鄂州]—Paul, do you prefer weekdays or weekends? —Weekdays, of course.I’m     on weekends. A.busy B.much busier C.more busier D.the busiest 6.[2019·福建]—You are singing to the plants! —That’s true.I believe it helps them grow     . A.slower B.better C.harder 7.[2019·温州]The living room becomes     as the sunlight comes in through the window.? A.bigger B.cleaner C.quieter D.brighter 8.[2019·眉山]—Mum, could you buy me a dress like this, please? —Of course.We can buy     one than this, but     it. A.a better; better than B.a worse; as good as C.a cheaper; as good as D.a more important; not as good as 9.[2019·黄冈]—Mike plays the drums so wonderfully! —Of course.He is     than any other student in his class. A.talented B.more talented C.less talented D.the most talented 10.[2019·襄阳]—Who runs     in your class?? —Tom does.None of us can catch him in the race. A.faster B.slower C.fastest D.slowest 11.[2019·安顺]—Roy never likes junk food. —Neither do I.That’s probably why I’m becoming     now. A.healthy and healthy B.more and more healthily C.weaker and weaker D.healthier and healthier 12.[2019·青海]—You have made such great progress in your English. —Thanks.I believe     you work,     you will be. A.the less; the better B.the harder; the better C.the better; the worse 13.[2019·长沙]Of the two physics problems, Martha just finished     one. A.the most difficult B.the least difficult C.the less difficult 14.[2019·常州]—Can you give me some advice on how to be slimmer? —Eat     meat and     cakes. A.less; less B.fewer; fewer C.less; fewer D.fewer; less 15.[2019·无锡]—Guess what? The university has accepted my application! —Wow! That’s     news I’ve heard this year, Boris! Let’s celebrate!? A.a worse B.the worst C.a better D.the best 16.[2019·广东]Fishing is one of     activities among the middle-aged people. A.popular B.more popular C.most popular D.the most popular 17.—Sarah is chosen as the guide for the Fashion Show. —Great! No one speaks English     her. A.as beautiful as B.as badly as C.worse than D.better than 18.Nanjing isn’t so large     Shanghai.However, it’s the second     city in East China. A.like; largest B.as; largest C.like; large D.as; large 19. Some students are so     that they often make mistakes in their homework. A.careful B.serious C.careless D.successful 20.—What do you think of math? —My favorite.It’s     for me to study of all the subjects in school. A.more difficult B.the most difficult C.less difficult D.the least difficult Ⅱ.根据句意及汉语提示完成句子。 21.[2019·济宁]Many classic Chinese poems are    (广泛地) spread in the world. 22.[2019·青岛]Rose’s father is the     (忙碌的) in the hospital, because he is an excellent doctor. 23.[2019·南京]Helen treats her students in a     (耐心的) and understanding way. 24.[2019·宁波]More and more people have realized the importance of spreading our     (传统的) culture. 25.[2019·青岛]People who learn     (明智地) and well will achieve their dreams more easily.? Ⅲ.根据句意及首字母提示补全单词。 26.[2019·荆门改编]It is u     that AI has progressed in such a rapid way in the past few years. 27.[2019·济宁]The young man was b     enough to save his neighbours from a fire. 28.[2019·泰安]The peaceful music will make you feel r    . 29.[2019·杭州]Growing vegetables looks easy, but a     it takes a lot of learning. 30.[2019·天水]G     speaking, different countries have different table manners. Ⅳ.用括号中所给单词的适当形式填空。 31.[2019·兰州]It is     (polite) to keep others waiting in many western countries. 32.[2019·龙东]Using too many plastics is     (harm) to our environment. 33.[2019·宿迁]Mr.Jiang’s robot irons his business suit     (smooth) every morning. 34.[2019·曲靖]One needs three things to be     (true) happy in life: something to do, someone to love and something to expect. 35.[2019·盐城]We can’t     (simple) judge a book by its cover or its title.? 36.[2019·北部湾]In summer, it often rains    (heavy) with strong wind in Southern China. 37.[2019·龙东]The passenger felt much     (hungry) than the others after the long journey. 38.[2019·鄂州]The       (careful) you work, the fewer mistakes you’ll make. 39.[2019·绥化]Ma Long is one of      (famous) ping-pong players in the world. 40.[2019·荆门]We may meet difficulties in life;     (luck), there are always some kind people offering us help. 41.“Be     (care) not to touch the paintings in the museum,” Mom said. 42.This morning the traffic was     (crowd) so I was not late for work. 43.It’s dangerous to drive on     (snow) days. 44.Without your help, we couldn’t have done it       (success). 45.—Which city is         (beautiful), Hangzhou, Beijing or Shanghai?? —Hangzhou, I think. 【参考答案】 Ⅰ.1.C 考查形容词辨析。根据“They never miss it.”可知,很多人对这个节目很痴迷。故用be crazy about,意为“对……痴迷”。故选C。 2.B 3.A  4.D 考查形容词比较级。句意:为了让河流比以前更干净,每个人应当保护它们。结合句意,确定选项C、D;由关键词than可知本句表示比较,因此空白处应用形容词的比较级。故选D。 5.B 考查形容词比较级。句意:“保罗,你更喜欢工作日还是周末?”“当然是工作日。我在周末更忙碌。”此处是两者(工作日和周末)进行比较,因此用比较级,而修饰比较级要用much而不能用more。故选B。 6.B  7.D 考查形容词比较级。由后半句“当阳光从窗子里照射进来”可知,此处应该用brighter表示“更明亮”。A项意为“更大”,B项意为“更干净”,C项意为“更安静”,均与语境不符。故选D。 8.C  9.B 考查形容词比较级。根据后面的than可知用比较级,从前面的“Of course.”可知此处指“更有才华”。故选B。 10.C 考查副词词义辨析及最高级。faster比较快;slower比较慢;fastest最快;slowest最慢。联系下句“在比赛中没人赶得上他。”推知上句意为“你们班里谁跑得最快?”故选C。 11.D 12.B 考查形容词和副词的比较级。本题考查“越……越……”,应用“the +比较级,the +比较级”。联系句意,故选B。 13.C 考查形容词的用法。句意:在这两个物理题中,玛莎刚刚完成了不太难的那个。两者之间比较用比较级。故选C。 14.C 考查形容词比较级。上文“你能给我一些关于怎样变得更苗条的建议吗?”提示下文意为“少吃肉、少吃蛋糕。”用little的比较级less修饰不可数名词meat,用few的比较级fewer修饰可数名词cakes。两者都表示“更少的”。故选C。 15.D 考查形容词最高级。名词news后的定语从句“我今年所听到过的”提示用最高级形式修饰news。句意:“你猜怎么着?那所大学接受了我的申请。”“哇!那是我今年听到的最好的消息了,Boris! 我们去庆祝一下!”故选D。 16.D 考查形容词最高级。句意:在中年人中,钓鱼是最受欢迎的活动之一。“one of+最高级+可数名词复数”表示“最……中的一个”,所以此空应用形容词最高级。故选D。 17.D 考查副词比较级。根据句意可知是没人比她英语说得更好。better than 比……更好。故选D。 18.B 考查形容词的比较级。not so…as…是固定结构,意为“不如……”;“the+序数词+形容词最高级+可数名词单数”意为“第几最……的……”。根据句意可知选B。 19.C 考查形容词辨析。根据后半句句意“他们在作业中经常犯错误”可知应该是由粗心引起的。故选C。 20.D Ⅱ.21.widely 22.busiest  23.patient 24.traditional  25.wisely Ⅲ.26.unbelievable 27.brave  28.relaxed 29.actually 30.Generally Ⅳ.31.impolite 32.harmful  33.smoothly 34.truly  35.simply 36.heavily  37.hungrier 38.more carefully 39.the most famous 40.luckily 41.careful  42.uncrowded 43.snowy 44.successfully 45.the most beautiful 注意: 形容词最高级前必须加the, 副词最高级前可以省略。
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